the effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on herpes simplex virus replication.both herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) failed, in an identical fashion to replicate and produce extensive c.p.e. in human cell monolayer cultures which were exposed (8 h before infection, at infection, or 8 h p.i.) to various concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. similar results were obtained with a plaque assay utilizing confluent monkey cells. possible mechanisms for this antiviral activity are discussed.19806255077
quantification of plasminogen activator activity associated with herpesvirus-transformed cells.herpesvirus-transformed cell lines were examined for plasminogen activator (pa) activity using a quantitative assay. previous results of cold fibrin overlay assays indicated that herpesvirus-transformed hamster cell lines produce fibrinolytic activity. quantification of this activity involved the use of an 125i-fibrin lysis assay in which medium previously incubated with transformed or normal cells was tested for its ability to lyse 125i-fibrin polymers. this assay indicated an enhanced producti ...19806255081
comparative structural analysis of glycoprotein gd of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.we studied the synthesis and processing of the type-common glycoprotein gd in herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and compared it structurally to glycoprotein gd of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). we demonstrated that in hsv-2, gd undergoes posttranslational processing from a lower-molecular-weight precursor (pgd51) to a higher-molecular-weight product (gd56). tryptic peptide analysis by cation-exchange chromatography indicated that this processing step altered neither the methionine nor th ...19806255183
an evaluation of herpes simplex virus antigenic markers in the study of established and developing cervical neoplasia.previous reports from our laboratory have shown that antiserum to "pure" ag-e, a type-common hsv antigen, specifically stains atypical cervical cells in indirect immunofluorescence. these observations have been confirmed and extended. antisera were prepared against the two protein components of pure ag-e, designated icp 12 (m. w. = 140,000) and icp 14 (m. w. = 130,000), and were purified to radiochemical homogeneity by sds-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. the antisera reacted as well as antiserum ...19806255843
double infection of balb/c mice with rauscher murine leukemia and herpes simplex virus type 2.when balb/c mice were first infected with rauscher murine leukemia virus (mulv-r) and then superinfected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) the inhibition of the evolution of splenomegaly was observed. the effect did not depend on the route of hsv-2 administration. experiments in which potent anti-interferon serum was administered to double infected mice suggested that the antagonism between mulv-r and hsv-2 was not mediated by endogenous interferon, hsv-2 was found to replicate in the lps ...19806255890
"in vivo" and "in vitro" effects of a bacterial extract on herpes simplex virus.the present studies were designed to evaluate the effects of substance or substances extracted from escherichia coli on herpes simplex virus. the "in vivo" assays show that bacterial extract introduced i.p. in mice simultaneously with hsv2 brought about 100% of survival, but the inoculation of crude extract after virus challenge brought about complete mortality of mice. "in vitro" assays show that the crude extract reduced significantly the numbers of pfu; better results were obtained when the c ...19806255968
parameters distinguishing herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed tumorigenic and nontumorigenic rat cells. 19816256070
herpesviruses and parkinsonism. herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and cytomegalovirus antibodies in serum and csf.antibodies against herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 and cytomegalovirus (cmv) were assayed with a microindirect hemagglutination (iha) test in the serum of 67 pairs of patients with parkinson's disease and controls. cerebrospinal fluid from 30 pairs was assayed. all patient and control serum was tested with a radioimmunoassay (ria) for antibodies against hsv type 1 subunit antigens. serum iha antibody level against hsv type 1 was increased in patients with parkinson's disease and ria ant ...19816257211
depletion of total hemolytic complement in sera from hamsters bearing herpes simplex type 2-induced hemolytic complement (ch50) levels were compared in sera from normal hamsters and hamsters bearing tumors derived from herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed cells ch50 in normal sera ranged from 160 to 212 while ch50 in tumor bearer sera ranged from 82 to 146. preincubation of tumor bearer sera with cell surface proteins (csp) from homologous herpes simplex virus type 2-derived tumor cells resulted in a 66% depletion of ch50 whereas preincubation with heterologous herpes simplex virus ty ...19806258785
immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). i. development of virus-specific lymphoproliferative and leukocyte migration inhibition factor responses in hsv-2-infected guinea pigs. 19806258811
expression of type-common envelope antigens by herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed hamster least ten polypeptides were detected on the surface of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) virion. two of these polypeptides, having molecular weights of 30,000 and 33,000, were identified in two herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed cell lines (333-8-9 and 333-2-29) by immunoprecipitation and sds-page. the same two virion polypeptides previously were shown to be present in an hsv-1-transformed cell line (14-012-8-1, t-10). these observations suggest that genetic information coding for ...19806259083
mode of action of phosphonoformate as an anti-herpes simplex virus agent.phosphonoformate inhibited the replication of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 and type 2 in culture. the concentration required to inhibit the replication of both types of virus by 2 logs at 28 h post-infection was approximately 150 microm. it was more potent than phosphonoacetate against the growth of both virus types. a virus mutant which is resistant to phosphonoacetate was cross-resistant to phosphonoformate. arsonoacetate, at 300 microm, had no antivirus activity. phosphonoformate also in ...19816260189
cloning of herpes simplex virus 2 dna fragments in a plasmid vector.dna isolated from virions of herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) strain 333 was digested with various restriction enzymes and joined to the ek2 plasmid vector pbr322. the viral dna sequences present in the hybrids were analyzed by restriction enzyme mapping and hybridization to fragments of hsv-2 dna. the collection of recombinant molecules represents approx. 75% of the hsv-2-genome. in most cases, the structure of the recombinants seemed identical to the organization of authentic fragments of hsv-2 d ...19806260572
immunological reactivity of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 polypeptides electrophoretically separated and transferred to diazobenzyloxymethyl this paper we report that viral polypeptides from herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2)-infected cells electrophoretically separated in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide-agarose gels and transferred to diazobenzyloxymethyl paper can react with rabbit hyperimmune sera, both polyvalent and prepared against specific antigens. the polyvalent hyperimmune sera against hsv-1 reacted with 17 hsv-1 polypeptide bands and 8 hsv-2 polypeptide bands. concordantly, polyvalent sera against hsv-2 ...19816260673
molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus. vii. characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant produced by in vitro mutagenesis and defective in dna synthesis and accumulation of gamma polypeptides.we report on the properties of a temperature-sensitive mutant produced by transfection of cells with intact dna and a specific dna fragment mutagenized with low levels of hydroxylamine. the plating efficiency of the mutant at 39 degrees c relative to that at 33.5 degrees c was 5 x 10(-6). the pattern of polypeptides produced at the nonpermissive temperature was similar to that seen with wild-type virus in infected cells treated with inhibitory concentrations of phosphonoacetic acid in that alpha ...19816260973
repair replication of viral and cellular dna in herpes simplex virus type 2-infected human embryonic and xeroderma pigmentosum cells. 19816261452
interaction of herpesvirus with spleen cell subpopulations comparison of a neurotropic and a lymphotropic virus.we studied the interaction of a neurotropic herpesvirus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2), and a lymphotropic herpesvirus, guinea pig herpes-like virus (hlv), with guinea pig spleen cells. both hsv-1 and hsv-2 and hlv can attach to and penetrate into b- or t-enriched cells. less than 1.4% of the total b- or t-enriched cell populations were susceptible to infection by hlv and to some degree to hsv-1 or hsv-2 as determined by infectious center assays. after specific antiserum ...19806262239
effect of corynebacterium granulosum immunopotentiation on the pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 2 in balb/c mice.treatment of 4- to 6-week-old, 18- to 22-g male balb/c mice with 0.6 mg of corynebacterium granulosum resulted in a significant decrease in mortality due to challenge with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). optimal protection occurred when c. granulosum was injected 1 week before hsv-2 infection. c. granulosum-induced resistance to hsv-2 lasted up to 4.5 weeks. studies involving immune spleen cell transfer and treatment with antilymphocyte serum demonstrated the importance of cell-mediated im ...19806262241
assay of type-specific and type-common antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in human sera.a reliable and reproducible method for determining specific reactivity to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) in human sera has been developed. human sera were used to immunoprecipitate hsv-specific glycoprotein antigens from both hsv-1- and hsv-2-infected cell extracts. the viral glycoproteins precipitated from these extracts were then analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to detect specific reactivity of the sera with distinct type-specific anti ...19816262247
production of hybrid cell lines secreting antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2.following different immunization schedules we have produced 102 myeloma--spleen cell hybrid lines (30.8% of the total) secreting antibodies to hsv-2 infected cells. the highest yield of hybrids was derived from fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice sensitized by footpad injection of formalin-inactivated virus and boosted intravenously with the same antigen. to date, twelve of the antibody-producing hybrids have been cloned by limiting dilutions to generate over 100 monoclonal lines ...19816262346
involvement of an early human cytomegalovirus function in reactivation of quiescent herpes simplex virus type 2.we have previously described an in vitro system in which the function lacking for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) replication can be induced by human cytomegalovirus (hcmv). the mechanism of this reactivation of quiescent hsv-2 by hcmv has been further defined. the hcmv function(s) responsible for hsv-2 stimulation was examined temporally, and the fraction of cells in quiescent cultures producing hsv-2 after superinfection was determined. using independent biological, genetic and molecular t ...19816262523
anti-herpes simplex virus and anti-human cell growth activity of e-5-propenyl-2'-deoxyuridine and the concept of selective protection in antivirus chemotherapy.e-5-propenyl-2'-deoxyuridine (e-5-propenyl-durd) inhibited the growth of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 in culture. the concentration of drug required to give a 2-log reduction in virus titer was 5 microm for hsv-1 and 23 microm for hsv-2. the anti-hsv-1 activity of this agent was more potent than 5-propyl-durd, equivalent to e-5(3,3,3-trifluoropropenyl)-durd, and less potent than e-5-bromovinyl-durd. the hsv-1 mutant (b2006) lacking the ability to induce virus-specific thymidi ...19806263181
characterization of rat embryo cells transformed by ts mutants and sheared dna of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and a derived tumor cell line.four independent isolated lines transformed by ts mutant or sheared dna of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and one tumor cell line were characterized according to their behavior in assays of aggregation, growth in low serum, doubling times, saturation density, agglutination by lectins, uptake of metabolites, and production of plasminogen activator. the criteria used to select the transformed cells used in this study were the formation of altered foci of cells followed by the formation of a co ...19816263467
induction of natural killer cells by herpes-simplex virus type 2 in resistant and sensitive inbred mouse strains.infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2) stimulated natural killer (nk) cells in a variety of inbred mouse strains including athymic nude mice. essentially all mouse strains tested exhibited high nk activity on day four after virus inoculation. assayed 24 hours after infection, swr/j, akr/j, sjl/j and c57b1/10j mice were low or negative for these non-virus-specific cytotoxic responses. whereas the first two mouse strains were most sensitive to the lethal effects of hsv 2, the l ...19816263793
localization of the thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus type 2 (333).the thymidine kinase (tk) gene of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) has been identified on purified restriction endonuclease fragments of hsv-2 dna. these fragments were localized on the physical map of hsv-2 dna. a detailed map of the hsv-2 tk gene region has been constructed which locates the tk gene between 0.285 and 0.310 map units [3.8 kilobase pairs (kb)], whereby tk gene sequences are at least present between 0.299 and 0.303 map units (0.6 kb). mouse tk- cells that were biochemically tr ...19806263824
specific phosphorylation of e-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine by herpes simplex virus-infected cells.e-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (ivdurd), a highly selective and potent anti-herpes agent, is phosphorylated by primary rabbit kidney (prk) cells that have been infected with either herpes simplex virus type 1 (kos) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (g). however, ivdurd is not phosphorylated by mock-infected prk cells or prk cells that have been infected with a thymidine kinase-deficient mutant of herpes simplex virus type 1 (b 2006). these observations strengthen the concept that the selectivity ...19816263899
mechanisms of expression of herpes simplex virus-common surface antigens in clonal cells of a herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed line.rabbit antiserum hyperimmune to herpes simplex virus type 1 was used to study the expression of herpes simplex virus type-common surface antigens (csa) by indirect immunofluorescence tests in three representative cell clones isolated from a herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed hamster line, 155-4. these three clones showed different phenotypes with respect to csa expression: (i) a csa-positive type (clone (155-4-213), in which the antigens increased soon (5 h) after seeding at 37 degrees c, b ...19816264119
molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus. vi. characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant defective in the expression of all early viral gene products.the herpes simplex virus 1 (hfem) mutant tsb7 failed to express any detectable viral polypeptides and did not significantly inhibit host cell protein synthesis in infected cells maintained at the nonpermissive temperature. the mutant could complement the growth of a coinfecting temperature-sensitive mutant virus differing in plaque phenotype and thus appeared capable of penetrating doubly infected cells. the yield of tsb7 was enhanced by the coinfecting virus but not to the extent that the coinf ...19816264126
transformation of rodent cells by a cloned dna fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2.transformation of rodent cells with isolated restriction endonuclease fragments of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna identified a region of the genome located between map positions 0.58 and 0.62. these sequences were cloned into pbr322, and the recombinant plasmid was used to transform primary rat embryo cells and nih 3t3 cells. the transformants were selected for their ability to form dense foci on a monolayer or to form colonies in semisolid medium. in contrast to the parental rat or mouse cells ...19816264141
mechanism of degradation of duplex dna by the dnase induced by herpes simplex virus.reaction intermediates formed during the degradation of linear pm2, t5, and lambda dna by herpes simplex virus (hsv) dnase have been examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. digestion of t5 dna by hsv type 2 (hsv-2) dnase in the presence of mn(2+) (endonuclease only) gave rise to 6 major and 12 minor fragments. some of the fragments produced correspond to those observed after cleavage of t5 dna by the single-strand-specific s1 nuclease, indicating that the hsv dnase rapidly cleaves opposite a ni ...19816264148
risk of recurrence after first episodes of genital herpes. relation to hsv type and antibody define risk factors associated with recurrent genital herpes-simplex-virus infection caused by either type 1 or 2 herpesvirus (hsv-1 or hsv-2), we prospectively studied 137 patients with a first symptomatic episode of the disease and 87 with a recurrent episode. first episodes were divided into 78 primary infections (no antibodies to hsv in acute-phase serum) and 59 nonprimary infections (antibodies present). hsv-1 infections were less frequent and less likely to recur than hsv-2 infections. ...19816264300
influence of cells and virus multiplicity on the inhibition of herpesviruses with acycloguanosine.the inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) plaque formation by acycloguanosine (acg) was assayed in human fetal lung fibroblasts (hl), cell lines from human cervical carcinoma, rabbit cornea, and human rhabdomyosarcoma, and three green monkey kidney cell lines. the acg concentration giving 50% plaque reduction (pr50) of hsv-1 was lowest in hl. in two green monkey kidney cell lines, hsv-1 plaque formation was relatively insensitive to acg, with pr50 of 25 and 60 mum, respectively. in t ...19806265398
synthesis and antiviral properties of (z)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine.(z)-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil was obtained by photoisomerization of the e. isomer. similarly, (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine gave the required z isomer. (z)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine is much less active against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and somewhat less active against herpes simplex virus type 2 than is the e isomer. both isomers show similar activity against vaccinia virus. therefore, the highly potent and selective activity of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine against h ...19816265638
differences in the morphology of herpes simplex virus infected cells. ii. type specific membrane alterations of hsv-1 and hsv-2 infected cells.the two types of herpes simplex virus (hsv-1, hsv-2) induced significantly different alterations in the morphology and permeability of infected cells. hep-2 cells infected with hsv-1 (strain thea) were characterized by the formation of polynuclear syncytia. in contrast, after infection with hsv-2 (strain d316, dd), the cells were rounded up. the hsv-1 strains kos and ls5039 and the hsv-2 strain 196 induced both types of cytopathic effect. as shown by comparative scanning and transmission electro ...19816265748
herpesvirus-induced antigens in squamous-cell carcinoma in situ of the vulva.antigens induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) were found to be associated with squamous-cell carcinoma in situ of the vulva in nine of 10 patients. the hsv2-induced antigens are dna-binding proteins that are normally present in the nuclei of infected cells, but in the cells of the carcinomas in situ they were found in the cytoplasm. whole-virion structural antigens were not present, although there was serologic evidence of previous hsv2 infection in patients tested for the presence of a ...19816265780
experimental studies on genital herpetic infection in mice.female icr mice were infected with hsv-1 and hsv-2 by inserting a cotton pellet soaked in viral solution (10(7-8) pfu/m1) into the vagina. the appearance of giant cells and formation of intranuclear inclusions were detected in the epithelial layer of the uterus 24 h after intravaginal inoculation. these histopathological changes were pronounced 3 to 4 days after virus inoculation and then gradually disappeared in the next few days. results of fluorescent antibody studies on the appearance of vir ...19806266394
aminoacyl fucosides as possible biochemical markers at tumorigenic and metastatic potential in herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed rat cells.two classes of aminoacyl fucosides termed fl3 and fl4 were studied as possible markers of tumorigenic and metastatic potential in herpes simplex virus type 2 transformed rat cells. in the present study, clonal cell lines of transformed highly tumorigenic and metastatic (t-ref-g-1.1), weakly tumorigenic and nonmetastatic (t-ref-g-2.1), nontumorigenic (t-ref-g-2.0), and secondary nontransformed rat embryo fibroblast cells were labeled with [3h]fucose, and cell extracts were analyzed for ratio of r ...19816266657
herpes virus inactivation by chemical carcinogens: differential inactivation of herpes simplex viruses by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide and related compounds.treatment of stocks of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) with the chemical carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (nqo) resulted in inactivation of virus infectivity at rates which were directly dependent on the concentration of nqo and interval of exposure to nqo. hsv-1 strains were more sensitive than hsv-2 strains to inactivation by nqo, although survival curves of both hsv types were multicomponent. exposure of hsv-2 to a related group of chemicals suggested that the struct ...19816266824
complement-fixing antibody to the ag-4 antigen in herpes simplex virus type 2-infected patients.sera collected from confirmed herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) patients were found to be devoid of complement-fixing antibody to the ag-4 antigen at the time of the herpes lesion outbreak in 10 out of 13 cases. however, 1 to 4 weeks after hsv-2 lesion appearance, 28 out of 30 patients acquired complement-fixing antibody to the ag-4 antigen. the sera of these patients contained immunoglobulin m antibody activity and the ability to immunoprecipitate a 160,000-molecular weight early hsv-2 antige ...19816266964
latency in vitro using irradiated herpes simplex virus.human embryonic fibroblasts infected with u.v.-irradiated herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2, strain 186) and maintained at 40.5 degrees c did not yield detectable virus. virus synthesis was induced by temperature shift-down to 36.5 degrees c. the induced virus grew very poorly and was inactivated very rapidly at 40.5 degrees c. non-irradiated virus failed to establish latency at 40.5 degrees c in infected cells. enhanced reactivation of hsv-2 was observed when latently infected cultures were su ...19816267167
physical mapping of temperature-sensitive mutations of herpes simplex virus type 2 by marker rescue.the physical mapping of six ts mutations of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is presented. the results were obtained from 14 separate intratypic marker rescue experiments and the analysis of 20 hsv-1/hsv-2 intertypic recombinants. the order of these mutations on the physical map of hsv-2 is unambiguous and correlates almost exactly with the previously published genetic map of timbury & calder (1976). one of the mutants studied (hsv-2 ts12) has apparently two distinct conditionally lethal ts m ...19816267168
experimental studies of acute and recurrent herpes simplex virus infections in the murine heart and dorsal root ganglia.the multiplication of hsv-1 and hsv-2 strains in the heart and the corresponding dorsal root ganglia (drg) was examined in experimentally infected mice. infectious hsv-1 was recovered from the heart between the second and fourth day after inoculation and 3 days later from the drg. both the heart and drg yielded infectious hsv-2 from the fourth to the twenty-first day after inoculation. the hsv-2, but not the hsv-1, induced recrudescent disease in chronically infected mice up to 18 months after i ...19816267190
[new antigens induced by herpes simplex virus in human tumors].tissues of malignant tumors of the genitalia (cervix, uterus body, ovary) contain a specific antigen associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) identical with the antigen of the infected cells. the virus-induced antigen was detected in tissues of cervical carcinoma in 35% of cases, in 15% of tumors of the corpus uteri and in 13% of ovary tumors. hsv-2 was isolated from pathologically altered cervical carcinoma cells in 2 out of 56 cases examined. these facts indicate the presence of hsv ...19816267821
differentiation of members of the human herpesviridae family by radioimmunoassay.many individuals who are seronegative for one member of the human herpesviridae family are strongly seropositive for other members. using sera from such individuals, the radioimmunoassay technique demonstrated absence of antigen-antibody cross-reactions between varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and herpes simplex virus (hsv) at levels of less than one part in 1,000. sera containing antibody to both hsv and vzv were absorbed with antigens of one agent without significantly altering the amount of remai ...19816268545
protectivity of herpes simplex virus antigens: studies in mice on the adjuvant effect of piclc and on the dependence of protection on t cell competence.the efficacy of a herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) envelope antigen (eag) preparation against hsv infection was studied in t cell competent and t cell deficient mice. immuno-competent mice were successfully protected against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2) infection when immunized 2 weeks prior to this infection with a heat-inactivated whole virus preparation or a hsv-1 envelope antigen (hsv-1 eag) preparation. since hsv-1 eag was considerably less effective than the who ...19816268955
the influence of different modes of immunization on the experimental genital herpes simplex virus infection of mice.previous investigations, which simulated the usual sequence of the human herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections, had shown that the oral infection of mice with hsv-1 caused only weak protection from genital infection with hsv-2, although the course of infection was attenuated and lethality diminished. this heterologous, heterotopic model was compared with a homologous, heterotopic and a heterologous, homotopic model. the results did not differ very much, although the homologous immunization prote ...19816268958
antiherpesviral and anticellular effects of 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-e-5-(2-halogenovinyl) uracils.1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-e-5-(2-bromovinyl) uracil (bv-ara-u) and 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-e-5-(2-chlorovinyl)uracil (cv-ara-u) were tested for their anti-herpesviral activity in virus rating method, a plaque reduction method, and a virus yield reduction method, using human embryonic lung fibroblast (hel-f) cells, at a concentration as low as 0.1 microgram/ml, both drugs exerted a marked inhibitory effect on the development of cytopathogenic effect induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1 ...19816269482
induction of uterine cancer with inactivated herpes simplex virus, types 1 and 2.a series of studies were performed to evaluate the oncogenic potential of inactivated herpes simplex viruses types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) in the mouse cervix. hsv-1 or hsv-2 prepared in hep-2 cell cultures and inactivated by exposure to formalin or ultraviolet light was applied to the mouse cervix for periods ranging from 20 to 90 weeks. control mice were exposed for the same period to control fluids. vaginal cytologic preparations from all animals were examined weekly to detect epithelial abno ...19816269724
recovery of mice from herpes simplex virus type 2 hepatitis: adoptive transfer of recovery with immune spleen cells.young balb/c mice inoculated intraperitoneally with herpes simplex virus type 2 develop focal necrotizing hepatitis. after infection, the livers of these mice show increasing virus titers, which reach a maximum on day 3 after infection; this is followed by a dramatic decrease in the amount of virus recovered on days 4 and 5. this decrease in virus content is accompanied by a progressive infiltration of the lesions with mononuclear leukocytes and an apparent resolution of the lesions. adoptive tr ...19816269998
conversion of herpetic lesions to malignancy by ultraviolet exposure and promoter application.many lines of evidence exist associating herpes simplex virus (hsv) with the development of carcinoma, but much of this evidence is anecdotal or associative in nature and does not prove a cause and effect. the purpose of this research was to investigate the oncogenic potential of hsv type 2 (hsv-2) in vivo. a mouse model for lip carcinogenesis was designed to combine hsv-2 infection, u.v. exposure and tetradecanoyl-phorbol-acetate (tpa) application. hsv-2 inoculation on to abraded mouse lips was ...19816270265
nucleotide sequences of the joint between the l and s segments of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.the a sequence of herpes simplex virus (hsv) is present as a direct repeat at the genomic termini and also in inverted orientation at the joint between the l and s segments. dna sequences have been determined for the joint regions of the genomes of hsv-1 and hsv-2, and relative to these sequences the genomic termini are in both cases located close to a short direct repeat of 17 to 21 base pairs (bp) at the b-a and a-c junctions. the hsv-1 joint region contains three separate tandem direct reiter ...19816270266
physical mapping of drug resistance mutations defines an active center of the herpes simplex virus dna polymerase enzyme.the genome structures of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)/hsv-2 intertypic recombinants have been previously determined by restriction endonuclease analysis, and these recombinants and their parental strains have been employed to demonstrate that mutations within the hsv dna polymerase locus induce an altered hsv dna polymerase activity, exhibiting resistance to three inhibitors of dna polymerase. the viral dna polymerases induced by two recombinants and their parental strains were purified a ...19816270349
nonstructural proteins of herpes simplex virus. ii. major virus-specific dna-binding protein.the major herpes simplex virus type 2 dna-binding infected cell-specific polypeptides 11 and 12 have been purified to homogeneity from extracts of virus-infected cells. monospecific antiserum to the purified protein has been made and used to examine virus temperature-sensitive mutants for defects in the synthesis of the protein and to probe virus dna synthesis in isolated chromatin. the purified protein acted directly on a polydeoxyadenylic acid-polydeoxythymidylic acid helix, reducing its melti ...19816270358
identification of a virus-specific polypeptide associated with a transforming fragment (bglii-n) of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna.the bglii n fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna (approximately 0.58 to 0.63 map unit) was examined for encoded products. using plasmid pgz59, which consists of bglii-n cloned in pat153, in conjunction with hybrid arrested translation, mrna selection, and in vitro protein synthesis, we found that the major translated product of this region has an approximate molecular weight of 37,800. by further mapping, coding sequences for this polypeptide were located within the region of bgli ...19816270369
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 completely help adenovirus-associated virus addition to adenoviruses, which are capable of completely helping adenovirus-associated virus (aav) multiplication, only herpesviruses are known to provide any aav helper activity, but this activity has been thought to be partial (i.e., aav dna, rna, and protein syntheses are induced, but infectious particles are not assembled). in this study, however, we show that herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) are in fact complete aav helpers and that aav type 2 (aav2) infectivity yi ...19816270377
focus formation and neoplastic transformation by herpes simplex virus type 2 inactivated intracellularly by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and near uv light.the induction of focus formation in low serum and of neoplastic transformation of syrian hamster embryo cells was examined after the expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 functions. syrian hamster embryo cells infected at a high multiplicity (5 pfu/cell) with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled herpes simplex virus type 2 (11% substitution of thymidine residues) were exposed to near uv light irradiation at various times postinfection. this procedure specifically inactivated the viral genome, whi ...19816270382
phospholipid synthesis in human embryo fibroblasts infected with herpes simplex virus type 2.the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection on the synthesis of phospholipids in human embryo fibroblasts was determined at temperatures permissive (35 c) or nonpermissive (42 c) for virus replication. incorporation of [32p]i was decreased by herpes simplex virus type 2 infection after 6 hr, which corresponds to the time of initiation of progeny virus production. no differences were observed in the relative incorporation of [32p]i phospholipid classes. in another series of experiments ce ...19816270493
in vitro studies of a co-carcinogenic effect of vaccinia and herpes group viruses.the results of studies of a co-carcinogenic effect of two human infectious viruses in tissue culture are reported here. viable vaccinia virus actively replicating in the cells of primary balb/c tissue culture and in a number of continuous murine cell lines has been shown to induce in them expression of major structural p30 protein of murine retroviruses. vaccinia virus has been also shown to cause biochemical transformation of murine cells. evidence for the capacity of herpes simplex virus type ...19816270580
herpes simplex virus type 2 and cervical cancer. 19816271502
specific lymphocyte blastogenic responses in children with cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus infections acquired early in infancy.cell-mediated immune responses in 27 infants and children with cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection acquired between birth and 1 year of age were compared with responses in 13 children who had neonatal herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection. infection was asymptomatic in 25 of 27 cmv-infected children; the 13 patients with hsv infection were all ill as newborns. the median age when studied was 46 months for children infected with cmv and 24 months for those infected with hsv. we measured lymphocyte tra ...19816271679
use of monoclonal antibody directed against herpes simplex virus glycoproteins to protect mice against acute virus-induced neurological disease.monoclonal antibodies hcl and hd1, directed against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoproteins gc and gd, respectively, were evaluated for their ability to passively immunize mice against acute virus-induced neurological disease after footpad inoculation with hsv-1 or herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). control virus-infected mice receiving a single intraperitoneal injection of normal serum died within 7 to 10 days after the spread of virus from footpad to spinal cord and brain. however, ...19816271681
ocular lesions associated with dissemination of type 2 herpes simplex virus from skin infection in newborn rabbits.the subcutaneous inoculation of the backs of new zealand white rabbits 17 to 34 hr old with 10(3) 50% tissue culture infection dose (tcid50) of type 2 herpes simplex virus (hsv-2) induced cutaneous lesions within 24 hr, foci of disseminated infection in many organs (including the eye) on day 3 and thereafter, and the death of the animals on day 5 with infection of the central nervous system. infectious hsv-2 could be isolated from the mononuclear cells and plasma of the peripheral blood, indicat ...19816271702
the detection of dna tumour virus-specific rna sequences in abnormal human cervical biopsies by in situ hybridization.we have used the technique of in situ nucleic acid hybridization and autoradiography of thin frozen sections of human tissue to search for virus rna sequences in human cervical tumours. of cervical biopsies with abnormal cytology, 67% bound herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) 3h-labelled dna probes and 39% bound adenovirus type 2 (ad2) 3h-labelled dna probes, whereas control experiments with phage lambda 3h-labelled dna probes, under the same conditions, bound to only 7% of cases. in contrast, no ...19816271899
one functional copy of the long terminal repeat gene specifying the immediate-early polypeptide ie 110 suffices for a productive infection of human foetal lung cells by herpes simplex virus.the hsv-1/hsv-2 intertypic recombinant bx1 (28-1) is heterotypic for the repeat sequences flanking the long unique region of the genome (irl and trl) and expresses both the immediate-early polypeptide ie 110 of hsv-1 and its functionally equivalent polypeptide ie 118 of hsv-2. the genome structures of five subclones of this recombinant and the immediate-early polypeptides they induce have been analysed. subclone 14 lacked most of the irl sequence, including the region from which part of the mrna ...19816271901
differential immunologic reactivity and processing of glycoproteins ga and gb of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 made in vero and hep-2 cells.herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2, respectively) specify five major glycoproteins designated as ga, gb, gc, gd, and ge. previous studies have shown that ga and gb differ in electrophoretic mobility but not in reactivity with antisera prepared to each of these glycoproteins. moreover, ga and gb of hsv-1 crossreact in serologic tests with the corresponding glycoproteins of hsv-2. in this paper, we report on the reactivities of ga and gb of hsv-1 and hsv-2 with 24 independently de ...19816272294
consistent appearance of microtubules in cells productively infected with various strains of type 2 herpes simplex virus.electron microscopic examination showed microtubular structures in fl cells infected with all 18 strains of hsv-2 examined, but not in cells infected with 9 strains of hsv-1. these structures were also detected in other cultured cells (vero and earle's l cells) infected with hsv-2, and also in vivo in cells, such as neuronal cells of the spinal ganglia and liver cells, of one-day-old suckling mice (ddd strain) infected with this type of virus. thus the microtubules were consistently detected in ...19816272691
"the herpesvirus hypothesis"--are koch's postulates satisfied? 19816273266
[studies on the nature of tubular structures as a marker of herpes simplex virus type 2 (author's transl)]. 19816273274
kaposi's sarcoma. iv. detection of cmv dna, cmv rna and cmna in tumor order to determine whether human cytomegalovirus- (cmv) dna homologous sequences as well as cmv-specific rna(s) and antigen(s) exist in tumor biopsies of kaposi's sarcoma (ks) dna-dna reassociation, rna-dna in situ cytohybridization and anticomplement immunofluorescence test (acif) tests were applied. three of 10 dnas extracted from kaposi sarcoma biopsies contained dna sequences homologous to radioactively labelled human cmv dna probe. the amount of cmv dna in these sarcoma tissues was calcu ...19816273333
evaluation of the antiherpetic activity of 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-ara-c in rabbit eyes and cell cultures.2-fluoro-5-iodo-ara-c (fiac), a new and potent drug, was tested for antiviral activity against several strains of herpes simplex virus (hsv), types 1 and 2. effective dose-50% (ed-50) determinations for fiac ranged from 0.023 to 0.51 mum for hsv-2. fiac-treated cells did not exhibit any toxicity until the drug concentration was increased 2000-fold above the ed-50 level. ocular herpetic keratitis in new zealand white rabbits was treated with 1.0%, 0.1%, 0.01% fiac beginning 3 days after inoculati ...19816273355
differences in neurovirulence among isolates of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in mice using four routes of infection.differences in neurovirulence between herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) were investigated using recent clinical isolates and laboratory-passaged strains in intravaginal, intranasal, intraperitoneal, and intracerebral infections of mice. the hsv-2 isolates caused higher death rates in all four infections. no differences in death rate were observed between recent and passaged isolates of either hsv-1 or hsv-2. after intravaginal inoculation, hsv-1 isolates replicated to higher ...19816273475
repression and activation of the genome of herpes simplex viruses in human cells.we have described previously a cell culture system in which the herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 (hsv-2) genome is maintained in a repressed form after treatment of infected cells with 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine and increase of incubation temperature from 37 degrees c to 39.5 degrees c. infectious hsv-2 production was activated by altering incubation temperature or by superinfecting with human cytomegalovirus. we now report the establishment of an analogous system utilizing hsv type 1 (h ...19816273875
[possible role of herpes simplex virus type 2 in the etiology of cervical cancer]. 19816274212
inability to rescue viral genes from human cells biochemically transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 dna. 19816274496
molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus. v. characterization of a mutant defective in ability to form plaques at low temperatures and in a viral fraction which prevents accumulation of coreless capsids at nuclear pores late in herpes simplex virus-infected cells, coreless capsids accumulate at the nuclear pores soon after infection, but subsequently disappear, suggesting that, as in adenovirus-infected cells (s. dales and y. chardonnet, virology 56:465-483, 1973), the release of viral dna from nucleocapsids takes place at the nuclear pores. a nonlethal mutant, hsv-1(50b), produced by mutagenesis of hsv dna fragments and selected for delayed production of plaques at 31 degrees c, accumulated coreless capsids at the ...19816275122
[experimental endophthalmitis induced by herpes simplex virus. 2. intracarotid inoculation (author's transl)]. 19816275689
confirmation of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in herpes-like genital lesions by a simple complement-fixation test.the presence of complement-fixing antibody to an early herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) antigen (the ag-4 antigen) was correlated with hsv-2 infection in the sera of patients with genital herpes. eighty-eight per cent of sera taken two weeks after clinical diagnosis of a primary or recurrent herpes infection in patients, confirmed to have hsv-2 by virus isolation and typing, contained the anti-ag-4 complement-fixing antibody. none of the patients with genital hsv-1 had the antibody, and only ...19826275941
microscopic examination of the intracellular fate of infectious herpes simplex virus dna.the intracellular fate of 3h-labeled exogenous herpes simplex virus type 2 dna following the exposure of recipient cells to selected dna facilitators and the ultrastructural changes which ensued in transfected cultures were examined. in most cases, electron microscopic radioautography demonstrated that exogenous dna reached the nucleus within 1 h postinoculation. at later time periods, enlargement of nuclei and margination of chromatin were noted. cells treated with polyornithine differed signif ...19816276330
viral receptors on isolated murine and human ependymal cells.viruses that infect ependyma cause ependymitis in humans and hydrocephalus in experimental animals. we report that reovirus type 1 (which induces hydrocephalus in mice) binds to the surface of isolated human and murine ciliated ependymal cells. with the use of recombinant viral clones, the binding property was mapped to the type 1 viral hemagglutinin, which also determines in vivo the affinity of reovirus type 1 for ependyma. mumps virus, measles virus, parainfluenza type 3, and herpes simplex v ...19826276976
[use of a contraceptive suppository as chemoprophylaxis against sexually-transmitted diseases].the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (std), especially gonorrhea, has risen dramatically in the past 2 decades. the population at greatest risk is also at high risk for unwanted pregnancies. since currently employed treatment methods are failing to curb the problem, a search was instituted for an available vaginal contraceptive that would have a prophylactic effect against these diseases. in vitro studies have indicated that a vaginal contraceptive made of phenylmercuric acetate is ...19816277015
sexually transmitted infections and cervical atypia.epidemiologic studies have long associated cervical cancer and dysplasia with sexual activity. in the past two decades an abundance of biological and epidemiologic data have indicated a relationship between herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and these conditions. unfortunately, the strength of the evidence (albeit circumstantial) has led many researchers to focus exclusively on the putative role of hsv-2 as the carcinogen. at the same time, many studies have shown that cervical atypia, if it is ...19816277023
inhibiting herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in human epithelial cells by gossypol, a potent spermicidal and contraceptive agent.gossypol, a male contraceptive, has an antifertility effect of 99.9%. it has also been reported to possess antiviral activities, and to inhibit herpes simplex virus infection in mice. dorsett and kerstine found that gossypol inactivated the infectivity of the enveloped virus parainfluenza type 3 and herpes simplex for hep-2 carcinoma cells but had no effect on the infectivity of the nonenveloped poliovirus. the authors studied the effect of gossypol on infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 ...19826277198
pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus infections in guinea pigs.the pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 has been studied in guinea pigs after inoculation by various routes (subcutaneous and intradermal infection in footpads and vaginal infection). clinical observations as well as virus isolation studies are reported. herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by all three routes of inoculation led to acute primary and recurrent lesions. virus persisted in the nervous system, particularly in sensory ganglia, and locally at the site of inoculation. h ...19816277787
monoclonal antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 proteins, including the immediate-early protein icp 4.monoclonal antibodies were prepared against herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain 14012) by two immunization procedures. procedure a utilized infectious virus propagated in mouse cells, and procedure b utilized mouse cells infected with herpes simplex virus in the presence of cycloheximide and harvested 1 h after removal of the inhibitor. a total of 52 monoclonal antibodies were obtained against 10 herpes simplex virus proteins, including four glycosylated proteins (a 110,000-molecular-weight prot ...19816277788
cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus: recognition of type-specific and type-common surface antigens by cytotoxic t cell this communication, we examine the specificity of anti-herpes simplex virus (hsv) cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl). serological studies of the two related hsv serotypes (hsv-1 and hsv-2) have revealed both type-specific and cross-reactive antigenic determinants in the viral envelope and on the surface of infected cells. by analysis of cytotoxicity of ctl, generated in vitro by restimulation of splenocytes from mice primed with one or the other hsv serotype, the recognition of both type-specific ...19816277790
antibody responses in humans to individual proteins of herpes simplex viruses.sera from 231 women were used to examine their frequency of precipitation of various herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) proteins and to determine if there was a rank order of immune responsiveness of humans to these hsv antigens. radiolabeled viral proteins were reacted with serum and immune complexes isolated with staphylococcal protein a. individual antigens were resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by fluorography. as a group, these sera precipitated ...19816277791
linkage map of cotransfected viral dna sequences in a mouse 3t3 cell line.a physical map was constructed of a cotransformed 3t3 thymidine kinase (tk) negative cell line revealing a close linkage of the selectable herpes simplex virus type 2 tk gene and cotransfected simian virus 40 dna sequences in high-molecular-weight cellular dna.19816277824
sulphated glycoproteins induced by herpes simplex virus.bhk cells infected with strain 17 syn+ (hsv-1) or hg52 (hsc-2) incorporated inorganic sulphate into polypeptides which co-migrated on sds-polyacrylamide gels with virus-induced glycoproteins. the major sulphated glycoprotein was glycoprotein e. in addition, less-intense sulphated bands co-migrated with glycoprotein d and hsv-1 glycoprotein a/b/c. sulphate label co-migrating with hsv-2 glycoprotein a/b/c was occasionally observed. we have investigated which sulphated polypeptides are excreted fro ...19826278062
the effect of a temperature-sensitive lesion in the alkaline dnase of herpes simplex virus type 2 on the synthesis of viral dna. 19826278703
activation of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 genome by temperature-sensitive mutants of hsv type 2.previous studies have demonstrated that herpes simplex viruses (hsv) type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) can be maintained in a repressed form in human embryo lung cells. reducing the incubation temperature or superinfecting with a heterologous herpesvirus, human cytomegalovirus (hcmv), results in activation of virus replication. we now report that superinfection with a partially homologous herpesvirus, hsv-2, also resulted in activation of hsv-1. to minimize excessive synthesis of infectious hsv- ...19826278723
[new antigen induced by herpes simplex virus in human tumors].the study showed the new antigen induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) to be present not only in cancer tumors of the cervix and corpus uteri, and ovaries but also in malignant tumors of the mammary glands, kidneys, urinary bladder, as well as in tissues of fibrous-cystic mastopathy and fibroadenoma of the mammary glands. in malignant tumors of the cervix, however, the hsv-2-induced antigen was found more frequently and had a higher serological activity than in other tumors. in contrast ...19816278776
[malignant transformation of newborn hamster cells by herpes simplex virus type 2].the oncogenic potentials of hsv-2 inactivated by ultraviolet rays in newborn hamster cell culture were studied. virus-induced morphological and malignant transformation of cells was accompanied by synthesis of virus-specific antigen, changes in morphology, formation of colonies in semi-liquid agar, and tumorigenicity of cells. the animals bearing tumors induced by transformed cells showed humoral and cellular immune responses to the virus-specific antigen. lines of transformed and tumor cells we ...19816278782
neurological involvement in mice after infection with a cold-adapted herpes simplex type 2 virus.experimental intracerebral infection of 4-week-old mice with the ms strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 or its derivative cold variant was compared. the infectious process was followed in both the brain tissue and the trigeminal ganglia, using hematoxylin and eosin and antigenic tracing with indirect peroxidase-antiperoxidase staining. the wild-type virus elicited a severe meningitis and necrotic lesions by 7 days post-inoculation in the brain. the cold variant produced a mild meningitis and n ...19826279512
typing of herpes simplex virus with type-specific human immunoglobulin m in an indirect immunofluorescence assay.sera from nine individuals with suspected primary herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2) infection were screened to identify those containing hsv type-specific immunoglobulin m (igm). selected sera were then utilized in an igm-specific indirect immunofluorescent-antibody hsv-typing assay (patent pending). to evaluate the procedure, 29 hsv isolates were grown in cultures of continuous human amnion cells, fixed, and used as substrates for indirect immunofluorescence. determination o ...19826279692
roles of polyamines in the replication of animal viruses.several animal viruses are known to contain significant amounts of polyamines but so far the function of these viral components is poorly understood. in this study the role of polyamines in the replication of two different types of viruses, herpes simplex virus type 2 and semliki forest virus (sfv) has been investigated. purified sfv was found to contain fairly small amounts of polyamines, sufficient to neutralize only about 3% of viral nucleic acid phosphate, i.e., 1/20 of that found in herpes ...19816279979
investigations in the transforming activity of temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus.transformation of rat embryo fibroblast was induced by a temperature-sensitive mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2. transformation was scored using the morphological criterion of focus formation and the cell changes that lead to the final focus are described. virus genome persistence in the transformed cell line was demonstrated by the presence of virus-specific membrane antigens and by the specificity of antibodies elicited in rabbits by inoculation of transformed cells. the cytogenetic analy ...19826280377
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-transformed cells in the course of cervical carcinoma.the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay was used to determine whether humoral antibodies from women with cervical carcinoma in the presence of normal mononuclear cells could induce cytotoxicity to hamster embryo fibroblasts, originally transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) (333-8-9), to a cervical carcinoma cell line (me-180) and to a lung carcinoma cell line (a-549). control groups consisted of 81 age-matched healthy women and 77 patients suffering from malignancies ...19826280493
antiherpes activity of [e]-5-(1-propenyl)-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-(1-propenyl)-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyluracil.5-(1-propenyl)-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyluracil has been synthesized, and this compound and [e]-5-(-propenyl)-2'-deoxyuridine have been tested for inhibition of herpes virus multiplication. only [e]-5-(1-propenyl)-2'-deoxyuridine was found to be an active inhibitor reducing by 50% the plaque formation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) at about 1 mum. a comparison to the bromovinyl derivatives showed the following order of descending activity; [e]-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine greater than ...19816280606
a comparison of phosphonoacetic acid and phosphonoformic acid activity in genital herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infections of mice.the activity of phosphonoacetic acid (paa) and phosphonoformic acid (pfa) against four strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and four strains of hsv-2 were compared in tissue culture and in a murine model of genital herpes. in mouse embryo fibroblast cells, both drugs were three-fold more active against the hsv-1 strains than against the hsv-2 strains. in contrast, in the animal model infections, paa appeared to be more active against the hsv-2 strains, while pfa was equally effective a ...19816280607
enhanced tumor growth in vivo by a factor in human platelets and rat liver.liver cell supernatant and platelet extract can promote the in vivo growth of herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed hamster embryo fibroblast cells. delineation of necessary growth factors for tumor cells in vivo may open up new strategies to inhibit malignant cell growth.19826280855
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