glycoprotein c of herpes simplex virus 1 acts as a receptor for the c3b complement component on infected cells.receptors for the fc portion of immunoglobulins or for the third component of complement (c3) are present on a variety of circulating and fixed tissue cells including granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes and glomerular epithelial cells. cells which lack fc receptors may express them after infection by herpes simplex virus (hsv)-1, hsv-2, cytomegalovirus or varicella zoster virus. we recently reported that infection by hsv-1 induces both fc and c3 receptors on human endothelial cells. glycoprotei ...19846328323
characterization of an aphidicolin-resistant mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2 which induces an altered viral dna polymerase.the replication of wild-type herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was very sensitive to aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor of eukaryotic alpha-type dna polymerases; viral dna synthesis was strongly inhibited by 1 microgram/ml of aphidicolin, but the synthesis of early viral polypeptides was not affected. using aphidicolin as the selective agent, aphidicolin-resistant ( aphr ) viruses were isolated from hsv-2 strain 186. all of these plaque isolates induced altered viral dna polymerases which were ...19846328755
phosphorylation of four acyclic guanosine analogs by herpes simplex virus type 2 thymidine kinase.four acyclic guanosine analogs, the (r) and (s) enantiomers of 9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)guanine, 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine, and acyclovir were compared in enzyme kinetic experiments, using purified herpes simplex virus type 2 thymidine kinase. all four analogs showed competitive patterns of inhibition in the phosphorylation of thymidine by the viral thymidine kinase, but different affinities and relative rates of phosphorylation were observed.19846329085
direction of synthesis of the message for a 35 000 polypeptide of herpes simplex virus type 2.a restriction endonuclease map of the coding sequences for the transformation-related 35 000 polypeptide of herpes simplex virus type 2 is reported, using 11 enzymes that cut dna infrequently. hybrid-arrested translation with small dna fragments was used to locate the 5' terminus of these coding sequences. a novel procedure involving translation of the 35 000 mrna selected with cloned viral dna that had been digested with exonuclease was employed to confirm that this message is transcribed from ...19846329490
herpes virus antigens and antibodies in kidney biopsies and sera of iga glomerulonephritic patients.antibody titers against 4 viruses of the herpes group have been studied in the sera of 54 patients with iga glomerulonephritis (gn). the incidence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus type-1 (hsv-1), hsv-2, cytomegalovirus (cmv), epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen (ebna), and that of igg antibodies to ebv virus capsid antigen (vca) were similar in patients and in controls. however, elevated antibody titers (greater than or equal to 64) to hsv and cmv occurred more frequently in patients with ig ...19846329570
expression of a herpes simplex virus glycoprotein in two clonal lines of hamster cells transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2.expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) glycoproteins on the cell surface of two clones of a hamster cell line transformed by hsv-2 was examined by immunofluorescence tests with hamster antisera prepared against three size-class glycoprotein fractions obtained from hamster embryo fibroblast cells infected with hsv-2. enhanced expression of one of the three size-class glycoprotein fractions (molecular weight, 82,000-94,000) was found in one clone (155-4-213) after replating of the cells ...19846329882
structural organization of human herpesvirus dna molecules.the herpesviruses are among the largest and most complex of all dna viruses, and their genomes display an astonishing diversity in size, structure, and organization. in 1974, the features of large inverted repeats and structural isomerization were first discovered, and these proved to be characteristic properties of many herpesvirus genomes. since then, research using the powerful techniques of modern molecular biology has revealed a great deal of comparative structural information about the arr ...19846330219
genital herpes simplex infections: effect of asymptomatic shedding and latency on management of infections in pregnant women and neonates.asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus (hsv) at delivery occurred in 2.4% of women with a past history of recurrent genital infections; using current methods, this could not be predicted in advance. in addition, only 22% of the mothers of infected infants had an elicitable history of recurrent genital infections. passively derived neutralizing antibody titers of 1:106 to hsv-1 and 1:67 to hsv-2 were found in 22 exposed infants who remained asymptomatic as compared with 1:8 and 1:8, respec ...19846330222
herpes simplex virus type 2 establishes latency in the mouse footpad and in the sensory ganglia.three mouse strains as well as wt and 7 ts mutants of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 (strain hg52) have been used to investigate latency. the mice were inoculated in the right rear footpad. virus reactivation following explanation and culture of the dorsal root ganglia and the footpad was scored. the results show that: hsv-2 can be maintained in the mouse footpad in a state indistinguishable from latency; virus gene functions necessary for latency can be identified by the use of ts mutants; a ...19846330225
hsv, cmv, and hpv in human neoplasia.we are studying the role of sexually transmitted viruses in the development of human tumors. the persistence of herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and human papillomavirus nucleic acid sequences has been examined using cloned viral dna sequences as probes. the relationship of the viruses to various stages in the progression of neoplasia is examined, with particular reference to the role of viral and/or cellular genes in the initiation, promotion, and maintenance of the neoplastic phenotype. ...19846330227
determination of herpes simplex virus type-specific antibodies by solid-phase ria on helix pomatia lectin-purified antigens.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) antibodies in humans and animals were determined by a micro-solid-phase radioimmunoassay with helix pomatia lectin/sepharose 4b-purified antigens from hsv-1- and hsv-2-infected cells. a low but constant heterotypic reactivity was found with hsv-1 antigen, whereas hsv-2 antigen was type specific, as evidenced by (1) its reactivity with sera from hsv-2- but not with those from hsv-1-immunized animals, (2) its reactivity with monoclonal antibod ...19846330240
a rapid method for restriction endonuclease analysis of dna from herpes simplex virus type 2. 19846330274
evaluation of the effectiveness of 2h-1,3-oxazine-2,6(3h)-dione (oxauracil) in the treatment of herpes simplex virus (hsv)-induced acute encephalitis in mice.treatment of suckling mice with the pyrimidine analogue 2h-1,3-oxazine-2,6(3h)-dione (oxauracil) proved successful in reducing mortality associated with hsv-2-induced encephalitis. oxauracil did not decrease mortality associated with hsv-1 infection; however, there was an increased survival time and a decrease in the amount of infectious virus recovered from the brains of hsv-1-infected animals.19846330291
homology between two ebv early genes and hsv ribonucleotide reductase and 38k of amino acid sequences predicted from the complete ebv dna sequence against the known hsv gene sequences has revealed significant homology between two ebv reading frames and the hsv1 and hsv2 140k and 38k proteins which are associated with ribonucleotide reductase activity. the two genes are arranged tandemly as in hsv though it appears that, unlike hsv, the two mrnas are not 3' co-terminal. we have mapped two promoters predicted from the dna sequence for these genes and shown ...19846330697
nucleotide sequence of the marmoset herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene and predicted amino acid sequence of thymidine kinase polypeptide.the nucleotide sequence of a 2549-bp dna fragment containing the entire coding region of the marmoset herpesvirus (marhv) thymidine kinase gene (tk) and the flanking sequences was determined by the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. the marhv thymidine kinase polypeptide predicted from the nucleotide sequence contained 376 amino acids and had a molecular weight of 41,281. the sequencing data also reveal that the coding portion of another marhv gene probably begins only 292 nucleotides d ...19846330976
enhanced efficacy of the acyclic nucleoside 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine in combination with alpha-interferon against herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice.the acyclic nucleoside dhpg [9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine] and recombinant human alpha-interferon of clones a/d potentiate each other's antiviral activity against a systemic infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. the effective dose at which 50% of the mice survived was lowered approximately 10-fold for dhpg when it was given in combination with a marginally effective dose of alpha-interferon and greater than 10-fold for alpha-interferon when it was given in combination with a no ...19846335382
rapid diagnosis of varicella-zoster virus infection by detection of viral deoxythymidine kinase in serum and vesicle fluid.a sensitive enzyme assay utilizing [125i]iododeoxyuridine as the substrate and ctp as the phosphate donor in combination with isozyme-specific antisera was used for direct detection and typing of herpesvirus deoxythymidine kinase (dtk) in clinical specimens. an investigation of 16 coded vesicle fluid specimens, taken in connection with varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and herpes simplex virus infections, revealed viral dtk activity in 14 samples. all positive samples except one were taken within 5 d ...19836339548
current status and prospects for oral acyclovir treatment of first episode and recurrent genital herpes simplex virus.herpes simplex genitalis is an increasingly common primary or recurrent hsv infection. acyclovir (acv) has been found to diminish virus shedding and clinical symptoms in patients with first episode genital hsv when given topically or intravenously. as most patients with first episode disease do not require hospitalization and recurrent disease is usually less severe than the primary infection, out-patient treatment forms the basis of practical management. acyclovir is absorbed orally with plasma ...19836355052
lysis of herpesvirus-infected cells by macrophages activated with free or liposome-encapsulated lymphokine produced by a murine t cell hybridoma.thioglycolate-induced mouse peritoneal macrophages were activated in vitro by the lymphokine designated macrophage-activating factor (maf) produced by a murine t cell hybridoma to lyse herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected murine target cells. comparison of uninfected balb/c 10e2 cells with hsv-2-infected 10e2 cells showed that macrophages activated with maf selectively destroyed hsv-2-infected cells and left uninfected cells unharmed, as measured by an 18-h 51cr-release assay. in contras ...19836358037
polypeptide specificity of the early antibody response following primary and recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infections.relative igg titres to specific viral proteins in acute and convalescent sera from patients with primary and recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections were determined using an immunoblot assay. patients with recurrent genital infections generally had high titres of antibody reactive with two of the three major viral glycoproteins (gd and gg) as well as with several viral capsid proteins in both acute and convalescent sera. in contrast, patients experiencing primary genital ...19846387042
preferential inhibition of 5-trifluoromethyl-2'-deoxyuridine phosphorylation by 5'-amino-5'-deoxythymidine in uninfected versus herpes simplex virus-infected cells.the cytotoxic effects of 5-trifluoromethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (cf3durd) were effectively antagonized by 5'-amino-5'-deoxythymidine (5'-adthd). the antiproliferative actions of cf3durd were reduced in a dose-dependent manner by 5'-adthd in both hela and vero cells. in addition, the ability of cf3durd to kill hela cells (95% at 1 microm and 99% at 3 microm), as measured by cloning efficiency, was ablated entirely by 5'-adthd (300 microm). in contrast, the inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hs ...19836408395
carcinoma of the cervix: can a viral etiology be confirmed?the etiological role of viruses in various animal cancers is no longer in doubt; a similar role in human cancers is, however, yet to be confirmed. indeed, until recently, virus infections were considered to be responsible for only a small proportion of the clinical states encountered in humans and the view that viruses may be etiological agents for human malignant tumours was not seriously entertained. with the introduction of more advanced techniques in immunovirology, the role of viruses in cl ...19846399281
epidemiological aspects of cervical cancer in tropical africa.cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant tumours in tropical africa accounting, for example, for nearly one-quarter of female cancer cases overall in uganda. the disease is likely to be under-reported and available incidence rates are probably gross underestimates. spread is through sexual contacts. both female and male promiscuity and a low standard of sexual hygiene lead to a high incidence within a given community. a number of investigations show that the risk of cervical cancer va ...19846399280
human monocytes activated by immunomodulators in liposomes lyse herpesvirus-infected but not normal cells.highly purified peripheral blood monocytes from normal human donors were activated in vitro by incubation with liposomes containing immunomodulators such as recombinant human gamma interferon, human lymphokines, or muramyl dipeptide. the ability of liposomes containing immunomodulators to activate monocytes to a cytotoxic state capable of discriminating between virus-infected and uninfected cells was shown by activated monocytes recognizing and destroying herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cel ...19846426057
recurrences after first episodes of genital herpes in patients treated with topical acyclovir cream.the effect of topical acyclovir treatment of first episode genital herpes on the time to first recurrence in a group of 42 patients receiving either acyclovir or placebo was investigated. topical acyclovir treatment had no effect on time to first recurrence in patients with either first episode hsv-1 or hsv-2 infections. there was no significant difference in the time to first recurrence in patients with either true primary or initial genital infections. however, the time to first recurrence in ...19846517563
ultrastructural localization of gold in macrophages and mast cells exposed to aurothioglucose.the ultrastructural localization of gold in resting, stimulated, and activated mouse peritoneal cells exposed in vivo and in vitro to aurothioglucose was examined by a photochemical technique. activated macrophages from herpes simplex virus type 2 infected mice showed the heaviest accumulation of gold, located in phagolysosomes. gold was also visualized in granules of mast cells and in nuclei of disintegrated cells. no gold was found in polymorphonuclear leucocytes and in lymphocytes. the mechan ...19846420183
topical treatment of cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection in hairless mice with (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine and related compounds.(e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bromovinyldeoxyuridine) was found to suppress the development of herpetic skin lesions and the paralysis and mortality associated therewith in hairless mice inoculated intracutaneously with herpes simplex virus type 1. this protective effect was achieved with bromovinyldeoxyuridine applied topically at 1, 3, or 10% in either dimethylsulfoxide (dmso), beeler base, tween-glycerol-water, 5% azone (1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one) in water, or 5% azone in dmso. th ...19846486759
herpetic whitlow: report of a case with multiple recurrences.a case of recurrent herpetic whitlow is discussed. the patient, a dental assistant at the time of her initial infection, developed herpetic whitlow caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). she has subsequently experienced nine recurrent infections with lesion spread, scarring, and persistent paresthesia. the severity of the most recent recurrences appears to have diminished, and prodromal sensations, that is, increased local sensitivity, have occurred without the subsequent development of ...19836576289
efficacy of the acyclic nucleoside 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine against primary and recrudescent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in guinea pigs.the acyclic nucleoside 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (dhpg) was evaluated for its efficacy in protecting guinea pigs from primary and recrudescent infections of herpes simplex virus type 2. vaginally infected guinea pigs were treated twice a day with dhpg at 25 mg/kg per dose for 3 weeks. subcutaneous doses were started 3 h, 24 h, or 5 weeks after virus inoculation. treatment starting at 3 or 24 h reduced the severity of the primary infection by greater than 70% when lesions were grad ...19836607031
broad-spectrum synergistic antiviral activity of selenazofurin and ribavirin.the antiviral effects of selenazofurin (2-beta-d-ribofuranosylselenazole-4-carboxamide, selenazole), ribavirin (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide), and 3-deazaguanosine (6-amino-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylimidazo-[4.5-c]pyridin-4(5h)-one) were investigated separately and in various combinations in an in vitro study. the combination interactions were evaluated at seven drug concentrations, graphically (isobolograms) or by using fractional inhibitory concentration indices against mump ...19846517540
increase in laboratory-confirmed cases of herpes genitalis and neonatal herpes infections in israel.jewish women have been considered to be at low risk for genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections. during the period 1973 to 1981, genital herpes simplex infections were laboratory confirmed in 129 cases (81 women and 48 men). until 1976, only sporadic cases were reported to our laboratory. since then, the number of cases has gradually increased, reaching 31 new reported cases in 1981. the age distribution was typical for a sexually transmitted disease, with the peak of infection at ...19836662679
congenital absence of scalp skin and herpes simplex virus. a case report.a male infant, born at 40 weeks' gestation of a 27-year-old mother, presented at delivery with three scalp lesions, 2 to 4 cm in diam, covered with necrotic tissue and devoid of hair. the infant was born by natural vertex delivery within 2 hours of membrane rupture; birth weight was 3,300 g and apgar score 10. there were no other skin lesions, and physical and neurological examinations were normal. herpes simplex virus type 2 was isolated from the lesions and the mother's cervix. high titers of ...19836662680
therapeutic activities of 1-(2-fluoro-2-deoxy-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine and -thymine alone and in combination with acyclovir and vidarabine in mice infected intracerebrally with herpes simplex virus.the therapeutic effectiveness of two new antiviral agents, 1-(2-fluoro-2-deoxy-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine and 1-(2-fluoro-2-deoxy-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)thymine, was compared with that of acyclovir and vidarabine. in mice inoculated intracerebrally with high 50% lethal doses of herpes simplex virus type 2, nontoxic intraperitoneal or oral treatments with the two new fluorinated antiviral agents were highly effective in reducing mortality. the two drugs were also effective when trea ...19836625559
co-existence of malignant squamous cells and herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cells.a case is presented in which malignant squamous cells and herpes virus infected cells were recognized concomitantly at routine cytologic examination for detection of cervical cancer. further examinations on admission revealed stage ib carcinoma of the cervix and characteristic pathologic changes of herpetic infection in the tumor cell nests. virus was isolated from the cancerous tissues in the ectocervix following radical hysterectomy, and was identified as herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). t ...19836681607
topography of remyelinated chronic spinal cord lesions in herpes simplex virus type 2 infections of mice.six-week-old outbred mice were infected intracerebrally with a low dose of the ms strain of herpes simplex virus type 2. about 1% of neurologically abnormal survivors developed paralysis or severe leg weakness during the first three weeks of infection. weakness persisted with little subsequent improvement. five to 8 months later, 4 such mice were killed, and each spinal cord was examined in epon sections in a series of transverse sections along their lengths. all cords had 2 or more major white ...19836655486
carbocyclic arabinofuranosyladenine (cyclaradine): efficacy against genital herpes in guinea pigs.carbocyclic arabinofuranosyladenine (cyclaradine), a novel nucleoside analog with such desired features as hydrolytic and enzymatic stability, adenosine deaminase resistance, and low systemic toxicity, inhibited the replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. the 5'-methoxyacetate prodrug form exhibited significant efficacy in the topical treatment of genital infections by herpes simplex virus type 2.19836684328
vaginal contraception with gossypol: a clinical study.a clinical study concerning the vaginal contraceptive efficacy of gossypol acetic acid was performed. fifteen women who had undergone tubal sterilization volunteered for the study. the effect of vaginal gossypol-containing gel on spermatozoa was determined by postcoital tests performed in subjects without and after using gossypol gel. after gossypol application, the number of spermatozoa found in cervical mucus was greatly decreased and, in eleven of the fifteen women, all spermatozoa seen were ...19836684533
enhanced efficacy of the acyclic nucleoside 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine in combination with beta-interferon against herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice.the acyclic nucleoside 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2- propoxymethyl )guanine (dhpg) and natural mouse interferon beta ( muifn -beta) were evaluated for their efficacy alone and in combination against herpes simplex virus type 2 systemic infections in mice. intraperitoneally infected animals were treated once a day with the drugs at various concentrations for 5 days starting 24 h after inoculation. dhpg was injected subcutaneously at doses of 0.7 to 6 mg/kg. muifn -beta was given intraperitoneally at doses ...19846610387
lack of efficacy of amp against recrudescent genital herpes infections in guinea pigs.amp was evaluated for its efficacy against herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections in guinea pigs. vaginally infected animals were treated twice a day with amp at 50 mg/kg per dose for 2 weeks. subcutaneous doses were started 10 weeks postinfection. amp treatment did not reduce the number of animals with recrudescent episodes when compared with saline-treated controls. in addition, amp treatment did not reduce either the number of lesions or the duration of the recrudescent episodes which ...19836685993
[the autoinoculation test. false-positive reactions caused by herpes simplex virus].the autoinoculation test has been used as a diagnostic procedure in patients with chancroid-suspected genital ulcerations. in four of 13 patients with a positive autoinoculation test, herpes simplex virus type 2 was isolated from the primary lesions. in two of the cases this virus was also isolated from the inoculation site, and one patient developed a recurrent herpetic eruption here. two patients were proven to have chancroid. three of the remaining seven patients developed recurrent herpes ge ...19836682839
antiviral and antitumor compounds from tunicates.tunicates provide a rich source of biologically active compounds with potentially useful medicinal properties. the most interesting compounds identified thus far are the didemnins, depsipeptides from a caribbean trididemnum species, which are potent inhibitors of l1210 leukemia cells in vitro and are also active in vivo against p388 leukemia and b16 melanoma. in addition the didemnins inhibit growth of a variety of rna and dna viruses in vitro and protect mice infected intravaginally with herpes ...19836681537
effect of cp-20,961 on genital herpes in guinea pigs.cp-20,961 (n,n-dioctadecyl-n',n'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)propanediamine) has been reported to be an interferon inducer, an adjuvant and a macrophage activator. in the present study, this compound was used therapeutically and prophylactically to treat genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections in guinea pigs. a significant decrease in the incidence of clinical lesions (p less than 0.05) was observed in animals treated intravaginally with 20 mg cp-20,961 (two doses each containing 10 mg) pr ...19836686755
antiviral activities of cloned human leukocyte interferons against herpes simplex virus type 2 infections of mice.human alpha-interferons (ifn-alpha s) made in bacteria were examined for antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections of mouse l-cells in vitro, and acute cervicovaginal and lethal systemic hsv-2 infections of balb/c mice. the recombinant dna-derived hybrid interferon ifn-alpha ad(bgl) showed pronounced antiviral activity in vitro, exceeding the activity of either of the parental subtypes ifn-alpha a and ifn-alpha d and that of the other hybrids ifn-alpha ad(pvu) and ...19836684674
evaluation of prodrugs of 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine for therapeutic efficacy in the topical treatment of genital herpesvirus infections in guinea pigs.prodrugs of the antiviral agent 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine (araa), which were more effective than the parent compound in penetrating vaginal membranes in vitro, were synthesized and examined for efficacy in the topical treatment of genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 in female guinea pigs. treatment with 10% araa-5'-monophosphate or 10% araa-5'-monovalerate twice a day for 7 days, starting 6 h after intravaginal inoculation with virus, completely aborted the primary infecti ...19836686429
influenza type a virus-mediated adherence of type 1a group b streptococci to mouse tracheal tissue in vivo.influenza type a virus-mediated adherence of pathogenic bacteria to the mucosal surface of the respiratory tract may be one of several mechanisms whereby influenza predisposes to bacterial pneumonia. in the present study, we quantified the adherence of intranasally administered type 1a group b streptococci to the tracheal tissue of influenza type a/pr8/34 (honi) virus-infected and mock-infected mice. influenza type a/pr8/34 virus infection effected a 120-fold increase in the adherence of type 1a ...19826754623
treating viral venereal infections with the co2 laser.viral venereal infections caused by herpes simplex virus 2 and papillomavirus (wart) are epidemic diseases in the united states. unfortunately, these two infections have eluded conventional therapy to date. therefore, 306 women were treated for viral venereal diseases with the co2 laser. two hundred twenty-eight patients were treated for condyloma acuminatum and 78 for genital herpes. all the patients who underwent treatment for herpes were enrolled in an investigative protocol. since the viral ...19826819358
differential susceptibility of human neural cell types in culture to infection with herpes simplex virus.the ability of herpes simplex virus (hsv)-1 glasgow (strain 17), hsv-2 (strain hg52), temperature sensitive mutants and a thymidine kinase negative mutant of glasgow strain 17 to produce a cytopathic effect and induce viral antigen expression in primary and passaged human fetal brain cells was studied. no difference was detected between the behaviour of hsv-1 and hsv-2. cell-type-specific markers and indirect immunofluorescence were used to define unambiguously the type of individual cells in cu ...19836831193
detection of type-specific antibody to herpes simplex virus type 1 by radioimmunoassay with herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein c purified with monoclonal antibody.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 specify at least four glycoproteins designated ga/gb, gc, gd, and ge. previous studies have shown that gc produced by hsv-1 is antigenically distinct from the corresponding hsv-2 glycoprotein. with the exception of gc, the glycoproteins of both serotypes share antigenic sites. standard serological assays fail to differentiate the antibody to the shared antigenic determinants from the type-specific antibody. in this paper, we describe a procedure for ...19836832831
systemic herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. proctitis, urinary retention, arthralgias, and meningitis in the absence of primary mucocutaneous lesions.a 24-year-old heterosexual man had severe proctalgia associated with nonspecific proctitis. within a few days, perineal and lower extremity paresthesias, intermittent urinary retention, inguinal lymphadenopathy, lower extremity arthralgias, and aseptic meningitis developed. serologic studies demonstrated a fourfold rise in convalescent antibody titer to herpes simplex virus (hsv) consistent with an initial type 2 infection. six months later, hsv type 2 was isolated from perianal vesicles, which ...19846712380
protection of newborn mice against herpes simplex virus infection by prenatal and postnatal transmission of antibody.pre- and postnatally acquired protection against herpes simplex virus type 2(hsv-2) infection mediated by maternal antibody was investigated in the newborn mouse. newborn mice, 2 days old, were inoculated with hsv-2 intraperitoneally after maternal immunization with live or inactivated virus. the survival rates improved in proportion to the maternal neutralizing antibody titres. ninety-three percent of animals delivered by caesarean section from immune mothers and suckled by non-immune mothers s ...19836842184
leptomeningitis and polycaryocyte formation in the cns of rats inoculated subcutaneously with herpes simplex virus.wistar rats were inoculated subcutaneously with either type 1 (hsv1) or type 2 (hsv2) herpes simplex virus at 5 days of age. animals were killed in extremis or at the end of the 14-day observation period postinoculation. acute destructive meningoencephalitis with hemorrhage and leukocytic infiltration was observed in both groups. polycaryocytes comprised of cells of the internal granular layer of the cerebellum were observed in some animals inoculated with hsv1. these multinucleated cells appear ...19836852211
thymine arabinoside (ara-t) topical and iontophoretic application for herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 skin infections in hairless mice.the antiviral agent thymine arabinoside (9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl thymine, ara-t) was applied topically and by anodal (+) iontophoresis in a nacl solution to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) skin infections in hairless mice. the chemotherapeutic efficacy of ara-t was evaluated employing the parameters of mean lesion score, number of mice with signs of neurological involvement (paralysis), mortality and mean survival time. anodal (+) iontophoresis of 0 ...19846717166
herpes type 2 infection with unusual generalised manifestations and delayed diagnosis in an adult male.a case of severe generalised herpes simplex type 2 infection is described in an adult male who had known exposure to herpes. the patient first complained of headache, fever and neurological symptoms, and three to six days later of conjunctivitis, severe pharyngitis, arthralgia and vesicular lesions about the body. during the first 14 days of illness, including three in hospital, the patient was diagnosed as having infection with varicella virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, or hand-foot-and-mouth ...19836875292
new treatment for herpes simplex virus type 2 [ultrasound and zinc, urea and tannic acid ointment]. part ii: female patients.clinical treatment of 147 female patients suffering with genital herpes simplex virus were conducted in two phases. the purpose of phase i was to note the efficacy of treatment with ultrasound and herpigon ointment (zinc, urea, and tannic acid) in relieving pain and shortening the length of time involved in healing. results indicated that the combined treatment significantly reduced pain and length of healing period. phase ii involved a 2-year follow-up of patients with primary and recurrent inf ...19806931874
herpes simplex virus type 2 and human cervical cancer: relationship between cellular and immune assays for the detection of previous infection.women with invasive carcinoma of the cervix were examined for evidence of previous infection with herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 (hsv-2) by three assays: assay 1 measured the ratio of lymphocyte blastogenesis to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 antigens; assay 2 measured the ratio of antibody titer to surface antigens of hsv-1-infected and hsv-2-infected cells; assay 3 measured the titer of type-specific antibody to hsv-1 and hsv-2, including the percentage of hsv-2 type-specific ...19816941038
epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the scandinavian the scandinavian countries, laws require reporting of the traditional venereal diseases, i.e., gonorrhea, syphilis, lymphogranuloma venereum (lgv), and ulcus molle, or chancroid. incidence figures for these diseases, therefore, are fairly reliable. in the scandinavian countries, lgv and chancroid are rare diseases, and the syphilis incidence has remained low. these three diseases are typically male afflictions. gonorrhea outnumbers the other diseases mentioned and at present has a nearly 1:1 ...19826958011
topical therapeutic efficacy of 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine and 5-iodo-5'-amino-2',5'-dideoxyuridine on oral infection with herpes simplex virus in mice.the therapeutic efficacy of two new antiviral agents, 5-iodo-5'-amino-2', 5'-dideoxyuridine (aidurd) and 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine (acv), in the model of mouse lip inoculated with herpes simplex virus type 2 is reported. the effects on development of clinical lesions, viral replication in the inoculated lips, and establishment of latent viral infection in the trigeminal ganglia were observed. the earlier the treatment with aidurd and acv was initiated after inoculation, the better was the ...19806966305
ultrastructural changes during herpes simplex virus type 2 latency and reactivation in in vitro latency system using herpes simplex virus type 2(hsv2)-infected human embryonic lung cells treated with cytosine arabinoside (ara-c) and incubated at 39.5 degrees after drug removal was used to examine the ultrastructure of the infected cells during (i) ara-c treatment, (ii) the latent period after ara-c removal and temperature elevation, and (iii) reactivation after superinfection with human cytomegalovirus. in the presence of ara-c 'empty', nonenveloped, herpesvirus-like particles ...19846698759
congenital herpes simplex virus, type 2, bilateral endophthalmitis.a set of dizygotic twins, both born prematurely, developed herpes simplex encephalitis shortly after birth. the second twin had unilateral keratoconjunctivitis and bilateral endophthalmitis and subsequently died from disseminated herpes infection. herpes simplex, type 2, was isolated from conjunctiva of both eyes, cerebrospinal fluid, nasopharynx and trachea. histologic examination of the eyes revealed bilateral endophthalmitis with a necrotizing retinitis. intranuclear inclusion bodies were dem ...19826985228
viruses and gynecologic cancers: herpesvirus protein (icp 10/ag-4), a cervical tumor antigen that fulfills the criteria for a marker of carcinogenicity.the studies associating infections by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) with carcinoma of the human uterine cervix are reviewed within the context of three possible interpretations. extensive seroepidemiologic evidence indicates that the virus does not grow preferentially in neoplastic tissue, nor is the association of hsv-2 with cervical carcinoma a reflection of their independent relationship to promiscuity. while a number of infectious agents, including other viruses, are associated with ce ...19817023662
immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2. iv. impaired lymphokine production during recrudescence correlates with an imbalance in t lymphocyte subsets.cell-mediated immunity (cmi) to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was studied in patients with recurrent disease. peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) obtained during recrudescence (0 to 3 days post-onset of lesion), convalescence (4 to 14 days), and quiescence (greater than 14 days), which were cultured in vitro in the presence of uv-inactivated hsv-2 (g) antigen, demonstrated similar, virus-specific lymphoproliferative responses. however, the production of the lymphokine, leukocyte migration-i ...19827045224
spinal cord and optic nerve demyelination in experimental herpes simplex virus type 2 produce a model of central nervous system (cns) demyelination, three strains of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) were injected intracerebrally into swiss-webster outbred mice. animals developed pupillary abnormalities and leg weakness and, by light and electron microscopy, had focal lesions of primary demyelination in optic nerves and spinal cords. oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in these lesions contained herpesvirus. both mouse age and virus dose were important determinants of the rate a ...19827077361
optimal treatment of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in mice with oral acyclovir.the effect of oral or intraperitoneal administration of acyclovir was evaluated in four experimental models of herpes simplex virus (hsv) encephalitis in mice. mice were inoculated with hsv-1 or hsv-2 intracerebrally or with hsv-2 intranasally, intraperitoneally, or intravaginally. with all four routes of inoculation, oral acyclovir therapy significantly reduced mortality when started as late as 72 to 96 hours after viral challenge. intraperitoneal acyclovir was not effective in protecting mice ...19827102699
viruses and human cancer.the cause of human cancer is probably multifactorial and the role of viruses is unclear. the study of retroviruses has led to the identification of oncogenes responsible for transformation and tumor induction. human viruses associated with malignancies include the jc virus (associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy) and some adenoviruses. no human malignancies have been associated with the latter group. a number of herpes viruses of lower animals have been associated with malign ...19836870184
modulation by cyclosporin a of murine natural resistance against herpes simplex virus infection. i. interference with the susceptibility to herpes simplex virus balb/c mice which are medium-high resistant against intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) manifested a drastic increase in susceptibility to the virus when treated locally with cyclosporin a (cya) during infection. oral application of the drug had no effect on the natural resistance status. mice appeared normal 2 weeks after cya treatment with regard to their ability to resist i.p. infections. cya did not interfere with established specific immune protec ...19826980627
[possibilities and limits of chemotherapy of diseases caused by herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus].the available antiviral chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of herpes simplex type 1 and 2 and varicella zoster virus infections are discussed in respect of their mechanism of action, clinical effects, and side effects. although effective under experimental conditions most of the antiherpetic drugs need further evaluation of clinical efficacy in controlled trials. it is possible to reduce initial herpetic pain mainly in patients with zoster by topical application of 5% 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridi ...19836841073
aseptic meningitis and herpes simplex proctitis. a case report.a male homosexual patient developed an aseptic meningitis during the course of acute ano-proctitis due to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). aseptic meningitis (sometimes proved to be due to hsv-2) has been associated with genital but not with anal herpes. this sexually transmissible virus should be considered when patients with aseptic meningitis are investigated.19827198922
epidural analgesia in the presence of herpes simplex virus (type 2) infection. 19827201280
relationship of antibody to outcome in neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.neutralizing antibody titers to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 were measured at birth in normal infants and uninfected infants of mothers with genital hsv infections during pregnancy and at the onset of infection in 5 infants with mild infections and 11 infants with severe infections. thirty-eight percent of premature and 29% of term infants had neutralization titers of <1:5. high titers ([unk]1:40) were found in 55% of infants of mothers with primary infections during pregnancy a ...19807216423
estimation of type-specific neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 in uterine cervical cancer patients by a new absorption method.a simple method of estimating type-specific neutralizing antibody to type 2 herpes simplex virus (hsv-2) was devised with the use of the microneutralization system. serially diluted serum was mixed in the well with a constant amount of type 1 virus (hsv-1), and after 3 days' incubation at 37 c, the plate was irradiated with ultraviolet light. the absorbing hsv-1 consisted of culture fluid plus an extract of infected vero cells not especially concentrated. the well then received indicator hsv-1 o ...19807219207
effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 and friend erythroleukemia virus infection of ige antibody responses to ascaris antigen in mice.the ige response to ascaris antigen, as measured by passive cutaneous anaphylactic reactions, was suppressed in mice infected with either herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) or friend leukemia virus (fv). fv was not suppressive unless infection preceded immunization whereas hsv-2 infection was immunosuppressive before or after immunization. however, the suppression by hsv-2 was relatively short-lived.19817228435
[studies on the placental damage and iugr caused by intravaginally inoculated herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) during pregnancy (author's transl)].it has been recognized that intrauterine growth retardation (iugr) could be caused by viral infection during pregnancy. we have experimentally attempted the intravaginal inoculation of hsv-2 (uw-268) 1.2-2.0 x 10(6) plaque forming unit in the pregnant rat. hsv-2 inoculated at 8th and 11th day of gestation, the virus invaded in the basal layer of placenta after 15th day of gestation, but no evidence of intrauterine infection on fetus was identified. the invading route of the virus was investigate ...19817234355
antiviral activity of win 41258-3, a pyrazole compound, against herpes simplex virus in mouse genital infection and in guinea pig skin 41258-3 (4-[6-(2-chloro-4-methoxyphenoxy)hexyl]-3,5-diethyl-1h-pyrazole methane sulfonate) has in vitro and in vivo activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. in cell culture, a concentration of 2 microgram/ml produced a greater than 50% inhibition of plaque formation of herpes simplex virus type 2, and 3 microgram/ml produced a 100% reduction of herpes simplex virus type 1. win 41258-3 was effective against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in mouse genital infection after intrav ...19817247370
herpesvirus type 2 in adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a possible association.sera from 16 jewish patients with histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix (auc) and 32 control subjects matched by age and ethnic origin were examined for herpesvirus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) neutralizing antibodies. titers were determined by means of the quantitative plaque reduction neutralization test on vero cell monolayers, using hsv-1 strain vr3 and hsv-2 strain. significantly increased levels of antibodies against both virus strains were found in the auc pat ...19817284955
in-vivo modulation of macrophage functions by herpes simplex virus type 2 in resistant and sensitive inbred mouse strains.intra-peritoneal (i.p.) infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2) attracted macrophages into the peritoneum. macrophages from moderately and highly hsv 2 resistant mouse strains expressed elevated phagocytosis activity 24 hours after injection. stimulation of phagocytosis in low resistant strains was generally less effective or absent. this was, in some experiments, due to the fact that macrophages were already highly activated before the experimental infection. i.p. infection a ...19817319542
analysis of the inhibitory effect of peritoneal macrophages on the spread of herpes simplex virus.peritoneal macrophages obtained from mice after an intraperitoneal injection of tryptose peptone inhibited the development of herpes simplex virus type 2 plaques in syngeneic mouse embryonic fibroblasts. in contrast, peritoneal macrophages, spleen cells, and thymocytes from untreated mice showed only a minimal inhibitory effect on the development of viral plaques. the effect was age dependent. macrophages from 2 and 3-week-old mice showed weaker functions, requiring a larger number of cells for ...19807399667
bilateral necrotizing retinitis complicating fatal encephalitis probably due to herpes simplex virus type 2.the clinical history, autopsy findings and ocular pathology of a case of localized neonatal herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 infection is reported in which the main brunt of the infection fell on the cerebral hemispheres and the peripheral retina. hsv type 2 was isolated from skin vesicles which developed on the trunk and arms and in the mouth 10 days after birth. there was no visceral involvement. although the infant was probably infected at some time during birth, hsv could not be isolated fr ...19807454228
herpes simplex type 2 virus encephalitis presenting as psychosis.the current literature recognizes two antigenic types of herpes simplex virus, type 1 and 2. type 1 is the most common cause of sporadic necrotizing encephalitis in the united states, with a mortality rate of 30 to 70 percent, and leaves various neurologic sequelae in the survivors. herpes simplex virus type 2 had been recognized as an etiologic agent in fatal infections in neonates and a mild meningitis in adults, but its role in encephalitis in adults is less well known. we report a case of he ...19827124772
role of the virion host shutoff (vhs) of herpes simplex virus type 1 in latency and pathogenesis.the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) ul41 gene product, virion host shutoff (vhs), has homologs among five alphaherpesviruses (hsv-1, hsv-2, pseudorabies virus, varicella-zoster virus, and equine herpesvirus 1), suggesting a role for this protein in neurotropism. a mutant virus, termed ul41nhb, which carries a nonsense linker in the ul41 open reading frame at amino acid position 238 was generated. ul41nhb and a marker-rescued virus, ul41nhb-r, were characterized in vitro and tested for their ...19957474089
herpes simplex virus-2 may increase susceptibility of the sexual transmission of hepatitis c.antibodies against herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2, cytomegalovirus, and syphilis were determined in six heterosexual couples with strong indications of having sexually transmitted hepatitis c virus infection and in 17 other heterosexual couples in which one partner was hepatitis c virus viremic (source partner), but the other had remained hepatitis c virus uninfected (exposed partner).19957482102
increased genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 in hiv-seropositive compare the prevalence of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) shedding in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-seropositive women and hiv-seronegative women.19957486467
mode of action of (r)-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine against herpesviruses.the activity, metabolism, and mode of action of (r)-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine (h2g) against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv) were studied. compared to acyclovir (acv), h2g has superior activity against vzv (50% inhibitory concentration of 2.3 microm) and epstein-barr virus (50% inhibitory concentration of 0.9 microm), comparable activity against hsv-1, and weaker activity against hsv-2. the antiviral effect on hsv-1 showed ...19957486922
suppression of infectious virus spread to the liver by foscarnet following lethal infection of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice.patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids) occasionally develop hepatitis, pneumonia or esophagitis due to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection. hsv hepatitis is a rare but serious complication in liver transplantation. acyclovir-resistant hsv strains may emerge in immunocompromised patients. following intraperitoneal inoculation, hsv-2 induces necrotizing hepatitis in mice. we studied the virus spread and mortality following intraperitoneal inoculation of hsv-2 rk (an ...19957486949
the us3 protein kinase of herpes simplex virus type 2 is associated with phosphorylation of the ul12 alkaline nuclease in vitro.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) gene us3 encodes a serine-threonine protein kinase. we previously described the isolation of a us3-inactivated mutant which is able to replicate in vero cells but not in murine macrophages. to learn more about the biological role of the us3 protein kinase, we have sought to identify the target proteins of the enzyme. studies of in vitro phosphorylation with extracts of infected cells demonstrate that the us3 protein kinase is involved in phosphorylation of the ...19957487495
immunization with recombinant varicella-zoster virus expressing herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein d reduces the severity of genital herpes in guinea pigs.varicella-zoster virus (vzv) is an attractive candidate for a live-virus vector for the delivery of foreign antigens. the oka vaccine strain of vzv is safe and effective in humans, and recombinant oka vzv (roka) can be generated by transfecting cells with a set of overlapping cosmid dnas. by this method, the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein d (gd2) gene was inserted into an intergenic site in the unique short region of the oka vzv genome. expression of gd2 in cells infected with ...19957494331
roles of different t-cell subsets in control of herpes simplex virus infection determined by using t-cell-deficient mouse-models.herpes simplex virus infection of the scarified dermis results in infection of the nervous system and, subsequently, a cutaneous lesion in the innervated dermatome. we compared the pathogenesis of such zosteriform lesions in mice lacking or severely depleted of cd4+ or cd8+ t cells because of targeted gene disruption. mice without cd4+ cells showed markedly increased susceptibility, whereas beta 2 microglobulin knockout mice lacking cd8+ t cells were as resistant to challenge as were immunocompe ...19957494346
antiviral activity of trichothecene mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-x, and nivalenol) against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.the effect of trichothecene mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (don), fusarenon-x (fx) and nivalenol (niv), on plaque formation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) in hep-2 cells was examined. the 50% effective concentrations (ec50) of don, fx, and niv for hsv-1 plaque formation were 160, 56, and 120 ng/ml, respectively. those for hsv-2 plaque formation were 94, 26, and 50 ng/ml, respectively. these three mycotoxins showed about 2-fold higher selectivity to hsv-2 than to hsv-1. plaqu ...19957494505
lethal encephalitis and non-lethal multifocal central nervous system demyelination in herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in mice.six-week-old swiss-webster mice were infected intracerebrally with a low dose of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and were studied by pathological, virological and immunological methods. one third of mice developed severe neurological disease and died during the first 31/2 weeks of infection, while the remaining two thirds survived this acute stage with relatively minor neurological signs. these survivors had multifocal demyelinative white-matter lesions in the cns, and gray-matter lesions, i ...19827150512
virus-specific antibodies in sera from patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection.virus-specific antibodies against a number of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assays in sequential serum samples obtained from 12 patients with initial genital herpes simplex virus infection. the progressive appearance of antibodies to virus-specific antigens was observed; antibodies against a 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein complex appeared first, followed by antibodies against the major nucleocapsid polypeptide and then antibodies against ...19827118244
suppression of subclinical shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 with assess the effect of the antiviral drug acyclovir on the frequency of subclinical shedding of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in the genital tract.19967503497
immunogenicity in mice of tandem repeats of an epitope from herpes simplex gd protein when expressed by recombinant adenovirus vectors.the antigenic and immunogenic potential was examined of human adenovirus type 5 (ad) recombinants carrying and expressing from one to four tandem repeats of a linear neutralizing epitope from the gd protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) as a fusion with the beta-galactosidase protein. the fusion proteins produced by these ad vectors in infected cell culture reacted with a herpes simplex virus (hsv) epitope-specific monoclonal antibody to a degree dependent on the number of epitope repea ...19937504857
detection of immunoglobulin m antibodies to glycoprotein g-2 by western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of initial herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections.western blots (immunoblots) for the detection of immunoglobulin m (igm) antibodies specific for herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 in patients' sera were developed. the locations of the type-specific glycoprotein g (gpg-2) of hsv-2 (92- and 140-kda forms) and glycoprotein c of hsv-1 (gpc-1), which carries mostly type-specific antigenic epitopes, were checked with specific monoclonal antibodies. western blot assays for igm antibody to gpc-1 or gpg-2 were performed after depletion of ig ...19937508453
identification of functional regions of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gd by using linker-insertion mutagenesis.glycoprotein gd is a component of the herpes simplex virus (hsv) envelope essential for virus entry into susceptible cells. previous studies using deletion and point mutations identified a functional domain of hsv-1 gd (gd-1) from residues 231 to 244. however, many of the deletion mutations had global effects on gd-1 structure, thus precluding assessment of the functional role of large portions of the protein. in this study, we constructed a large panel of linker-insertion mutants in the genes f ...19947511173
antigenic specificities of human cd4+ t-cell clones recovered from recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 lesions.lesions resulting from recurrent genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection are characterized by infiltration of cd4+ lymphocytes. we have investigated the antigenic specificity of 47 hsv-specific cd4+ t-cell clones recovered from the hsv-2 buttock and thigh lesions of five patients. clones with proliferative responses to recombinant truncated glycoprotein b (gb) or gd of hsv-2 or purified natural gc of hsv-2 comprised a minority of the total number of hsv-specific clones isolated from lesions ...19947512152
improved methods for determination of rotational symmetries in macromolecules.rotational symmetries of macromolecules are most clearly perceived in the en face projection and may be assessed by inspection of rotational power spectra calculated from electron micrographs of individual particles. however, if the symmetry is not contrasted strongly, this procedure may be inconclusive since the relevant peak may not be convincingly higher than other spectral components. to some extent, this is a sampling problem since the number of repeating elements involved is usually small. ...19957502382
bleomycin differentially inhibits picornavirus, herpesvirus and poxvirus replication in a human carcinoma cell, a cervix carcinoma cell line, was exposed to bleomycin at concentrations up to 200 microm for periods of 1 to 24 hours. bleomycin treatment caused the level of dna synthesis in uninfected cells to drop to 13% of the level achieved in the controls. protein synthesis fell to 50%, but rna synthesis was not affected. exposure of uninfected cells to 200 microm bleomycin for 24 h did not induce significant cell death measured as permeability to trypan blue). a tetrazolium dye-reduction assay, ...19937514894
[the determination of the antigenic activity of recombinant virus-specific polypeptides from the herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and their use in immunoenzyme analysis].the structural and nonstructural recombinant proteins of hsv type 1 and type 2 were expressed in e. coli by fusion with cro-beta-galactosidase proteins. these proteins containing amino acid sequences of icp4, icp27, icp47, icp22, major capsid protein and major dna-binding proteins of hsv types 1 and 2 reacted in immunoblotting with the corresponding anti-hsv sera from hyperimmune rabbits. the nonstructural recombinant proteins can be used for enzyme immunoassay detection of hsv1 or hsv2 type-spe ...19947517084
mucosal immunization with a recombinant adenovirus vector induces local and systemic immunity and protection from herpes simplex virus. 19957502860
polymorphism within the herpes simplex virus (hsv) ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (icp6) confers type specificity for recognition by hsv type 1-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes.a panel of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)-specific, cd8+, major histocompatibility complex class i (h-2kb)-restricted cytotoxic t-lymphocyte (ctl) clones was derived from hsv-1-immunized c57bl/6 (h-2b) mice in order to identify the hsv-1 ctl recognition epitope(s) which confers type specificity. hsv-1 x hsv-2 intertypic recombinants were used to narrow the region encoding potential ctl recognition epitopes to within 0.51 to 0.58 map units of the hsv-1 genome. using an inhibitor of viral dna ...19957529328
design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship of novel dinucleotide analogs as agents against herpes and human immunodeficiency viruses.a new acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (13) containing an adenine moiety was synthesized, which acted as an excellent inhibitor of calf mucosal adenosine deaminase. this inhibitory property allows it to exert great synergistic effect on certain antiviral agents (e.g., ara-a, 37). phosphonate 13 was not phosphorylated by the bovine brain guanylate kinase nor by 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate synthetase. syntheses of biologically active nucleotide phosphonate 40 and its phosphonoamidate derivative ...19957473592
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