TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
etiologies and management of aseptic meningitis in patients admitted to an internal medicine department.several studies have focused on the clinical and biological characteristics of meningitis in order to distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis in the emergency setting. however, little is known about the etiologies and outcomes of aseptic meningitis in patients admitted to internal medicine.the aim of the study is to describe the etiologies, characteristics, and outcomes of aseptic meningitis with or without encephalitis in adults admitted to an internal medicine department.a retrospec ...201626765411
herpes simplex encephalitis: an uncommon presentation.herpes simplex virus (hsv) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. most are caused by hsv-1, with 10% having hsv-2 as the aetiologic factor. we present a case of herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. the patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. he was talking irrelevantly, had h ...201627437286
pharmacokinetics of the antiviral lectin griffithsin administered by different routes indicates multiple potential uses.griffithsin (grft) is a red alga-derived lectin with demonstrated broad spectrum antiviral activity against enveloped viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (sars-cov), japanese encephalitis virus (jev), hepatitis c virus (hcv), and herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2). however, its pharmacokinetic profile remains largely undefined. here, sprague dawley rats were administered a single dose of grft at 10 or 20 mg/kg by intravenous, oral, and subcutaneous routes, respectively, ...201627999325
herpes simplex virus hepatitis in an immunocompetent host resembling hepatic pyogenic abscesses.herpes simplex virus (hsv) hepatitis represents a rare complication of hsv infection, which can progress to acute liver failure and, in some cases, death. we describe an immunocompetent 67-year-old male who presented with one week of fever and abdominal pain. computed tomography (ct) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (mri) of the abdomen showed multiple bilobar hepatic lesions, some with rim enhancement, compatible with liver abscesses. subsequent liver biopsy, however, revealed hepatocellular ...201627872770
risk factors for incident hsv-2 infections among a prospective cohort of hiv-1-discordant couples in china.identification of risk factors is essential for developing herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) prevention interventions that could also reduce hiv-1 transmission, particularly among hiv-1-discordant couples.201626139205
coping strategies and behavioural changes following a genital herpes diagnosis among an urban sample of underserved midwestern women.this study focused on understanding the coping strategies and related behavioural changes of women who were recently diagnosed with herpes simplex virus type 2. in particular, we were interested in how coping strategies, condom use, and acyclovir uptake evolve over time. twenty-eight women screening positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 were recruited through a public health std clinic and the indianapolis community court. participants completed three semi-structured interviews with a woman r ...201625792549
herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) genital shedding in hsv-2-/hiv-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.the dynamics of genital shedding of hsv-2 dna was assessed in hiv-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cart). hiv-1 rna, hiv-1 dna and hsv dna loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, pbmc and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 hiv-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cart and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. nineteen (86%) women were hsv-2-seropositive. among hsv-2-/hiv-1-co-inf ...201625769886
vaginal douching and association with sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in a prefecture of yunnan province, china.summaryvaginal douching is a common practice and has been hypothesised to increase a woman's risk for human of contracting hiv and sexually transmitted infections (stis). our objective was to assess the prevalence of douching and its association with stis, genital symptoms and hiv/sti knowledge among female sex workers (fsws). we conducted a cross-sectional study of 837 fsws with interviews and laboratory tests for hiv/stis in a prefecture of yunnan province in southern china. vaginal douching w ...201626016725
overexpression and purification of hsv-2 glycoprotein d in suspension cho cells with serum-free medium and immunogenicity analysis.glycoprotein d (gd2) is the most important candidate antigen for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) vaccine development. establishment of a stable eukaryotic cell line to overexpress gd2 and an efficient purification process to purify is essential for the development of subunit vaccine against hsv-2. the dna sequence of the extracellular epitope-rich fragment of gd2 was optimized, chemically synthesized, and cloned into plasmid pmd902. the recombinant plasmid pmd902-gd was stably transfected in ...201625906680
correlates to seroprevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 among rural appalachian drug users.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease and, along with substance abuse, an important hiv risk factor. therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine hsv-2 seroprevalence in a sample of drug users in rural appalachia. rural appalachian individuals age 18 or older reporting non-medical use of prescription opioids, heroin, crack/cocaine, or methamphetamine in the past 6 months (n = 499) were included. behavioral, demographic, and sexual network da ...201626288383
multipurpose prevention technologies for sexual and reproductive health: mapping global needs for introduction of new preventive products.worldwide, women face sexual and reproductive health (srh) risks including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (stis) including hiv. multipurpose prevention technologies (mpts) combine protection against two or more srh risks into one product. male and female condoms are the only currently available mpt products, but several other forms of mpts are in development. we examined the global distribution of selected srh issues to determine where various risks have the greatest ge ...201626385588
acyclovir prophylaxis reduces the incidence of herpes zoster among hiv-infected individuals: results of a randomized clinical trial.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected persons have higher rates of herpes zoster than hiv-uninfected individuals. we assessed whether twice daily treatment with 400 mg of oral acyclovir reduces the incidence of herpes zoster in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among 3408 persons coinfected with hiv and herpes simplex virus type 2. during 5175 person-years of follow-up, 26 cases of herpes zoster occurred among those assigned acyclovir, compared with 69 cases among those ...201626142452
painful and multiple anogenital lesions are common in men with treponema pallidum pcr-positive primary syphilis without herpes simplex virus coinfection: a cross-sectional clinic-based study.chancres, the hallmark of primary syphilis, are classically described as single, painless ulcers at the site of treponema pallidum inoculation. we aimed to determine the frequency of painful or multiple anogenital lesions of primary syphilis among men, whether there was concurrent herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection and whether hiv status altered clinical presentations.201626378262
a novel hsv-2 subunit vaccine induces gla-dependent cd4 and cd8 t cell responses and protective immunity in mice and guinea pigs.there is currently no licensed prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine for hsv-2 infection.201626571309
current concepts for genital herpes simplex virus infection: diagnostics and pathogenesis of genital tract shedding.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) is a dna virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. hsv-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. however, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these p ...201626561565
multiple strokes associated with herpes simplex virus type-2 infection: case report.herpes simplex virus (hsv) type-2 is known to cause meningitis and usually runs a benign course. association of such infection with vasculitis of the central nervous system is not well known. presented here is a case initially diagnosed as aseptic meningitis that subsequently evolved as stroke and exhibited angiographic evidence of widespread vasculitis of the intracranial vessels in association with a positive polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for hsv-2 in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf).201626443565
genital herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding among adults with and without hiv infection in uganda.despite the high prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in sub-saharan africa, the natural history of infection among africans is not well characterized. we evaluated the frequency of genital hsv shedding in hiv-seropositive and hiv-seronegative men and women in uganda.201626486633
differences in risk behaviours and hiv/sti prevalence between low-fee and medium-fee female sex workers in three provinces in better understand risk behaviours and factors associated with low-fee female sex workers (fsw) and support hiv/sexually transmitted infections (sti) epidemic control among this key population in china.201626474599
transient increase in herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-associated genital ulcers following initiation of antiretroviral therapy in hiv/hsv-2-coinfected individuals.immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (iris) in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected persons beginning antiretroviral therapy (art) has been incompletely characterized for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2).201626704611
herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence and ultrasound-diagnosed uterine fibroids in a large population of young african-american women.for decades reproductive tract infections (rtis) have been hypothesized to play a role in uterine fibroid development. the few previous studies conducted used self-reported history of rtis and had inconsistent findings. we investigated this hypothesis further using serological analysis, an immunological measure of past exposure. we focused on herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) because prior published data have suggested a possible association with fibroids, and serology for hsv-2 is much more s ...201627188945
correction: tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir preexposure prophylaxis for herpes simplex virus type 2. 201627919092
novel therapeutic investigational strategies to treat severe and disseminated hsv infections suggested by a deeper understanding of in vitro virus entry processes.the global burden of herpes simplex virus (hsv) legitimates the critical need to develop new prevention strategies, such as drugs and vaccines that are able to fight either primary hsv infections or reactivations. moreover, the ever-growing number of patients receiving transplants increases the number of severe hsv infections that are unresponsive to current therapies. finally, the high global incidence of genital hsv-2 infection increases the risk of perinatal transmission to newborns, in which ...201626976690
intravaginal zinc oxide tetrapod nanoparticles as novel immunoprotective agents against genital herpes.virtually all efforts to generate an effective protection against the life-long, recurrent genital infections caused by hsv-2 have failed. apart from sexual transmission, the virus can also be transmitted from mothers to neonates, and it is a key facilitator of hiv coacquisition. in this article, we uncover a nanoimmunotherapy using specially designed zinc oxide tetrapod nanoparticles (zoten) with engineered oxygen vacancies. we demonstrate that zoten, when used intravaginally as a microbicide, ...201627183601
the cholestanol-conjugated sulfated oligosaccharide pg545 disrupts the lipid envelope of herpes simplex virus particles.herpes simplex virus (hsv) and many other viruses, including hiv, initiate infection of host cells by binding to glycosaminoglycan (gag) chains of cell surface proteoglycans. although gag mimetics, such as sulfated oligo- and polysaccharides, exhibit potent antiviral activities in cultured cells, the prophylactic application of these inhibitors as vaginal microbicides failed to protect women upon their exposure to hiv. a possible explanation for this failure is that sulfated oligo- and polysacch ...201626643323
antiviral action of diphenyl diselenide on herpes simplex virus 2 infection in female balb/c mice.diphenyl diselenide, (phse)2 , is an organoselenium compound with pharmacological actions mostly related to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. the study investigated its antiviral and virucidal actions against herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) infection in vitro and in a vaginal infection model in mice. the plaque reduction assay indicated that (phse)2 showed virucidal and antiviral actions reducing infectivity in 70.8% and 47%, respectively. the antiviral action of (phse)2 against hsv-2 ...201626639776
protection from genital herpes disease, seroconversion and latent infection in a non-lethal murine genital infection model by immunization with an hsv-2 replication-defective mutant virus.viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. while seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (hsv) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. to measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infectio ...201626609935
δpk oncolytic activity includes modulation of the tumour cell milieu.oncolytic virotherapy is a unique cancer therapeutic that encompasses tumour cell lysis through both virus replication and programmed cell death (pcd) pathways. nonetheless, clinical efficacy is relatively modest, likely related to the immunosuppressive tumour milieu. our studies use the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-based oncolytic virus δpk that has documented anti-tumour activity associated with virus replication, pcd and cancer stem cell lysis. they are designed to examine whether δpk- ...201626602205
multipurpose prevention approaches with antiretroviral-based formulations.we compared the preclinical safety and efficacy of tenofovir (tfv) 1% gel with that of mzc gel [containing 50 μm miv-150, 14 mm zn(o2cch3)2(h2o)2, and 3% carrageenan] through a series of in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays. the two gels showed good antiviral therapeutic indexes (50% cytotoxic concentration/50% effective concentration ratios; range, >25 to 800). mzc showed greater anti-simian-human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (shiv-rt) activity than tfv 1% gel in rhesus macaque ...201626596943
effect of condom use on per-act hsv-2 transmission risk in hiv-1, hsv-2-discordant couples.the efficacy of condoms for protection against transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) has been examined in a variety of populations with different effect measures. often the efficacy has been assessed as change in hazard of transmission with consistent vs inconsistent use, independent of the number of acts. condom efficacy has not previously measured on a per-act basis.201626578538
hexagonal-shaped chondroitin sulfate self-assemblies have exalted anti-hsv-2 activity.the initial step in mucosal infection by the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) requires its binding to certain glycosaminoglycans naturally present on host cell membranes. we took advantage of this interaction to design biomimetic supramolecular hexagonal-shaped nanoassemblies composed of chondroitin sulfate having exalted anti-hsv-2 activity in comparison with native chondroitin sulfate. nanoassemblies were formed by mixing hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate with α-cyclodextrin in w ...201626572336
hla class i and ii alleles, heterozygosity and hla-kir interactions are associated with rates of genital hsv shedding and lesions.variation at hla and kir loci is associated with the severity of viral infections. to assess associations of genital hsv-2 infection with human hla and kir genetic loci, we measured the frequencies of genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) dna detection and of genital lesions in hsv-2 seropositive persons. we followed 267 hsv-2 seropositive persons who collected daily genital swabs and recorded lesions for ⩾30 days. all persons were laboratory-documented as hiv-seronegative, and all were caucasian b ...201627853144
intravaginal practices and prevalence of sexual and reproductive tract infections among women in rural malawi.many women engage in intravaginal practices (ivp) with a goal of improving genital hygiene and increasing sexual pleasure. intravaginal practices can disrupt the genital mucosa, and some studies have found that ivp increases risk of acquisition of hiv and bacterial vaginosis (bv). limited prior research also suggests significant associations between ivp, herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), and high-risk types of human papillomavirus (hpv).201627835627
herpes simplex virus suppressive therapy in herpes simplex virus-2/human immunodeficiency virus-1 coinfected women is associated with reduced systemic cxcl10 but not genital cytokines.herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) may heighten immune activation and increase human immunodeficiency virus 1 (hiv-1) replication, resulting in greater infectivity and faster hiv-1 disease progression. an 18-week randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 500 mg valacyclovir twice daily in 20 antiretroviral-naive women coinfected with hsv-2 and hiv-1 was conducted and hsv-2 suppression was found to significantly reduce both hsv-2 and hiv-1 viral loads both systemically and the endocervic ...201627832025
use of injectable hormonal contraception and hsv-2 acquisition in a cohort of female sex workers in vancouver, canada.increased risk of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) has been proposed as a possible indirect pathway through which hormonal contraceptives (specifically depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (dmpa)) may increase the risk of hiv acquisition among women. we investigated the effects of dmpa on hsv-2 acquisition among female sex workers.201627821613
in situ detection of regulatory t cells in human genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) reactivation and their influence on spontaneous hsv-2 reactivation.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) reactivation is accompanied by a sustained influx of cd4(+) and cd8(+) t cells that persist in genital tissue for extended periods. while cd4(+) t cells have long been recognized as being present in herpetic ulcerations, their role in subclinical reactivation and persistence is less well known, especially the role of cd4(+) regulatory t cells (tregs).201627117511
the effect of a conditional cash transfer on hiv incidence in young women in rural south africa (hptn 068): a phase 3, randomised controlled transfers have been proposed as an intervention to reduce hiv-infection risk for young women in sub-saharan africa. however, scarce evidence is available about their effect on reducing hiv acquisition. we aimed to assess the effect of a conditional cash transfer on hiv incidence among young women in rural south africa.201627815148
vaccination with the secreted glycoprotein g of herpes simplex virus 2 induces protective immunity after genital infection.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a life-long infection in sensory ganglia. after primary infection hsv-2 may reactivate causing recurrent genital ulcerations. hsv-2 infection is prevalent, and globally more than 400 million individuals are infected. as clinical trials have failed to show protection against hsv-2 infection, new vaccine candidates are warranted. the secreted glycoprotein g (sgg-2) of hsv-2 was evaluated as a prophylactic vaccine in mice usi ...201627110813
strong country level correlation between syphilis and hsv-2 prevalence.background. syphilis is curable but herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) is not. as a result, the prevalence of syphilis but not hsv-2 may be influenced by the efficacy of national sti screening and treatment capacity. if the prevalence of syphilis and hsv-2 is found to be correlated, then this makes it more likely that something other than differential sti treatment is responsible for variations in the prevalence of both hsv-2 and syphilis. methods. simple linear regression was used to evaluate the r ...201627069710
no evidence of pritelivir resistance among herpes simplex virus type 2 isolates after 4 weeks of daily therapy.pritelivir is a novel helicase-primase inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections. in preclinical work, resistance-mediating mutations were identified in the hsv-2 genome at 3 loci in the ul5 gene and 1 locus in ul52.201627056950
the epidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in a large cohort of hiv-infected patients, 2006-2014. 201627030927
evolution of rational vaccine designs for genital herpes immunotherapy.immunotherapeutic vaccines have emerged as a novel treatment modality for genital herpes, a sexually transmitted disease mainly caused by herpes simplex virus type 2. the approaches to identify potential vaccine antigens have evolved from classic virus attenuation and characterization of antibody and t cell responses in exposed, but seronegative individuals, to systematic screens for novel t cell antigens. combined with implementation of novel vaccine concepts revolving around immune evasion and ...201626896782
parents' reactions to testing for herpes simplex virus type 2 as a biomarker of sexual activity in botswana junior secondary school students.background use of sexual activity biomarkers in hiv prevention trials has been widely supported to validate self-reported data. when such trials involve minors, researchers may face challenges in obtaining parental buy-in, especially if return of results procedures uphold the confidentiality and privacy rights of minors and preclude parental access to test results. in preparation for a randomised controlled trial (rct) with junior secondary school (jss) students in botswana, a formative assessme ...201626886026
treatment of colon cancer with oncolytic herpes simplex virus in preclinical models.cancer stem cells (cscs), which are a rare population in any type of cancer, including colon cancer, are tumorigenic and responsible for cancer recurrence and metastasis. cscs have been isolated from a number of different solid tumors recently, although the isolation of cscs in colon cancer is still challenging. we cultured colon cancer cells in stem cell medium to obtain colonosphere cells. these cells possessed the characteristics of cscs, with a high capacity of tumorigenicity, migration and ...201626871935
incidence of co-infections of hiv, herpes simplex virus type 2 and syphilis in a large cohort of men who have sex with men in beijing, china.the hiv-epidemic among msm in china has worsened. in this key population, prevalence of hsv-2 and syphilis infection and co-infection with hiv is high.201626820145
dysbiosis-induced il-33 contributes to impaired antiviral immunity in the genital mucosa.commensal microbiota are well known to play an important role in antiviral immunity by providing immune inductive signals; however, the consequence of dysbiosis on antiviral immunity remains unclear. we demonstrate that dysbiosis caused by oral antibiotic treatment directly impairs antiviral immunity following viral infection of the vaginal mucosa. antibiotic-treated mice succumbed to mucosal herpes simplex virus type 2 infection more rapidly than water-fed mice, and also showed delayed viral cl ...201626811463
oasl1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type i interferon production.type i interferon (ifn) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. recently, we reported that 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (oasl1) negatively regulates type i ifn production by inhibiting the translation of the type i ifn-regulating master transcription factor, irf7. notably, while oasl1-deficient mice induce robust production of type i ifn and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effe ...201626750802
sustained high prevalence of viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections among female sex workers in china: a systematic review and meta-analysis.the 1980's economic boom has been associated with a rapid expansion of china's sex industry over the past three decades. consequently, the spread of sexually transmitted infections (stis) and hepatitis infections among female sex workers (fsw) has become an important public health issue in china. this study identifies prevalence and risks of hepatitis and stis in chinese fsws.201626732281
anti-apoptotic function of herpes simplex virus -2 latency-associated transcript rl1 sequence and screening of its encoded micrornas.the latency-associated transcript (lat) gene of herpes simplex virus (hsv)-2 is the only detectable viral gene expressed during latent infection in neurons. lat inhibits apoptosis and maintains latency by promoting the survival of infected neurons. however, whether lat functions during hsv-2 infection via its encoded rnas or via its encoded proteins remain unknown. increasing evidence has indicated that lat is likely to functionally promote the establishment of latent infection via lat-encoded m ...201627663158
[factors related to syphilis and other infections among female drug users in shandong women's compulsory drug rehabilitation center in 2015].objective: to analyze the prevalence of hiv, syphilis and related factors among female drug users in shandong women's compulsory drug rehabilitation center(swcdrc). methods: during may 2015, we used a cluster sampling method for drug users in swcdrc, with a questionnaire and serological testing. we included respondents who volunteered to take part in this study, had clear histories of drug abuse, and had no symptoms of psychosis or current drug use; 451 women participated. the questionnaire addr ...201627655604
herpes simplex virus 2 virion host shutoff endoribonuclease activity is required to disrupt stress granule formation.we previously established that cells infected with herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) are disrupted in their ability to form stress granules (sgs) in response to oxidative stress and that this disruption is mediated by virion host shutoff protein (vhs), a virion-associated endoribonuclease. here, we test the requirement for vhs endoribonuclease activity in disruption of sg formation. we analyzed the ability of hsv-2 vhs carrying the point mutation d215n, which ablates its endoribonuclease activity, ...201627334584
development and application of a rapid detection system for human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus-2 by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.human papillomavirus (hpv) infection is an important factor that causes cervical cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer (nmsc), while hsv-2 plays an important role when hr-hpv triggers the cancer. thus, a quick and convenient assay in the detection of hpv and hsv-2in the screening of hpv and hsv-2 infection is required. two respective hpv and hsv-2 detection methods were established based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay. specific outer primers, inner primers, and loop primers ...201627287497
immune responses elicited by the gen-003 candidate hsv-2 therapeutic vaccine in a randomized controlled dose-ranging phase 1/2a trial.gen-003 is a candidate therapeutic hsv-2 vaccine containing a fragment of infected cell protein 4 (icp4.2), a deletion mutant of glycoprotein d2 (gd2δtmr), and matrix-m2 adjuvant. in a dose-ranging phase 1/2a clinical trial, immunization with gen-003 reduced viral shedding and the percentage of reported herpetic lesion days. here we examine the immune responses in the same trial, to characterize vaccine-related changes in antibody and cell-mediated immunity.201627642130
prevention of vaginal and rectal herpes simplex virus type 2 transmission in mice: mechanism of antiviral action.topical microbicides to stop sexually transmitted diseases, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), are urgently needed. the emerging field of nanotechnology offers novel suitable tools for addressing this challenge. our objective was to study, in vitro and in vivo, antiherpetic effect and antiviral mechanisms of several polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers with anti-hiv-1 activity to establish new potential microbicide candidates against sexually transmitted diseases. plaque reduction assay ...201627274240
herpes simplex acute retinal necrosis presenting as unilateral disc swelling in young immunocompetent report two cases of young immunocompetent males with herpes simplex acute retinal necrosis (hsv arn) with initial diagnosis of unilateral disc swelling.201627230575
access of protective antiviral antibody to neuronal tissues requires cd4 t-cell help.circulating antibodies can access most tissues to mediate surveillance and elimination of invading pathogens. immunoprivileged tissues such as the brain and the peripheral nervous system are shielded from plasma proteins by the blood-brain barrier and blood-nerve barrier, respectively. yet, circulating antibodies must somehow gain access to these tissues to mediate their antimicrobial functions. here we examine the mechanism by which antibodies gain access to neuronal tissues to control infectio ...201627225131
high rates of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in homeless women: informing public health strategies.homeless and unstably housed women living in an urban setting are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases, yet the seroprevalence and correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) specific to impoverished women are poorly understood.201627243474
linear biocompatible glyco-polyamidoamines as dual action mode virus infection inhibitors with potential as broad-spectrum microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases.the initial steps of viral infections are mediated by interactions between viral proteins and cellular receptors. blocking the latter with high-affinity ligands may inhibit infection. dc-sign, a c-type lectin receptor expressed by immature dendritic cells and macrophages, mediates human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection by recognizing mannose clusters on the hiv-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein. mannosylated glycodendrimers act as hiv entry inhibitors thanks to their ability to block this rece ...201627641362
marital age disparity among orphaned young women and their husbands: a mixed methods study in rural zimbabwe.our study reports the results from a mixed method study comparing age-similar (as) marriages of orphaned young women to age disparate (ad) marriages, defined as spousal age difference of 5 or more years. research in zimbabwe and sub-saharan africa suggests that ad sexual relationships between older men and young women increase the risk for hiv but few studies have examined this association among married couples or explored why young women marry much older men. in this study, a total of 35 orphan ...201627614653
attitudes and willingness to assume risk of experimental therapy to eradicate genital herpes simplex virus infection.current treatment of genital herpes is focused on ameliorating signs and symptoms but is not curative. however, as potential herpes simplex virus (hsv) cure approaches are tested in the laboratory, we aimed to assess the interest in such studies by persons with genital herpes and the willingness to assume risks associated with experimental therapy.201627513383
oral treatment with valacyclovir for hsv-2-associated eczema herpeticum in a 9-month-old infant: a case report.eczema herpeticum is a rare, severe, and disseminated infection of herpes simplex virus in the setting of eczematous skin diseases.201627442669
first-in-human trial of miv-150 and zinc acetate coformulated in a carrageenan gel: safety, pharmacokinetics, acceptability, adherence, and evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of miv-150 and zinc acetate in a carrageenan gel (pc-1005). acceptability, adherence, and pharmacodynamics were also explored.201627437826
in vitro exposure to pc-1005 and cervicovaginal lavage fluid from women vaginally administered pc-1005 inhibits hiv-1 and hsv-2 infection in human cervical mucosa.our recent phase 1 trial demonstrated that pc-1005 gel containing 50 μm miv-150, 14 mm zinc acetate dihydrate, and carrageenan (cg) applied daily vaginally for 14 days is safe and well tolerated. importantly, cervicovaginal lavage fluid samples (cvls) collected 4 or 24 h after the last gel application inhibited hiv-1 and human papillomavirus (hpv) in cell-based assays in a dose-dependent manner (miv-150 for hiv-1 and cg for hpv). herein we aimed to determine the anti-hiv and anti-herpes simplex ...201627381393
a recombinant plasmid containing cpg motifs as a novel vaccine adjuvant for immune protection against herpes simplex virus 2.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna vaccine co‑immunized with a plasmid adjuvant containing cpg motifs. a novel eukaryotic expression plasmid vector containing kanamycin resistance gene (pcdna3kan) was acquired from pet‑28a(+) and pcdna3 plasmids. a gene encoding full length hsv‑2 glycoprotein d (gd) was amplified from the pcdna3‑gd plasmid, which was cloned into pcdna3kan resulting in the construction of the recombinant plasmid ...201627357208
regulatory t cells are essential to promote proper cd4 t-cell priming upon mucosal infection.regulatory t cells (tregs) limit autoimmunity and immunopathology using a variety of suppressive mechanisms, but their roles during pathogen-directed immune responses remain unclear. following herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) infection, mice lacking tregs fail to control viral replication, pointing to a role for tregs in facilitating productive immune responses. using adoptive transfer of t-cell receptor transgenic cd4 t cells into treg-sufficient or treg-depleted mice prior to hsv-2 infection, we ...201627007674
alphaherpesvirus subversion of stress-induced translational this article, we provide an overview of translational arrest in eukaryotic cells in response to stress and the tactics used specifically by alphaherpesviruses to overcome translational arrest. one consequence of translational arrest is the formation of cytoplasmic compartments called stress granules (sgs). many viruses target sgs for disruption and/or modification, including the alphaherpesvirus herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). recently, it was discovered that hsv-2 disrupts sg formation ...201626999187
accumulation of a soluble form of human nectin-2 is required for exerting the resistance against herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in transfected cells.cell entry of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) requires the interaction of viral glycoprotein d (gd) with the receptor nectin-1 and herpesvirus entry mediator (hvem). in addition, it is known that nectin-2 is also functional as a receptor for hsv-2, although the binding to the gd is weak. to examine an antiviral potential of a soluble form of human nectin-2 (hnectin-2ig), transfected vero cells expressing the entire ectodomain of nectin-2 fused to the fc portion of human igg were established. ...201626982466
seroprevalence and risk factors of herpes simplex virus-2 among pregnant women attending antenatal care at health facilities in wolaita zone, ethiopia.herpes simplex virus type-2 is the common cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide. genital herpes infection is a major concern in pregnancy due to the risk of neonatal transmission.201626979484
herpes simplex virus type 2: cluster of unrelated cases in an intensive care unit.herpes simplex viruses, which are associated with various clinical manifestations, can be transmitted to critically ill patients from other patients or health care staff. we report an apparent outbreak of mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus 2 infections (5 cases in 10 weeks). an epidemiologic investigation and genotype analysis showed no connections among the 5 cases.201627198455
lymphocytic meningitis caused by herpes simplex virus type 2. 201626964890
pseudotumoral recto-sigmoid herpes simplex virus type 2 in an hiv-infected patient: dramatic improvement with thalidomide. 201626946154
subclinical generation of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus with mutation of homopolymeric guanosine strings during acyclovir therapy.suppressive therapy in patients with genital herpes has been used in japan since 2006. susceptibility and resistance of herpes simplex virus (hsv)-2 to acyclovir were examined in genital isolates from patients receiving suppressive therapy and compared with those from those naïve to acyclovir and receiving episodic treatment with acyclovir.201626917345
smart cup: a minimally-instrumented, smartphone-based point-of-care molecular diagnostic device.nucleic acid amplification-based diagnostics offer rapid, sensitive, and specific means for detecting and monitoring the progression of infectious diseases. however, this method typically requires extensive sample preparation, expensive instruments, and trained personnel. all of which hinder its use in resource-limited settings, where many infectious diseases are endemic. here, we report on a simple, inexpensive, minimally-instrumented, smart cup platform for rapid, quantitative molecular diagno ...201626900258
formative work and community engagement approaches for implementing an hiv intervention in botswana schools.providing adolescents with evidence-based sexual risk reduction interventions is critical to addressing the hiv/aids epidemic among adolescents in sub-saharan africa. project aim (adult identity mentoring) is an innovative, evidence-based, youth development intervention that is being evaluated for the first time in botswana through a 3-year (2015-2017), 50-school cluster randomized controlled trial, including testing for herpes simplex virus type 2 as a sexual activity biomarker. conducting a tr ...201627196663
hiv positive patient with hsv-2 encephalitis: case report.incidence of brain infections in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) positive patients is reduced after the availability of current high active antiretroviral therapy (haart). herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is an infrequent cause of encephalitis in hiv patients despite it is frequently involved in sexual transmitted infections. here, we report a case of hsv-2 encephalitis occurring in a patient without full suppression of hiv replication within the brain. a 38 year-old hiv infected man was a ...201627668908
genital herpes: insights into sexually transmitted infectious disease.etiology, transmission and protection: herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. pathology/symptomatology: primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for ma ...201628357380
progesterone augments cell susceptibility to hiv-1 and hiv-1/hsv-2 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1)-infected women, oral or injectable progesterone containing contraceptive pills may enhance hiv-1 acquisition in vivo, and the mechanism by which this occurs is not fully understood. in developing countries, herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) co-infection has been shown to be a risk for increase of hiv-1 acquisition and, if co-infected women use progesterone pills, infections may increase several fold. in this study, we used an in vitro cell culture ...201627538988
could zinc oxide tetrapod nanoparticles be used as an effective immunotherapy against hsv-2? 201627527812
association of depressed mood with herpes simplex virus-2 immunoglobulin-g levels in pregnancy.depressed mood is common in pregnancy, is associated with stress, and could result in immune suppression that may lead to latent herpes viral reactivation. this study investigated whether depressed mood is associated with higher herpes viral igg levels in pregnant women.201627490851
serologic screening for genital herpes: an updated evidence report and systematic review for the us preventive services task force.genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. vertical transmission of hsv can lead to fetal morbidity and mortality.201627997660
detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) -specific cell-mediated immune responses in guinea pigs during latent hsv-2 genital infection.genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. additionally, hsv-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. understanding immune protection against hsv-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivati ...201627659010
effect of pritelivir compared with valacyclovir on genital hsv-2 shedding in patients with frequent recurrences: a randomized clinical trial.current therapy of herpes infections relies on nucleoside analogues. pritelivir is a well-tolerated novel herpes simplex virus (hsv) helicase-primase inhibitor that reduced genital shedding and lesions.201627997653
antiviral potential and mode of action of indigofera heterantha against hsv-2 by targeting the early stages of infection.the development of antivirals against herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) has a major public health importance because of the wide spectrum of associated clinical disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised populations. even with the extensive use of acyclovir, issues such as emergence of drug resistant strains, poor oral bioavailability, and low effectiveness in recurrent infections have highlighted the requirement for alternate therapies. plants, which are rich in metabolites and active a ...201628008866
role of il-32 in hiv reactivation and its link to hiv-hsv coinfection.hsv-2 exacerbates hiv by unclear mechanisms. these studies tested the impact of hsv-2 on systemic t cell populations and hiv reservoirs.201628007920
performance of kalon herpes simplex virus 2 assay using dried blood spots among young women in uganda.the study evaluated the performance of the kalon hsv-2 assay on dried blood spots (dbs) of various dilutions compared with plasma from young women aged 18-24 years in uganda. we estimated the sensitivity and specificity of three dbs dilutions using plasma as the reference. all three evaluated dbs dilutions yielded low sensitivities and specificities with dbs 1:2 yielding the highest concurrence. other hsv-2 assays should be examined with regard to their utility for testing dbs.201628003966
effects of female sex hormones on susceptibility to hsv-2 in vaginal cells grown in air-liquid interface.the lower female reproductive tract (frt) is comprised of the cervix and vagina, surfaces that are continuously exposed to a variety of commensal and pathogenic organisms. sexually transmitted viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), have to traverse the mucosal epithelial lining of the frt to establish infection. the majority of current culture systems that model the host-pathogen interactions in the mucosal epithelium have limitations in simulating physiological conditions as they ...201627589787
ficus religiosa l. bark extracts inhibit infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 in vitro.ficus religiosa extracts have been used in traditional indian medicine to treat sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhea and genital ulcers. the aim of this study was to investigate the antiviral activity of f. religiosa extracts against herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), the main causative agent of genital ulcers and sores. water and chloroform bark extracts were the most active against hsv-2, and also against an acyclovir-resistant strain. we demonstrate that the water extract has a ...201627581805
secreted herpes simplex virus-2 glycoprotein g alters thermal pain sensitivity by modifying ngf effects on trpv1.genital herpes is a painful disease frequently caused by the neurotropic pathogen herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). we have recently shown that hsv-2-secreted glycoprotein g (sgg2) interacts with and modulates the activity of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (ngf). this interaction modifies the response of the ngf receptor trka, increasing ngf-dependent axonal growth. ngf is not only an axonal growth modulator but also an important mediator of pain and inflammation regulating the amount, ...201627576911
incidence and risk factors for herpes simplex virus type 2 seroconversion among pregnant women in uganda: a prospective study.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) acquired during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes such as perinatal hsv-2 transmission. hsv-2 seroconversion occurs within four weeks of hsv-2 acquisition. there was neither documented incidence nor risk factors for hsv-2 seroconversion during pregnancy in uganda. the objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for hsv-2 seroconversion among pregnant women in mulago hospital, uganda.201627801374
prevalence and determinants of hsv-2/syphilis co-infection and hsv-2 mono-infection among hiv-positive men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional study in northeast china.we aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) mono-infection and hsv-2/syphilis co-infection in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-positive men who have sex with men (msm) in china. a cross-sectional study was conducted on 545 hiv-positive msm in shenyang between february 2009 and october 2014. participants received physical examinations and serological tests for hsv-2 and syphilis. a multinomial logistic regression was used to identify risk factors as ...201627795468
rna-binding protein cpeb1 remodels host and viral rna and virus interactions occurring at the post-transcriptional level are critical for infection but remain poorly understood. here, we performed comprehensive transcriptome-wide analyses revealing that human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) infection results in widespread alternative splicing (as), shortening of 3' untranslated regions (3' utrs) and lengthening of poly(a)-tails in host gene transcripts. we found that the host rna-binding protein cpeb1 was highly induced after infection, and ectopic exp ...201627775709
seroprevalence and correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among young adults in arkhangelsk, northwest russia: a population-based cross-sectional study.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease (gud) worldwide. mother to child transmission causes high morbidity and mortality among infants. russia is on the brink of a generalized hiv-epidemic, but arkhangelsk is still a low-prevalence area. hsv-2 infection is associated with a three-fold increased risk of hiv-infection. the evidence on the seroprevalence of hsv-2 in russia is limited. the aim of this study was to assess hsv-2 seroprevalence a ...201627793121
herpes simplex virus type 2-associated recurrent aseptic meningitis (mollaret's meningitis) with a recurrence after 11-year interval: a case report.a 55-year-old woman was diagnosed with aseptic meningitis at the age of 43 and 44. she developed sudden fever and headache, and she showed nuchal rigidity. cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed pleocytosis (cell count 208/mm(3)) and was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna by pcr. acyclovir was started on the first day of admission, and she was complete recovery. preserved cerebrospinal fluid specimen from aseptic meningitis at the age of 44 was also positive for hsv-2 dna by ...201627773908
herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in the netherlands: seroprevalence, risk factors and changes during a 12-year period.genital herpes results in considerable morbidity, including risk of neonatal herpes, and is increasingly being caused by herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1. possibly children are less often hsv-1 infected, leaving them susceptible until sexual debut. we assessed changes in the dutch hsv-1 and hsv-2 seroprevalence over time and determinants associated with hsv seropositivity.201627484304
[the blocking effects of small interfering rnas on rs-1 gene functions of herpes simplex virus type 2: new perspectives for targeted antiviral exposure].a new target has been revealed for therapy for herpes simplex type 2. the target is rs1 mrna whose activation is a key stage in regulating the expression of the early genes of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). the targeted knockdown of the function of this gene by small interfering rnas (sirnas) has been found to result in the complete suppression of hsv-2 infection. the designed interfering rnas are able to interact with both hsv-1 and hsv-2. the findings suggest that sirnas have protective ...201622905421
detection of virus in csf from the cases with meningoencephalitis by next-generation sequencing.we screened for viral dna in cerebrospinal fluid samples using next-generation sequencing (ngs) technology to diagnose cns viral infections. we collected csf samples from four cases with clinically suspected viral meningoencephalitis. dna extracted from the samples was analyzed with ngs, and the results were further validated using pcr. herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) was detected in the csf of two patients, hsv-2 and human herpes virus type 3 (hhv-3, vzv) in the csf of two other patients separat ...201626506841
database on natural polymorphisms and resistance-related non-synonymous mutations in thymidine kinase and dna polymerase genes of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.the use of genotypic resistance testing of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) is increasing because the rapid availability of results significantly improves the treatment of severe infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. however, an essential precondition is a broad knowledge of natural polymorphisms and resistance-associated mutations in the thymidine kinase (tk) and dna polymerase (pol) genes, of which the dna polymerase (pol) enzyme is targeted by the highly ef ...201626433780
herpes simplex virus seroprevalence and seroconversion among active duty us air force members with hiv infection.herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection is associated with an increased risk of both hiv transmission and acquisition. we evaluated longitudinal hsv serology and sexually transmitted infections (stis) among active duty us air force (usaf) members with hiv infection.201626615389
effects of a traditional chinese medicine, longdanxiegan formula granule, on toll-like receptor pathway in female guinea pigs with recurrent genital herpes.the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of longdanxiegan formula granule (ldxgfg), a chinese traditional medicine on toll-like receptor (tlr) pathway in recurrent genital herpes.201627125405
an empiric hiv risk scoring tool to predict hiv-1 acquisition in african develop and validate an hiv risk assessment tool to predict hiv acquisition among african women.201626918545
the incidence of trichomonas vaginalis infection in women attending nine sexually transmitted diseases clinics in the usa.trichomoniasis (tv) is associated with an increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases (stds) and hiv. the purpose of this study is to evaluate factors associated with incidence tv among female std clinic attendees in the usa.201626071390
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