TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
ultrastructural localization of gold in macrophages and mast cells exposed to aurothioglucose.the ultrastructural localization of gold in resting, stimulated, and activated mouse peritoneal cells exposed in vivo and in vitro to aurothioglucose was examined by a photochemical technique. activated macrophages from herpes simplex virus type 2 infected mice showed the heaviest accumulation of gold, located in phagolysosomes. gold was also visualized in granules of mast cells and in nuclei of disintegrated cells. no gold was found in polymorphonuclear leucocytes and in lymphocytes. the mechan ...19846420183
human monocytes activated by immunomodulators in liposomes lyse herpesvirus-infected but not normal cells.highly purified peripheral blood monocytes from normal human donors were activated in vitro by incubation with liposomes containing immunomodulators such as recombinant human gamma interferon, human lymphokines, or muramyl dipeptide. the ability of liposomes containing immunomodulators to activate monocytes to a cytotoxic state capable of discriminating between virus-infected and uninfected cells was shown by activated monocytes recognizing and destroying herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cel ...19846426057
topical treatment of cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection in hairless mice with (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine and related compounds.(e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bromovinyldeoxyuridine) was found to suppress the development of herpetic skin lesions and the paralysis and mortality associated therewith in hairless mice inoculated intracutaneously with herpes simplex virus type 1. this protective effect was achieved with bromovinyldeoxyuridine applied topically at 1, 3, or 10% in either dimethylsulfoxide (dmso), beeler base, tween-glycerol-water, 5% azone (1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one) in water, or 5% azone in dmso. th ...19846486759
broad-spectrum synergistic antiviral activity of selenazofurin and ribavirin.the antiviral effects of selenazofurin (2-beta-d-ribofuranosylselenazole-4-carboxamide, selenazole), ribavirin (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide), and 3-deazaguanosine (6-amino-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylimidazo-[4.5-c]pyridin-4(5h)-one) were investigated separately and in various combinations in an in vitro study. the combination interactions were evaluated at seven drug concentrations, graphically (isobolograms) or by using fractional inhibitory concentration indices against mump ...19846517540
recurrences after first episodes of genital herpes in patients treated with topical acyclovir cream.the effect of topical acyclovir treatment of first episode genital herpes on the time to first recurrence in a group of 42 patients receiving either acyclovir or placebo was investigated. topical acyclovir treatment had no effect on time to first recurrence in patients with either first episode hsv-1 or hsv-2 infections. there was no significant difference in the time to first recurrence in patients with either true primary or initial genital infections. however, the time to first recurrence in ...19846517563
viral meningitis.viral meningitis is part of the aseptic meningitis syndrome but must be distinguished from bacterial meningitis on the basis of a careful examination of the csf and sound clinical judgment. enteroviruses probably account for the bulk of cases of aseptic meningitis that occur in the united states and which are reported to the centers for disease control each year. the seasonal pattern in the incidence of aseptic meningitis is largely due to the seasonal variation of enteroviral infections. early ...19853990441
cigarette smoking, herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, and cervical a case-control study, we investigated the relation of cigarette smoking and genital herpes virus infection to cervical abnormalities. although cases and controls differed according to several factors, multiple logistic analyses indicated that age, education, and cigarette smoking were the only independent risk factors for histologically confirmed disease. relative risk estimates were 1.92 and 3.68 for past and current smokers, respectively. the results indicated that smoking and genital herpe ...19854003639
nucleosides. 133. synthesis of 5-alkenyl-1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)cytosines and related pyrimidine nucleosides as potential antiviral agents.the synthesis of 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)cytosines with a halovinyl or vinyl substituent at c-5 was accomplished from the corresponding 5-iodo (fiac, 1) and/or 5-chloromercuri nucleoside analogues with use of li2pdcl4- and pd(oac)2-mediated coupling reactions. thiation of the benzoylated derivative of the 5-ethyluracil nucleoside 3 followed by s-methylation and then ammonolysis provided 5-ethyl-2'-fluoro-ara-c. 5-ethynyl-2'-fluoro-ara-c (19a) and 5-ethynyl-2'-fluoro-ara-u (19 ...19854009596
degradation of cellular mrnas induced by a virion-associated factor during herpes simplex virus infection of vero cells.we have used northern blot hybridization to study the accumulation of specific cellular mrnas in vero cells infected with herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 or type 2. hsv-1 infection decreased the cytoplasmic levels of beta- and gamma-actin, beta-tubulin, and histone h3 and h4 mrnas, though not all at the same rate. hsv-2 infection resulted in a more rapid decrease in actin and histone mrna levels compared with hsv-1 infection. the turnover rate of each type of mrna studied was accelerated in hs ...19854020960
oligosaccharide chains of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein glycoprotein was purified by h966 monoclonal antibodies linked to sepharose from herpes simplex virus type 2-infected hep-2 cells labeled with [3h] glucosamine. the glycoprotein was subjected to pronase digestion and the glycopeptides were fractionated by con a-sepharose in a major fraction (88.5% of total radioactivity) unbound to the lectin gel and in a minor species which bound to the lectin as a n-linked diantennary oligosaccharide. mild and strong acid hydrolysis of con a-unbound and c ...19854026310
synergistic antiviral effects of acyclovir and vidarabine on herpes simplex infection in newborn mice.277 5-7-day-old white swiss mice were infected intranasally with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) to mimic disseminated herpetic infection in human newborns. the antiviral efficacy of acyclovir, vidarabine and specific antiserum (sas) alone and in combination was assessed. a significant increase in survival rate (52%) was observed with the combination of acyclovir (80 mg/kg/day) and vidarabine (125 mg/kg/day) compared to either compound (24 and 6%, respectively) when therapy was begun 30 h aft ...19854028874
[herpes simplex virus infections].there are two serological types of herpes simplex virus, hsv-1 and hsv-2. the types can be differentiated by different methods. after a primary infection hsv reaches the sensory ganglions by the way of peripheral nervous tracts. the virus remains for life in the ganglion as virus genome. after activation and return movement a new infection can appear. a lot of various diseases are caused by primary infection, reactivation or reinfection. the diagnosis in herpes virus diseases includes the detect ...19854039869
the effect of prostaglandin e2 on the initial immune response to herpes simplex virus infection.numerous clinical situations, demonstrated to be associated with reactivation of herpes simplex virus infections, have also been shown to produce increases in local levels of prostaglandins. the current study was initiated to determine if prostaglandins play a role in the immune response and control of herpes simplex virus infections. lymphocytes from volunteers were stimulated with concanavalin a, herpes simplex virus 1, or herpes simplex virus 2 in the presence of prostaglandin e2 or ibuprofen ...19853872073
human monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against herpes simplex virus-infected cells: activation of cytotoxic monocytes by free and liposome-encapsulated lymphokines.human peripheral blood monocytes were incubated with free or liposome-encapsulated human lymphokines containing macrophage-activating factor (maf) and tested for their effect on herpes simplex virus (hsv)-infected target cells. activated monocytes lysed allogeneic hsv type 2 (hsv-2)-infected whole human embryo cells and xenogeneic balb/c mouse embryo cells (10e2) without any significant effect on uninfected cells, as measured by release of 51cr from target cells after 18 h of cocultivation. kine ...19853882870
the effect of dimethylnitrosamine on host resistance and female b6c3f1 mice were injected ip with 0.2 ml phosphate-buffered saline (pbs) only or pbs containing 1.5, 3, or 5 mg dimethylnitrosamine (dmn)/kg body wt daily for 14 days. on day 16, mice were evaluated for changes in immune status as measured by the antibody response to sheep red blood cells (srbcs), blastogenesis to t- and b-cell mitogens, natural killer (nk) cell function, delayed hypersensitivity, and alveolar macrophage (am) bactericidal activity; and for changes in host resistance ...19853883572
investigation of the virulence genes of herpes simplex virus 2 by experimental infection in vivo with defined intertypic recombinants of a virulent hsv-2 x an avirulent hsv-1.for determination of the gene loci for virulence and tropism of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) intertypic recombinants of hsv-1 strain hfem and hsv-2 strain 3345 were screened for their pathogenicity in the tree shrew. hsv-1 strain hfem is not pathogenic in the tree shrew and can be recovered as a latent virus only from the spleen of the animals; but hsv-2 strain 3345, the other parental virus of the recombinants, was found to be virulent for the tree shrew and colonized the ganglia of latently ...19853003551
[discovery of herpes simplex virus (hsv)-like particles in biopsy samples of cervical carcinoma].the tissue of cervical cancer and hsv-2 infected baby rabbit kidney (brk) cells were studied comparatively by electron microscope. in 2 out of 12 samples from patients with cervical carcinoma, some virus-like particles were observed in the cytoplasm or intercellular space. some particles seemed to be enveloped by endoplasmic reticulum. according to their size, structure and morphology, these particles resembled the herpes simplex virus. the relationship between the discovery of herpes simplex vi ...19853015529
[demonstration of latent infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in the spinal cord of the guinea pig]. 19853008964
[inhibitory effect of tai-ding-an on dna and protein synthesis of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)]. 19853008965
[herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. etiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapy, hsv-2 and cervix cancer].the genital herpes infection is mostly caused by hsv-2. the analysis of epidemic data supports the common impression that herpes genitalis markedly increased. the hsv-2 is with few exceptions a sexually transmitted virus, the infectionsity is about 80%. the primary infection with hsv-2 occurs in the youth. hsv-2 survives in a latent stage in the human body for life and causes as a rule to recurrent diseases. the clinical picture is variable. the most severe complication is the sepsis of newborn. ...19853004067
cellular proteins expressed in herpes simplex virus transformed cells also accumulate on herpes simplex virus infection.the cell proteins expressed in rat embryo cells transformed by herpes simplex virus (hsv) have been analysed by immunoprecipitation assays to determine those polypeptides which can be identified by immunoprecipitation with the sera of tumour-bearing animals and also with antisera to herpes simplex infected cells. cell polypeptides commonly recognised by both these sera have been further characterised using a monoclonal antibody directed against a cellular polypeptide which accumulates on hsv-2 l ...19853004943
retention of herpes simplex virus type ii sequences in bglii n-transformed cells after co-transfection with a selectable marker.transformation of mammalian cells by total u.v.-inactivated herpes simplex virus ii (hsvii) or cloned fragments thereof (bglii n, bglii c) has been complicated both by a low efficiency of oncogenic transformation and the disappearance of viral dna and/or viral products initially detected in the transformed cell lines. in an attempt to effect a stable integration of bglii n and to elucidate the role of hsvii in oncogenic transformation, we have co-transfected nih 3t3 cells with pag60, a plasmid w ...19853004960
a close association of adriamycin resistance with expression of cell surface antigens in adriamycin-resistant cell lines of herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed syrian hamster cells.we determined the properties of three adriamycin (adm)-resistant cell lines isolated from a clone of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2-transformed syrian hamster cells. the adm-resistant lines (admr-6, -7 and -9) established by continuous exposure of the cells to adm were 20 to 30 times more resistant to adm than was the parent line. these resistant lines exhibited cross-resistance to daunomycin, actinomycin d, chromomycin a3 and vincristine, but not to mitomycin c, bleomycin or methotrexate. up ...19853005209
acyclovir prophylaxis in bone marrow transplant recipients.forty-two patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation were included in a randomised, double-blind and placebo controlled trial of prolonged acyclovir prophylaxis against infections with viruses of the herpes group. twenty patients were allocated to receive acyclovir and 22 to receive placebo. acyclovir or placebo was administered i.v. at a dose of 250 mg/m2 twice daily, starting 5 days before transplantation. at 5 weeks after transplantation, administration was changed to tablets, 400 mg thr ...19853006228
virological aspects on herpesvirus infections.the family herpesviridae include five important human pathogens, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2), varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and cytomegalovirus (cmv). the five viruses are represented in all three herpesvirus subfamilies, a subdivision based on differences in phenotypic properties such as length of replication cycle, cytotoxic properties and host cell range. the herpesviruses have dna genomes sharing characteristic anatomical features. they replicate in the nuclei of eukaryo ...19853006235
plaque autoradiography assay for the detection and quantitation of thymidine kinase-deficient and thymidine kinase-altered mutants of herpes simplex virus in clinical isolates.a plaque autoradiography assay to detect and quantitate thymidine kinase (tk) mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 in clinical samples is described. this method utilizes the selective incorporation of [125i]iododeoxycytidine, a pyrimidine analog selectively phosphorylated by the hsv tk. only cells infected with tk-competent virus will efficiently incorporate iododeoxycytidine and are the only cells detected by autoradiography. furthermore, this assay discriminates between tk+ ...19853010836
selective in vitro and in vivo activities of 5-(2-haloalkyl)pyrimidine nucleoside analogs, particularly 5-(2-chloroethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine, against herpes simplex virus.5-(2-chloroethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (cedu), 5-(3-chloropropyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (cpdu), and 5-(2-chloroethyl)-2'-deoxycytidine (cedc) were evaluated for activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 in vitro. their mics for hsv-1 in primary rabbit kidney cell cultures were 0.15, 0.20, and 0.60 micrograms/ml, respectively; their mics for hsv-2 were about 10-fold higher. when tested in parallel, the reference compounds 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine, 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, acyclovir, and ( ...19853010841
mechanism of selective inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication by 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-5-fluorouracil.four kinds of 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-5-halogenouracil were examined for inhibition of human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) replication. 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-5-fluorouracil (ara-fu) was the most effective against hcmv, whereas 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-5-bromouracil was the most effective against hsv-1 and hsv-2. the mechanism of action of ara-fu on hcmv replication was also studied. the dttp pool size in human embryonic fibroblasts was increa ...19853010844
[isolation of an endogenous guinea pig herpeslike virus from hartley guinea pigs with latent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection]. 19853017012
production of lymphokines and interferon by immune cells involved in recovery of mice from herpes simplex virus type 2 hepatitis.adoptive transfer of spleen cells from mice 4 days after infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) reduced the virus titer in the liver of recipient mice infected 24 h before transfer. macrophage chemotactic factor (cf) and macrophage migration inhibition factor (mif) were produced by day 3 of infection in spleen cell cultures stimulated with hsv-2, but not with control antigen, i.e. 1 day before the cells are active in adoptive transfer. interferon was produced in cultures established ...19852408997
immunity to herpes simplex virus: virus reactivation modulates lymphokine activity.cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus (hsv) was studied in patients with recurrent disease and in seropositive controls. supernatants from cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbls) obtained during recrudescence (zero to three days after onset of lesions), convalescence (four to 14 days), and quiescence (greater than 14 days) were assayed for their ability to augment natural killer activity of normal pbls against k562 target cells. supernatants obtained during recrudescence, ...19852411825
immunoblotting and elisa analysis of hsv-1 and hsv-2-specified polypeptides by using an immunoblocking method.herpes simplex virus (hsv) specified polypeptide antigens were analyzed by immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) methods. in general, the virus specified proteins showed marked cross-reactivity. however, the hsv-1 specified glycoprotein c could be detected by hsv-1 infected rabbit antiserum only. two low molecular weight polypeptides showed considerable reactivity with hsv-2 induced immune sera as revealed by an immunoblocking modification of the immunoblotting method. the ...19852412480
enhancement of non-specific resistance to viral infection by muramyldipeptide and its analogs.antiviral activity of muramyldipeptide (mdp) and its lipophilic derivatives, b30-mdp and mdp-lys(l18), was investigated in mice infected with vaccinia virus (vv) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). mice administered these compounds subcutaneously or orally were protected against vv in tail lesion tests and against hsv-2 in skin lesion tests, respectively. since in vitro antiviral activity was not demonstrated with these compounds in cultured mammalian cells infected with either vv or hsv-2, ...19852412489
expression in bacteria of gb-glycoprotein-coding sequences of herpes simplex virus type 2.a plasmid with an insert that encodes the glycoprotein b(gb) gene of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) has been isolated. dna sequences coding for a portion of the hsv-2 gb peptide were cloned into a bacterial lacz alpha expression vector and used to transform escherichia coli. upon induction of laczpo-promoted transcription, some of the bacteria became filamentous and produced inclusion bodies containing a large amount of a 65-kdal peptide that was shown to be precipitated by broad-spectrum a ...19852412940
study of interferon production during pregnancy in mice and antiviral activity in the placenta.although the mortality rate after herpes simplex virus type 2 inoculation was not significantly different between pregnant mice and nonpregnant mice, systemic interferon production was very high during late pregnancy compared with that in nonpregnant mice. antiviral activity was detected in placentas from all noninfected pregnant mice (80 to 320 u/ml in 20% suspension). the antiviral activity had a broad spectrum and was also effective in the cells of other species; an antiviral effect was shown ...19852413760
studies on the herpes simplex virus alkaline nuclease: detection of type-common and type-specific epitopes on the enzyme.five monoclonal antibodies to the alkaline nuclease of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 have been used in immunoperoxidase tests to demonstrate the nuclear localization of the enzyme within hsv-1- and hsv-2-infected cells and to purify the enzyme from cells infected with either virus by immunoadsorbant chromatography. affinity chromatography with a 32p-labelled extract of hsv-2-infected cells has enabled us to demonstrate that the nuclease eluting from the immunoadsorbant is a phosphopro ...19852578550
dna-binding protein associated with herpes simplex virus dna polymerase.purified preparations of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna polymerase made by many different laboratories always contain at least two polypeptides. the major one, of about 150,000 molecular weight, has been associated with the polymerase activity. the second protein, of about 54,000 molecular weight, which we previously designated icsp 34, 35, has now been purified. the purified protein has been used to prepare antisera (both polyclonal rabbit serum and monoclonal antibodies). these reagents have ...19852578573
human cytotoxic t cell clones directed against herpes simplex virus-infected cells. iii. analysis of viral glycoproteins recognized by ctl clones by using recombinant herpes simplex viruses.human cytotoxic t cell (ctl) clones specific for herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1- and type 2-infected cells were generated and were analyzed with regard to the viral glycoproteins they recognize on autologous hsv-infected cells. by use of target cells infected with wild-type hsv strains, a gc deletion mutant of hsv-1, and hsv-1 x hsv-2 intertypic recombinants, some hsv-1-specific ctl clones were found to be directed against l region-encoded ga/b-1, and others against s region-encoded glycoprot ...19852579149
frequency of herpes simplex virus-specific helper t lymphocyte precursors in the lymph node cells of infected mice.we have established a limited dilution assay to estimate the frequency of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv)-specific, interleukin 2 (il 2)-producing helper t lymphocyte precursors (htl-p). the estimated frequency of such cells in suspensions of local lymph node (ln) cells 5 days after in vivo virus infection was 1:2470 to 1:5800. frequencies of htl-p in cells from uninfected mice were below levels of detection of our system and were judged to be below 1:100,000. removal of lyt-2+ cells from resp ...19852579150
antibody response to type-common and type-unique epitopes of herpes simplex virus polypeptides.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv1) and type 2 (hsv2) polypeptides with type-common and type-unique epitopes were identified using cross-adsorbed hyperimmune rabbit sera and western blotting techniques. twelve hsv1 and fourteen hsv2 polypeptides with type-specific epitopes were identified. cross-adsorbed human sera reacted to a subset of the type-specific epitopes defined by rabbit sera. human sera with both hsv1- and hsv2-specific antibodies were identified by their reaction to hsv1-type-specifi ...19852580054
rapid detection of cytomegalovirus in cell culture by indirect immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibody to an early nuclear antigen.a method for the rapid detection of cytomegalovirus (cmv) in mrc-5 cells 48 h after inoculation with clinical specimens was developed. a commercially available monoclonal antibody to a cmv early nuclear antigen was used in an indirect immunoperoxidase (ipa) staining procedure performed directly on acetone-fixed cell monolayers in standard tubes (16 by 125 mm). of 190 clinical specimens tested, 30 specimens produced cmv cytopathic effect in tissue culture (tc-cpe) within 14 days after inoculation ...19852581991
the antiviral activity of tetrazole phosphonic acids and their analogues.5-(phosphonomethyl)-1h-tetrazole and a number of related tetrazoles have been prepared and their effects on the replication of herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2 have been investigated as well as their abilities to inhibit the dna polymerases induced by these viruses and the rna transcriptase activity of influenza virus a. contrary to an earlier report, 5-(phosphonomethyl)-1h-tetrazole was not an efficient inhibitor of the replication of hsv-1 and hsv-2 in tissue culture. analogues of 5-(phosphonom ...19852417198
comparative activities of combinations of acyclovir, vidarabine or its 5'-monophosphate, and cloned human interferons against herpes simplex virus type 2 in human and mouse fibroblast cultures.human interferon-alpha a/d (bgl), an alpha-hybrid cloned interferon, displays activity in both human and mouse cell lines. we measured the effects of this interferon in double and triple combinations with acyclovir, vidarabine or its 5'-monophosphate against herpes simplex virus type 2 in mouse and human fibroblasts. a 75% cytopathic effect reduction assay employing a modified checkerboard technique was used. results in human fibroblasts were compared with those obtained when recombinant human i ...19852418779
a prospective study of association of herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus infection with cervical neoplasia in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in thousand one hundred thirty-four women, enrolled in a prospective study of the development of cervical neoplasia in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (des) in utero, were examined at least once a year. twenty-three women developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cin) of different degrees during the 7-year follow-up period and were matched with women who did not develop cin during the study period. serum samples were obtained at the time of entry into the study and at the time of diagno ...19852981778
herpes simplex virus type 2 and human papillomavirus type 16 in cervicitis, dysplasia and invasive cervical carcinoma.sera and biopsies of cervical lesions from 55 women with benign or malignant disease were analyzed for evidence of infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) or human papillomavirus (hpv). in addition, information regarding known risk factors for cervical cancer was obtained by interview. the sera were tested for hsv-2 antibodies and the biopsies were tested for hpv or hsv dna sequences by southern blot hybridization. hsv-2 sequences were detected in 2/13 (15%) invasive neoplasms and in ...19852981783
antigenic and biochemical analysis of gb of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 and of cross-reacting glycoproteins induced by bovine mammillitis virus and equine herpesvirus type antiserum was produced to the oligomeric form of glycoprotein b (gb) induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strain 17. this antiserum gave a single common precipitin line in agar gel immunodiffusion with hsv-1, hsv-2, bovine mammillitis virus (bmv) and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). it also neutralized hsv-1, hsv-2 and bmv but not ehv-1. absorption of the antiserum with excess hsv-2 or bmv antigen resulted in an hsv-1-specific neutralizing antiserum. in immunoprecipitation, two pr ...19852981966
increased mutation frequency after herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in non-permissive xc cells.the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection on the frequency of mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hgprt) locus was studied in the non-permissive xc cell line. when the cells were infected with 20 to 800 p.f.u./cell, there was initially a lag in cell growth and cell death, but after 4 days there was no difference in growth rate between infected and control cultures. however, the mutation frequency, as determined by the number of 6-thioguanine-resist ...19852981968
characterization of the gene encoding herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein c and comparison with the type 1 counterpart.the gene encoding the glycoprotein c (gc) of herpes simplex virus type 1 maps to the region of the viral genome from 0.62 to 0.64. recently, a herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein previously designated gf and now designated gc was mapped to a homologous location. analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 2 mrna species encoded in this region revealed a major transcript of 2.5 kilobases, a 0.73-kilobase transcript (the 5' ends of which were mapped by primer extension), and several minor speci ...19852982036
herpes simplex virus latency in a hyperresistant clone of mouse neuroblastoma (cl300) cells.herpes simplex virus (hsv) hyperresistant neuroblastoma cells (clone cl300 rii) were latently infected with hsv-1 if cultured in presence of hsv-neutralizing antibody for one or two passages after infection and then passaged further without antibody. by superinfecting hsv-1 latently infected cl300 rii cells with hsv-2, progeny virus with hsv-1 characteristics was regularly rescued. such retrieval of hsv-1 decreased with passage of the latently infected cells.19852982359
antiviral activity of cp-20,961 against herpes simplex viruses in vitro.the antiherpesvirus activity of cp-20,961 [n,n-dioctadecyl-n',n'-bis (2-hydroxyethyl) propanediamine, or avridine] was investigated in cultured guinea pig embryo (gpe) cells. plaque formation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv1) and type 2 (hsv2) was inhibited, but vesicular stomatitis virus replication was not inhibited, in gpe cells treated with cp-20,961 before infection. the id50 concentration of cp-20,961 for hsv was about 50 micrograms/ml for 3-4 days of pretreatment. after virus adsorpti ...19852982759
herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of endothelial, epithelial, and fibroblast cells induces a receptor for c3b.we recently demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv 1) induces a receptor on human umbilical vein endothelial cells for complement component c3b (c3br). we assigned this receptor function to hsv 1 viral glycoprotein c (gc) based on several observations: tunicamycin, which prevents glycosylation and expression of n-linked glycoproteins on the surface of infected cells, markedly reduced expression of the c3br; monoclonal antibodies to hsv 1 gc blocked detection of the c3br, whereas mono ...19852982950
acute and latent infection by thymidine kinase mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2. 19852982968
herpes simplex virus sequences involved in the initiation of oncogenic morphological transformation of rat cells are not required for maintenance of the transformed state.we have determined the herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 dna sequences responsible for the initiation of morphological transformation and have investigated the retention and expression of these sequences in morphologically transformed cells and in tumours derived from these cells. all the transformed cells analysed were selected by a focus formation assay and are oncogenic in the inbred host rat. cloned hindiii and bg/ii fragments from the hsv-2 genome were assayed for the ability to initiate mo ...19852983000
evidence for a direct role for both the 175,000- and 110,000-molecular-weight immediate-early proteins of herpes simplex virus in the transactivation of delayed-early promoters.we reconstructed the regulated induction of delayed-early (de) transcription that occurs during herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection by using a transient expression system in which recombinant target genes were cotransfected into vero cells together with intact activating genes. plasmids containing cloned hsv-1 or hsv-2 immediate-early (ie) genes stimulated by up to 100-fold the expression from recombinant constructs containing the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene under the ...19852983086
the herpes simplex virus amplicon: analyses of cis-acting replication functions.previous studies have shown that defective virus vectors (amplicons) derived from herpes simplex viruses could be efficiently propagated in virus stocks in the presence of trans-acting helper virus functions. the present study established that two separate cis-acting functions--a dna replication origin and a cleavage/packaging signal--are required for amplicon propagation. using deleted derivatives of cloned amplicons, we mapped one of the viral dna replication origins (ori-2 or oril) at coordin ...19852983310
protection from genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by vaccination with cloned type 1 glycoprotein d.guinea pigs were vaccinated with truncated herpes simplex virus type-1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein d produced in the genetically engineered mammalian cell line gd10.2. vaccinated animals formed antibodies that neutralized both hsv-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in an in vitro neutralization assay. vaccinated animals were challenged with hsv-2 by intravaginal infection. animals that received the immunogen in freund's complete adjuvant were completely protected from the clinical manifestations ...19852983428
a prospective study of herpes simplex virus infection in a defined population in houston, texas.a seroepidemiologic study was conducted to determine the incidence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus in a population of middle-class caucasian women. in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol did not influence the frequency of herpes simplex virus infection. the frequency of infection increased with age and number of sex partners and a 50% increase in incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection was noted during the 4-year period of the study. subclinical herpes simplex virus type 2 infe ...19852983557
herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis in two homosexual men with persistent lymphadenopathy.within a 5-month period, 2 homosexual men with persistent lymphadenopathy developed clinical findings consistent with herpes simplex virus (hsv) encephalitis. these signs included abrupt change in mental status, seizures, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, and localized electroencephalographic abnormalities showing temporal lobe involvement. initial computed tomographic scans were unremarkable. treatment with adenine arabinoside was instituted and temporal lobe biopsies were performed. although vi ...19852983602
can ribonucleotide reductase be considered as an effective target for developing antiherpes simplex virus type ii (hsv-2) compounds?herpes simplex viruses are known to induce virus specified ribonucleotide reductase (rr) in infected cells. rr is considered as a possible target for the development of antiviral agents. in this study, the role of rr in virus replication has been investigated. the sensitivity of rr to hydroxyurea (hu) from virus infected and uninfected hela s3 cells was similar with ic50 values of 0.12 and 0.14 mm. in the presence of 2 mm hu, and 10 microm tetrahydrouridine (thu), a cytidine deaminase inhibitor, ...19852983736
microcarriers in combination with enzyme immunofiltration and immunofluroescence for the detection of herpes simplex virus antigens in culture.a microcarrier culture system in combination with enzyme immunofiltration with a herpes simplex virus (hsv) group monoclonal antibody was found to be as sensitive as immunofluorescence for the detection of hsv type 1 (hsv-1) in cell cultures and to give specific identification at the same time as the appearance of the cytopathic effect with very high infectious inocula and within 10 to 24 h of the appearance of the cytopathic effect with very high infectious inocula and within 10 to 24 h of the ...19852984242
problems associated with the use of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine for typing herpes simplex virus.when 0.5 microgram of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) per ml was incorporated directly into cell culture medium inoculated with eight known positive specimens, one herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) isolate grew in the presence of bvdu and was misidentified. by plaque assay, the titers of 15 hsv-1 strains were reduced by more than 3 log10 by bvdu, and the titers of 16 hsv-2 strains were reduced by less than 2 log10. titers of hsv-1 acyclovir-resistant strains were reduced by less th ...19852984249
identification and typing of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by monoclonal antibodies, sensitivity to the drug (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine, and restriction endonuclease analysis of viral dna.with development of antiviral drugs, the need to identify a virus as to drug sensitivity becomes increasingly of importance. the compound (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) has been shown to be much more inhibitory to the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and varicella-zoster virus as opposed to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). we have typed over 170 isolates, using an immunofluorescent technique and sensitivity to the drug bvdu. these results were then compared to ...19852984324
comparison of western blot analysis to microneutralization for the detection of type-specific herpes simplex virus antibodies.a newly developed system (as described in the previous paper) employing separated herpes simplex virus (hsv) polypeptides electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose paper, western blot analysis (wba), was compared to microneutralization (mn) for the detection of type-specific antibody to hsv types 1 and 2 in 98 human sera. sera containing hsv1-specific antibodies reacted at least twofold more densely (as quantitated by densitometric scanning) to hsv1 than hsv2 polypeptides, while sera wit ...19852984325
synthesis and antitumor and antiviral activities of a series of 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-5-halocytosine (5-halocytidine) cyclic 3',5'-monophosphates.a series of 1-beta-ribofuranosyl-5-halocytosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphates (1-4) has been prepared. direct halogenation of cytidine 3',5'-monophosphate (ccmp) yielded the cl, br, and i compounds while 5-f-ccmp (1) was obtained on cyclization of the 5'-monophosphate. on in vitro testing of 1-4 against l1210 and p388 leukemias, only 1 showed significant low-level activity (id50 = 3.1 x 10(-4) mmol/l). derivatives 2-4 were inactive at 10(-1) mmol/l and also proved to have low viral ratings against ...19852984417
protection of mice against fatal herpes simplex type 2 infection by liposomes containing muramyl tripeptide.intravenous administration of liposomes containing muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine, a lipophilic derivative of muramyl dipeptide that activates macrophages to a cytolytic state in situ, significantly protected mice against lethal challenge with herpes simplex virus type 2. these findings suggest that the systemic activation of macrophages by liposomes containing an immunomodulator can lead to prophylaxis of severe infections caused by herpesviruses.19852984772
oral acyclovir therapy of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in guinea pigs.oral acyclovir was evaluated for its effectiveness in treating guinea pigs with primary herpes simplex virus type 2 infections. guinea pigs inoculated intravaginally with acyclovir-susceptible strains (for which 50% inhibitory concentrations of acyclovir in cell culture were found to be in the range of 0.15 to 1.2 micrograms/ml) and treated with 5.0 mg of acyclovir per ml in the drinking water beginning 48 h postinfection showed significant reductions in lesion severity. this dosage produced ser ...19852984984
combination chemotherapy: interaction of 5-methoxymethyldeoxyuridine with trifluorothymidine, phosphonoformate and acycloguanosine against herpes simplex viruses.methoxymethyldeoxyuridine (mmudr) when used in combination with either trifluorothymidine (f3tdr) or phosphonoformate (pfa) showed synergistic activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) in vitro, whereas mmudr and acycloguanosine (acg) combination was antagonistic against herpes viruses. hsv-1 mutants resistant to acg, arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-a), mmudr or pfa were isolated. drug-resistant hsv-1 virus mutants were analyzed for cross sensitivity to acg, ara-a, f ...19852984988
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of antibodies against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in human sera.a rapid and reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) is described for determining antibodies in human sera against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2). the sera were absorbed for 30 min with heterologous virus-infected-cell extracts to remove cross-reacting antibodies and then were applied to elisa plates containing the target antigens, immunoaffinity-purified hsv-1 glycoproteins gc and gd and hsv-2 glycoproteins gd and gf. the absorbance index, defined as the ra ...19852985643
evaluation of two immunofluorescence assays with monoclonal antibodies for typing of herpes simplex indirect immunofluorescence assay and a direct immunofluorescence assay were evaluated for typing clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (hsv). the indirect immunofluorescence assay (electro-nucleonics, inc.) correctly identified 16 hsv type 2 (hsv-2) isolates, but failed to identify 4 of 14 hsv-1 isolates because of background fluorescence and instability of reagents. forty-nine hsv-1 isolates were correctly typed by direct immunofluorescence assay (kallestad laboratories, inc.), but 1 of ...19852985651
direct inactivation of viruses by mcp-1 and mcp-2, natural peptide antibiotics from rabbit leukocytes.six homologous peptides were purified to homogeneity from rabbit granulocytes or alveolar macrophages and tested for their ability to inactivate herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). two of the peptides, mcp-1 and mcp-2, showed considerable in vitro neutralizing activity, whereas four structurally homologous peptides (np-3a, np-3b, np-4, and np-5) were relatively ineffective. inactivation of hsv-1 by mcp-1 or mcp-2 depended on peptide concentration and on the time, temperature, and ph of the incu ...19852985808
vaccinia virus recombinant expressing herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein d prevents latent herpes in humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein d gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. tissue culture cells infec ...19852986288
[prevention and therapy of herpesvirus infections].the group of the human-pathogenic herpesviruses comprises five subgroups: herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), varicella zoster virus (vzv), cytomegalovirus (cmv), and epstein-barr virus (ebv). primary infection with these ubiquitous herpesviruses usually occurs in childhood or during adolescence and frequently remains inapparent. however, it can also give rise to a variety of clinical pictures. important clinical manifestations of herpesvirus infections are ...19852986378
synergism between recombinant human interferon and nucleoside antiviral agents against herpes simplex virus: examination with an automated microtiter plate automated, quantitative, cytopathic effect (cpe) inhibition assay with human fibroblasts in 96-well microtiter plates was used to examine the combination of recombinant human interferon-alpha (rifn-alpha a) and acyclovir, vidarabine, or dihydroxypropoxymethyl guanine against herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) in vitro. fifty percent cpe (cpe50) end points, calculated from optical density readings of crystal violet-stained monolayers in an automated spectrophotometer, represent ...19852987369
intracellular transport of herpes simplex virus gd occurs more rapidly in uninfected cells than in infected cells.a mouse l cell line which expresses the herpex simplex virus type 1 immediate-early polypeptides icp4 and icp47 was cotransfected with a cloned copy of the bglii l fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2, which includes the gene for gd, and the plasmid psv2neo, which contains the aminoglycosyl 3'-phosphotransferase (agpt) gene conferring resistance to the antibiotic g418. a g418-resistant transformed cell line was isolated which expressed herpes simplex virus type 2 gd at higher levels than were ...19852987522
synthesis and processing of glycoprotein gg of herpes simplex virus type 2.monoclonal antibody 13 alpha c5-1-a11 immunoprecipitated two major polypeptides of molecular weights 108,000 and 120,000 from extracts of herpes simplex virus type 2-infected bhk-21 cells labeled with [35s]methionine or [3h]glucosamine. in pulse-chase experiments, both labels were chased from the 120,000-molecular-weight peptide (120k peptide) into the 108k molecule. endoglycosidase h (endo h) reduced the 120k peptide to a 112k peptide but did not affect the 108k peptide. similar profiles were o ...19852987534
the consensus sequence ygtgttyy located downstream from the aataaa signal is required for efficient formation of mrna 3' termini.our previous dna sequence comparisons of 3' terminal portions from equivalent herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 genes identified a conserved sequence (consensus ygtgttyy; y = pyrimidine) located approximately 30bp downstream from the aataaa signal. we report here that this signal is located downstream from 67% of the mammalian mrna 3' termini examined. using constructions with the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) gene linked to an hsv 'terminator' fragment, we show ...19852987822
prevalence of serum antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: application of an elisa technique to 100 cases of anogenital herpes.sera of 100 patients affected by anogenital herpes were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) technique using partially purified antigens obtained by extraction from the nuclei of infected vero cells. herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) was isolated from the anogenital lesions of 17 patients and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) from 83 patients. the relative proportions of antibody of the igg class to hsv-1 and hsv-2 were determined and their ratio (r) was calculated, except ...19852988144
immunologic characterization of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens icp10 and icsp11/12.infected cell protein 10 (icp10) or antigen 4 (ag4) and infected cell-specific protein 11/12 (icsp11/12) have been suggested as specific antigenic markers for cervical carcinoma. experiments were designed to determine whether icp10 and icsp11/12 are distinct antigens and to determine the cellular localization of icp10. results indicate that an apparent 160 kdalton (kda) protein analyzed by 8.5% polyacrylamide gels (= 144 kda protein analyzed by 7.0% polyacrylamide gels) was detected in hsv-2-inf ...19852988230
development of molecular probes for simian herpesvirus detection.a number of serologic procedures are available for specifically determining past infection due to h. hominis, or h. simiae (b virus). a herpesvirus isolated from primate tissues, however, does not lend itself to specific identification. procedures currently in routine use simply do not provide an unequivocal identification of the isolate. we have previously demonstrated that h. simiae contain polypeptide and glycoprotein antigens distinct from those of other herpesviruses. at selected intervals, ...19852989049
isolation and characterization of deletion mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (strain hg52).we provide evidence that: (i) two variants lacking the xbai site at map coordinate 0.7 have been selected following xbai treatment of the dna of herpes simplex virus type 2 strain hg52; (ii) one of these mutants had lost the 0.7 restriction site due to a deletion of approximately 150 base pairs and in the other the site loss was due to a similar sized sequence insertion; (iii) following xbai treatment, four variants with deletions ranging in size from 1.5 kb (in both trl and irl) to 9 kb in irl ...19852989417
synthesis and antiviral activity of 11-azapentacyclo[]decane.11-azapentacyclo[]decane (6a) as well as its 6,7-dimethyl derivative 6b was synthesized by a novel, four-step sequence that holds promise for the construction of a variety of cage compounds with bridging nitrogen atoms. the hydrochloride salt of 6a was shown to possess no antiviral activity against either the influenza virus a/victoria/3/75 or the herpes simplex viruses hsv-1 and hsv-2.19852989519
synthesis and biological activities of 2-pyrimidinone nucleosides. 2. 5-halo-2-pyrimidinone 2'-deoxyribonucleosides.1-(2-deoxy-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-5-bromo-2-pyrimidinone (brpdr) and 1-(2-deoxy-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-5-iodo-2-pyrimidinone (ipdr) have been synthesized by condensation of the appropriate silylated bases 2a and 2b, respectively, with 3,5-bis-o-(p-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-alpha-d-ribofuranosyl chloride (8) in 1,2-dichloroethane, in the presence of sncl4, followed by separation of the anomeric blocked nucleosides via column chromatography and subsequent deprotection with methanolic ammonia. both brpd ...19852989522
synthesis and antiherpetic activity of (s)-, (r)-, and (+/-)-9-[(2,3-dihydroxy-1-propoxy)methyl]guanine, linear isomers of 2'-nor-2'-deoxyguanosine.racemic 9-[(2,3-dihydroxy-1-propoxy)methyl]guanine [(+/-)-indg], a new analogue of acyclovir (acv) and a structural analogue of 2'-nor-2'-deoxyguanosine (2'ndg), was synthesized and found to inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2). subsequently, its optical isomers, (r)- and (s)-indg, were prepared from chiral intermediates. the chloromethyl ethers of 1,2-di-o-benzyl-d- and -l-glycerol were made and reacted with tris(trimethylsilyl)guanine to give the 9-alky ...19852989523
analysis of world-wide age-specific data for the association of cervical cancer with infections by herpes simplex virus type incidence data obtained from the scientific literature are used to expand to age-specific incidence rates the observation that the incidence of invasive cervical cancer in many human populations is related to the incidence of infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in the same community. the data for the incidence of the tumor were obtained from international registries. data for prevalence of hsv-2 antibodies were used to evaluate the incidence of past primary infections ...19852989664
incidences of antibodies to hepatitis b, herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus in prostitutes.the 170 prostitutes registered by the local public health authority (165 female, 5 male; ages 17-61) were serologically investigated by elisa and cft for the presence of hepatitis b virus (hbv) markers (n = 170), anti-cmv (n = 118) and anti-hsv 2 antibodies (n = 117). 4.7% (1.2%) were found to be hbs- (hbe-)antigen carriers; 1.2% revealed an acute hepatitis b (seroconversion of anti-hbc or igm-anti-hbc highly positive); 17.1% presented a past and resolved hepatitis b (anti-hbs positive). these r ...19852990124
antiherpes effects and pharmacokinetic properties of 9-(4-hydroxybutyl) guanine and the (r) and (s) enantiomers of 9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)guanine.three acyclic guanosine analogs with similar structures, the (r) and (s) forms of 9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)guanine and 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine, were compared for antiherpes activity in vivo and in vitro. the three guanosine analogs were viral thymidine kinase-dependent inhibitors of virus multiplication. in cell cultures, (s)-9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)guanine was the least active of these three drugs against a variety of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) strains. this was also th ...19852990325
analysis of the hsv-2 early ag-4 antigen.genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections can be distinguished from present or past hsv-1 infections by an ag-4 antigen complement fixation assay. the assay which utilizes a 4 hour hsv-2 infected cell extract prepared at a multiplicity of infection (moi) of 1.0 pfu/cell, appears to consist of several viral proteins. studies using monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal rabbit hyperimmune serum, hsv-1 x hsv-2 intertypic recombinant viruses and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggest tha ...19852990385
crossed immunoelectrophoretic analysis of herpes simplex virus type 2 proteins. characterization of antigen-5.herpes simplex virus type 2 proteins extracted from infected cells and analysed by crossed immunoelectrophoresis identified a nonglycosylated antigen named ag-5. the antigen contained two proteins when extracted from the agarose gel and the molecular weights were 128k and 91k. both proteins are located in the nucleus of the infected cells and the 128k is identical to icp-8. the 91k protein is based on the reactivity with monoclonal antibodies most likely the alkaline exonuclease mapped by presto ...19852990392
retrieval of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 genetic information from murine trigeminal ganglia by superinfection with heterotypic virus in vivo.mice previously latently infected with the f strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) can be successfully colonized with a second virus strain if hsv-2 is introduced at the same peripheral site as hsv-1. on the other hand, hsv-1 strains seemed able mutually to exclude establishment of latency with each other. mice (3 months or 3 years after nasal infection) latently infected with hsv-1 were thus superinfected with hsv-2. the mice were sacrificed 2 days post-infection when hsv-2 replication ...19852991439
the effect of triterpenoid compounds on uninfected and herpes simplex virus-infected cells in culture. i. effect on cell growth, virus particles and virus replication.the related triterpenoid compounds carbenoxolone sodium (cbx) and cicloxolone sodium (ccx) have been investigated in clinical trials for treatment of herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections. when the drugs were tested in vitro, two dose-related effects on bhk cells became apparent: the rate of cell growth was reduced and the drugs exhibited cytotoxicity at high concentrations. flow 2002 cells, in contrast, were apparently unaffected by all drug concentrations tested. the effect of up to 3 days inc ...19852991440
thymidine kinase-deficient herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infection in guinea guinea pigs, thymidine kinase-producing strains of herpes simplex virus type 2 replicated to high titer in the vagina and spinal cord, and animals developed severe clinical disease. infection with thymidine kinase-deficient virus resulted in similar vaginal virus titers; however, animals exhibited little or no clinical illness and only low titers of virus were detected in spinal cord homogenate cultures. neural and extraneural latent infection as well as recurrent infection were noted in anim ...19852991558
drug-resistant mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 with a mutator or antimutator phenotype. 19852991710
enhanced efficacy of the acyclic nucleoside 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine in combination with gamma interferon against herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice.the acyclic nucleoside 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (dhpg) and recombinant mouse interferon gamma (rmuifn-gamma) were evaluated for their efficacy alone and in combination against a herpes simplex virus type 2 systemic infection in mice. intraperitoneally infected animals were treated once a day with the drugs at various concentrations for 5 days starting 24 h after inoculation. dhpg was given subcutaneously and rmuifn-gamma intraperitoneally. for dhpg, the effective dose at which 50 ...19852992368
metabolism of the carbocyclic analogue of (e)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in herpes simplex virus-infected cells. incorporation of c-ivdu into dna.the carbocyclic analogues of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) and (e)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (ivdu), in which the sugar moiety is replaced by a cyclopentane ring and which have been designated as c-bvdu and c-ivdu, respectively, are, like their parent compounds bvdu and ivdu, potent and selective inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and, to a lesser extent, herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) replication. we have now synthesized the radiolabeled c-ivdu analogue, ...19852993282
the therapeutic efficacy of a xanthate compound on herpes simplex virus in skin lesions of mice and guinea-pigs.xanthates have recently been shown to inhibit the replication of both dna and rna viruses in vitro. the antiviral activity was exerted only under acidic ph conditions. curative effects in vivo on herpes simplex virus (hsv)-induced skin lesions were only observed when the xanthate compound was administered in the form of an ointment containing acidic buffer (sodium phosphate ph 5.0). advanced hsv-2-induced skin lesions in mice were healed by topical treatment with the xanthate compound. hsv-1-ind ...19852993486
identification of cross-reacting glycoproteins of four herpesviruses by western blotting.monospecific rabbit antisera against purified herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) gb, gc or gd antigens or polyvalent rabbit antiserum against equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)-infected cells was used in western blotting to identify antigenically related proteins in cells infected with hsv-1, hsv-2, bovine mammillitis virus or ehv-1. monomeric and oligomeric polypeptides related to hsv-1 gb were found in cells infected with each of the four herpesviruses. the gc antiserum was specific for hsv-1 ...19852993488
serum antibodies to the major hsv-2-specified dna-binding protein in patients with an acute hsv infection or cervical neoplasia.the major hsv-2-specified dna-binding protein (icsp 11/12) was purified from hsv-2-infected cells. elisa and immunoblotting techniques were used to study its antigenicity in hsv-infected patients and patients with cervical neoplasia and control women. patients with an acute hsv-2 infection had clearcut antibody responses to the purified icsp 11/12 preparation. determination of the icsp 11/12 antibodies by elisa revealed considerably higher serum antibody levels in patients with cervical carcinom ...19852993495
lack of oral hsv-2 in a college student population.a population of individuals with a high incidence of genital herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), due most likely to oro-genital contact, was examined to determine the incidence of oral herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection. herpes simplex virus was isolated from the oral cavity of 43 college students whose symptoms ranged from singular lesions of the lips with minimal discomfort to severe oral disease with systemic involvement resulting in lymphadenopathy, chills, sweat, myalgia, and fe ...19852993498
synthesis and antiherpes simplex virus activity of 9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propylthio)methyl]guanine.the synthesis of the thio analogue (thio-dhpg, 2) of 9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine (dhpg, 1) is described. the synthesis of 2 proceeded via the condensation of acetoxymethyl sulfide 9 with diacetylguanine 10 to give the protected nucleoside analogue 11. although catalytic hydrogenolysis failed, the benzyl ether functionalities of 11 were successfully cleaved by an acetolysis reaction to furnish 14. ammonolysis of 14 gave 2, which was also transformed to sulfoxide 15 and sulfone 16. ...19852993615
application of antibody to synthetic peptides for characterization of the intact and truncated alpha 22 protein specified by herpes simplex virus 1 and the r325 alpha 22- deletion mutant.the alpha 22 protein is one of five proteins synthesized immediately after infection of permissive cells with herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2). on the basis of the reported nucleotide sequence of the hsv-1 gene, we synthesized two peptides containing the predicted amino acids 12 through 23 (12 residues) and 21 through 36 (16 residues) in two hydrophilic domains near the n terminus of the protein. rabbit antisera made against these peptides were then used to characterize the alpha 2 ...19852993651
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