incidence of herpes genitalis in northern ireland in 1973-83 and herpes simplex types 1 and 2 isolated in 1982-4.during 1973 - 83 there was a pronounced rise in the number of new cases of herpes genitalis in northern ireland. this study of 127 patients with herpes genitalis shows that 30% had herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv 1) and 70% had herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2) infections. of 41 sexual contacts who attended, only seven had herpes genitalis (caused in each case by hsv 2); another patient had a history of genital lesions, and one other of oral lesions, but hsv was not isolated from either patie ...19863949348
viral meningitis.viral meningitis is part of the aseptic meningitis syndrome but must be distinguished from bacterial meningitis on the basis of a careful examination of the csf and sound clinical judgment. enteroviruses probably account for the bulk of cases of aseptic meningitis that occur in the united states and which are reported to the centers for disease control each year. the seasonal pattern in the incidence of aseptic meningitis is largely due to the seasonal variation of enteroviral infections. early ...19853990441
cigarette smoking, herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, and cervical a case-control study, we investigated the relation of cigarette smoking and genital herpes virus infection to cervical abnormalities. although cases and controls differed according to several factors, multiple logistic analyses indicated that age, education, and cigarette smoking were the only independent risk factors for histologically confirmed disease. relative risk estimates were 1.92 and 3.68 for past and current smokers, respectively. the results indicated that smoking and genital herpe ...19854003639
nucleosides. 133. synthesis of 5-alkenyl-1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)cytosines and related pyrimidine nucleosides as potential antiviral agents.the synthesis of 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)cytosines with a halovinyl or vinyl substituent at c-5 was accomplished from the corresponding 5-iodo (fiac, 1) and/or 5-chloromercuri nucleoside analogues with use of li2pdcl4- and pd(oac)2-mediated coupling reactions. thiation of the benzoylated derivative of the 5-ethyluracil nucleoside 3 followed by s-methylation and then ammonolysis provided 5-ethyl-2'-fluoro-ara-c. 5-ethynyl-2'-fluoro-ara-c (19a) and 5-ethynyl-2'-fluoro-ara-u (19 ...19854009596
degradation of cellular mrnas induced by a virion-associated factor during herpes simplex virus infection of vero cells.we have used northern blot hybridization to study the accumulation of specific cellular mrnas in vero cells infected with herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 or type 2. hsv-1 infection decreased the cytoplasmic levels of beta- and gamma-actin, beta-tubulin, and histone h3 and h4 mrnas, though not all at the same rate. hsv-2 infection resulted in a more rapid decrease in actin and histone mrna levels compared with hsv-1 infection. the turnover rate of each type of mrna studied was accelerated in hs ...19854020960
oligosaccharide chains of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein glycoprotein was purified by h966 monoclonal antibodies linked to sepharose from herpes simplex virus type 2-infected hep-2 cells labeled with [3h] glucosamine. the glycoprotein was subjected to pronase digestion and the glycopeptides were fractionated by con a-sepharose in a major fraction (88.5% of total radioactivity) unbound to the lectin gel and in a minor species which bound to the lectin as a n-linked diantennary oligosaccharide. mild and strong acid hydrolysis of con a-unbound and c ...19854026310
synergistic antiviral effects of acyclovir and vidarabine on herpes simplex infection in newborn mice.277 5-7-day-old white swiss mice were infected intranasally with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) to mimic disseminated herpetic infection in human newborns. the antiviral efficacy of acyclovir, vidarabine and specific antiserum (sas) alone and in combination was assessed. a significant increase in survival rate (52%) was observed with the combination of acyclovir (80 mg/kg/day) and vidarabine (125 mg/kg/day) compared to either compound (24 and 6%, respectively) when therapy was begun 30 h aft ...19854028874
[herpes simplex virus infections].there are two serological types of herpes simplex virus, hsv-1 and hsv-2. the types can be differentiated by different methods. after a primary infection hsv reaches the sensory ganglions by the way of peripheral nervous tracts. the virus remains for life in the ganglion as virus genome. after activation and return movement a new infection can appear. a lot of various diseases are caused by primary infection, reactivation or reinfection. the diagnosis in herpes virus diseases includes the detect ...19854039869
synergistic effect of herpes simplex virus and cytosine arabinoside on human chromosomes.the combined treatment of cultures of human embryonic lung cells with herpes simplex virus type 2 and cytosine arabinoside produced a significantly increased number of cells containing multiple chromatid and chromosome breaks. the incidence of such cells was found to be approximately two and one half times greater than the additive effects of virus and cytosine arabinoside induced separately and is therefore synergistic.19714104257
properties of hamster embryo fibroblasts transformed in vitro after exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated herpes simplex virus type in vitro method which led to the transformation of hamster embryo fibroblasts after exposure to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) inactivated with ultraviolet irradiation is described. the transformed cells (333-8-9) produced tumors when inoculated into newborn syrian hamsters but not when injected into weanling syrian hamsters of the same lsh inbred strain. however, after one in vivo passage, the 333-8-9 cells became highly oncogenic in weanling hamsters. no infectious virus was recovered ...19714108570
absence of leukosis virus markers in hamster cells transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2.hamster cells which transformed after exposure to herpes simplex virus type 2 previously irradiated with ultraviolet light were tested for the presence of hamster leukosis viruses or their virus-specific antigens. three techniques that were used did not detect the presence of either hamster c-type particles or antigens commonly associated with such structures. the implication of these findings to current concepts of virus oncology is discussed.19724113887
[genetic markers of herpes simplex virus. 2. study of genetic markers of the us strain of herpes simplex virus of the 3d antigenic group]. 19704319413
differential effect of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene on infectivity of herpes simplex virus type 2. 19714322268
oncogenic transformation of hamster cells after exposure to herpes simplex virus type 2. 19714329350
size, composition, and structure of the deoxyribonucleic acid of herpes simplex virus subtypes 1 and 2.studies of the size, composition, and structure of the deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) of the f and g prototypes of herpes simplex virus (hsv) subtypes 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) showed the following. (i) as previously reported by good-heart et al. hsv-1 and hsv-2 dna have a buoyant density of 1.726 and 1.728 g/cm(3), corresponding to 67 and 69 guanine +/- cytosine moles per cent, respectively. the difference in guanine plus cytosine content of the dna species was confirmed by the finding of a 1 c di ...19714329966
temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2. 19714333719
genetic relatedness of type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex viruses.the extent of homology between herpes simplex virus(1) and(2) (hsv-1 and hsv-2) deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) was measured in two ways: (i) by determination of the relative rate of hybridization of labeled hsv-1 and hsv-2 dna to excess unlabeled hsv-1 or hsv-2 dna immobilized on filters and (ii) by determination of the rate of hybridization of labeled hsv-1 and hsv-2 dna to excess unlabeled hsv-1 or hsv-2 dna in solution. approximately 40% of hsv-1 and hsv-2 dna is homologous at hybridization temp ...19724337161
mechanism of the restricted growth of herpes simplex virus type 2 in a hamster cell line. 19724342820
proteins specified by herpes simplex virus. 8. characterization and composition of multiple capsid forms of subtypes 1 and 2.two classes of herpesvirus capsids, designated a and b, were isolated from the nuclei of human cells infected with herpes simplex virus (hsv). a and b capsids share in common four structural proteins, i.e., no. 5, 19, 23, and 24. b capsids contain 7.7 to 9.7 times more deoxyribonucleic acid than a capsids; moreover, they contain proteins no. 21 and 22a in addition. all of the proteins contained in the capsid except no. 22a are present in the enveloped nucleocapsids (virions) in approximately the ...19724344252
[herpes simplex virus type 2: its distribution and relationship to cervical carcinoma]. 19724344976
ultrastructural characterization of hamster cells transformed following exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated herpes simplex virus type 2. 19724345407
increasing antibody titers to herpes simplex virus type 2 during follow-up of women with cervical dysplasia. 19734347508
immunologic manipulation of metastases due to herpesvirus transformed cells.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), type 2 (hsv-2), and simian virus 40 (sv40) fail to induce immunity in weanling syrian hamsters to transplant of hamster cells transformed by hsv-2. however, the development of metastatic tumors is markedly enhanced by prior immunization with hsv-1. immunization with sv40, ultraviolet-irradiated tumor cells, or ultraviolet-irradiated normal hamster embryo cells inhibits the development of metastases. the hsv-hamster system appears a good one for the study of d ...19734347994
different patterns of neurologic involvement with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: isolation of herpes simplex virus type 2 from the buffy coat of two adults with meningitis. 19734348495
incidence of antibody to envelope antigen of herpes simplex virus type 2 among patients with cervical carcinoma and matched controls. 19734350521
rna synthesis in cells infected with herpes simplex virus. vii. control of transcription and of transcript abundancies of unique and common sequences of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2.analysis of the kinetics of hybridization in liquid of labeled herpes simplex virus (hsv) 1 and 2 dnas with excess unlabeled rna extracted at 2 (early) and 8 (late) h postinfection revealed the following. (i) the rna transcripts present in the hsv-1-infected cells at 2 and 8 h postinfection are complementary to 44 and 48% of hsv-1 dna. the rna transcripts present in the hsv-2-infected cells at 2 and 8 h postinfection are complementary to 21 and 50% of hsv-2 dna. (ii) the transcripts present in 2 ...19734351458
characterisation of temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2. growth and dna synthesis. 19734351614
herpes simplex virus type 2 in acute aseptic meningitis. 19734351624
nonvirion antigens produced by herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2.of nine herpes simplex virus 1 strains (from lip, mouth, throat, cornea, or brain) only five produced enough nonvirion antigen (i.e., not a structural component of the virus) to be detected by complement fixation with specially prepared, virion-absorbed, type-1 guinea pig antisera, while the remaining four strains produced only enough of the same antigen to induce specific antibody in hyperimmunized guinea pigs. while the type 1 virion antiserum used reacted equally well by complement fixation w ...19734352219
nucleic acid hybridization and the relationship between cervical cancer and herpes simplex virus type 2. 19734352394
hexagonal arrangement of filaments in herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cells. 19734353342
infection with herpes-simplex viruses 1 and 2. ii.herpes-simplex virus 1 (hsv1) and 2 can cause recurrent infection in man and in nonhuman species localized on a specific area of the body, such as face, cornea, or genitals. the origin of the virus responsible for a recurrent infection is not usually apparent. some possible sources of virus can be exogenous infection, endogenous infection from another site of the body, chronic, continuous viral multiplication around the site of involvement, and persistence of the virus at the site of the recur ...19734353782
[relationship between herpes simplex virus type 2 and carcinoma of the uterine cervix]. 19734354419
oncogenic transformation of hamster embryo cells after exposure to inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1.the in vitro transformation of hamster embryo fibroblasts by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) after exposure of the virus to uv irradiation is described. cell transformation was induced by 2 out of 12 strains of hsv-1 that were tested for transforming potential. cells transformed by the kos strain of hsv-1 were not oncogenic when injected into newborn syrian hamsters. however, cells transformed by hsv-1 strain 14-012 induced tumors in 47% of the newborn hamsters injected. hsv-specific antigen ...19734355928
herpes simplex meningitis: isolation of herpes simplex virus type 2 from cerebrospinal fluid. 19734356148
infection, haemorrhage and death of chick embryos after inoculation of herpes simplex virus type 2 on to the chorioallantoic membrane. 19734357372
virus type-specific thymidine kinase in cells biochemically transformed by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.transformation of mouse cells (ltk(-)) and human cells (hela bu) from a thymidine kinase (tk)-minus to a tk(+) phenotype (herpes simplex virus [hsv]-transformed cells) has been induced by infection with ultraviolet-irradiated hsv type 2 (hsv-2), as well as by hsv type 1 (hsv-1). medium containing methotrexate, thymidine, adenine, guanosine, and glycine was used to select for cells able to utilize exogenous thymidine. we have determined the kinetics of thermal inactivation of tk from cells lytica ...19744359421
development of cell lines after exposure of chicken embryonic fibroblasts to herpes simplex virus type 2 at supraoptimal temperature. 19734359668
resistance of hamster cells transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 to superinfection by herpes simplex viruses. 19734359758
isolation, complementation and preliminary phenotypic characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2. 19744361460
herpes simplex and herpes genitalis viruses in etiology of some human cancers.the results of complement fixation tests on 202 sera from people without cancer and from patients with cancer in 29 different areas of the body indicated that only those with nine varieties of advanced cancer (lip, mouth, oropharynx, nasopharynx, kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, cervix uteri, and vulva-all of 56 tested) gave positive specific reactions with nonvirion antigens induced by the dna herpes simplex (hsv 1) and herpes genitalis (hsv 2) viruses. none of 57 people without cancer (inclu ...19734361685
study on the propagation of herpes simplex virus (type 2) into the brain after intraocular injection. 19744362812
activation of herpes specific antigens and infectious virus in a hamster cell line transformed by hsv-2. 19744363046
persistence and expression of the herpes simplex virus type 2 genome in cervical tumor cells. 19744363067
latent ganglionic infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: viral reactivation in vivo after neurectomy.inoculation of the cornea, lip, or footpad of mice with herpes simplex virus type 1 resulted in a latent infection of the local sensory ganglia. inoculation of the vagina and cervix with herpes simplex virus type 2, as well as type 1, also induced a latent ganglionic infection. with the use of sciatic nerve section as a stimulus, a reproducible model of viral reactivation in vivo was established.19744364361
inactivation of herpes simplex virus by concanavalin a.the infectivity of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) was inactivated after treatment with either concanavalin a (cona) or periodate. phytohemagglutinin, wheat germ agglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, and neuraminidase failed to inactivate the virus. the effect of cona could be specifically inhibited or reversed by the addition of alpha-methyl-d-glucoside or alpha-methyl-d-mannoside. evidence was obtained that hsv-1 inactivated by cona could adsorb to host cells. viral aggregation was not a major mec ...19744364903
susceptibility of herpesviruses to cytosine arabinoside: standardization of susceptibility test procedure and relative resistance of herpes simplex type 2 strains.susceptibility testing of herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) viruses to cytosine arabinoside (ara-c) has been standardized under conditions of optimal reproducibility, susceptibility, and simplicity. standard conditions were defined as virus inoculum of 10(1.5) to 10(2.5) tcid(50), wi-38 strain of lung fibroblasts, 2-day incubation, and observation of virus cytopathic effect after staining by the may-greenwald-giemsa method. the variability of minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) ...19724364937
inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 2 replication by thymidine.replication of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was impeded in kb cells which were blocked in their capacity to synthesize dna by 2 mm thymidine (tdr). the degree of inhibition was dependent upon the concentration of tdr. in marked contrast, hsv-1 is able to replicate under these conditions. the failure of hsv-2 to replicate is probably due to the inhibition of viral dna synthesis; there was a marked reduction in the rate of dna synthesis as well as the total amount of hsv-2 dna made in the p ...19744365718
epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma.epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma are reviewed. the high frequency of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) antibodies in young women (21 years or younger) with cervical carcinoma in situ and in women with dysplasia or carcinoma in situ, matched for various sexual attributes to control women, provide support for a causal relation. however, various laboratory, histopathological, and statistical problems associated with all epidemiological studies do ...19744366985
a nonhuman primate model for the study of the cervical oncogenic potential of herpes simplex virus type 2. 19744366986
biochemical approaches to detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 in cervical carcinoma. 19744366987
persistence and expression of the herpes simplex virus type 2 genome in cervical tumor cells. 19744367156
transformation of hamster embryo and human embryo cells by temperature sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2. 19744370516
expression of the viral thymidine kinase gene in herpes simplex virus-transformed l these studies, the expression of thymidine kinase (tk) in normal and herpes simplex virus (hsv)-transformed l cells has been compared. in asynchronously dividing cultures of l cells, the tk activity rose and declined rapidly and coordinately with dna synthesis. when net cell increase stopped, tk activity was at a minimum. in contrast, tk activity of hsv-transformed cells remained at a minimum during rapid dna synthesis and gradually increased as the rate of dna synthesis decreased. when net c ...19744372394
the "viruses of love" and cancer.a review of recent results of research into herpesvirus is presented and a tentative association with cervical cancer is proposed. 2 types of the virus have been identified, hsv-1 which causes fever blisters or lip sores and hsv-2 which causes genital lesions. the structure and composition of the virus is described. in addition, mechanisms of productive and nonproductive infection at the cellular level are reviewed. the pathogenesis of the hsv-1 and hsv-2 infections varies according to previ ...19744372887
effect of dexamethasone on herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in vitro. 19744373659
enhanced replication of temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) at the nonpermissive temperature in cells transformed by hsv-2. 19744374446
treatment of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 encephalitis in mice with 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine.the susceptibility of herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 viruses to 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-a) was tested in intracerebrally infected mice. subcutaneously administered ara-a resulted in markedly equivalent and reproducible chemotherapeutic activity against both serotypes of herpes simplex viruses. administration of ara-a by several different intermittent dosage regimens showed that change in pattern of response in terms of survivors appears to be influenced more by total amount of dr ...19734790577
comparative activities of selected combinations of acyclovir, vidarabine, arabinosyl hypoxanthine, interferon, and polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid complex against herpes simplex virus type 2 in tissue culture and intravaginally inoculated mice.the effects of double and triple combinations of acyclovir (acv), adenine arabinoside (ara-a), arabinosyl hypoxanthine, or interferon on herpes simplex virus type 2 in mouse embryo fibroblasts were measured. these in vitro data were compared with results obtained in mice infected intravaginally with herpes simplex virus type 2 and treated intraperitoneally with low- and high-dose combinations of acv, ara-a, or polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid(poly-l-lysine)carboxymethylcellulose complex [ ...19846083754
[detection of the virus-specific antigens of adenoviruses and herpes simplex virus in patients with malignant genital diseases].the possibility of detecting virus-specific antigens in women with various pathological changes of the genitalia (cancer and pre-cancer conditions) was demonstrated. comparative examinations of specimens from patients with cancer diseases of the genitalia for the presence of structural and virus-induced early antigens of hsv-2 demonstrated immunofluorescence test (ift) to be the diagnostic test for the detection of hsv antigens in patients with cervical carcinoma. the rate of virus-induced antig ...19846084901
prevalence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus and frequency of hla antigens in patients with preinvasive and invasive cervical cancer.previous herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections are known to predispose women for the development of cervical cancer, but causal relationship between the virus and the cancer has never been proven. forty-six patients with cervical carcinoma (13 with preinvasive lesions and 33 with various stages of invasive disease) were selected for the present study. among the patients 96% were seropositive for the presence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus compared to 87% of the 30 controls. antib ...19846086470
human lymphoblastoid cell lines established from peripheral blood lymphocytes secreting immunoglobulins directed against herpes simplex virus.peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) from genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) patients were transformed with epstein-barr virus. using conditions optimized for successful transformation, two lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcl) have been established, which secrete immunoglobulin g (igg) to hsv. these results suggest that pbl from patients suffering recurrent herpes virus infections can be used to establish lcl secreting hsv antigen specific human immunoglobulins.19846086505
rapid detection of herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens by use of a capture biotin-streptavidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent capture assay with biotin and streptavidin (capture b/sa elisa) was developed to detect herpes simplex virus (hsv) antigen. rabbit anti-hsv antibody (immunoglobulin g fraction) was coated on flat-bottom, irradiated, 96-well polystyrene microtiter plates and served to capture hsv antigen. clinical specimens from patients with genital herpes were added. biotin-linked rabbit anti-hsv immunoglobulin g was used as the second antibody. the antigen-antibody compl ...19846086705
antibodies to a synthetic oligopeptide that react with herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 glycoprotein c.nucleotide sequence and mrna localization studies have allowed the prediction of the amino acid sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein c (gc). we immunized a rabbit with a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and a synthetic peptide having the same sequence as that deduced for amino acids 128 through 139 of hsv-1 gc. a very similar amino acid sequence has been predicted to exist in the related product, herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) gc, which was formerly designated gf. p ...19846086954
small fragments of herpesvirus dna with transforming activity contain insertion sequence-like structures.a 737-base-pair fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna with morphological-transforming ability was identified by transfecting into rodent cells deleted fragments of the left-hand end of the bgl ii n fragment region (map position 0.58-0.625), which were constructed in vitro. the transforming sequences lie within the coding region for a mr 61,000 protein, but the fragment itself does not appear to specify a viral polypeptide. contained within the transforming fragment are sequences that can b ...19846087345
reliable identification of herpes simplex viruses by dna restriction endonuclease analysis with ecori.a simple procedure that permits the rapid identification of clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (hsv, type 1 or type 2) on the basis of stable and type-specific differences in the ecori restriction endonuclease patterns of the hsv-1 and hsv-2 genomes was tested for reliability. complete concordance was first obtained for 298 hsv isolates typed by standard laboratory procedures and by analysis of the dna profiles. two other hsv isolates showing intermediate biologic, immunologic, and/or bio ...19846087480
inapparent genital herpes simplex infection in women attending a venereal disease clinic.the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic genital infection with herpes simplex virus in women attending a venereal disease clinic in puerto rico. genital samples were obtained from 123 consecutively enrolled patients. vero cells were used for viral isolation; isolates demonstrating cytopathic effect were stored at -70 c and were typed by use of monoclonal antibodies. herpes simplex virus was isolated from six patients, three of whom were free of any possible comp ...19846087481
herpes simplex virus transmission: condom studies.the incidence of genital herpes simplex infections has risen at a rapid rate over the past 20 years. sexually active young adults ask whether condoms will effectively block the transmission of herpes simplex virus from one individual to another. using a laboratory plunger model to stimulate human coitus, the authors have shown that high concentrations of hsv-2 did not cross the latex or natural membrane condoms that were tested. we have also shown that high concentrations of hsv-2 left in contac ...19846087482
herpes simplex virus type-2 glycoprotein-subunit vaccine: tolerance and humoral and cellular responses in humans.twenty-three subjects were administered three doses of inactivated herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein-subunit vaccine, with doses 2 and 3 being given four and 22 weeks after dose 1. both hsv-neutralizing antibody and antibody effective in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity were detected in serum samples of 12 of the 13 initially seronegative subjects by week 8. the geometric mean titers of both antibody types decreased between weeks 8 and 22 but increased one week ...19846088648
immunity in the female genital tract after intravaginal vaccination of mice with an attenuated strain of herpes simplex virus type 2.herpes simplex virus type 2 is a common human venereal pathogen which causes lethal neurological illness after intravaginal inoculation into balb/cj mice. to investigate whether an attenuated, nonlethal strain of this virus would confer immunity after inoculation of mice, we constructed a strain containing a partial deletion of the thymidine kinase gene, which is necessary for viral replication and spread in sensory ganglia. unlike its wild-type counterpart, this deletion-containing strain of he ...19846088797
rapid identification of cloned hsv2 dna fragments.randomly generated herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) dna fragments can be localized on the viral genome by digestion with smai and subsequent comparison of the resulting fragment patterns with a reference picture of smai-digested recombinant plasmids that contain inserts representing the entire hsv2 (strain 333) genome as adjacent fragments. the feasibility of the technique, which we call 'sma fingerprinting' and which is much faster than fragment identification by blot hybridization, is demons ...19846090338
the immunocytochemical detection of herpes simplex virus in cervical smears--a valuable technique for routine use.herpes simplex virus type 2 is demonstrated in routine cervical smears by immunocytochemistry. optimum antibody dilution and suitable fixation were determined and immunostaining results were found to compare favourably with those obtained by screening papanicolaou-stained smears or by virus culture methods (virus isolation). results obtained for immunostaining of smears from 158 patients agreed with those of virus isolation in 47 of 50 cases where virus isolation was performed. it is suggested t ...19846090625
characterization of herpes simplex virus 1 alpha proteins 0, 4, and 27 with monoclonal antibodies.analyses of the reactivity and patterns of synthesis of infected cell polypeptides (icps) specified by herpes simplex virus (hsv) 1 and 2 and by hsv-1 x hsv-2 recombinants indicated that monoclonal antibody h1183 reacted with hsv-1 alpha icp0, whereas monoclonal antibody h1113 reacted with both hsv-1 and hsv-2 alpha icp27. h1083 and h1113 and a monoclonal antibody to icp4 (h640) similar to one previously described (d. k. braun et al., j. virol. 46:103-112.) were then used to study the properties ...19846090689
extensive homology between the herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein f gene and the herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein c gene.the region of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) genome which maps colinearly with the hsv-1 glycoprotein c (gc) gene has been cloned, and the dna sequence of a 2.29-kilobase region has been determined. contained within this sequence is a major open reading frame of 479 amino acids. the carboxyterminal three-fourths of the derived hsv-2 protein sequence showed a high degree of sequence homology to the hsv-1 gc amino acid sequence reported by frink et al. (j. virol. 45:634-647, 1983). the am ...19846090692
complement-requiring neutralizing antibody in guinea pigs with primary and recurrent genital herpes.guinea pigs inoculated intravaginally with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strain 1868 produced a serum complement-requiring neutralizing (crn) antibody during primary acute infection, i.e., 10 days postinoculation. the crn antibody titers in the guinea pig sera decreased to less than 1:10 after heating at 56 degrees c for 30 min. it was found that 32 units of complement were necessary to obtain a satisfactory hsv-2 neutralizing antibody titer. nonheated sera significantly reduced virus infe ...19846091148
more rapid isolation of herpes simplex virus in a continuous line of mink lung cells than in vero or human fibroblast cells.herpes simplex virus (hsv) was isolated from clinical specimens more rapidly in mink lung (ml) cells, a continuous cell line available from a commercial supplier, than in vero cells or human fibroblast (hf) cells. stock strains of hsv type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 titered higher in ml cells than in vero or hf cells. ml cells were equivalent to rabbit kidney (rk) cells in the isolation of hsv in clinical specimens, but titers of stock hsv strains were lower. ml cells could be employed to type strains ...19846091988
the antiviral spectrum of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine.the antiviral activity spectrum of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) is not restricted to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv) but also encompasses several other herpesviruses such as suid herpesvirus type 1 (shv-1), bovid herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), simian varicella virus (svv), herpesvirus saimiri, herpesvirus platyrrhinae, and the baculovirus trichoplusia ni multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus. other herpesviruses such as herpes simplex virus type 2, ...19846092320
expression of recombinant genes containing herpes simplex virus delayed-early and immediate-early regulatory regions and trans activation by herpesvirus infection.the promoter-regulatory regions from the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) gene for the immediate-early, 175,000-molecular-weight (175k) protein and the hsv-2 delayed-early gene for a 38k protein were linked to the readily assayable bacterial gene for the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat). unexpectedly, in measurements of the constitutive expression of the recombinant genes 40 to 50 h after transfection of vero cells, enzyme levels expressed from the delayed-early 38k-promoter-cat ...19846092673
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 homology in the region between 0.58 and 0.68 map units.the homology between herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2, respectively) dna between 0.58 and 0.674 map units was compared by southern and dot blot analysis with dna of one type of virus as a hybridization probe against the other type. regions of high homology were interspersed with regions of detectably lower homology. however, only one region (between 0.647 and 0.653 map units) contained few or no homologous sequences. in situ rna blot hybridization demonstrated that the mrn ...19846092683
ribonucleotide reductase of herpes simplex virus type 2 resembles that of herpes simplex virus type 1.the ribonucleotide reductase (ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase; ec induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of serum-starved bhk-21 cells was purified to provide a preparation practically free of both eucaryotic ribonucleotide reductase and contaminating enzymes that could significantly deplete the substrates. certain key properties of the herpes simplex virus type 2 ribonucleotide reductase were examined to define the extent to which it resembled the herpes simplex virus t ...19846092726
the nervous system in genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in mice. lethal panmyelitis or nonlethal demyelinative myelitis or meningitis.female mice were inoculated vaginally with the ms strain of herpes simplex virus type 2, and serially positive vaginal cultures were used to confirm infection. the proportion of mice infected and the mortality rate in infected mice decreased with increasing age. in mice 12 weeks old, clinical, neuropathologic, and virologic criteria defined four patterns of disease. moribund mice had severe genital lesions, hindleg paralysis, and urinary and fecal retention, and most died during the second week ...19846092778
characterisation of a herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant which has a temperature-sensitive defect in penetration of cells and assembly of capsids.a herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) mutant, ts1204, which has a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutation located within genome map coordinates 0.318 to 0.324, close to but outside the coding sequences of the glycoprotein gb gene, has been characterised. although this mutant adsorbed to the cell surface at the nonpermissive temperature (npt), it failed to penetrate the cell membrane. as a consequence of this defect, high multiplicities of infection of ts1204 blocked subsequent infection of cells by ...19846093367
interactions between herpes simplex virus dna-binding proteins.monoclonal antibodies directed against several herpes simplex virus (hsv)-induced dna-binding proteins were used to investigate protein interactions in hsv-infected cells. q1 monoclonal antibody, which is specific for the hsv-induced alkaline nuclease, when used in an immunoadsorbant column resulted in the purification of the alkaline nuclease, to which large quantities of the major dna-binding protein were bound. conversely, when a monoclonal antibody to the major dna-binding protein was used i ...19846094715
infection of murine hepatocyte cultures by herpes simplex virus (hsv) 1 and 2.a study was undertaken of the interaction between liver cells and herpes simplex virus (hsv) in vitro. hepatocytes were obtained from hsv-resistant (c57/b16) and from hsv-susceptible (balb/c, a/j, c3h) mouse strains and cultured according to standard methods. each culture was infected with several strains of hsv-type 1 or of hsv-type 2, respectively. the multiplicity of infection was 5. the cytopathic effect was evaluated by light- and electron-microscopy. the number of infectious particles was ...19846094943
herpes simplex virus latency in immunosuppressed determine the role of antibodies in establishing herpes simplex virus (hsv) latency, immunosuppressed swiss mice were experimentally infected in the right hind footpad with a hsv-1 x hsv-2 recombinant (c6d) with low virulence. immunosuppression was induced by repeated intraperitoneal inoculations of cyclophosphamide (cy) and the production of antibodies to c6d in immunosuppressed animals was monitored by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). within 21 days after inoculation, c6d was able ...19846094985
the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection on the genital tract of the female mice--a virological and cytopathological study. 19836096260
sequence of the putative origin of replication in the ul region of herpes simplex virus type 1 ang dna.interest has been stimulated concerning the region mapping between 0.38 and 0.42 on the prototype configuration of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) genome due to the high probability of the presence there of a second origin of dna replication. a 960 bp restriction fragment (hinfi e) of a class ii defective hsv-1 ang dna has been sequenced using the viral dna rather than molecularly cloned dna. this fragment includes the bamhi u/r cleavage site, mapping at approximately 0.4. part of the se ...19846096489
pathogenesis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in mice. iii. comparison of the virulence of wild and mutant strains.this study was undertaken to establish the role of virulence of various herpes simplex virus (hsv) strains in the course of infection when applying the virus to the non-injured mucous membranes of mice. wild-type hsv-type 1 (hsv-1) strains with marked differences in their neurovirulence following intracerebral inoculation showed minor differences in virulence after vaginal inoculation, but essentially their neurovirulence in cerebral infection corresponded to their virulence on the mucous membra ...19846096684
metabolic fate of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in herpes simplex virus- and mock-infected cells.(e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine is a potent antiherpes compound with far better activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 than type 2. to understand the role of drug metabolism in this differential antiviral activity, we examined the metabolic fate of this drug in virus-infected and mock-infected vero cells by high-pressure liquid chromatography. after 8 h of incubation in which cells were exposed to 10 micrograms of the drug per ml, 63 pmol/10(6) cells of the parent compound was detecte ...19846097176
alteration of lymphocyte transformation response to herpes simplex virus infection by acyclovir evaluate the effect of acyclovir (acv) therapy on the cellular immune response, we sequentially followed 43 patients with culture-proven first episodes of genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection. twenty-three patients who were treated with acv and 20 who received placebo had blood obtained weekly during the first 6 weeks after onset of lesions and had their in vitro lymphocyte transformation (lt) response to inactivated hsv antigens measured. the mean stimulation index to hsv antigens at ...19846098221
monoclonal antibodies against herpes simplex viruses.hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against hsv-1 and 2 have been produced. balb/c mice were immunized by footpad infection and boosted by i.v. injection of viral antigens extracted from virus infected balb/c fibroblasts. after fusion hybrid cells were screened for antibody production by elisa and indirect immunofluorescence (iif). in our hands, iif had similar sensitivity and higher specificity than elisa but was more time-consuming. selected hybridomas have been characterized ...19846098497
[studies of the nature of tubular structures which appear in herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cells. studies with temperature-sensitive mutants]. 19846099328
use of aggregating brain cultures to study the replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in central nervous system tissue.a novel tissue culture system consisting of reaggregated embryonic mouse brain cells was used to examine the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) within central nervous system tissue. brain aggregates cultured 30-40 days in vitro demonstrated progressive maturation and differentiation into cells recognizable as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, with the latter cell type exhibiting myelin production. mature aggregates were infected with hsv and sampled at ...19846099372
herpes simplex virus genital infection of the female guinea pig as a model for the evaluation of an experimental vaccine.substantial protection against herpes simplex type 2 (hsv 2) infection of the female guinea pig genital tract was provided by immunization with an experimental hsv 2 vaccine prepared from the plasma membranes of infected mrc-5 cells. protection was evaluated in terms of the modification of histopathological lesions and clinical signs and in changes in viral replication and serological responses in vaccinated and control animals.19846099646
antibodies to membrane antigens of herpes simplex virus type-2 infected cells and hsv-2 specific antibodies in patients with cervical cancer in a geographical study involving the united kingdom, sudan, sri lanka and malawi, sera were taken from 27 malawian patients with cervical cancer and 18 controls matched for age, ethnic origin and socioeconomic status. the sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence for igg and iga antibodies to membrane antigens of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2). the results showed that there was no significant difference at titres 1:4 between malawian patients and controls, but at titres 1:16 the diff ...19846100279
role of cytomegalovirus in kaposi's sarcoma.previous studies have established an association between cytomegalovirus (cmv) and classic and endemic kaposi's sarcoma (ks) which can be extended to include the epidemic form of ks. the identification of nucleic acid sequences homologous to cmv but not to epstein-barr virus (ebv) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) as well as the detection of cmv gene products, particularly early antigens, in tumour biopsies and/or early cultures derived from them is an important criterio ...19846100282
herpes simplex virus type 2 and cervical cancer. 19846100718
tumorigenicity of herpesvirus-transformed cells correlates with production of plasminogen activator.our studies first demonstrated that established hamster cell lines transformed in vitro by herpesviruses activate plasminogen more effectively than normal hamster fibroblasts. this ability is probably due to increased levels of the enzyme plasminogen activator (pa). in the studies described here, the 333-8-9 cell line, originally transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 strain 333, was used to derive subclonal lines that maintained stable pa phenotypes over the course of long in vitro passage. ...19816100964
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and multiple sclerosis.a hypothesis is proposed which states that multiple sclerosis (ms) is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in persons lacking herpes simplex virus type 1(hsv-1) immunity. it is examined by comparing the epidemiology of these viruses with that of ms. the age at which hsv-2 infections are first detected, as well as the age of peak incidence are similar to those for ms. if age-specific hsv-1 immunity data from various places is compared, an inverse relationship of immunity levels with lati ...19816116906
correlation of the chemical structure of 4-nitroquinolines inactivating human cytomegalovirus and established in vivo carcinogenicity tests.inactivation of the infectivity of human cytomegalovirus (cmv) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) has been observed following exposure to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (nqo) or its metabolite, 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide (haqo). the present study of the specificity of the chemical structure of 4-nitroquinolines demonstrated that both the 4-nitro and 1-oxide groups were required for inactivation of virus infectivity. reduction of the 4-nitro group to a 4-hydroxyamino group ...19806119808
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