TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
virion component of herpes simplex virus type 1 kos interferes with early shutoff of host protein synthesis induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 186.herpes simplex virus (hsv) strains hsv type 1 (hsv-1) kos and hsv-2 186 are representative of delayed and early shutoff strains, respectively, with regard to their ability to inhibit protein synthesis in friend erythroleukemia cells. when these cells were simultaneously infected with hsv-1 kos and hsv-2 186, hsv-1 kos interfered with the rapid suppression of globin synthesis induced by hsv-2 186. the observed interference was competitive and not due to exclusion of hsv-2 by hsv-1 at the level of ...19852993660
cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus ascending myelitis in a patient with acquired immune deficiency ascending myelitis was the presenting feature of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids) in a homosexual man who also had kaposi's sarcoma, pneumocystis pneumonia, and disseminated cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection. neuropathological studies showed profuse cytomegalic cells throughout the brain and spinal cord, but no inflammatory response. at postmortem examination, cmv and herpes simplex virus, type 2 (hsv-2), were recovered from multiple sites throughout the central nervous s ...19852994553
immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of serological responses in patients infected with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.serological responses to soluble membrane and cytoplasmic antigens specified by herpes simplex type 1 (hsv1) and 2 (hsv2) were studied by immunoblotting and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). in the immunoblotting test, polypeptides migrating like the hsv1-specified glycoprotein c showed type-specific reactivity but could not always be detected. the immunoblotting and elisa results were in agreement when antibody responses to hsv1- and hsv2-specified antigens were compared, and they a ...19852995271
differences in humoral immunogenicity between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.infection of nmri mice with increasing doses of six different strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) induced increasing levels of neutralizing antibodies. in contrast, three strains of hsv-2, irrespective of the dose, induced only marginal antibody responses. only strain hg 52 (hsv-2) at high doses of infection stimulated antibody formation. the virus content of some organs in 6- to 8-week-old mice appeared to be lower after hsv-2 than after hsv-1 infection. application of immune-modulat ...19852995556
inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication in vitro by human cytotoxic t cell clones and natural killer cell clones.the abilities of human cytotoxic t cell (ctl) clones and natural killer (nk) cell clones to inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in vitro were shown. the specificities of clones inhibiting hsv replication were the same as those of cytotoxicity in hsv type specificity and hla restriction, i.e. hsv type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv type 2 (hsv-2) common ctl clones inhibited the replication of both hsv-1 and hsv-2 in autologous cells, but not in allogeneic cells. hsv-1-specific ctl clones inh ...19852995557
acute and latent herpes simplex virus neurological disease in mice immunized with purified virus-specific glycoproteins gb or gd.groups of 5-week-old balb/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with approximately 10 micrograms of purified alum-precipitated glycoprotein gb or gd of either herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2) origin. control mice received injections of alum-precipitated 1% bovine serum albumin (bsa). following a second immunization 4 weeks later, seroconversion was confirmed by demonstrating the presence of glycoprotein-specific antibody by immune precipitation. all animals were challenged ...19852995573
(+/-)-2-amino-3,4-dihydro-7-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)-1- cyclopentyl]-7h-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ones: new carbocyclic analogues of 7-deazaguanosine with antiviral activity.5-allyl-2-amino-4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine (3) was chlorinated and ozonized to yield (2-amino-4,6-dichloro-pyrimidin-5-yl)acetaldehyde (5). acetalization of 5 with ethanol afforded a new pyrimidine intermediate 6 which can lead to 2-amino-3,4-dihydro-7-alkyl-7h-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ones and therefore to carbocyclic analogues of 7-deazaguanosine. the 7-substituent was a cyclopentyl analogue of the arabinofuranosyl moiety in 10a, lyxofuranosyl moiety in 10b, and ribofuranosyl moiety in 10c. comp ...19852995667
effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on interaction of human cytomegalovirus with host cell: conversion of a nonproductive state of cell to a productive state for virus replication.the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso) on the interaction of human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) with host cell was studied. confluent state of a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line (a204) showed a much lower susceptibility to hcmv infection when compared to that in subconfluent actively growing cell cultures. treatment of confluent cultures with dmso, however, converted many nonproductive cells in these cultures to a productive state for virus replication. infectious center assay revealed that approxima ...19852996216
immunoperoxidase staining for the detection of herpes simplex virus antigen in cervicovaginal smears.destained cervicovaginal smears from eight patients with herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections were stained by means of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap) technique to demonstrate the presence of the hsv type 2 (hsv-2) antigen. positive results were obtained in six of the eight cases, with intense staining for the hsv-2-specific antigen throughout the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells having a ground-glass nuclear appearance as well as in multinucleated giant cells. virus isolation was successfully ...19852996270
herpes simplex viral infection in human neonates: an immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study.specimens obtained at autopsy from six neonates with herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections were examined microscopically, electron microscopically, and immunohistochemically. coagulative necrosis with inclusions was found in the livers and adrenal glands in all cases, as well as in various other organs, including the spleen, bone marrow, lungs, esophagus, tongue, and thymus, in some cases. distinct hemorrhagic diathesis was found in three cases. no characteristic clinical findings, such as skin ...19852997017
the sources of thymidine nucleotides for virus dna synthesis in herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cells.the thymidine nucleotide sources present during herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection were examined. it was concluded that the source of dttp in hsv-2-infected cells is not only derived from the ribonucleotide reductase-catalyzed de novo pathway, but also from host dna. when the de novo pathway was inhibited by the addition of hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, the dttp levels were maintained by a compensatory increase in dttp derived from host dna. the utilization of ...19852997161
humoral immune response to herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoproteins in patients receiving a glycoprotein subunit vaccine.serial serum specimens from 22 herpes simplex virus (hsv)-seronegative recipients of an hsv type 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein subunit vaccine were analyzed by radioimmunoprecipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the development of antibodies to hsv-2 gb, gd, and g80, a complex of gc and ge. volunteers received 50 (n = 12) or 100 micrograms (n = 10) of vaccine at days 0, 28, and 140; sera were drawn weekly for 8 weeks and again at days 140, 147, and 365. among seronegative volunteers, an ...19852997470
evaluation of two rapid methods for the detection of herpes simplex virus antigen in patient indirect immunofluorescent antibody procedure (ifa) for the detection and typing of herpes simplex virus (hsv) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) procedure were compared with conventional viral culture. specimens for culture and elisa were inoculated into serum free viral transport medium (vtm) and, for ifa, onto slides provided in the kit. tissue cultures (mrc-5 and primary rabbit kidney) were inoculated and examined daily for cytopathogenic effect (cpe). the remaining vtm was ...19852998264
topical butylated hydroxytoluene treatment of genital herpes simplex virus infections of guinea pigs.the effect of topical treatment with butylated hydroxytoluene (bht) was evaluated in primary and recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection of guinea pigs. in the first experiment, treatment with placebo, 5%, 10%, or 15% bht was initiated 48 h after viral inoculation and continued 4 times daily for 15 days. during primary infection no differences in maximum lesion severity or titers of virus in lesions were observed, however, lesion duration was reduced in bht-treated animal ...19852998276
delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol decreases host resistance to herpes simplex virus type 2 vaginal infection in the b6c3f1 mouse.the effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-thc) on host resistance to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) vaginal infection in the b6c3f1 mouse was determined. animals were given delta-9-thc or vehicle on days -1 to 2, or cyclophosphamide on day -1 or on days -1 to 2. hsv-2 was introduced intravaginally on day 0. host resistance to virus infection was assessed by comparing frequency and severity of lesions, virus shedding and mortalities. replicate groups of animals were bled on days 5, ...19852999306
synthetic glycoprotein d-related peptides protect mice against herpes simplex virus challenge.glycoprotein d (gd) of herpes simplex virus (hsv) protects mice from a lethal challenge by either hsv type 1 (hsv-1; oral) or hsv-2 (genital). we evaluated whether synthetic peptides representing residues 1 through 23 of gd (mature protein) can be used as a potential synthetic herpesvirus vaccine. the immunogenicity of the peptides was demonstrated by the biological reactivity of antipeptide sera in immunoprecipitation and neutralization assays. all sera which immunoprecipitated gd had neutraliz ...19852999419
effect of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 on surface expression of class i major histocompatibility complex antigens on infected cells.cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) generated in c57bl/6 (h-2b) mice in response to infection with the serologically distinct herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2) were cross-reactive against target cells infected with either serotype. however, hsv-2-infected cells were shown to be much less susceptible to ctl-mediated lysis, and analysis through the use of hsv-1 x hsv-2 intertypic recombinants mapped the reduced susceptibility to a region contained within 0.82 to 1.00 map units of the ...19852999432
a modular system for the assay of transcription regulatory signals: the sequence taatgarat is required for herpes simplex virus immediate early gene activation.a modular system for assaying the activity of transcriptional regulatory signals based on herpes simplex virus (hsv) promoter and terminator sequences linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene has been used to study activation of hsv immediate early (ie) gene expression. insertion of the sv40 72 base pair (bp) repeat increased mrna levels by 15-fold thus demonstrating the ability of the hsv ie promoter to respond to a heterologous enhancer. a fragment containing part o ...19852999706
expression of the herpes simplex virus type-2 major dna-binding protein (icp8) gene in cos-1 the use of an sv40 origin of replication plasmid vector and the cos-1 cell system, expression of the gene encoding the herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) major dna binding protein (icp8) has been achieved. the hsv-2 4.5 kb bglii 0 dna fragment containing the icp8 coding region was inserted into the plasmid vector psvod containing the sv40 origin of replication. transfection of cos-1 cells by the resultant recombinant plasmid (psvod20), and subsequent multiplication of this plasmid, led to th ...19853000103
synergistic effect of human leukocyte interferon and nonoxynol 9 against herpes simplex virus type 2.the nonionic surfactant nonoxynol 9 (np9), in combination with human alpha interferon, synergistically reduced the titer of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in vitro. the degree of synergy was highest at an interferon concentration of 10(3) iu/ml and an np9 dilution of 1:1,500. we postulate that np9 inactivates extracellular hsv-2, whereas interferon inhibits hsv-2 replication at the intracellular level.19853000288
antiviral activity of 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine against herpes simplex viruses in cell culture, mice, and guinea pigs.the susceptibility of 3 laboratory strains and 24 clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) to 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine was determined in plaque reduction assays in vero cells. the median effective doses were 8.6 and 7.8 microm, respectively. the drug was less potent than acyclovir and other related antiviral drugs, but it had a high therapeutic index against both hsv-1 and hsv-2. drug-resistant viruses were readily produced in cell culture. these variants were c ...19853000291
construction of rat cell lines that contain potential morphologically transforming regions of the herpes simplex virus type 2 genome.hybrid recombinant plasmids were constructed; they were composed of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) thymidine kinase (tk) gene and dna sequences of hsv2 that have been reported to induce morphological and/or oncogenic transformation of rodent cells in culture. several plasmids were made in two versions, with or without the simian virus 40 enhancer sequences. these plasmids were employed to transfect contact-inhibited rat-2 tk- cells. it was demonstrated that cell lines with stably integra ...19853000980
recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infection in guinea pigs.after recovery from initial genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections, female guinea pigs developed spontaneous recurrent infections characterized by discrete erythematous or vesicular herpetic lesions on the external genital skin. hsv type 2 (hsv2) caused significantly more recurrent infections in guinea pigs than did hsv type 1 (hsv1). hsv2-infected animals demonstrated a significant decline in frequency of recurrences over time. the viral nature of the recurrent lesions was confirmed by r ...19853000982
the cervical tumor-associated antigen (icp-10/ag-4) is encoded by the transforming region of the genome of herpes simplex virus type 2.bglii fragment c mapping between 0.416 and 0.580 map units (mu) on the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) genome was used for in vitro translation to identify proteins encoded on this fragment. rna homologous to the bglii c fragment directs the synthesis of three proteins with approximate molecular weights of 144,000, 52,000 and 27,000. the 27,000 dalton protein is encoded by sequences within the ecori/hindiii ae fragment (0.419-0.525 mu) that overlap the immortalizing sequences within bglii c. ...19853001010
typing of herpes simplex virus isolates with monoclonal antibodies and by nucleic acid spot hybridization.fifty-one clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (hsv) were typed by an enzyme immunoassay (eia) using mouse monoclonal antibodies, by dna spot hybridization, and by restriction enzyme analysis using restriction endonuclease eco ri. extracts of vero cells infected with the isolates were used for coating microtitre plates or denatured and spotted onto nitrocellulose filters. viral antigens passively adsorbed to microtitre plates were detected by an indirect eia using mouse monoclonal antibodie ...19853001118
detection of herpes simplex virus type 2-specific antibody with glycoprotein g.a recently described herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 (hsv-2)-specific glycoprotein (gg-2) was purified on an immunoaffinity column prepared with monoclonal antibody. this purified antigen was used in an immunodot enzymatic assay on nitrocellulose paper for the detection of hsv-2 antibodies in human serum. the test was very sensitive in that hsv-2 antibodies were detected in the convalescent sera of 132 of 134 patients with recurrent genital infections in which hsv-2 had been isolated earlier. ...19853001136
detection of herpesvirus cervicovaginitis by a sequential papanicolaou--immunoperoxidase technique.herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection constitutes an immediate threat to the neonate of pregnant women who deliver vaginally, and thus requires a rapid, specific means of diagnosis that is easily applicable to cervicovaginal smears. we applied the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique to variously fixed, previously stained papanicolaou smears from 60 women with hsv and 18 negative controls using an hsv-2 antibody and either diaminobenzidine (dab) or aminoethylcarbazol (aec) as the chromogen and may ...19852424682
anti-herpes simplex virus and cytostatic activity of some new 5-substituted 1-(4-hydroxybutyl)-and 1-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl) uracil nucleoside analogues.two series of 5-substituted acyclic uracil nucleoside analogues (5-x-acyclo-u) were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against three herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strains and one type 2 (hsv-2) strain in a plaque inhibition assay on human embryonic lung fibroblast (helf) cell cultures as well as for their ability to inhibit the proliferation of baby hamster kidney cells in suspension (bhk-s) culture. acyclovir [9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine; acv] and (s)-9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adeni ...19852864819
herpes simplex virus hepatitis in mice: effects of treatment with trisodium phosphonoformate.clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) induced focal necrotic hepatitis in icr/schö mice. the extent of the hepatitis could be considerably reduced by trisodium phosphonoformate (pfa) administered for 3 days in a daily dose of 400-600 mg/kg. the hsv hepatitis in mice could serve as a suitable model for testing antiherpetic drugs.19852869661
multistep transformation by defined fragments of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna: oncogenic region and its gene product.diploid syrian hamster embryo cells transfected with bgl ii c fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna acquired a neoplastic phenotype. cultures transfected with its left-hand 64% subclone ecori/hindiii fragment ae (0.419-0.525 map unit) grew into established but nontumorigenic lines. transfection of ecori/hindiii ae-immortalized cells with a 4.4-kilobase sac i/bamhi subfragment within bamhi e (0.554-0.584 map unit; overlaps the right-hand 16% of bgl ii c) converted them to tumorigenicity. th ...19853001705
risk of recurrence after treatment of first-episode genital herpes with intravenous determine whether intravenous acyclovir treatment for a first episode of genital herpes could prevent or reduce subsequent recurrences, we combined and analyzed the results of two independently conducted, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. sixty-one patients were enrolled in the two trials; 30 received the drug, and 31 received placebo. at entry the demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical features of acyclovir- and placebo-treated patients from the two centers showed no si ...19853001952
herpes simplex virus antigen detection in human acute encephalitis: an immunohistochemical study using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method.autopsy specimens from six patients with clinically diagnosed herpes simplex virus (hsv) encephalitis were studied. since immunocytochemistry has been reported to be a more reliable and successful method to identify hsv as the etiologic agent, antitype 1 hsv (hsv1) and antitype 2 hsv (hsv2) and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (abc) method were applied to brain paraffin sections. positive immunostaining was observed in front-orbital, mediobasal temporal lobes, cingulate gyrus, and insula. th ...19853002087
[inhibition of virus multiplication by immunoactive peptides].in the present study we show that peritoneal macrophages obtained from the mice treated with the immunoactive peptides inhibit the multiplication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2), but not that of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), and that the intraperitoneal administration of the peptides suppresses the infection with hsv-1 in mice.19853002570
detection of herpes simplex virus type-2 antigen(s) in biopsies from carcinoma of the uterine cervix.indirect immunofluorescence technique was employed to detect herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) antigens in tumor biopsies from 215 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. a total of 169 samples (79%) revealed brilliant nuclear fluorescence. inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor mass were positive to 60 of the 215 patients (28%). samples showed no significant variation in the degree of fluorescence or proportion of cells binding hsv antibody with advancement in the clinical stage of ...19852431113
the effect of food dye and other environmental substances on the host defense reaction in mice in relation to virus infection.environmental substances were examined for their effect on interferon induction and delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) responses in mice. amaranth, safrole, phenacetin and nicotine suppressed the dth response, and suppressed the serum interferon titers induced by virus infection. however, they did not affect the interferon titers which were induced by tilorone, a chemical inducer. the peak of interferon titer was 12 hours after infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). therefore, amar ...19862432279
enhancement of host resistance against virus infections by mtp-pe, a synthetic lipophilic muramyl peptide--i. increased survival in mice and guinea pigs after single drug administration prior to infection, and the effect of mtp-pe on interferon levels in sera and lungs.muramyl tripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine (mtp-pe, cgp 19835) displays prophylactic antiviral activity in mice infected with influenza viruses a and b, parainfluenza 1 virus or herpes simplex type 1 viruses (hsv/1) and in guinea pigs infected with herpes simplex type 2 viruses (hsv/2). mtp-pe is effective when given in a single intranasal dose as early as 1-4 weeks before infection. in the case of hsv/2 infections, prophylactic effectiveness can be demonstrated after a single topical applicati ...19862433236
mothers of children with down syndrome have higher herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) antibody levels.the antibody response to herpes simplex virus (hsv) was studied in 53 mothers of children with down syndrome (ds) and compared with that in 154 controls, using sera sampled during pregnancy or at delivery. conventional analysis of hsv complement fixing antibodies showed the same frequency of positivity for the two groups (70%). when the levels of igg antibodies to an hsv-1 and an hsv-2 antigen preparation were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) technique, it was found tha ...19863002957
infection of the adrenal gland as a route to the central nervous system after viraemia with herpes simplex virus in the mouse.intravenous inoculation of 4-week-old female nih (inbred) mice with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strain p2c6 (defective in thymidine kinase) produced bilateral hind limb paralysis in nearly all animals by the 5th day after inoculation; very few mice died. in male mice the incidence and severity of paralysis was considerably lower than in females. the parental strain, cl(101), produced similar paralysis but all mice died by day 7. observations on paralysis and death after intravenous inocu ...19863003239
an in vitro latency system for herpes simplex virus type in vitro latency system for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in cultured cells has been developed. virus replication was suppressed by infection of human foetal lung cells at the supraoptimal temperature of 42 degrees c, and, following transfer of such cell cultures to the normal growth temperature of 37 degrees c, infectious virus was generally undetectable for at least 6 days. hsv-2 was reactivated by intertypic superinfection at 38.5 degrees c with temperature-sensitive mutants of hsv-1 ...19863003243
age-specific prevalence of antibodies to pyrimidine kinase enzymes of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and of varicella zoster virus.the age-specific prevalence of antibodies to pyrimidine kinase enzymes of herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) and of varicella zoster virus (vzv) was measured in serum specimens from 360 persons. specific inhibition of viral enzyme activity by the serum was used as an indication of the presence of antibodies to the enzyme. for hsv-1 and hsv-2 together the overall prevalence of positive sera increased with age and reached about 50% in the older age groups, the major part of the pos ...19863003247
hexavalent capsomers of herpes simplex virus type 2: symmetry, shape, dimensions, and oligomeric status.the structures of the hexavalent capsomers of herpes simplex virus type 2 were analyzed by negative staining electron microscopy of capsomer patches derived from partially disrupted nucleocapsids. optimally computer-averaged images were formed for each of the three classes of capsomer distinguished by their respective positions on the surface of the icosahedral capsid with a triangulation number of 16; in projection, each capsomer exhibited unequivocal sixfold symmetry. according to corresponden ...19863003389
hsv infected raji-cells specify hsv specific immediate early and/or early dna-binding proteins.herpes simplex virus specified dna-binding proteins were purified from virus infected vero and raji cells. the expression of the proteins differed depending on the type of the host cell. polypeptides corresponding to hsv-1 specific icp 8 and hsv-2 specific icsp 11/12 were the major products of hsv-infected vero cells. in raji cells polypeptides with a corresponding molecular weight, together with a cellular protein having almost similar mobility on sds gels could be detected. using immuno-blotti ...19863002298
transcriptional induction of cellular gene expression during lytic infection with herpes simplex virus.herpes simplex virus type 2 causes a severe repression of host cell biosynthesis at a number of levels. we show that despite this, non-viral cdna clones derived from cellular rna species which accumulate to high levels after infection can be isolated using differential screening techniques. by using nuclear run-off assays, we have shown that this rna accumulation is mediated by transcriptional induction of the corresponding cellular genes.19862883998
induction of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by ultraviolet light. 19862870285
studies on interactions of dtk-hsv mutants with neurons in vitro.thymidine kinase negative (dtk-) mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) multiplied well in rat brain glioma cells. a proportion (less than 1%) of glioma cells survived the infection with hsv and were designated "survivor" glioma cells. survivor cells of dtk- mutant virus infection ceased to produce infectious virus after two passages and were highly resistant to both hsv-1 and hsv-2 but not to vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv). flow cytometric studies indicated morphological differences b ...19862871727
early intrathecal production of specific igm and igg antibodies and alpha-interferon in herpes simplex virus encephalitis.a complex approach was used in order to establish non-invasively the aetiology in three cases of encephalitis presumptively caused by herpes simplex virus (hsv). as indicative of brain hsv infection was considered the lowered serum to cerebrospinal fluid specific antibody ratio, which also assessed the humoral immune response within the cns. for this purpose, during ongoing brain tissue infection, the early intrathecal (ith) production of igg and igm antibodies was analysed by a differential enz ...19862873733
induction of chromosomal aberrations in human cells by a temperature-sensitive mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2 and its revertants.the induction of chromosomal aberrations by a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strain hg52 (ts 13), its revertants 4-8 and 5-8 and by etalon strains hsv-1 17 syn+ and hsv-2 hg52 was studied in human fibroblast and lymphocyte cultures. the effect on chromosomes of the revertants was tested at permissive (31 degrees c) and non-permissive (38 degrees c) temperatures. at 38 degrees c the revertants could not induce dnase activity. the present results contribut ...19862874732
vaccine potential of a live avirulent herpes simplex virus.we previously described a herpes simplex intertypic recombinant that is completely and specifically non-neurovirulent following intracranial inoculation. in this report the vaccine potential of this mutant (re6) is analyzed. it is shown that re6 replicates to wild type levels at the peripheral site of inoculation (the mouse footpad) but, unlike its virulent parental strains, does not replicate to detectable levels in lumbosacral ganglia. a single vaccination with re6 is sufficient to completely ...19862854601
structural features of ribonucleotide reductase.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) encodes a ribonucleotide reductase which comprises two polypeptides with sizes of 136,000 (rr1) and 38,000 mol. wt. (rr2). we have determined the entire dna sequence specifying hsv-1 rr1 and have identified two adjacent open reading frames in varicella-zoster virus (vzv) which have homology to hsv rr1 and rr2; the predicted sizes for the vzv rr1 and rr2 polypeptides are 87,000 and 35,000 mol. wt. respectively. amino acid comparisons with rr1 and rr2 polypeptid ...19862835765
acyclovir treatment of disseminated herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in weanling mice: alteration of mortality and pathogenesis.intranasal inoculation of weanling mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) provides an experimental infection that closely resembles disseminated and central nervous system hsv infections of human neonates. intraperitoneal treatment with acyclovir (acv) successfully reduced mortality even when therapy was begun as late as 2 days and oral therapy as late as 4 days after viral challenge. treatment with acv beginning on day 1 completely inhibited hsv-2 replication in lung, spleen, kidney, olf ...19862427021
antiviral effect of two aryl-oligopeptides, fr41565 and fr48217.macrophages from mice pretreated with two chemically synthesized immunostimulating aryl-oligopeptides, fr41565 and fr48217, inhibited the multiplication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) in monkey vero cells, and that of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) in murine l929 cells. in addition, the aryl-oligopeptides protected mice against a lethal hsv-1 infection. in particular, when treated with fr48217 at 6 mg/kg, all mice survived, whereas all control mice died from the hsv- ...19862427022
localization of discontinuous epitopes of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d: use of a nondenaturing ("native" gel) system of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with western blotting.previously, a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mcab) was used to define specific epitopes of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d (gd) (r. j. eisenberg et al., j. virol. 53:634-644, 1985). three groups of antibodies recognized continuous epitopes; group vii reacted with residues 11 to 19 of the mature protein (residues 36 to 44 of the predicted sequence), group ii reacted with residues 272 to 279, and group v reacted with residues 340 to 356. four additional antibody groups recognized discontinuou ...19862427745
immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2: viral antigen-presenting capacity of epidermal cells and its impairment by ultraviolet irradiation.ia+ epidermal cells (ec) had accessory cell function for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-induced t cell proliferation of immune lymph node cells (lnc). the ec-mediated virus-induced proliferative response of immune lnc was inhibited by ultraviolet b (uvb) irradiation. when ec were pulsed with viral antigen before uvb irradiation, the response was partially restored by addition of epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor (etaf). although normal ec secreted prostaglandin e2, the leve ...19863001186
herpes simplex virus specifies two subunits of ribonucleotide reductase encoded by 3'-coterminal transcripts.we have previously described a transcription unit located between map coordinates 0.558 and 0.595 on the herpes simplex virus type 2 strain 333 genome which encodes two mrnas of 5.0 and 1.2 kilobases that share a common 3' terminus, and we have determined the nucleotide sequence of a 38,000-dalton protein specified by the smaller rna (d. a. galloway and m. a. swain, j. virol. 49:724-730, 1984). the entire nucleotide sequence of the 140,000-dalton protein specified by a 3,432-base-pair open readi ...19862419588
human antibody response to herpes simplex virus-specific polypeptides after primary and recurrent infection.human antibody responses to specific polypeptides of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2, respectively) were assessed in serial serum specimens from 18 infected patients by immunoblot technology. nine patients had hsv-1 infections (six genital and three oral) and nine had hsv-2 genital infections. antibodies to homologous and heterologous hsv antigens were studied and correlated with total microneutralization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies as well as correlated ...19862422204
human cytotoxic t cell clones directed against herpes simplex virus-infected cells. iv. recognition and activation by cloned glycoproteins gb and gd.results of studies in mice and clinical observations in man indicate that t cell-mediated immunity is important in resistance to herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections. this study was undertaken to elucidate the viral antigen specificity of human hsv-immune t cells. purified hsv-1 glycoproteins gb-1 and gd-1, cloned and expressed in mammalian cells, were found to stimulate proliferation of, and interleukin 2 (il 2) production by, peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) of hsv seropositive individuals, ...19862423598
an analysis of the biological properties of monoclonal antibodies against glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus and identification of amino acid substitutions that confer resistance to neutralization.four monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein d (gd) of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 neutralized virus in the presence of complement but exhibited diverse activities in its absence. amino acid substitutions that conferred resistance to neutralization by each antibody were identified by deriving the nucleotide sequence of the gd gene from resistant mutants. each antibody selected a substitution from different parts of the molecule and mutants resistant to a single antibody always arose f ...19862423636
metabolism and mode of action of (r)-9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)guanine in herpes simplex virus-infected vero cells.the metabolism and mode of action of the anti-herpes compound buciclovir [r)-9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-guanine, bcv) has been studied in herpes simplex virus-infected and uninfected vero cells. in uninfected cells, a low and constant concentration of intracellular bcv was found, while in herpes simplex virus-infected cells, an increasing concentration of bcv phosphates was found due to metabolic trapping. the major phosphorylation product was bcv triphosphate (bcvtp) which was 92% of the total amou ...19862418021
induction of neutralizing antibody against varicella-zoster virus (vzv) by vzv gp3 and cross-reactivity between vzv gp3 and herpes simplex viruses gb.glycoprotein gp3 (64k) is one of the major proteins specified by varicella-zoster virus (vzv). this glycoprotein was purified on an immunoadsorbent consisting of monoclonal antibody (clone 8) against gp3 linked to protein a-sepharose. rabbits were then immunized with the purified antigen to obtain monospecific antisera against gp3. the monospecific antisera and monoclonal antibody immunoprecipitated polypeptides with the same molecular weights of approximately 64,000 (64k), 106k, and 116k from a ...19862418583
synthesis of dihydrofolate reductase and metabolism of related rna in a methotrexate resistant human cell line infected with herpes simplex virus type 2.using a human cell line with amplified gene copy for dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and permissive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), the effect of hsv-2 on dhfr synthesis and on the steady-state level of total cellular and nuclear dhfr rna was examined. there was a reduction in dhfr synthesis accompanied by a proportional decrease in the levels of dhfr messenger rna (mrna) 1 hr after infection. both effects could be induced by hsv pretreated with ultraviolet light and this early virus ind ...19862418585
antimicrobial activity of various immunomodulators: independence from normal levels of circulating monocytes and natural killer cells.the effects of 89sr treatment on the natural host resistance of cd-1 mice and the enhancement of resistance by immunomodulators to infection with listeria monocytogenes or herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) were determined. in the cd-1 mouse, single-dose treatment with 89sr caused a profound decrease in the number of circulating monocytes (mo), lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn) within 1 week. there was also marked functional impairment of the mo inflammatory response, as well ...19862416693
herpes-related polypeptides from a human cervical carcinoma cell line.using antiserum against herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infected cells, eight polypeptides with similar molecular weights could be immunoprecipitated from the nearly diploid, human cervical carcinoma cell line c4ii and from hsv-2 transformed hamster and mouse cells. only two of these polypeptides corresponded to those from hsv-2 infected cells, including the putative hsv-2 transformation-related 35k protein. partial proteolytic cleavage products of the immunoprecipitated 35k polypeptides fro ...19863017554
cryosurvival of herpes simplex virus-2 during cryopreservation of human spermatozoa.herpes simplex virus (hsv) is a sexually transmitted agent which has potential association with cervical cancer, as well as with high morbidity and mortality in perinatal infection. its incidence is estimated just after gonorrhea and chlamydia trachomatis infections. cryobanking of human semen is accepted worldwide in therapeutic use for both husband and donor. serious consequences could follow the clinical applications of cryobanked human semen in insemination, if some ejaculates contain hsv an ...19863017635
failure to induce cervical cancer in mice by long-term frequent vaginal exposure to live or inactivated herpes simplex viruses.c57 mice aged 8-10 weeks in groups of 50 each received vaginal cotton pellets soaked in lysates of hep-2 cells, either mock-infected or infected with herpes simplex virus i, herpes simplex virus 2, and highly attenuated recombinant viruses 5 times a week for 89 to 114 weeks. an untreated group was also included. the mock-infected and some of the infected cell lysates were exposed to ultraviolet light at a dose sufficient to inactivate virus. smears of exfoliated vaginal cells collected once a mo ...19863017867
analyses of transplanted murine tumors for hsv dna sequences.meignier et al. (1986) report the results of exposure of c57bl/6ncr mice to vaginal plugs containing live or inactivated herpes simplex virus 1 or 2 (hsv-1 or hsv-2) or recombinant viruses 5 times a week for up to 114 weeks. genital organs showing abnormalities were transplanted into nude mice. of 33 transplants, 13 produced subcutaneous tumors in nude mice and 12 were subsequently transplanted into c57bl/6ncr mice. we report that the dna extracted from coded tumor tissues of nude mice and from ...19863017868
zosteriform spread of herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infection in the guinea-pig.a model of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection was developed in the guinea-pig that permits investigation of the role of neural spread of virus in the pathogenesis of genital skin disease. after hsv-2 inoculation of an abraded area lateral to the external genital skin, virus was first detected in the ipsilateral (to the inoculation site) peripheral nerves or genital skin on day 2 or 3 post-inoculation followed by detection in the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord on day 3 ...19863018127
genetically determined difference in the antiviral action of alpha/beta interferon in cells from mice resistant or susceptible to herpes simplex virus type 2.resistance of mice to infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is genetically determined. embryonic cells from susceptible balb/c and resistant c57bl/6 mice were equally sensitive to infection with hsv-2 as judged by plaque area, plaquing efficiency, endpoint titration and virus yield. cells from c57bl/6 mice showed a higher sensitivity than cells from balb/c mice to the protective action of two preparations of alpha/beta interferon against challenge with hsv-2. this was evident both f ...19863018128
delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances release of herpes simplex virus type 2.this study was undertaken to determine the effect of micromolar concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-thc) on herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) replication in vitro. virus-infected vero cells pretreated for 24 h with 10(-5) m- or 10(-6) m-delta-9-thc yielded 100-fold increases in infectious extracellular virus. transmission electron microscopy of drug-treated cells revealed plasma membrane dissolution, distension of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, and the appearan ...19863018134
carbocyclic analogues of 5-halocytosine nucleosides.carbocyclic analogues of 5-halocytosine nucleosides were prepared by direct halogenation of the carbocyclic analogues of cytidine, 2'-deoxycytidine, 3'-deoxycytidine, or ara-c. the 5-chloro and 5-bromo derivatives of the cytidine (carbodine) and of the 2'-deoxycytidine analogues and the 5-iodo derivatives of all four of the cytosine nucleoside analogues were prepared. all of the c-5-halocytosine nucleosides, as well as the parent c-cytosine nucleosides, were tested against a strain of herpes sim ...19863018246
herpes simplex virus suppression of human endothelial matrix protein synthesis is independent of viral protein synthesis.protein synthesis was determined in cultures of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (ec) infected with either herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2). monolayers were infected for 1 hour with either 5 or 20 infectious virus particles per ec (multiplicity of infection of 5 or 20). at different times after infection, infected and noninfected cultures were pulsed with either 5 mu ci/ml of [14c]proline or 25 mu ci/ml of [35s]methionine for 1 or 2 hours. autoradiograms of sodium dodec ...19863018360
synergistic inhibitory effect of acyclovir and human native beta-interferon on the growth of herpes simplex virus type 2 in human embryo fibroblast cell cultures. 19863018459
antiherpetic effects of a human alpha interferon analog, ifn-alpha con1, in hamsters.the efficacy of a novel consensus form of human alpha interferon designated ifn-alpha con1 was evaluated against herpesvirus infections in vitro and in vivo. at comparable antiviral concentrations, natural lymphoblastoid ifn, ifn-alpha con1, the molecular subtype ifn-alpha, and the hybrid ifn-alpha ad(bgl) obtained by recombinant dna methods conferred similar protection against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (hsv-2) infections of human cells in vitro. whereas 7 x 10(5) u of ifn-alpha ad( ...19863019238
specific transfer factor protects mice against lethal challenge with herpes simplex virus.bovine transfer factor (tfd) specific to herpes simplex virus (hsv)1 or to hsv2 was prepared by immunizing calves with the corresponding virus. the tfd preparations were then injected into swiss mice in an attempt to protect them against a subsequent lethal challenge with hsv1 or hsv2 virus. it was thus shown that injection of anti-hsv tfd protects the mice against the corresponding hsv virus, whereas the injection of a nonspecific tfd (anti-cmv) fails to protect against a challenge with hsv1. f ...19863019568
human papillomavirus in clinically and histologically normal tissue of patients with genital study the association of human papillomavirus (hpv) and herpes simplex virus (hsv) with genital cancer, we collected specimens of cervical, vulvar, endometrial, and vaginal tumors at the time of operation in patients with cancer. in some patients, matched internal-control (histologically normal) tissue was also collected. dna extracted from the tissue was probed with radiolabeled hpv type 16 dna, hpv type 18 dna, and cloned fragments of hsv type 2 dna. hybridization to the hindiiia clone of h ...19863020404
localization and comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of the transforming domain in herpes simplex virus dna containing repetitive genetic elements.the 7.5-kilobase bamhi e fragment (bamhi-e) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna (map position 0.533-0.583) encodes the 144-kda subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and induces the neoplastic transformation of immortalized cell lines. to define the minimal transforming region of bamhi-e, a series of subclones were constructed that spanned the entire fragment. these subclones were assayed for focus formation in rat-2 cells. removal of the promoter region from the viral 144-kda-protein gene l ...19863020562
lack of evidence for intertypic recombinants in the pathogenesis of recurrent genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 1.clinical observations indicate that herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) is significantly less likely than herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) to establish latency in (or reactivate from) sacral ganglionic tissue. in an effort to identify viral functions associated with latency, we analyzed hsv-1 isolates from three patients with established recurrent genital herpes and sought evidence of dna sequences and proteins similar to those found in hsv-2. by restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns and ...19863020720
passage of herpes simplex virus type 1 on chick embryo fibroblasts confers virulence for chick embryos.the pathogenesis of chorioallantoic membrane (cam) infection with herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) as well as chick embryo fibroblast (cef) passaged hsv-1 was studied. it was found that hsv-2 is at least a million-fold more virulent than hsv-1 as measured by pfu/ld50 ratios for the embryo. serial passage of hsv-1 in vitro on cef cells selected for a virus (cefp10) which, unlike its parental hsv-1 strain, is able to kill the embryo. the restriction endonuclease maps of cefp10 and it ...19863020830
in vitro activity of ketoconazole against herpes simplex virus.the effects of ketoconazole alone and in combination with acyclovir and adenine arabinoside upon the replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and -2) were investigated by using a yield reduction assay. ketoconazole demonstrated antiviral activity against hsv-1 and -2 and synergistic antiviral activity when it was combined with acyclovir. combinations of ketoconazole with adenine arabinoside resulted in either interference or indifference. the effects of ketoconazole upon the prot ...19863021048
establishment of mutant murine mammary carcinoma fm3a cell strains transformed with the herpes simplex virus type 2 thymidine kinase establish cell systems appropriate for investigating the mode of action of antiherpetic nucleoside analogues, mutant cell strains were constructed from murine mammary carcinoma fm3a cells, which were deficient in tk, but were transformed with a recombinant plasmid dna containing the hsv-2 tk gene. the transformed cells incorporated the viral dna, expressed viral tk activity and showed unusually high sensitivity to the cytostatic action of the antiherpetic nucleoside analogues acv and ivdu, bo ...19863021345
elisa for detection of igg and igm antibodies to hsv-1 and hsv-2 in human sera.a rapid, enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa) was applied to identify and measure specific igg and igm antibodies to herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2). detergent solubilized infected cells and mock-infected cells were used as antigens in the assay. identification of type-specific antibodies was achieved by a competition assay in which clinical sera mixed with hsv-1 or hsv-2 antigens were assayed for reactivity to identical antigens coating wells of polystyrene microtiter plates ...19863021796
a novel glycoprotein for detection of herpes simplex virus type 1-specific antibodies.a novel herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)-specific glycoprotein reactive with monoclonal antibody h1379 was purified by affinity chromatography. this glycoprotein, provisionally designated as gg-1, forms two sets of bands with molecular weights of 40-44,000 and 60-88,000. when used in an immunodot enzymatic assay, gg-1 reacted strongly with rabbit antisera to hsv-1, but not with sera hyperimmune to hsv-2. specificity of the assay was further established by the lack of reactivity of convalescen ...19863021801
binding of complement component c3b to glycoprotein gc of herpes simplex virus type 1: mapping of gc-binding sites and demonstration of conserved c3b binding in low-passage clinical isolates.the sites on glycoprotein gc of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) which bind complement component c3b were evaluated by using anti-gc monoclonal antibodies and mutants which have alterations at defined regions of the glycoprotein. monoclonal antibodies were incubated with hsv-1-infected cells in a competitive assay to block c3b binding. each of 12 different monoclonals, which recognize the four major antigenic sites of gc, completely inhibited c3b binding. with this approach, no one antigenic ...19863021981
construction and properties of a cell line constitutively expressing the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein b dependent on functional alpha 4 protein synthesis.we report the construction of a cell line constitutively expressing the glycoprotein b (gb) of herpes simplex virus (hsv) 1. the cell line was constructed in two steps. in the first, a baby hamster kidney cell line was transfected with the dna of a plasmid containing the neomycin phosphotransferase gene that confers resistance to the antibiotic g418 and the gene specifying a temperature-sensitive (ts-) alpha 4 protein of hsv-1, the major viral regulatory protein. a clonal cell line, alpha 4/c113 ...19863022001
sequences homologous to two separate transforming regions of herpes simplex virus dna are linked in two human genital tumors.ten human genital invasive squamous cell carcinomas and five human premalignant tissues were analyzed for the presence of selected sets of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) dna sequences. two vulvar tumors and one vulvar dysplastic tissue were found to contain dna sequences homologous to the bglii o fragment (coordinates 0.38-0.42) and the bglii n fragment (coordinates 0.58-0.63) of hsv-2 dna. these two fragments overlap the subsets of hsv-1 and hsv-2 dna sequences (respectively) shown previously t ...19863022470
efficacy of 2'-nor-cyclicgmp in treatment of experimental herpes virus infections.9-[(2-hydroxy-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl)oxymethyl]guanine p-oxide (2'-nor-cgmp), the cyclic phosphate of 2'-nor-deoxyguanosine (2'-ndg) was synthesized by phosphorylation of 2'-ndg and evaluated for antiherpetic activity in cell cultures and in animal protection studies. 2'-nor-cgmp was effective in cell culture against both thymidine kinase deficient and wild-type herpes simplex virus type 1 strains and also against herpes simplex virus type 2. the anti-herpes activity of 2'-nor-cgmp against ...19863022643
autonomic nervous system involvement in experimental genital infection by herpes simplex virus type 2.peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique and histology were employed to elucidate the peripheral routes involved in hsv-2 progression from vagina towards the central nervous system in mice. 12 week-old female balb/c mice were intravaginally infected with 5 x 10(5)ld50 of hsv-2. sixty per cent of animals developed vulvovaginitis, perigenital alopecia and hind-limb paresia. death occurred at 9-11 days post-infection. colon dilatation and urinary bladder distention were observed in all cases. complete t ...19863022683
type specificity of complement-fixing antibody against herpes simplex virus type 2 ag-4 early antigen in patients with asymptomatic infection.we evaluated the type specificity of complement-fixing (cf) antibody against the ag-4 early antigen of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 (hsv-2) by comparing a commercial ag-4 cf kit (simplex-2; gene link australia, inc., princeton, n.j.) with quantal microneutralization (mn) and absorption-western blotting in testing sera from patients with and without a history of genital herpes. sera characterized as hsv type 1 (hsv-1) or hsv-2 positive or negative by mn were selected and tested by cf, and th ...19863023439
herpes simplex virus type 2 mutagenesis: characterization of mutants induced at the hprt locus of nonpermissive xc a previous report, herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was shown to increase the frequency of mutation at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) locus of nonpermissive rat xc cells (l. pilon, a. royal, and y. langelier, j. gen. virol. 66:259-265, 1985). a series of 17 independent mutants were isolated after viral infection together with 12 spontaneous noninfected mutants to characterize the nature of the mutations induced by the virus at the molecular level. the dna of the mutants ...19863023954
viral antibodies in serum and cryoprecipitate of patients with essential mixed and secondary cryoglobulinemia. preliminary results.antibodies to measles virus, cmv, hsv1, hsv2 and ebv have been tested in 9 patients with essential mixed cryoglobulinemia (emc) and 24 patients with cryoglobulinemia associated with lymphoproliferative, autoimmune or hepatic diseases (secondary cryoglobulinemia, sc). the assays were performed in serum, cryoprecipitate and supernatant by using immunoenzymatic methods. the highest prevalence was observed in the supernatant of both emc and sc patients. antibodies to measles virus show a serum/cryop ...19863024297
the nucleotide sequence of the gb glycoprotein gene of hsv-2 and comparison with the corresponding gene of hsv-1.the nucleotide sequence of the gb glycoprotein gene of hsv-2 has been determined and compared with the homologous gene of hsv-1. the two genes are specified by the same total number of codons (904); eight additional codons of the hsv-1 gene are found within the signal sequence, and eight additional codons of the hsv-2 gene are found at three different sites in the gene. the signal cleavage, membrane-spanning, and eight potential n-linked oligosaccharide sites, as well as 5'- and 3'-regulatory si ...19863024391
mode of action, toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of some new antiherpesvirus guanosine analogs related to buciclovir.9-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine (3hm-hbg), (rs)-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine ([+/-]2hm-hbg), and cis-9-(4-hydroxy-2-butenyl)guanine (2en-hbg), new acyclic guanosine analogs structurally related to buciclovir (bcv [(r)-9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)guanine]), were evaluated in parallel with buciclovir as anti-herpes simplex virus (hsv) agents. in cell cultures, replication of different strains of hsv type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 was inhibited at nontoxic drug concentrations. the co ...19863024562
characterization of acyclovir-resistant and -sensitive herpes simplex viruses isolated from a patient with an acquired immune deficiency.several different genital and non-genital hsv isolates were obtained from a patient with an acquired immune deficiency of unknown aetiology. the patient was initially treated with topical acyclovir (acv) and later with topical and intravenous acv. in spite of treatment with antiviral drugs the patient continued to shed virus and to have extensive genital ulcerations. restriction endonuclease (re) analyses of the viral dna revealed that all the isolates had characteristic hsv-2 patterns and that ...19863025153
anti-herpes virus combinations in relation to drug resistance.two broad categories of combinations have been subject to experimental investigation against hsv-1 and hsv-2; those consisting of an active antiviral drug and an inhibitor of its catabolism and those which contain two active antiviral agents. the latter seek to exploit biochemical mechanisms likely to lead to a synergistic or complementary interaction. examples of both types of combination for the suppression of resistance development and for the treatment of infection caused by resistant strain ...19863025155
the antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus of the triterpenoid compounds carbenoxolone sodium and cicloxolone sodium.dose-response experiments show that the presence of 300 microm cicloxolone sodium (ccx) or 500 microm carbenoxolone sodium (cbx) during the hsv replication cycle reduced the infectious virus yield by 10,000- to 100,000-fold: ccx is the more potent anti-herpes agent. hsv-2 replication was consistently more severely restricted by either drug than was that of hsv-1. the ed50 values obtained for either drug against hsv-1 or hsv-2 correlate well with data from dose-response curves. ccx, and to a less ...19863025156
molecular cloning of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna.restriction enzyme hindiii digestion of the whole genome of herpes simplex virus type 2 strain 186 yielded 10 dna fragments with molecular weights ranging from approximately 22 x 10(6) to 1.2 x 10(6), which were cloned into the hindiii site of bacterial plasmid pacyc 184. the cloned fragments were identified by hybridization to hsv-2 virus dna and by double digestion with restriction endonucleases. the recombinant plasmids, even if they carried dna sequences with molecular weights of more than 1 ...19863011764
acute genital infection in guinea pigs: effect of recombinant interleukin-2 on herpes simplex virus type 2.human recombinant interleukin-2 (ril-2) modifies infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in normal guinea pigs. animals were injected sc with ril-2 twice a day, beginning 24 hr before infection and continuing for three subsequent days. guinea pigs were assigned to five different regimens in which ril-2 was administered daily at dosages from 8 x 10(3) u/kg to 8 x 10(5) u/kg. after intravaginal inoculation with hsv-2, 83% of 24 control animals developed apparent genital herpes, and 5% h ...19863011918
suppression and enhancement of humoral antibody formation by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.intraperitoneal infection of mice and rats by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) but not type 1 (hsv-1) resulted in suppression of antibody formation on subsequent challenge with hsv-1 or hsv-2. application of silica considerably enhanced antibody formation after primary hsv-1 infection, but only slightly after primary hsv-2 infection. suppression induced by hsv-2 was, however, reduced significantly by injection of silica 21 days later, on the day of the second injection of hsv-2. suppression c ...19863011967
x-linkage of the early in vitro alpha/beta interferon response of mouse peritoneal macrophages to herpes simplex virus type 2.the genetics of the early interferon response of mouse peritoneal cells to infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was studied in susceptible balb/c and more resistant c57bl/6 mice and in reciprocal crosses between these mice. wash-outs of the peritoneal cavity of normal c57bl/6 mice contained significantly more cells than wash-outs from balb/c mice. therefore, interferon induction with hsv-2 was studied under standardized conditions in vitro. peritoneal cells reacted to hsv-2 infecti ...19863011968
the herpes simplex virus type 2 alkaline dnase activity is essential for replication and growth.a mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), which is temperature-sensitive (ts) for the induction of an alkaline dnase activity, was examined at a number of different temperatures. induction of dnase activity by this mutant resembled that of wild-type (wt) virus at 31 degrees c but was greatly reduced at 38.5 degrees c and barely detectable at 39.2 degrees c. virus dna synthesis showed similar patterns, exhibiting wt levels at 31 degrees c, reduced levels at 38.5 degrees c and very little i ...19863011973
inhibition of herpes simplex virus-induced dna polymerases and cellular dna polymerase alpha by triphosphates of acyclic guanosine analogs.the triphosphates of the antiherpes acyclic guanosine analogs (r)- and (s)-enantiomers of 9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)guanine [bcvtp and (s)-dhbgtp], 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine (hbgtp), and 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine (acvtp) were investigated for their effects on partially purified dna polymerases of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) as well as cellular dna polymerase alpha of calf thymus and vero cells. the triphosphates of the four analogs were all competitive inhibitors ...19863012321
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