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cellular transformation in vitro induced by herpes simplex virus (hsv). note iii. oncogenicity of some hsv-2-transformed cell lines.at high in vitro passage levels hsv-2-transformed hamster and rat cell lines were oncogenic for the homologous animals, inducing fusocellular or round-cell sarcomas. the cell lines obtained by in vitro cultivation of the tumors were free of infectious virus.1976181902
enzymatic basis for the selective inhibition of varicella-zoster virus by 5-halogenated analogues of deoxycytidine.5-bromodeoxycytidine (brdc) and 5-iododeoxycytidine, at a concentration of 100 mug/ml, effectively inhibit the replication of varicella-zoster (vz) virus in tissue culture. no toxicity could be demonstrated in uninfected cells under the same conditions. studies on the enzymatic basis for this selective inhibition were undertaken. infection of human embryonic lung cell monolayers with vz virus-infected cells results in the induction of thymidine (dt), deoxycytidine (dc), and brdc kinase activitie ...1976185427
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: therapeutic response to antiviral drugs.in vitro studies have demonstrated a relative resistance of herpes simplex virus type 2 to antiviral therapy when compared with herpes simplex virus type 1. the in vivo studies, however, show an excellent therapeutic response to both antiviral drugs in experimentally induced viral keratoconjunctivitis.1976180942
the detection of virus dna sequences in a herpes type 2 transformed hamster cell line (333-8-9).herpes simplex virus type 2 dna labelled in vitro with 125i has been used as a probe to search for virus dna sequences in the 333-8-9 line of transformed primary hamster cells and in clines derived from the line. virus dna sequences were present when the cells were examined initially but these sequences were lost on subsequent handling. no virus sequences were detected in clones derived from the line. it is suggested that the presence of virus dna is an unstable characteristic of the cell line a ...1976179957
consequences of herpes simplex virus type 2 and human cell interaction at supraoptimal temperatures.the consequences of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and human embryonic fibroblast cell interaction at different temperatures (37, 40, and 42 degrees c) were investigated. incubation at 37 or 40 degrees c was permissive for hsv-2 inhibition of host dna synthesis, induction of virus-specific dna replication, and infectious virus production. the amount of [methyl-3h]thymidine incorporated into viral dna and the final yield of new infectious virus were significantly reduced at 40 degrees c comp ...1976185418
herpes simplex virus gene expression in transformed cells. i. regulation of the viral thymidine kinase gene in transformed l cells by products of superinfecting virus.in this paper we show that the expression of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) gene for thymidine kinase (tk) in hsv-transformed cells is subject to regulation by two viral products synthesized during productive infection of these cells with a tk- mutant of hsv-1. the cell line used in this study is a derivative of tk-deficient mouse l cells that, after exposure to uv-inactivated hsv-1, had acquired the hsv-1 gene for tk (which we term a resident viral gene) and consequently expressed the ...1976185425
immunopotentiation and antiviral chemotherapy in a suckling rat model of herpesvirus encephalitis.encephalitis was induced in 10-day-old wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of approximately 100 50% tissue culture infective doses of herpes simplex virus type 2. treatment regimens included immunopotentiation with levamisole and combined therapy with levamisole and an antiviral agent, adenine arabinoside. rats treated with levamisole alone had significantly higher rates of survival than placebo-treated controls 14 days after injection of virus. combination therapy with levamisole and adeni ...1976180203
histocompatibility types and viral antibodies.serum neutralizing (nt) antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2), and histocompatibility (hl-a) types, were determined in multiple sclerosis (ms) patients and in control subjects. titers of nt antibodies to hsv-1 and to hsv-2 were increased among subjects bearing hl-a3 or hl-a7 or both, whether they suffered from ms or not. the increases were statistically significant in the ms group. the ms and control groups did not differ significantly in levels of hsv-1 or hsv-2 n ...1976180933
viruses and cancer of the lower genital tract.the importance of viruses as oncogenic agents in animals is well established. recent work suggests that viruses may also be etiologically related to some human cancers. herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and the genital wart virus are prime suspects in carcinomas involving the female lower genital tract. in particular, a close association has been found between hsv-2 infection and cervical neoplasia in cytohistopathologic and seroepidemiologic studies. preliminary results of prospective studies ...1976179694
effects of cytochalasin and alkaloid drugs on the biological expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna. 1976186287
comparison of dna polymerase activities induced by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.hsv-2-induced a salt-stimulated dna polymerase activity in hep-2 cells at similar levels to that induced by hsv-1 virus at multiplicites of infection from 2 to 20 pfu/cell. de novo synthesis of protein and mrna was required for dna polymerase induction by both types. dna polymerase activity of three strains of each type was compared by response to various salt concentrations and by heat inactivation. strain-dependent, but not type-dependent differences were found by both tests. considerable cros ...1975187552
lasar flow cytophotometric immunoperoxidase detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens in infected cultured human cells.human cells in culture (hep-2) were infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) at multiplicities of infection varying from 0.2 to 10, and fixed 6, 12, 18 and 24 hr after infection. infection-related antigens were detected by an indirect double antibody (peroxidase conjugated goat anti-rabbit to rabbit anti-herpes simplex virus type 2) immunoenzymatic staining reaction that rendered infection-related antigens visible by light microscopy. a corresponding series of laser flow cytophotometric ...1976187690
immune interactions with cells infected with herpes simplex virus: antibodies to radioiodinated surface antigens.lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination was used to study reactions between surface antigens and antibodies on bhk-21 cells infected with hsv-1 and hsv-2. isolation of iodinated surface antigens was achieved by indirect immune precipitation of triton x-100 disrupted cells with antisera to hsv and igg. analysis of immune precipitates by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) revealed at least 10 antigens, ranging in m.w. from 35 x 103 to 160 x 103 daltons. antigens were detectable on cell su ...1977187696
plaque dissociation of herpes simplex viruses: biochemical and biological characters of the viral variants.polycaryocytogenic (p) and non-polycaryocytogenic, or aggregating (a), stable variants were selected from a herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and from a herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2) which had not been deliberately exposed to known mutagenic agents. the p variant of hsv-1 (fp) differed from the a variant (fa) in polypeptides and glycoprotein patterns, but no gross differences were evident between the two variants of hsv-2 (gp and ga). each p variant proved more 'specific' than each a var ...1975186433
replication of herpes simplex virus in mouse spleen cell cultures stimulated by lipopolysaccharide.replication of hsv was demonstrated in spleen cell cultures of d2 and several other strains of mice after prestimulation with mitogenic doses of lps for 2 days. no viral replication occurred in unstimulated cultures or in cultures prestimulated with pha and con a, whereas there was some viral replication in spleen cell cultures of d2 mice after prestimulation with poly i-c. spleen cells of b6 mice did not support replication of hsv under any of the conditions we have tested thus far. the reasons ...1976186534
reaction of antigens isolated from herpes simplex virus-transformed cells with sera of squamous cell carcinoma patients.antigens isolated from herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, or cytomegalovirus-transformed hamster cells were tested against 66 sera from non-cancer individuals or patients with different types of cancer. by use of the microcomplement fixation procedure to quantify all antigen-antibody interactions, it was observed that 94% (p less than 0.001) of all sera from patients with squamous cell carcinoma reacted with antigens from herpes simplex virus type 1-transformed cells, whil ...1976187320
clonal derivatives of a herpes type 2 transformed hamster cell line (333-8-9): cytogenetic analysis, tumorigenicity and virus sequence detection.the characteristics of the syrian hamster cell line (333-8-9), putatively transformed by herpes virus type 2 (hsv-2), strain 333, have been examined. the line has been cloned and the clones characterized cytogenetically and morphologically. the original line and the clones have been assayed for tumorigenicity and for the presence of herpes-virus-specific nucleic acid sequences using in situ hybridization with 125i hsv-2 dna. the line 333-8-9 is hyperdiploid with a mode of 49 chromosomes and cont ...1976179958
comparison of herpes simplex virus isolates using a quantitative selection assay for transformation.transformation potential of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) was quantitatively compared in a system selecting for biochemical transformants. the highest frequency of transformation was obtained with hsv-2 strain 333. the transformation rates for two strains of hsv-1 were lower and distinctly different from hsv-2 and from each other. the dose of inactivating ultraviolet light received by the virus and the multiplicity of infection proved to be critical components of the proce ...1975179966
pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in mice after various routes of inoculation.the pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 was compared after inoculation of mice by different routes. intravaginal inoculation of hsv-1 and hsv-2 produced a local infection, with virus recovery from the vagina through 5 days. virus was recovered from the spinal cords 4 to 5 days after inoculation but not from liver, kidney, lung, spleen, or blood. intravenous or intraperitoneal inoculation of hsv-2 produced a focal necrotic hepatitis similar to that described previously (s. c. ...1976184048
comparative diagnostic aspects of herpes simplex virus tumor-associated antigens.sera from cancer patients and healthy individuals, obtained from two independent sources, were examined for their abilities to react with herpes simplex virus-associated tumor antigens, ag-4 and nva-taa (nonvirion antigen-tumor-associated antigen). both antigens were prepared by infection of hep-2 cells with herpes simplex virus type 2, and all antigen-antibody interactions were measured by the micro-complement fixation test. of sera from 16 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix, 81% (p les ...1976185398
antiviral effect of pyran against systemic infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 2.the immunomodulator pyran markedly protected 5-week-old mice from lethal intravenous infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. the 50% lethal dose was increased almost 100-fold in pyran-treated mice as compared with controls. although the protection was not as marked in older mice (10 and 16 weeks old), there was a significant increase in mean survival time. when the pathogenesis of herpesvirus disease was monitored in control and drug-treated mice, the effect of pyran was most evident in the ...1976185945
studies on kinetics of dna synthesis in cv-1 cell cultures infected with different multiplicities (moi) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2).infection of cv-1 cell cultures with hsv-2 at moi 5 respectively 1pfu/cell resulted in markedly different patterns of dna-synthesis. isolation and separation of cellular and viral dna on cscl equilibrium density gradients during the "late" phase after infection with 5pfu/cell revealed a rapid increase in synthesis of virus-specific dna (which banded at density q25 = 1.729 g/ccm) while synthesis of host cell dna (banding at 1.705 g/ccm) was constantly inhibited. 15 hours after infection and incub ...1976186742
comparison of dna facilitators in the uptake and intracellular fate of infectious herpes simplex virus type 2 dna.the comparative efficiencies of polyornithine, cacl2 and deae-dextran in enhancing the infectivity of exogenous herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 dna were examined. cacl2 was 12-times more effective in promoting genetic expression of viral dna than deae-dextran, while polyornithine did not mediate any hsv dna infectivity. a comparison of sedimentation profiles of dna extracted from cells inoculated with viral dna in the presence of each facilitator revealed that input 56 s hsv dna underwent mark ...1976187236
herpesviruses and cancer in man and subhuman primates.because there is strong evidence for the involvement of epstein-barr virus in the etiology of burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, we have discussed the relationship of epstein-barr virus to these two diseases in the context of geographic distribution, pathology, epidemiology, genetics, immunovirology, and biochemistry. we have also discussed the relationship of epstein-barr virus to other diseases, both malignant and non-malignant. although the etiologic relationship of herpes simpl ...1976187259
characterization of single-cell clonal lines derived from hsv-2-transformed mouse cells.a balb/c continuous cell line, 238, was transformed following infection with uv-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was designated h238. several cell lines were derived from single cells of h238 by cloning in soft agar. the clonal lines express cytoplasmic antigens by immunofluorescence when reacted with rabbit hsv-2 antiserum and mouse tumor-bearer serum. the cloned cell lines induce tumors in immunocompetent mice by the subcutaneous route with a 100% incidence at an inoculum of 10( ...1975184064
induction of murine p30 by superinfecting herpesviruses.the interaction of endogenous type c viruses with superinfecting herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was investigated in two murine cell lines. replication of hsv-2 was suboptimal in random-bred swiss/3t3a cells and, in initial experiments, infection with a low virus-to-cell ratio resulted in carrier cultures with enhanced murine leukemia virus (mulv) p30 expression. immunofluorescence tests with swiss/3t3a cells productively infected with hsv-2 also showed hsv-associated cytoplasmic antigens an ...1976184296
differential sensitivity of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to human interferon: antiviral effects of interferon plus 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine.with use of a standard assay for antiviral compounds, in which the compound to be tested is added after absorption of virus, the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) of human interferon for several strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is five to 10 times greater than it is for two strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). this differential susceptibility of hsv types to interferon is found whether tests are done with a liquid overlay and microtiter plates or with agarose overlay ...1976185303
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in clinical infections: differences observed by electron microscopy.microtubule-like structures have been observed ultrastructurally in bhk-21/4 cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) but not in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). bhk-21/4 cells were infected with two known strains of hsv-2 and one known strain of hsv-1, as well as with vesicular fluid from 50 clinical isolates (47 perioral, two penile, and one from the leg) in an examination of the accuracy of electron microscopy for differentiation between clinical isolate ...1977191545
herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis.to date only 9 culture-proven cases of herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis have been recorded. presented here is the 10th case with a review of the literature. although generally a benign disease, its recognition in association with herpes progenitalis must be appreciated to avoid confusion in the treatment of this common veneral disease.1977191771
[investigations concerning the evidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) antibodies in patients with carcinoma of the cervix (author's transl)].the neutralizing antibodies to hsv-1 and hsv-2 were determined in the sera of 128 patients. infection was detectable in nearly 100% of the cases in each of the three investigated groups (patients with carcinoma of the cervix, female patients with chronic recurrent hsv infection in the genital area and a control group without and history of hsv infection). the percentage of patients displaying hsv-2 antibodies in the group with carcinoma of the cervix (38%) is significantly higher than in the con ...1977191994
long-term follow-up studies on herpes simplex antibodies in the course of cervical cancer: patterns of neutralizing antibodies.the kinetics of neutralization was used to study antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 in 90 patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix uteri. the first sera were drawn before treatment and consective sera were drawn at intervals thereafter. control groups consisted of 90 age-matched healthy women and 70 cancer patients suffering from malignancies other than cervix carcinoma. patients surviving during the observation period of 12-60 months had a significantly higher frequency of neutrali ...1977192072
cell surface antigens induced by herpes simplex virus (hsv).among the antigens induced by hsv on the surface of infected cells there are antigens binding anti-hsv antibodies by their combining (fab) site (hsv-ag), and others binding antibodies of various specificities, probably through their fc fragment (igr). hsv-ag were demonstrated by cytotoxicity and mixed agglutination tests; igr were made evident by passive hemadsorption. the ability to induce igr is especially characteristic of hsv-1 strains, being absent or limited with hsv-2 strains. igr were no ...1976188230
dna-binding proteins of cells infected by herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2.proteins showing affinity for dna in hsv-1-and hsv-2-infected cells were compared by dna-cellulose chromatography and page. the proteins observed depended on the type of virus used to infect the cell; however, several examples of analogous polypeptides were present in cells infected by both virus types. proteins showing highest affinity for dna-cellulose were similar in molecular size in cells infected by both virus types.1976188782
correlation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 with clinical features of infection.strains (338) of herpes simplex virus (hsv) were isolated in stockholm during 1965-1974. by immunoelectroosmophoresis it was possible to identify all strains as either hsv type 1 (hsv-1) or 2 (hsv-2). no strains of intermediate antigenic type or with untypable characteristics were found. the antigenic type of hsv was correlated with body site and clinical features of infection. a case of severe, recurrent, abdominal pain in association with hsv-2 infection is described. in one patient with acute ...1977188954
[properties of herpes simplex virus type 2 and its relation to cervicouterine cancer]. 1976189359
chromosome changes in hamster cell line exposed to herpes simplex virus type 2. 1975190130
transformation of embryonic rat fibroblasts by herpes simplex virus type 2. 1975190150
quantitative transformation of swiss/3t3 cells by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus type 2. 1975190148
transformation of mouse cells with herpes simplex virus type 2. 1975190149
genetic and physiological studies with herpes simplex virus type 2 temperature-sensitive mutants. 1975190124
preliminary studies of nonvirion antigens associated with herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (hsv1 - hsv2).biochemical and radioimmunological studies have indicated the presence of a nonvirion antigen associated with herpes virus. guinea pig kidney cells were grown in culture and infected (i-cells) for 3h with herpes virus. uninfected cells (n-cells) served as control. the cells were collected and sonicated to obtain, after centrifugation, "soluble extract" (si, sn). the pellets were extracted with kcl (isp, nsp). sn, si were submitted to gel-filtration on sephadex g-200. extracts from i and n cells ...1976191042
cell-mediated immune responses in recurrent herpesvirus infections. i. lymphocyte proliferation assay.studies in immunosuppressed and immunodeficient patients indicate that the cell-mediated immune response appears to be responsible for controlling reactivated herpesvirus infections. in this study, the various parameters of a herpesvirus (types 1 and 2) antigen specific lymphocyte proliferation assay were optimized and used to evaluate individuals with clinical, recurrent hsv-1 and hsv-2 infections. normal individuals with neutralizing antibody to hsv-1 or hsv-2 responded to virus antigen in cul ...1977191528
changes of cyclic amp contents and lectin-mediated agglutination of mouse fibroblasts after exposure to uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus type 2. 1976192937
[oncogeny of herpes simplex viruses and lupidon].the part of the herpes simplex virus type 2 in the development of the cervex carcinoma of women is still an open question. after the serological findings that patients with cervix carcinoma have a higher rate of antibodies against type 2 than healthy women, which were initially published with great expectation, the molecular-virological examinations which were meanwhile carried out by several work groups to find traces of the herpes simplex virus type 2 in the carcinoma cells were negative, exce ...1977193311
multicystic cerebral degeneration in neonatal herpes simplex virus encephalitis.typical herpetic papulovesicular skin lesions developed in an apparently normal infant at 12 days of age and were followed within 48 hours by signs and symptoms of acute encephalitis. herpes simplex virus type 2 was cultured from the intact skin vesicles, and a fourfold increase in complement fixation titer to herpes simplex virus type 2 was found over the ensuing 24 days. the infant survived her acute illness, but was left with severe neurologic sequelae manifested as microcephaly with multicys ...1977193394
immunodiagnostic potential of a virus-coded, tumor-associated antigen (ag-4) in cervical cancer.the central theme of this communication is the recognition of an immunodiagnostic potential in a herpes virus antigen, the molecular interrelationship of which with cervical tumor cells is described. in addition to the productive infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) we are confronted by latency and, as suggested by recent studies, by cancer. these different types of virus-host cell interactions are discussed at the host, as well as at the cellular level. a defined level of mol ...1977192436
specific non-immunoglobulin g antibodies and cell-mediated response to herpes simplex virus antigens in women with cervical carcinoma.non-immunoglobulin g-neutralizing antibodies to herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 were assayed in sera adsorbed with staphylococcus aureus cowan i. they were present in 8% of women with normal cervical smear and in 20, 41, and 74% of women with atypia, dysplasia, and cervical carcinoma, respectively. lymphocytes of the patients were tested for in vitro transformation by killed hsv type 1 and hsv type 2 (hsv-2), as well as by mitomycin c-treated hamster cells transformed by hsv or other viruses o ...1977192446
[prevention and therapy of viral diseases with special reference to interferon].human leukocyte interferon (hli) was used for treatment of human diploid fibroblasts before and after infection with vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv 1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2), and varicella zoster virus (vzv). vero cells were infected with medical lake macaque herpes virus (mlmv), and treated with hli in the same way. in all of these systems hli exhibited an antiviral effect when administered before infection, and this effect could be increased by additional hli tr ...1977192653
role of macrophages in hepatitis induced by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in mice.a marked difference was found between herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) in the induction of hepatic necrotic lesions in mice inoculated intraperitoneally. although hsv-2 produced many large, progressive liver lesions in 4-week-old balb/c mice, hsv-1 only occasionally induced a few, self-limiting foci, which eventually healed. this was reflected in the isolation of hsv from the liver and spleen, two organs that are rich in macrophages. although hsv-1 could be only temporarily ...1977192671
a sensitive method for the detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 specific thymidine kinase.thymidine kinase (tk) activity of uninfected and in vitro herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infected human fetal lung cells was analyzed. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out, and subsequent incubation of equally divided gel slices in the presence of normal or anti-hsv-2 specific tk serum, together with different substrates, was performed. small amounts of virus-specific enzyme could be detected using this combination of electrophoresis and antibodies and replacing atp by ctp in ...1977192698
effect of immunization on acute and latent infections of vaginouterine tissue with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.inoculation of mice with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) by the vaginal route resulted in viral shedding during the acute phase of the infection and the development of a latent infection in vaginouterine tissue lasting up to one year in greater than 25% of the animals. immunization with either serotype of hsv markedly reduced viral shedding when animals were subsequently challenged with the homologous serotype, but immunization with hsv-2 was significantly less effective in ...1977192810
comparative effects of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in organotypic cultures of mouse dorsal root ganglion.mature organized cultures of mouse dorsal root ganglion (mdrg) were infected with herpes simplex virus, type 1 (hsv 1) and type 2 (hsv 2). onset of infectious virus production occurred faster and reached higher levels in hsv 2-infected cultures. neurons, supporting cells and myelin were affected in both types of infection, but morphological changes occurred significantly earlier and more dramatically with the type 2 infection. the pattern of myelin changes was distinctly different in the two typ ...1977192854
oculogenital transmission of type 2 herpes simplex virus in adults.type 2 (genital) herpes simplex virus (hsv-2) was isolated from three patients (two adults and an 11-year-old girl) with acute ocular infections. two of these patients had acute blepharoconjunctivitis and one had acute keratoconjunctivitis. genital herpes infections had preceded the eye infections in the two adults. this was not the case in the 11-year-old, but she had been in close contact with her sister who had apparently had the genital disease. the study strongly suggests transmission of hs ...1976185732
type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus in corneal cell cultures.the pathogenicity of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in primary cultures of epithelia, stromal, and endothelial cells of rabbit corneas was studied at various incubation temperatures (30 degrees, 36 degrees, and 40 degrees c). we tested three strains each of type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2). at all three temperatures, the epithelial cells appeared to be more susceptible to both hsv-1 and hsv-2 than the stromal and endothelial cells. in general, less hsv-1 was requered than hsv-2 to infect the same t ...1976185735
a new method for the isolation of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna. 1976185791
[epidemiology of herpes simplex diseases].the epidemiological principle of the herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections is to have the affected host survive, to persist in it and thus to make it to be a life long starting point for new infection chains. there is an accurately tuned correlation between virus and host organism, in which the persistence of the virus as a latent infection in the ganglion cells of sensory neurones is of central importance. in this state the virus cannot be attacked by the defensive power of the body. when chang ...1977193312
the tumor enhancing property of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2).the s.c. infection of dbf-1 mice with hsv-2 has a tumor enhancing effect on simultaneously i.m. implanted mca-induced syngeneic spindle cell sarcoma. thus with the dosage used here, the first palpable tumors appeared on day 6 in the virus treated group as compared to day 9 p.i. in the sham treated batch. further, more tumors were formed: 75% among the infected and 40% among the sham injected. the tumor yield could be modulated: no difference between the 2 groups was found when the tumor cell dos ...1977193079
transfer of the gene for thymidine kinase to thymidine kinase-deficient human cells by purified herpes simplex viral dna.transformation of human cells from a thymidine kinase (atp:thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, ec 2.7.1.75)-negative to a thymidine kinase-positive phenotype has been achieved by using purified dna from herpes simplex virus type 2. the specific activity of the dna was in the range 0.5 to 2.0 transformants per microng and the efficiency of gene transfer was up to 1 transformant per 10(5) recipient cells. several transformed lines able to grow continuously in medium selective for thymidine kinase-pos ...1977193108
purification of herpesvirus nucleocapsids by fluorocarbon extraction.purified nucleocapsids were prepared from herpes simplex virus type-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 infected cells, using a fluorocarbon extraction technique with freon 113. fifty to 85% of the total nucleocapsid population remained 'nucleated' or full in terms of the nucleic acid core making them useful as a source of dna. cscl banded dna represented 30--40% of the theoretical yield of the total nucleocapsid population.1976195183
chromosomal site(s) of integration of herpes simplex virus type 2 thymidine kinase gene in biochemically transformed human cells. 1977197027
laser cytophotometric detection of variations in spatial distribution of concanavalin-a cell surface receptors following viral infection.human cells in culture (h.ep. 2) were infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 at a multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) of 3 for 3, 18 and 36 hr. spatial redistribution of concanavalin (con-a) cell surface receptor sites was detected by an indirect double-antibody (peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit to rabbit anti-con-a) immunoenzymatic staining reaction which rendered the con-a sites visible to light microscopy and to flow laser cytophotometry. significant spatial redistribution of cell sur ...1977197163
the photoinactivation of an rna animal virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, with the aid of newly synthesized psoralen derivatives.the newly synthesized psoralen derivatives, 4' hydroxymethyl 4,5',8 trimethylpsoralen, 4' methoxymethyl 4,5',8 trimethylpsoralen, and 4' aminomethyl 4,5',8 trimethylpsoralen hydrochloride photoreact with the single-stranded rna animal virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, vsv. this virus is inactivated 10(3) times more effectively by photoreaction with these compounds than when photoreacted with 4,5',8 trimethylpsoralen. under these conditions the rna virus remains more than 10(3) times less sensit ...1977197489
type specificity and use of human sera for rapid typing of herpes simplex virus isolates by an indirect peroxidase-labeled antibody technique: a comparison with three other methods.human sera from patients showing seroconversion following a primary herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or hsv type 2 (hsv-2) infection, as well as 19s and 7s fractions obtained from the same sera, have been used for typing 191 hsv isolates by an indirect peroxidase-labeled antibody (pla) method. typing has also been performed on all of the isolates using a microneutralization (mn) and the indirect hemagglutination (iha) inhibition test. furthermore, 30 isolates have been typed by a plaque metho ...1977196572
genetics of macrophage-controlled resistance to hepatitis induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice.the genetics of innate resistance of mice to hepatitis induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was analyzed by crossing resistant male gr to susceptible female balb/c mice and backcrossing females of this f1 generation to susceptible male balb/c mice. by scoring of macroscopic liver lesions and virus isolation studies from the liver 4 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of hsv-2, it appeared that the resistance was governed by one x-linked dominant gene or closely linked gene complex, ...1977197015
effect of silica on the pathogenic distinction between herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 hepatitis in mice.the role of macrophages in the difference in liver pathogenicity between herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) in mice was investigated by selectively blocking the macrophage function of the mice by silica. intravenous administration of 3 mg of silica 2 h before virus inoculation partially abolished the difference between the two virus types, as judged by macroscopic and microscopic examination of the livers and by virus isolation studies. intraperitoneal inoculation of 50 mg of ...1977197016
antiviral activity of arabinosylthymine in herpesviral replication: mechanism of action in vivo and in vitro.1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylthymine (ara-t), a metabolite of the sponge tethya crypta, has shown selective activity against herpes simplex virus (hsv) replication (g. a. gentry and j. f. aswell, virology 65:294-296, 1975). analysis of hsv-infected and uninfected cell lysates by cscl isopycnic centrifugation showed that ara-t blocked the incorporation of [(3)h]hypoxanthine into viral deoxyribonucleic acid and, to a large extent, into host deoxyribonucleic acid of infected (but not uninfected) cells. ...1977197886
igg-, iga- and igm-antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 in sera from patients with cancer of the uterine cervix. 1977193693
biochemical and immunological characterization of deoxythymidine kinase of thymidine kinaseless hela cells biochemically transformed by herpes simplex virus type.thymidine kinase (tk) from herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) biochemically transformed hela cells, purified by affinity chromatography, has been characterized with respect to its electrophoretic mobility, molecular weight, activation energy, substrate specificity, and immunological specificity. tk purified from hsv-1-transformed hela cells has the same electrophoretic mobility as tk purified from hela cells lytically infected with hsv-1. the sedimentation velocity of purified tk from transform ...1977193790
ultrastructural effects of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of rat dorsal root ganglia in culture.the ultrastructural consequences of herpes simplex virus type 2 (strain r-2) infection of organotypic cultures of embryonic rat dorsal root ganglia were studied. the intial consequences (dilation of endoplasmic reticulum and/or golgi apparatus and distortion of mitochondrial structure) occurred in the cytoplasm. these effects were followed by several nuclear changes including loss of nucleoplasm, and margination of chromatin. extensive nuclear membrane proliferation was accompanied by the viral ...1977196052
efficacy of herpes simplex virus type 1 immunization in protecting against acute and latent infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice.icr mice were immunized with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and later challenged with hsv-2 by footpad inoculation. both immunized animals and age-matched, nonimmunized controls were observed for ascending neurological disease and latent infection of spinal ganglia resulting from the hsv-2 challenge. control animals had a 78% incidence of acute and latent infection compared with a 1.7% incidence in immunized mice. the data show immunity to hsv-1 is protective against both acute and latent i ...1977193798
quantification of the herpes simplex virus dna present in biochemically transformed mouse cells and their revertants.four cell lines biochemically transformed by u.v.-irradiated herpes simplex virus contain virus dna fragments ranging from 3 to 22% of the hsv genome. of five revertant clones selected for 3h-tdr or brdurd resistance, four had lost all detectable virus dna while the fifth, selected for brdurd resistance, retained the entire virus fragment but there was a reduction of virus copies per cell from 5 to 1. three 'supertransformed' revertant cell lines contained virus dna fragments ranging from 12 to ...1977196037
macrophages and age-dependent resistance to hepatitis induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 im mice.an age-dependent increase in the resistance of balb/c mice to induction of focal necrotic hepatitis by herpes simplex virus type 2 was demonstrated. in 3-week-old mice inoculated intraperitoneally with virus, numerous necrotic foci developed in the liver. as the mice matured, the number of lesions declined until the age of 8 weeks, when no further increase in resistance appeared. corresponding to this, the virus titers of livers and spleens of 3-week-old mice were higher than in 8-week-old anima ...1978203536
chromosome abberations in rat embryo cells transformed after infection with ultraviolet-irradiated herpes simplex virus.two rat embryo cell lines (tr1 and tr2) transformed after infection with ultaviolet-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 showed modal chromosome numbers in the tetraploid range. in the tr1 cell line a near-diploid cell population replaced during subcultivation the hypotetraploid cells thus explaining the loss of immunofluorescent viral antigens. both transformed cell lines showed frequent achromatic gaps. in the tr1 cell line such gaps were preferentially located in specific chromosome region ...1978205041
incidence and distribution of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 from genital lesions in college women.during a 9-month period, 9,772 women were treated at the student health center's gynecology clinic. herpes simplex virus was isolated from 30 of 57 patients clinically diagnosed as suffering from a herpetic or herpetic-like genial infection for a virological incidence rate of 0.31%. using virus plaque diameter in chick embryo cells and heat stability of viral thymidine kinase, 37% of the isolates were classified as herpes simplex virus type 1 and 63% were classified as herpes simplex virus type ...1977204741
herpes simplex virus type 2 and carcinoma of cervix uteri. 1978204721
herpes simplex virus type 2 induced pyrimidine nucleoside kinase: enzymatic basis for the selective antiherpetic effect of 5-halogenated analogues of deoxycytidine. 1978204334
induction capacity and influence of dthdmp on thymidine kinase activity of type 1 and 2 strains of herpes simplex virus.the thymidine kinase inducing ability of 104 strains of herpes simplex virus was studied comparatively. a pronounced relationship was established between induction of the enzyme and the serotype of the strains. as a rule, the strains of serotype 2 are weaker inducer of dthd- and dcyd-kinase activity than serotype 1 strains. a certain parallelism exists between induction of both enzymes, however the activity of the thymidine kinase increases after infection with herpes simplex virus 4--5 times mo ...1978205197
effect of hormones on herpes simplex virus type-2-induced transformation. 1977194162
anatomy of herpes simplex virus dna. ix. apparent exclusion of some parental dna arrangements in the generation of intertypic (hsv-1 x hsv-2) recombinants.we are reporting the physical location of parental dna sequences in 28 recombinants produced by crossing herpes simplex viruses (hsv) 1 and 2. the parental crosses were of two kinds. in the first, temperature-sensitive mutants of hsv-1 and hsv-2 were crossed to produce wild-type recombinants. in the second, temperature-sensitive mutants of hsv-1 rendered resistant to phosphonoacetic acid were crossed with wild-type hsv-2, and recombinants that multiplied at nonpermissive temperature and were res ...1977198577
specifically immune mouse t-cells can destroy h-2 compatible murine target cells infected with herpes simplex virus types 1 or 2.lymphocytes from the spleen (sl) or peritoneal cavities (pl) of hsv-1- or hsv-2-immunized c 3 h mice expressed pronounced cytotoxicity, as measured by 51cr release assay, against l cells experimentally infected with hsf-types 1 or 2 but not against uninfected l cells. hsv-1 or hsv-2 immune lymphocytes induced substantially more 51cr release when l-cell targets were infected with homotypic virus compared to those infected with heterotypic virus. inasmuch as the cytotoxicity of specifically immune ...1977198986
prolongation of herpes simplex virus latency in cultured human cells by temperature elevation.treatment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected human fibroblast cells with cytosine arabinoside (ara-c) at 25 microgram/ml resulted in complete inhibition of virus replication. removal of ara-c after 7 days of treatment ultimately resulted in renewed virus replication, but after a delay of at least 5 days. if however, the temperature was elevated from 37 degrees c to 39.5 to 40 degrees c at the time of ara-c reversal, infectious hsv-2 did not reappear. as long as the cultures were mai ...1977198583
complement-dependent cytotoxic antibodies in the course of cervical carcinoma.complement-dependent cytotoxic antibodies to three cervical carcinoma cell lines (me-180, sw-732 and hela) and to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected cells were determined in a long-term study of women with cervical carcinoma. cytolysis of surface antigens differed significantly between the cervical carcinoma cell lines and hsv-2. regression of the tumor during treatment was accompanied by decreasing cytolysis in the cervical carcinoma lines, while tumor bearers and patients who became ...1977200570
biochemical transformation of mouse cells by fragments of herpes simplex virus dna.mouse l cells lacking the enzyme thymidine kinase (lmtk-) have been converted to a tk+ phenotype by infection with fragmented hsv2 strain 333 dna. the dna fragments used were either unique, produced by cleavage with the restriction endonucleases eco ri and hild iii, or randomly produced by mechanical shearing. survival in hat medium was used initially to establish the tk+ phenotype; clones possessing the ability to grow in selective medium were picked on the basis of differing morphology and gro ...1977194705
studies on tumors produced by cells transformed with herpes simplex virus type 2.biological, histological, and ultrastructural studies were made on tumors produced in weanling hamsters inoculated with hamster embryo fibroblasts (hef) transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 or with cultured cells (tumor cell lines t1 and t2) derived from the tumor tissues. the malignancy of transformants increased through passages in vitro and in vivo. histologically, two tumor cells lines (155-4t1 and u-15t1) produced fibrosarcomas and one (u-26t1) produced lesions resembling "malignant f ...1977201537
unexpected disseminated herpes simplex infection in a newborn.disseminated herpes simplex virus type 2 was unexpectedly discovered in a baby delivered by primary cesarean section at 36 weeks' gestation prior to rupture of the membranes. the mother was free of orogenital lesions at each prenatal examination. examination of the placenta revealed chorioamnionitis implicating an ascending infection from the mother's infected genital tract.1977200876
[herpes simplex virus (hsv-1 and hsv-2) infection: its clinical and oncogenic properties (author's transl)].the epidemiology and clinical features of diseases caused by the herpes simplex virus, are reviewed and recent results are discussed which give an insight into the complex mechanism of primary and chronic, recurrent hsv-1 infections. immunological reactions in hsv infection and data concerning the oncogenic potential of hsv-1 and -2 are dealt with. furthermore, current therapeutic possibilities are outlined.1977201107
induction of latent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in human cervical epithelial cells in vitro.an in vitro method was used to induce non-productive herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections in human ecto- and endocervical epithelial cells. adenine arabinoside (ara-a) could prevent the replication of hsv-2 in ecto- and endocervical cells and after removal of ara-a from growth medium a rapid destruction of explants with development of infectious virus was observed. when ara-a was not withdrawn until 4 days or later after in vitro infection the morphological, immunofluorescent and virol ...1977203162
radiometric detection of herpes simplex viruses.two radiometric techniques were investigated as possible means of detecting viruses in clinical specimens. the effect of herpes simplex virus on dna synthesis by monolayers of human embryonic lung fibroblasts was monitored by the incorporation of [3h] thymidine or [125i] iododeoxyuridine ([125i] idu). radiometric results were compared with those obtained from visual examination for cytopathic effects in the same cell line. cells infected with herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2, 10(6.8) virions) ...1978203666
[photodynamic inactivation of herpes simplex virus: ii. photodynamic inactivation with proflavine in experimental herpetic keratitis (author's transl)]. 1977204176
production of group- and type-specific antigens during non-permissive infection of dog kidney cells with herpes simplex virus type 2. 1978203280
an investigation into the relationship of the immunological status of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) infected animals and the tumor-enhancing property of this infection.in order to compare the state of immunity of hsv-2 infected animals with their sham treated counterparts, several in vivo methods for cell-mediated immunity in addition to the stimulation in vitro of mouse splenocytes with pha were performed. the grafting of c 3 h mice with heterologous skin and the paw test with pha showed no noticeable difference between the two groups. the tuberculin test performed on guinea pigs infected via the footpads, permitted the detection of a slightly impaired reacti ...1977201898
production of plasminogen activator by cells transformed by herpesviruses.plasminogen activator is produced by hamster cells transformed by human herpesviruses. these cell lines have previously been shown to be oncogenic when injected s.c. into newborn syngeneic hamsters. lysis of fibrin overlays by these cell lines was plasminogen dependent. normal hamster embryo fibroblasts and a hamster cell line transformed by para-7 (an adenovirus-sv 40 hybrid) failed to produced lysis. in separate experiments fibrin overlay of lytically infected secondary rabbit kidney cells did ...1978205345
resistance to vaginal or systemic infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. 1978207239
5,6-dihydro-5-azathymidine: in vitro antiviral properties against human herpesviruses.5,6-dihydro-5-azathymidine (dhadt), a novel water-soluble nucleoside antibiotic, inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) in appropriately infected cell cultures to a greater extent than herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). vaccinia virus was less susceptible than hsv-2, and pseudorabies virus yields were not reduced at the concentrations studied. plaque formation by varicella-zoster virus was suppressed by dhadt. dhadt was slightly toxic to cells at concentrations that were inhibitory for h ...1978208459
biochemical transformation of mouse cells by herpes simplex virus type 2: enhancement by means of low-level photodynamic treatment.the biochemical transformation of thymidine kinase-deficient cells by uv-inactivated herpes simplex virus is enhanced by low-level photodynamic treatment of the infected cells. at the concentration of proflavine used, the virus was not inactivated and both virus and cellular dna syntheses were only marginally inhibited. the observed enhancement of the transfer of a virus gene to the cell genome suggests a possible cocarcinogenic role for photodynamically active dyes at very low concentrations.1978206727
effect of immunization on the development of latent ganglionic infection in mice challenged intravaginally with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.immunization of balb/c mice with virulent and avirulent strains of hsv-1 resulted in high levels of neutralizing antibody and protected against both the lethal effect of the virus and the development of a latent ganglionic infection when animals were challenged by the intravaginal route. in animals immunized with avirulent strain of hsv-2 and challenged with a high virulent strain of hsv-2, substantial protection against death was observed despite low levels of neutralizing antibody. nineteen pe ...1978210669
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in organotypic cultures of mouse central and peripheral nervous system. i. light microscopic observations of myelin degeneration.mature mouse spinal cord-ganglion cultures, which contain both peripheral and central nervous system as one unit, were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv 1) or type 2 (hsv 2) and observed by bright field microscopy for up to 72 hours. there was degeneration of both central and peripheral myelin in cultures infected with either virus, but the pattern of peripheral myelin degeneration associated with hsv 1-infected cultures was differrnt from that in hsv 2-infected cultures. type 1 was ...1978211204
evidence for a herpes simplex virus-specific factor controlling the transcription of deoxypyrimidine kinase.a cistron-specific, enzyme-forming-capacity method was used to study the control of herpes simplex virus (hsv)-specific deoxypyrimidine kinase (dpyk) mrna synthesis. a virus-specific factor was formed by a primary infecting virus, and this factor effected the transcription of dpyk mrna of a superinfecting virus in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that the factor acted in "trans" and was a diffusible one. after the addition of actinomycin d to prevent further transcription and upon remov ...1978211259
suppression of the synthesis of cellular macromolecules by herpes simplex virus.synthesis of cellular protein was substantially inhibited within 1 h of infection with herpes simplex virus, type 2, strain g (hsv-2). the inhibition also occurred, although no virus-specific protein synthesis was detected, after infection with u.v. irradiated virus and in cytoplasts that had been enucleated before infection. the inhibitory activity could not be distinguished from infectivity by dilution, sedimentation or reaction with gamma-globulin. hsv-2 also suppresssed the synthesis of send ...1978212520
protective effect of an oral infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 against subsequent genital infection with herpes simplex virus type 2.the problem of whether oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) infection provides protection against subsequent genital infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was investigated. mice were used as models. following conditions in man, both the oral and genital infections applied were noninjurious. mice infected orally with hsv-1 were weakly protected against virus 'take' following vaginal challenge with hsv-2. genital 'takes' were found in 67% of the immunized mice, as compared with 83% ...1978209295
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