herpesvirus.herpesvirus (hsv) infection of the genital tract is a sexually transmitted disease that is increasing at an epidemic rate. 2 types of virus, type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) have been identified, of which hsv-2 is the major cause of genital and neonatal infection. type 2 herpes infections may be the 2nd most common venereal disease in the us. more than 60% of the adult us population has antibodies to hsv, and socioeconomic factors have been found to influence the incidence of hsv infection. ...19836301717
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection and typing of herpes simplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for herpes simplex virus was tested using commercially available peroxidase-conjugated and unconjugated rabbit antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (dako immunoglobulins a/s, copenhagen, denmark). one hundred and thirty-seven clinical specimens from vesicles and superficial cutaneous lesions were tested and the results compared with virus isolation. in addition 210 herpes simplex virus isolates were typed. forty-four specimens yielded herpes s ...19836301810
herpes simplex virus non-structural proteins. iii. function of the major dna-binding protein.the herpes simplex virus type 2 major dna-binding protein has been functionally characterized using temperature-sensitive mutants in the complementation group 2-2. the mutants were shown to be defective in the dna-binding protein gene by mapping the mutants to the area of the genome known to code for the protein, and by demonstrating alterations in the major dna-binding protein induced in mutant-infected cells. the mutants were shown to be defective in the replication of virus dna. the nature of ...19836302216
9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine: a new potent and selective antiherpes agent.the synthesis of a new acyclic analogue of deoxyguanosine, 9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine (dhpg, 1), is described starting from epichlorohydrin via condensation of 2-o-(acetoxymethyl)-1,3-di-o-benzylglycerol (5) with n2,9-diacetylguanine (6). in vitro studies indicate that dhpg is a potent and broad-acting (herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, and epstein-barr virus) antiherpetic agent. in vivo studies indicate its lack of toxicity [ld50 (mice) = 1-2 g/kg, ip] and its ...19836302255
unique spectrum of activity of 9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]-guanine against herpesviruses in vitro and its mode of action against herpes simplex virus type 1.a guanosine analog, 9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine (dhpg), was found to inhibit herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), herpes simplex virus type 2, cytomegalovirus, and epstein-barr virus replication by greater than 50% at concentrations that do not inhibit cell growth in culture. the potency of the drug against all of these viruses is greater than that of 9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine (acyclovir). dhpg was active against hsv-1 growth during the early phase of virus replication an ...19836302704
[level of cyclic nucleotides (camp and cgmp), atpase activity and calcium ion transport in hamster lymphocytes during tumor growth].the biochemical systems of lymphocytes of the peripheral blood and lymph nodes of hamsters with a herpes simplex (type 2) virus--induced transplantable tumor rapp hsv2 were studied. the camp concentration in tumor-bearing hamsters was 1.5-2 times higher, while cgmp level--2.2 times lower than in control. this was matched by a rise in the level of transport atpases in the lymphocytes of experimental animals. concanavalin a had practically no effect on the uptake of ca2+ by lymphocytes of tumor-be ...19836301159
replication of non-respiratory viruses in tracheal organ cultures.employing hoorn's technique, tracheal explant cultures were set from adult hamsters, rabbits and human foetuses. to determine the susceptibility of these cultures they were infected with nine different mainly non-respiratory viruses. assay of virus was carried out in susceptible cell lines. the results of these studies indicated that herpes simplex type i (hsv-1) and vaccinia viruses multiplied in these cultures and caused ciliostasis. herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) although multiplying in all, p ...19836301520
correlation between low natural killing of fibroblasts infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 and susceptibility to herpesvirus infections.natural killer cells capable of lysing herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)-infected fibroblasts were studied in three groups of patients unusually susceptible to severe herpes-virus infections. cord blood was evaluated because of the known susceptibility of neonates to disseminated infections due to herpes simplex virus type 2 at birth. only 30% of the cord blood specimens tested demonstrated normal lysis of hsv-1-infected fibroblasts and a normal increment in the lysis of infected over uninfect ...19836304202
herpes simplex virus-induced ribonucleotide reductase: development of antibodies specific for the enzyme.we have previously reported on the characterization of a novel ribonucleotide reductase induced in herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected mammalian cells. the virus-induced enzyme was partially purified, free of the constitutive cell isozyme, by fractionation of infected cell extracts with ammonium sulphate. in this report we describe a further purification of the virus-induced enzyme and the development of a rabbit antiserum capable of specifically inhibiting its activity. enzymically act ...19836304235
nucleotide sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 2 thymidine kinase gene.we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 strain 333. the sequence of the thymidine kinase gene exhibits an open translational reading frame of 1,128 nucleotides encoding a protein of 376 amino acids. the dna sequence was compared with that of the hsv type 1 thymidine kinase gene from strain mp (s. l. mcknight, nucleic acids res. 8:5949-5964, 1980) and from strain cl 101 (m. j. wagner, j. a. sharp, and w. c. summers, pro ...19836304336
neoplastic transformation by a cloned human cytomegalovirus dna fragment uniquely homologous to one of the transforming regions of herpes simplex virus type 2.specific dna fragments of human cytomegalovirus strain towne exhibited sequence homology to the transforming regions of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) when examined by nitrocellulose filter hybridization under nonstringent conditions. cloned towne xba i fragments b and c were homologous to both bgl ii transforming fragments n and c of hsv-2 dna, whereas cloned towne xba i fragment e was uniquely homologous to hsv-2 bgl ii fragment c. furthermore, towne xba i fragment e exhibited homology to ...19836304741
herpes simplex virus and human cancer. iii. search for relationship of herpes simplex antibodies and cervical dysplasia and labial neoplasia.we employed the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), indirect hemagglutination (iha), and complement fixation (cf) methods to measure antibody titer to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) in patients affected by labial tumors or cervical dysplasias. no relationship of antibody titer to hsv-1 and labial tumors was detected by any of the three methods. association between antibody titer to hsv-2 and cervical dysplasias was revealed by iha (p less than 0.05) and elisa (p le ...19836304957
a novel method for determining the sensitivity of herpes simplex virus to antiviral compounds.a rapid and sensitive assay was developed to analyse the sensitivity of wild type hsv-1 and hsv-2 isolates with respect to a battery of antiviral substances. in the viral sensitivity assay, human embryonic lung fibroblasts are incubated with the virus isolate and different concentrations of the antivirals. after 1-3 days, the cells are disrupted and analysed for hsv type 1 or 2 antigens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. antigens corresponding to 17 plaque-forming units were detectable aft ...19836306030
9-([2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl)guanine: a selective inhibitor of herpes group virus replication.9-([2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl)guanine (2'-nor-2'-deoxyguanosine; 2'ndg) selectively inhibits the replication of herpes group viruses. in cell culture studies 2'ndg was at least 10-fold more potent than acyclovir (acv) in inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication and epstein-barr virus-induced lymphocyte transformation and was about as effective as acv in inhibition of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 and varicella zoster virus. orally administered 2'ndg was 6- to 50-fold more ...19836306664
viral genes modify herpes simplex virus latency both in mouse footpad and sensory ganglia.herpes simplex virus type 2 wild-type and 13 temperature-sensitive mutants have been examined for their ability to be recovered from latently infected biozzi mice. after inoculation into the rear footpad, virus could be recovered from both the dorsal root ganglia (drg) and the footpad (fp) at the site of inoculation (wt, ts 1, ts 2, ts 4, ts 6, ts 7 and ts 8), or from the drg only (ts 11 and ts 13), or from fp only (ts 3, ts 9, ts 12). two mutants (ts 5 and ts 10) have not been recovered from ei ...19836302212
incorporation of 5-substituted analogs of deoxycytidine into dna of herpes simplex virus-infected or - transformed cells without deamination to the thymidine analog.the incorporation into dna of 5-bromocytosine and 5-iodocytosine, derived from their respective administered deoxyribonucleoside analogs, has been demonstrated in studies with cells infected with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) and in cells transformed with the thymidine kinase gene of hsv-1. no significant incorporation of iodocytosine or iodouracil occurred in the dna of uninfected or nontransformed cells when the deaminating enzymes were inhibited, in accord with past stu ...19836303214
susceptibility of recent clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus to 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine: preferential inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 2.we examined the in vitro susceptibilities of three reference strains and 41 recent clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine. this thymidine analog exerts a type 2-preferential but not a type 2-specific antiviral effect. utilizing a microtiter assay with bhk-21 cells, we found that the mean (+/- standard deviation) 50% inhibitory dose for herpes simplex virus type 1 isolates was 0.58 +/- 0.30 micrograms/ml as compared with 0.33 +/- 0.20 microgram/ml for h ...19836307130
antiviral activity of the 3'-amino derivative of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine.3'-nh2-bv-durd, the 3'-amino derivative of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine, was found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv) replication. 3'-nh2-bv-durd was about 4-12 times less potent but equally selective in its anti-herpes activity as bv-durd. akin to bv-durd, 3'-nh2-bv-durd was much less inhibitory to herpes simplex virus type 2 than type 1. it was totally inactive against a thymidine kinase-deficient mutant of hsv ...19836307280
persistence of herpes simplex virus type-2 genome in a human leukemic cell study the nature of virus-cell interaction in persistently infected cells we have examined production of infectious virus, synthesis of viral dna and dna polymerase in a human leukemic cell line k562. it was found that only one of three k562 cell lines was permissive for limited growth of hsv-2 and infectious virus was released in a cyclical fashion. intranuclear inclusions with electron-dense fibrils and particles resembling viral structures were observed in the virus-infected but not contro ...19836307382
characterization of mutants of herpes simplex viruses, types 1 and 2, that produce fragments of the thymidine kinase tk- mutants of herpes simplex virus, type 2 (hsv-2), and three tk- mutants of herpes simplex virus, type 1 (hsv-1), were isolated which did not produce the thymidine kinase (tk) polypeptides but formed smaller polypeptides not seen in wild-type infected cells. positive tk mrna selection by hybridization to the cloned tk genes followed by in vitro translation identified the tk polypeptides. comparisons of the products of partial proteolysis of the polypeptides of four hsv-2 and two hsv-1 tk ...19836303540
monoclonal antibodies for rapid diagnosis and typing of genital herpes infections during pregnancy.fluorescein-conjugated, type-specific monoclonal antibodies to herpes simplex virus (hsv-1 and hsv-2) and group-specific antibody which recognizes both hsv-1 and hsv-2 were used to detect hsv-infected cells in clinical specimens. specimens were collected from 66 pregnant women with a past history of herpes genitalis or with suspected lesions. fourteen of 18 samples from which virus was isolated were positive by immunofluorescence test; four of 18 specimens had an insufficient number of cells (le ...19836307053
colonization of murine ganglia by a superinfecting strain of herpes simplex virus.we report on the colonization of murine trigeminal ganglia after sequential infection of mice by herpes simplex viruses (hsvs). in preliminary studies, we have established that whereas the hsv-1(f) strain efficiently colonizes ganglia when inoculated by either the ear or eye routes, the hsv-1 x hsv-2 recombinant c7d colonizes ganglia when inoculated by the eye route only. the experimental design consisted of inoculating the right eye with c7d on day 1 and with hsv-1(f) in both left and right eye ...19836307880
replication at body temperature selects a neurovirulent herpes simplex virus type 2.a prototype strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hg-52) replicated at 31 degrees c was avirulent when inoculated intracranially into mice. this property was not altered after serial passage of the agent at 31 degrees c, but the virus became virulent after passage at 37.5 degrees c. the selection was not merely for an agent which replicated more efficiently at the higher temperature, but for viruses with enhanced capacity to replicate in the brains of mice. virulent descendants of plaque-purifi ...19836307887
sexual and socioeconomic factors affecting the risk of past infections with herpes simplex virus type 2.between november 1978 and may 1980, a cross-sectional survey of 566 females and 391 males, aged 35 to 50 years, living in metropolitan toronto, was conducted to examine the influence of socioeconomic status and sexual behavior on the occurrence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2. antibodies to the virus were detected in 17.5% of females and 12.8% of males. lower socioeconomic status was associated with an increased risk of herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositivity for females but not ...19836307043
detection in antisera of antibodies that cross-react with herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gc.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein gc was purified by affinity chromatography with an immunosorbent column containing monoclonal antibody to hsv-1 gc, and its reactivity with rabbit antisera was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of radioimmunoprecipitates. positive reactions were detected between hsv-1 gc and rabbit hyperimmune antisera to both hsv-1 and hsv-2. electrophoretic analysis also revealed ...19836307870
phase i evaluation of 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine in immunosuppressed patients with herpesvirus infection.2'-fluoro-5-iodo-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine (fiac) is a potent selective inhibitor of the replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2), varicella zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus in cell culture systems. fiac produces an unequivocal therapeutic effect in mice that have been inoculated with a lethal burden of hsv-1. we have administered fiac to 32 host compromised patients, 30 with advanced cancer, who were experiencing acute herpesvirus infections (varicella zoster, 2 ...19836309380
location and orientation of homologous sequences in the genomes of five herpesviruses.molecular hybridization experiments were carried out to investigate homologous regions in the genomes of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2), equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), pseudorabies virus (prv) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv). virion dna probes from ehv-1, prv and vzv hybridized to similar regions of the hsv genome, and the use of cloned dna probes allowed heterologous genomes to be oriented with respect to homologous regions. the hsv-1 and hsv-2 genomes are colinear, the ehv ...19836310033
processing of glycoproteins induced by herpes simplex virus type 1: sulphation and nature of the oligosaccharide linkages.using the drug tunicamycin we have investigated the nature of the oligosaccharides on herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)-induced glycoproteins e and y (gy is a newly identified glycoprotein which has the same apparent mol. wt. as gc but a more basic isoelectric point). synthesis of both glycoproteins was inhibited by the drug, suggesting they contain n-linked oligosaccharides. our finding, combined with the previous results of other workers, suggests that all the major hsv-induced glycoproteins ...19836310034
the effect of cycloheximide on the accumulation and stability of functional alpha-mrna in cells infected with herpes simplex virus.cells were infected with herpes simplex virus type 2, hsv-2(g), and incubated in the presence of cycloheximide (cx). when cx was removed and actinomycin d (act d) added, alpha-polypeptides icp 0 and icp 4 were synthesized at low rates. if cx was removed without adding act d, the rate of production of icp 4 increased while that of icp 0 remained constant. in cells treated with azetidine to enhance the production of icp 4 and 0, accumulation of functional mrna for icp 4 (determined indirectly by t ...19836310035
localization of the coding region for a 35000 dalton polypeptide on the genome of herpes simplex virus type 2.the cloned bglii n fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna has been shown to code for a 35k polypeptide. subfragments made by cleavage with xhoi, bamhi, sstii and xorii were then cloned and used with rna extracted from hsv-2-infected cells for mrna selection and in vitro protein synthesis. we found that the major translation product of such hybrid-selected mrna has a molecular weight of 35 000. by further mapping, dna coding sequences for this mrna were located within the region of b ...19836310044
intranuclear distribution of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna synthesis: examination by light and electron microscopy.uptake of [3h]thymidine by serum-starved baby hamster kidney cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 was investigated by light microscopic and electron microscopic autoradiography. the distribution of incorporated label altered throughout the period of viral dna synthesis. it was restricted initially to a few well-defined sites within the nucleus which increased in size and spread as infection proceeded until the entire nucleus was involved. the label was not associated with any identifi ...19836310045
immortalization and neoplastic transformation of normal diploid cells by defined cloned dna fragments of herpes simplex virus type 2.diploid syrian hamster embryo (she) cells were passaged after transfection with recombinant plasmids containing herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna inserts bgl ii focus-forming fragment n, bgl ii transforming fragment c, and ecori/hindiii fragment ae. cultures transfected with salmon dna or with 0.1-5.0 micrograms of bgl ii fragment n reached crisis and senesced. those transfected with 0.1-0.5 micrograms of bgl ii fragment c or its left-hand 64% subclone ecori/hindiii fragment ae escaped sen ...19836310602
blocked herpes simplex virus type 2-specific dna synthesis in simian virus 40-transformed hamster cells permissive for herpes simplex virus type 1.simian virus 40-transformed hamster cells (ll-1) permissive to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) were shown to be relatively nonpermissive to hsv-2. when ll-1 cells were infected with hsv-2, there was a 3- to 4-log reduction in infectious viral progeny at 24 h postinfection as compared with hsv-1 under identical cultured conditions. hsv-2 could be carried in the ll-1 cell line for up to 12 passages without any appreciable cytopathology. various early functions of the replicative cycle of hsv-2 ...19836307875
hepatic infection by thymidine kinase-positive and thymidine kinase-negative herpes simplex virus after partial hepatectomy.herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection of mouse liver after partial hepatectomy was studied. partial hepatectomy resulted in the rapid onset of cellular dna synthesis and the appearance of many mitotic figures (peak, 3 days after surgery). similar changes were not seen in control animals. after partial hepatectomy, the mice were infected with thymidine kinase-positive (tk+) and -negative (tk-) hsv to investigate virus titers in liver tissue during liver cell replication. in control unoperated mice ...19836311750
determination of herpes simplex virus type-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.we determined type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using as antigens hsv-1 glycoprotein gc-1 and a hsv-2-specific polypeptide purified on affinity columns of monoclonal antibodies. all sera were initially screened for hsv antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a pool of triton x-100-extracted antigens of hsv-1- and hsv-2-infected hep-2 cells. the titer of hsv antibodies was predicted ...19836311871
herpes simplex virus non-structural proteins. iv. purification of the virus-induced deoxyribonuclease and characterization of the enzyme using monoclonal antibodies.the alkaline nucleases induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) have been purified from high salt extracts of virus-infected cells. the purification used three types of column chromatography and resulted in apparently homogeneous dnase preparations with good recovery. the enzyme from hsv-2-infected cells has been characterized. it had both exonuclease and endonuclease activity, each with an unusually high ph optimum. the enzyme had an absolute requirement for magnesium w ...19836311954
inhibition by acyclovir of herpes simplex virus type 2 morphologically transformed cell growth in tissue culture and tumor-bearing animals.rat embryo fibroblasts (ref) morphologically transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and tumor-derived cells were tested for ability to grow in the presence of 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl) guanine (acyclovir). results indicated that the effective dose of acyclovir (acv) required to inhibit hsv-2-transformed and tumor-derived cell growth by 50% (ed50) compared to mock-treated control cells averaged 15 to 75 micrograms/ml. in contrast, the ed50 of acyclovir was more than hep-2 cells. hsv-2 ...19836311971
an elisa technique to detect igg antibody to the early herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) antigen ag-4 in hsv-2 elisa system, based on urease activity was used for the detection and titration of igg to the immediate early ag-4 antigen in sera from hsv-2 patients. it detected low levels of igg to the ag-4 antigen in 32% of patients' sera known to contain complement fixing antibody to the antigen. furthermore, the sensitivity of the elisa system was 2- to 10-fold higher than the complement-fixation system depending on when the sera was taken from the hsv-2 patients. the system also allowed the easy detec ...19836308025
activity of 1-(2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)thymine against herpes simplex virus in cell cultures and rabbit eyes.a new antiviral compound 1-(2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)thymine (2'-fluoro-5-methyl-ara-uracil [fmau]), was compared with acyclovir and idoxuridine in vitro against two strains of both herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2. determinations of the 50% effective dose varied slightly with each strain and with the host cells employed. the 50% effective dose for fmau and acyclovir against hsv-1 ranged from 0.1 microm to 0.5 to 0.6 microm in rabbit kidney cells and from 0.5 micro ...19836311085
the use of monoclonal antibodies in (reverse) passive haemagglutination tests for herpes simplex virus antigens and antibodies.three monoclonal antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 2 have been tested for their suitability as reagents in reverse passive haemagglutination. two of these antibodies with specificity for virus glycoprotein d, when linked to red blood cells, were able to capture antigens without being agglutinated, but addition of immune serum subsequently led to agglutination. haemagglutination using these monoclonal antibody-linked, antigen-captured red cells was readily applicable to testing human s ...19836308140
12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate enhancement of the tumorigenic potential of herpes simplex virus type 2 transformed cells.the consequences of tumor promoter 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (tpa) interaction with clonal hsv-2-transformed nontumorigenic and weakly tumorigenic cells were studied. enhancement of anchorage-independent growth (cloning efficiency) occurred in a dose-dependent manner when transformed but not nontransformed cells were pretreated with tpa. all subclonal nontumorigenic cell lines progressed to become tumorigenic after 20 serial passages in the presence of tpa. also, subclonal, weakly tu ...19836312388
antiherpetic activity and mechanism of action of 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine.9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine was synthesized and tested for antiherpes activity. in cell cultures, different strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2(hsv-2) were inhibited by 50% at 2-14 microm of 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine, while a hsv-1 mutant lacking thymidine kinase (hsv-1 tk-) was resistant. linear competitive inhibition of purified hsv-1-induced thymidine kinase (tk) with thymidine as a variable substrate was observed for 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine with an apparent ki value of ...19836312878
role of the nuclear matrix in the growth of herpes simplex virus type 2.nuclear matrix was prepared from vero cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. in the early stage of infection, both 155k and 110k viral proteins were associated with the nuclear matrix, while in the late stage, 155k protein, presumably a viral capsid protein, was predominantly associated with the matrix. electron microscopic study showed that empty capsids were bound to the filamentous networks of the nuclear matrix of the late stage. neither viral dna nor viral dna polymerase activity ...19836312935
replication of herpes simplex virus in two cell systems derived from rhesus monkeys.the replication of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in two cell systems derived from rhesus monkeys (llc-mk2 and dbs-frhl-2) was studied. in llc-mk2, the growth of hsv-1 was abortive or extremely limited regardless of the multiplicity of infection, while that of hsv-2 was productive only on infection at high multiplicities. dbs-frhl-2 cells supported growth of both types of hsv, although growth was highly dependent on the age of monolayers and the infectious dose of virus inocula. plaques were produce ...19836312959
insertion mutants of herpes simplex virus have a duplication of the glycoprotein d gene and express two different forms of glycoprotein d.we produced insertion mutants of herpes simplex virus (hsv) that contain two functional copies of genes encoding different forms of glycoprotein d (gd). these viruses have the gene for hsv type 2 (hsv-2) gd at the normal locus and the gene for hsv-1 gd inserted into the thymidine kinase locus. results of immunoprecipitation experiments done with monoclonal antibodies revealed that both gd genes were expressed by these viruses, regardless of orientation of the inserted hsv-1 gd gene, and that max ...19836312097
high-resolution characterization of herpes simplex virus type 1 transcripts encoding alkaline exonuclease and a 50,000-dalton protein tentatively identified as a capsid protein.four partially overlapping mrnas (1.9, 2.3, 3.9, and 4.5 kilobases [kb]) were located between 0.16 and 0.19 map units on the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome. their direction of transcription was found to be from right to left. the 2.3-kb mrna was found to be early (beta), whereas the others were late (beta gamma). partial sequence analysis of the dna encoding these genes indicated that the promoter for the 2.3-kb mrna shares structural features with other early (beta) promoters. in vitro tran ...19836313961
detection of herpes simplex virus type-2 dna restriction fragments in human cervical carcinoma tissue.dna extracted from eight human cervical carcinomas, one lymph node metastasis and related control tissue was examined for the presence of herpes simplex virus (hsv) dna sequences. southern blot transfers of tumour and control dna were hybridised with radioactively labelled cloned probes representing 70% of the hsv-2 genome. specific hybridisation to hsv dna sequences was observed in one of eight carcinoma tissues analysed. hybridisation of hsv-2 dna probes to bamhi and xhoi restriction enzyme fr ...19836313349
[mechanism of the cellular transformation of newborn hamsters inoculated with herpes simplex type 2 virus].combined virological, antigenic, electron microscopic, and molecular biologic study of the role of an oncovirus, herpes simplex type 2 virus (hsv-2), in the mechanisms of transformation of hsv-2-infected hamster cells was carried out. no expression of genetic information of the oncovirus could be detected. cell transformation was shown to be associated with persistence and realization of hsv-2 genetic information in the transformed cells.19836314675
antiviral effects of hygromycin b, a translation inhibitor nonpermeant to uninfected cells.hygromycin b, a preferential translation inhibitor in virus-infected cells, has been tested for its antiviral effects against herpes simplex virus type 2 and poliovirus. the activity has been compared with other antiviral agents such as vidarabine and iododeoxyuridine.19836314888
dna sequence homology between two co-linear loci on the hsv genome which have different transforming abilities.a transcription unit at the herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 transforming region, mtr-2 (map coordinates 0.580-0.625), comprises two early, unspliced mrnas of 4.5 kb and 1.2 kb which are 3' co-terminal; a region including that specifying the 1.2-kb mrna has been sequenced. the putative translated portions of these two mrnas do not overlap and this feature, together with the arrangement of the mrnas, is similar to the apparently equivalent co-linear hsv-1 locus which however does not transform. ...19836315408
in vitro malignant transformation of hamster retina by herpes simplex virus.hamster retina was infected in vitro with irradiated herpes simplex virus type 2. cells underwent malignant transformation, and when injected subcutaneously into nude mice and hamsters, produced transferable tumors. transformed cells were found to have hsv antigen as determined by indirect fluorescent staining. in addition, the undifferentiated transformed retinal cells possess neurosecretory granules and retinoic acid receptors and produce growth factor, features similar to those found in spont ...19836315628
neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in king county, washington. increasing incidence and epidemiologic correlates.the incidence of neonatal herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection in king county, washington, has increased progressively from a rate of 2.6 per 100,000 live births to king county residents during the years 1966 through 1969 to 4.8, 7.4, and 11.9 cases per 100,000 live births for the years 1970 through 1973, 1974 through 1977, and 1978 through 1981, respectively. detailed interviews of the parents of newborns with neonatal hsv-2 infection revealed clinically symptomatic genital herpes in the mother ...19836315977
survival of herpes simplex virus in water specimens collected from hot tubs in spa facilities and on plastic surfaces.several health spas were closed temporarily because of possible nonvenereal spread of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in spa water at these facilities. we collected water specimens from two health spas and studied them for (1) the presence of hsv; (2) bromine (br2), chlorine (cl2), and ph levels; and (3) the ability of hsv to survive in water. no hsv could be isolated from the spa water specimens. spa water had high levels of cl2 and br2, tap water specimens had low levels of cl2, and distilled water ...19836315978
effect of prior immunization on induction of cervial cancer in mice by herpes simplex virus type 2.previous studies at this laboratory showed that repeated application of inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 to the mouse cevix produced premalignant and malignant lesions. in the present study mice were inoculated with inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 or control solution and freund's adjuvant by intraperitoneal and subcuaneous routes before exposure of the cervix to inactivated virus. it appears that immunization with inactivated virus conferred a protection against the induction of c ...19836316503
identification of dna polymerase(s) involved in the repair of viral and cellular dna in herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cells.when human embryonic fibroblasts (hef) were infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), replicative viral dna synthesis and some repair synthesis of cellular dna were induced at the early stage of infection, but almost all dna synthesis at the late stage of infection was derived from repair synthesis of cellular and viral dna (y. nishiyama and f. rapp, virology 110, 466-475, 1981). in this study, we have assessed the effects of dna polymerase inhibitors on repair dna synthesis hsv-2-infec ...19836312689
interferon susceptibility of herpes simplex virus strains isolated from patients enrolled in clinical trials.herpes simplex virus type 1 strains isolated from patients who had received interferon in a clinical trial were not more resistant to human leukocyte interferon than strains derived from recipients of a placebo. the susceptibility of herpes simplex virus type 2 strains isolated from herpes genitalis was slightly less than that of herpes simplex virus type 1 strains causing herpes genitalis.19836312872
serotyping of herpes simplex virus isolates: a comparison of bvdu sensitivities, indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies, and indirect immunofluorescence with cross-adsorbed rabbit antibodies.four methods for typing of herpes simplex virus (hsv) isolates were compared for 43 recent clinical isolates and 3 reference strains of hsv. these isolates were subjected to indirect immunofluorescence using both monoclonal antibodies and cross-adsorbed rabbit antisera. sensitivity to e-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) was also examined. all isolates which fluoresced with hsv-1 monoclonals were found to be sensitive to bvdu with id50's ranging from 0.001 to 0.006 micrograms/ml. all isolat ...19836317706
biotin-avidin-amplified enzyme immunoassay for detection of herpes simplex virus antigen in clinical specimens.a biotin-avidin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (b-a elisa) has been developed to detect herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 antigens in clinical specimens. the test was designed as a solid-phase, double-antibody, sandwich assay in which plates were coated with a polyclonal rabbit immunoglobulin g anti-hsv reagent, and the sandwich antibody was a biotin-labeled mouse immunoglobulin m monoclonal antibody that reacts with a common antigen associated with hsv-1 and hsv-2. the ...19836317711
amino-terminal sequence of glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.glycoprotein d (gd) of herpes simplex virus is a structural component of the virion envelope which stimulates production of high titers of herpes simplex virus type-common neutralizing antibody. we carried out automated n-terminal amino acid sequencing studies on radiolabeled preparations of gd-1 (gd of herpes simplex virus type 1) and gd-2 (gd of herpes simplex virus type 2). although some differences were noted, particularly in the methionine and alanine profiles for gd-1 and gd-2, the amino a ...19846317892
herpesvirus rna in human urogenital situ hybridization was used to examine human urogenital cancers for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and human cytomegalovirus rnas. neither of these herpes rnas was found in prostate tissues. however, hsv-2 rna was detected in premalignant and malignant cervical tissues.19836314345
antiherpes activity of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)- and 5-vinyl-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyluracil and some other 5-substituted uracil arabinosyl nucleosides in two different cell lines.of a series of 5-substituted 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyluracil (5-x-arau) analogues, (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-arau(brvarau) and 5-vinyl-arau (varau) were the most potent inhibitors of plaque formation by two herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strains in human embryonic lung fibroblast (helf) cell cultures. they were not only more active than 5-methyl-arau (marau, arat) and 5-ethyl-arau (earau), but even more than 1000 times more potent than the 5-fluoro, 5-iodo, 5-formyl and 5-trifluoromethyl (farau, ...19836316849
[scanning microscopy of hamster cells transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2].scanning microscopy was used to examine the features of morphology and attachment to a solid substrate of a transformed and tumor lines of hamster cells. these cell lines differed from normal hamster fibroblasts by changes in the mode of attachment and the degree of flattening on the solid substrate, relief of the cell surface and pattern of intercellular interactions. the observed morphological changes correlated with the degree of cell transformation.19836318450
nucleotide sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) thymidine kinase gene and predicted amino acid sequence of thymidine kinase polypeptide and its comparison with the hsv-1 thymidine kinase analyze the boundaries of the functional coding region of the hsv-2(333) thymidine kinase gene (tk gene), deletion mutants of hybrid plasmid pmar401 h2g, which contains the 17.5 kbp bglii-g fragment of hsv-2 dna, were prepared and tested for capacity to transform lm(tk-) cells to the thymidine kinase-positive phenotype. these studies showed that hybrid plasmids containing 2.2-2.4 kbp subfragments of hsv-2 bglii-g dna transformed lm(tk-) cells to the thymidine kinase-positive phenotype and sug ...19836317035
poly(adp-ribosyl)ation of a herpes simplex virus immediate early polypeptide.this paper reports in vitro poly(adp-ribosyl)ation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) immediate early polypeptide vmw175. the phenomenon was most clearly observed by use of the temperature-sensitive mutant tsk, which overproduces vmw175 at the nonpermissive temperature (npt) and has a mutation in the coding sequences for this polypeptide. nuclei prepared from cells which were infected with tsk at npt and subsequently downshifted to the permissive temperature incorporated [32p]nad into vm ...19836318441
class-specific antibody responses to early and late antigens of varicella and herpes simplex viruses.antibody responses to early antigens of varicella-zoster virus (vzv), simian varicella virus, and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) were studied in primary, secondary, and latent infections. igg antibody responses to the early antigens occurred in primary and secondary vzv and hsv infections, and antibodies to early antigens were also demonstrable in healthy individuals with latent vzv and hsv infections, indicating that the presence of antibodies to early antigens cannot be t ...19846319583
incidence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in penile lesions of college men.herpes simplex virus (hsv) was isolated from penile lesions of 15 college men. using (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine sensitivity, monoclonal antibody immunofluorescence, and restriction endonuclease ecori digestion of viral dna, 4 of 15 (26%) isolates were found to be hsv-1, and 11 of 15 (74%) isolates were found to be hsv-2. it is likely that some of the genital hsv-1 infections are related to oral genital contact, but this fact could not be established for all cases, since the females in ...19846319589
hsv 2-associated antigens in human cervical tissues before and after grafting in nude mice.biopsy material from human invasive cervical carcinoma, carcinoma in situ (cis) and normal uterine cervix was transplanted into nude mice, some of which were then injected with estrogen or progesterone during a follow-up of 1-4 weeks. the cervical cells were analysed prior to and after passage in nude mice by the anticomplement immunofluorescence (acif) assay for the presence of herpes virus associated antigens. such antigens were found in a few cells in three out of seven transplanted cervical ...19836320579
acyclovir treatment of experimental genital herpes simplex virus infections. i. topical therapy of type 2 and type 1 infections of mice.intravaginal inoculation of mice with herpes simplex virus (hsv) provides a model infection of genital herpes to determine the effectiveness of potential antiviral agents. topical (intravaginal) treatment with 1% or 5% acyclovir (acv) in an ointment of gel vehicle initiated 3, 6 or 24 h after inoculation with hsv type 2, significantly inhibited viral replication in the genital tract and usually reduced final mortality. treatment with 5% acv initiated 48 or 72 h after infection also reduced vagin ...19836320718
sequential genital infections by herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2: restriction nuclease analyses of viruses from recurrent infections.virus isolated from a woman presenting with the first symptomatic episode of genital herpes was identified as herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) by restriction nuclease fingerprinting. testing for igm antibody to hsv indicated that the patient had recently contracted a new hsv infection. virus microneutralization and the micro-solid phase radioimmunometric test for igg, however, showed that the patient had had prior infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2); thus the hsv-1 infection wa ...19836318371
prospective study on the relationship between cervical neoplasia and herpes simplex type-2 virus. ii. herpes simplex type-2 antibody presence in sera taken at enrollment.sera obtained at enrollment in the study from patients suffering from moderate to sever dysplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade ii), carcinoma in situ (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade iii) and invasive carcinoma, or developing any of these conditions in the course of the prospective study, and from control subjects, were examined for herpes simplex type-2 (hsv-2) antibody presence. the controls were matched with the patients by age, age at first intercourse, number of sexual ...19846319297
expression and cellular compartmentalization of a herpes simplex virus type 2 protein (icp 10) in productively infected and cervical tumor cells.antiserum to icp 10, a herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) protein that is expressed in cells neoplastically transformed by viral dna sequences within the bgl ii/hpa i cd fragment, specifically precipitates the icp 10 protein from hsv-2 infected cells and stains cells infected with hsv-2 for 4 to 16 hrs by indirect immunofluorescence. at 4 hr post infection (p.i.), the staining is primarily perinuclear, while at 16 hr p.i., it is cytoplasmic and intranuclear. compartmentalization studies indicat ...19836320993
heterogeneity in subregions of the terminal repeats of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna.we constructed recombinant plasmids from the 0.5 molar terminal fragments of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) dna. physical mapping of three different l-terminal clones demonstrated one, two or three copies of the terminally redundant a repeat. the nucleotide sequence at the end of the terminal a repeats was shown to be identical in these three cloned hsv2 genomic l-termini and closely resembled the internal a' repeat sequence reported previously by davison and wilkie. virtually all clones tha ...19846321396
herpes simplex virus type-selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with helix pomatia lectin-purified antigens.helix pomatia lectin-purified antigens with specific reactivity to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 antibodies in human sera were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the type specificity of the antigens was assessed by double immunodiffusion precipitation in gel against rabbit hsv-1 and hsv-2 hyperimmune sera, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with human reference sera containing antibodies to either type of hsv. fifty-two sera from patients with documented infectio ...19846321548
recovery of herpes simplex virus genetic information from human trigeminal ganglion cells following superinfection with herpes simplex virus type 2 temperature-sensitive mutants.explant cultures of human trigeminal ganglia were derived from 36 individuals. those cultures which failed to release herpes simplex virus (hsv) spontaneously were superinfected at various times after establishment in vitro with a range of hsv-2 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants. eight cultures from six individuals contained hsv-specific genetic information which could be detected or rescued following superinfection. restriction enzyme analysis of ts+ virus recovered from the ganglia of two ind ...19846319568
early interactions between human cytomegalovirus and cells.adsorption of cytomegalovirus (cmv) to human fibroblasts was not inhibited by preincubation with other herpes viruses (hsv-1, hsv-2, vzv). transport of virus to the nucleus was studied using virus labelled with 3h-thymidine. radioactivity was found in the nucleus 20 minutes after virus had been added to the cells. in order to assess the expression of the virus genome, synthesis of early (ea) and late (la) antigens was studied. assayed on permissive human lung fibroblasts, a plaque purified virus ...19846320772
intra-axonal virus in demyelinative lesions of experimental herpes simplex type 2 infection.three-week-old mice which had been infected intracerebrally with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) were examined electron-microscopically for the presence of intra-axonal virus in or near optic nerve and spinal cord demyelinative lesions. acute lesions and their margins frequently contained a very small proportion of abnormal axons, and in a few of these mature virus particles, nucleocapsids, or other incomplete forms were found. a similar range of particle morphology was present in the cytopl ...19846321668
synthesis of (e)-5-(3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2'-deoxyuridine and related analogues: potent and unusually selective antiviral activity of (e)-5-(3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2'-deoxyuridine against herpes simplex virus type 1.syntheses of (e)-5-(3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (tfpe-durd) (1), 5-(3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (11), 5-(3,3,3-trifluoro-1-methoxy-1-propyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (8), and 5-(3,3,3-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1-propyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (10) from 5-chloromercuri-2'-deoxyuridine are described. the antiviral activity of tfpe-durd was determined in cell culture against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), and vaccinia virus and compared concurrentl ...19846321735
organization of the left-hand end of the herpes simplex virus type 2 bglii n fragment.we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence surrounding the region coding for a 38,000-dalton protein of herpes simplex virus type 2 strain 333 that is encoded between map coordinates 0.58 to 0.595 on the viral genome. the sequence data have revealed an open translational reading frame of 1,011 nucleotides encoding a protein of 337 amino acids. upstream of those sequences, transcriptional regulatory signals could be identified that overlap another open reading frame of 489 nucleotides, w ...19846321759
mapping of the structural gene for the herpes simplex virus type 2 counterpart of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein c and identification of a type 2 mutant which does not express this glycoprotein.the gene encoding glycoprotein f (gf) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was mapped to the region of the viral genome from 0.62 to 0.64 map units. this region is colinear with, and partially homologous to, the region of the hsv-1 genome previously shown to encode gc. mapping of the gf gene was done by insertion of hsv-2 dna fragments into the thymidine kinase gene of an hsv-1 virus and screening of the resultant recombinant viruses for the expression of gf. in this way, dna sequences necessa ...19846321760
mapping of a herpes simplex virus type 2-encoded function that affects the susceptibility of herpes simplex virus-infected target cells to lysis by herpes simplex virus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes.a function(s) involved in the altered susceptibility of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected cells to specific lysis by cytotoxic t lymphocytes was mapped in the s component of hsv-2 dna by using hsv-1 x hsv-2 intertypic recombinants (rh1g44, rs1g25, r50bg10, a7d, and c4d) and hsv-1 mp. target cells infected with r50bg10, a7d, and c4d exhibited reduced levels of cytolysis, as did hsv-2-infected cells, whereas rh1g44 and rs1g25 recombinant-infected and hsv-1 mp-infected cells showed level ...19846321762
limited proteolysis of herpes simplex virus glycoproteins that occurs during their extraction from vero cells.herpes simplex virus glycoproteins extracted from infected vero cells can be smaller in apparent size than the same viral products extracted from infected hep-2 cells. here we show that the differences in size result primarily from limited proteolysis, during or after their extraction, of the viral glycoproteins made in vero cells. in the absence of appropriate protease inhibitors, both mature and immature forms of four different glycoproteins specified by herpes simplex virus type 2 were signif ...19846321794
replication origins and a sequence involved in coordinate induction of the immediate-early gene family are conserved in an intergenic region of herpes simplex virus.we have determined the structure of the 5' portion of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsf-2) immediate-early (ie) mrna-3 and have obtained the dna sequence specifying the n terminus of its encoded polypeptide, vmw182, its untranslated leader and the intergenic region between iemrnas-3 & 4/5. comparison of the hsv-2 intergenic sequences with the hsv-1 equivalent region identifies several conserved regions: (1) an at-rich element with core consensus taatgarat which is likely to be the 'activator' seq ...19846322134
cell surface alterations induced by the acycloguanosine (acg) resistant and sensitive strains of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in the presence of acg and tunicamycin.hsv-2-acg, a mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2, which is resistant to acycloguanosine and also capable of inducing fusion of bsc1 cells, was isolated. the viral-induced surface changes in these cells were studied using scanning electron microscopy. the formation of gigantic fused cells with increased number of microvilli and virus-like particles, extensively covering the infected cell surface, were investigated. tunicamycin (50 micrograms/ml), an inhibitor of glycosylation of polypeptides, b ...19836322282
dna polymerase in nuclei isolated from herpes simplex virus type-2-infected cells. characterization of the reaction product and inhibition by substrate analogs.nuclei isolated from herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2-infected kb cells were examined for their capacity to serve as an in situ source of herpes dna polymerase. in contrast to purified enzymes with added template, approx. 80% of the dna synthesized in isolated nuclei was viral. the average size of dna fragments labeled in vitro was 3.2 x 10(6) da. based on an increase in dna density when nuclei were incubated in the presence of brdutp rather than dttp, 16% of the nucleotides were added during t ...19846320890
the junctions between the repetitive and the short unique sequences of the herpes simplex virus genome are determined by the polypeptide-coding regions of two spliced immediate-early mrnas.immediate-early (ie) mrnas-4 and -5 of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) are transcribed from the irs/trs genome regions towards the us region. each of these spliced mrnas has an untranslated leader sequence of 249 bases and a single intron of approximately 540 bases which are contained entirely within trs/irs sequences. the dna sequence of the intron largely comprises tandem reiterations of three distinct short sequences. upstream of the common 5' mrna termini the dna sequence contains region ...19846321634
differential substrate specificity of dna polymerase beta and of a dna polymerase induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 towards thymidine triphosphate analogues.several triphosphates of 5-substituted deoxyuridine (du), such as 5-ethyl-, 5-n-propyl-, 5-n-hexyl- and 5-isopropyldeoxyuridine triphosphates and 5-trifluorothymidine triphosphate are substrates for hela cell dna polymerase beta (2'-deoxynucleoside-5'-triphosphate:dna-deoxynucleotidyltransferase, ec and for a dna polymerase isolated from hela cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strain 75. at the concentration tested (50 microm), all these analogues were incorporated ...19846321635
the presence of rna complementary to hsv-2 (herpes simplex virus) dna in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia after laser hybridization of radiolabelled dna probes to tissue sections detected rna complementary to hsv-2 (herpes simplex virus) dna in 65% (22 of 34) biopsies from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cin) and in none of internally paired benign epithelia from individuals before treatment by laser vaporization cone. laser therapy did not produce an increase in clinical or subclinical hsv infections of the cervix. of 18 patients with rna complementary to hsv-2 dna in cin biopsies before treatment, ...19846322834
[evaluation of 80 virologically-confirmed cases of ocular herpes. study of the correlation between the type of virus and the epidemiologic characteristics of the disease].80 strains were isolated from patients with herpetic ocular infection during the period may 1979 to may 1981: 17 patients with herpetic blepharitis, 40 patients with superficial keratitis and 23 with deep stromal keratitis or kerato-uveitis. among 63 patients treated with antiviral agents, clinical resistance to the drug was observed in 17 cases. the strains were typed as hsv 1.1, 1.2 or 2.2 by seroneutralization and thermosensitivity in cellular cultures. no relationship between the viral types ...19836323567
immunotoxic effects of diethylstilbestrol on host resistance: comparison with evaluate the usefulness of host resistance assays for measurement of immunotoxicologic effects of chemicals, the immunosuppressive effects of exposure to diethylstilbestrol (des) were compared with the effects of treatment with the known immunosuppressive drug cyclophosphamide (cps). a panel of six host resistance models was evaluated, including infection with the bacterium listeria monocytogenes, herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), and encephalomyocarditis virus (emc), the yeast cryptococcu ...19846323603
calcium ionophore a-23187 and 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate stimulation of prostaglandin synthesis in herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed rat cells.the purpose of this investigation was to determine whether cells transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) can be stimulated to synthesize prostaglandins (pg). stimulation was determined by measuring the release of pg into overlay fluids from cell monolayers prelabeled with [3h]arachidonic acid. results showed that ca2+ ionophore a-23187 markedly stimulated arachidonic acid release starting 30 min after treatment of hsv-2-transformed and nontransformed rat embryo fibroblast cells. howev ...19846322982
dna sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein d gene.we describe a 1635-bp herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna sequence containing the entire coding region of glycoprotein d (gd-2). the amino acid sequence of gd-2, deduced from the nucleotide sequence, was compared to that of the analogous herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein (gd-1). the two glycoproteins are 85% homologous and contain highly conserved regions of as much as 49 amino acids in length. comparison of dna sequences upstream from gd-1 and gd-2 coding regions identified p ...19836323270
herpes simplex virus infection causes the accumulation of a heat-shock protein.a monoclonal antibody, produced from mice immunized with a herpes simplex virus (hsv)-infected cell extract, reacts with a molecule which is present in uninfected cells and which accumulates in large amounts during hsv 2 infection. in uninfected cells this molecule is growth regulated, in that exponentially growing cells have intense nuclear immunofluorescence, whereas confluent quiescent cells have little. it has a mol. wt. of 57 000 (p57) in exponential cells, and one of 61 000 (p61) in quiesc ...19846325164
synthesis of some phosphonates with antiherpetic activity.several keto phosphonates, phosphonoacetates , and dialkyl phosphonates containing (aryloxy)aryl groups were synthesized and evaluated for antiherpteic activity. two of the most active compounds, 12 and 16, were evaluated topically in the mouse vaginal model against herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2. compound 16 exhibited an increased survival rate, as well as increased survival time. evaluation of 16 in the guinea pig skin test against hsv-2 produced a reduction in virus titer, as well as in me ...19846325695
detection of herpes simplex virus intertypic recombinant genomes in infected cell dna.intertypic recombination between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) was detected using dna from mixedly infected cells. because hsv-1 and hsv-2 share a 50% base sequence homology along the genome but have markedly different dna restriction enzyme cleavage patterns, recombination events can be detected and quantified by analysis of restriction endonuclease digests for the presence of novel dna fragments. we have used this technique to quantify the degree of interference by hsv-2 ...19846323508
characterization of the 92,000-dalton glycoprotein induced by herpes simplex virus type 2.evidence is presented showing that the 92,000-dalton glycoprotein (g92k) induced by herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 has properties distinct from those assigned to any other hsv glycoprotein. first, the carbohydrate composition and extent of sulfation differ from those of glycoproteins d and e. second, two clonally unrelated monoclonal antibodies, ap1 and lp5, shown in this paper to specifically immunoprecipitate g92k, do not react with any of the known processed forms of glycoproteins b, c, d, ...19846323754
immunogenicity of herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gc and gb and their role in protective immunity.the relative antigenicity of the individual herpes simplex virus type 1 (kos) glycoproteins gc and gb was analyzed in balb/c mice by using kos mutants altered in their ability to present these antigens on cell surface membranes during infection. the mutants employed were as follows: syn ld70 , a non-temperature-sensitive mutant defective in the synthesis of cell surface membrane gc; tsf13 , a temperature-sensitive mutant defective in the processing of the precursor form of gb to the mature cell ...19846328010
physical mapping of the herpes simplex virus type 2 nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity by using herpes simplex virus type 1 deletion clones.the nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity in the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) mutant ts1348 had previously been mapped to the ecori-d restriction enzyme fragment of hsv-1. eight clones with deletions representing most of hsv-1 ecori fragment d were selected with lambda gtwes hybrids. these clones were tested for their ability to rescue the alkaline exonuclease activity of hsv-2 nuc- ts1348 virus. the sequences colinear with the hsv-2 nuc- lesion were found to map between 0.1 ...19846328043
glycoprotein c of herpes simplex virus 1 acts as a receptor for the c3b complement component on infected cells.receptors for the fc portion of immunoglobulins or for the third component of complement (c3) are present on a variety of circulating and fixed tissue cells including granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes and glomerular epithelial cells. cells which lack fc receptors may express them after infection by herpes simplex virus (hsv)-1, hsv-2, cytomegalovirus or varicella zoster virus. we recently reported that infection by hsv-1 induces both fc and c3 receptors on human endothelial cells. glycoprotei ...19846328323
"recurrent herpes zoster": an unproved entity?physicians sometimes misdiagnose recurrent zosteriform herpes simplex virus (hsv) skin infections as "zoster" or "recurrent zoster." misdiagnosis can lead to inappropriate therapy with potentially harmful consequences, particularly in patients with ophthalmitis or immunosuppression, in which early institution of the correct antiviral therapy may be crucial. we report three patients who were originally misdiagnosed to have recurrent herpes zoster skin infections before we cultured hsv from their ...19846327783
phosphorylation of four acyclic guanosine analogs by herpes simplex virus type 2 thymidine kinase.four acyclic guanosine analogs, the (r) and (s) enantiomers of 9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)guanine, 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine, and acyclovir were compared in enzyme kinetic experiments, using purified herpes simplex virus type 2 thymidine kinase. all four analogs showed competitive patterns of inhibition in the phosphorylation of thymidine by the viral thymidine kinase, but different affinities and relative rates of phosphorylation were observed.19846329085
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