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assessment of two novel live-attenuated vaccine candidates for herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) in guinea pigs.treatment to ameliorate the symptoms of infection with herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) and to suppress reactivation has been available for decades. however, a safe and effective preventative or therapeutic vaccine has eluded development. two novel live-attenuated hsv-2 vaccine candidates (rvx201 and rvx202) have been tested preclinically for safety. hartley guinea pigs were inoculated vaginally (n = 3) or intradermally (n = 16) with either vaccine candidate (2 × 107 pfu) and observed for disease ...202133805768
phytochemical screening, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, cytotoxic, and anti-quorum-sensing properties of teucrium polium l. aerial parts methanolic extract.the chemical profile of teucrium polium l. (t. polium) methanolic extract was tested using liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (hr-lcms). disc diffusion and microdilution assays were used for the antimicrobial activities. coxsackievirus b-3 (cvb3) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) were used for the antiviral activities. chromobacterium violaceum (atcc 12472 and cv026) and pseudomonas aeruginosa pao1 were used as starter strains for the anti-quorum sensing t ...202033114026
protection against herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in a neonatal murine model using a trivalent nucleoside-modified mrna in lipid nanoparticle vaccine.neonatal herpes is a dreaded complication of genital herpes infection in pregnancy. we recently compared two vaccine platforms for preventing genital herpes in female mice and guinea pigs and determined that hsv-2 glycoproteins c, d and e expressed using nucleoside-modified mrna in lipid nanoparticles provided better protection than the same antigens produced as baculovirus proteins and administered with cpg and alum. here we evaluated mrna and protein immunization for protection against neonata ...202033041105
herpes simplex virus type 2 trivalent protein vaccine containing glycoproteins c, d and e protects guinea pigs against hsv-1 genital infection.a vaccine to prevent genital herpes is an unmet public health need. we previously reported that a trivalent vaccine containing herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) glycoproteins c, d, and e (gc2, gd2, ge2) produced in baculovirus and administered with cpg/alum as adjuvants blocks immune evasion mediated by gc2 and ge2 and virus entry by gd2. the vaccine protected guinea pigs against hsv-2 vaginal infection. we evaluated whether the hsv-2 vaccine cross-protects against hsv-1 because many first-tim ...202032347775
a vaccine containing highly purified virus particles in adjuvant provides high level protection against genital infection and disease in guinea pigs challenged intravaginally with homologous and heterologous strains of herpes simplex virus type 2.infection with herpes simplex viruses (hsvs) represents a significant health burden worldwide with hsv-1 and hsv-2 causing genital disease and hsv-2 contributing to human immunodeficiency virus acquisition. despite great need, there is currently no licensed vaccine against hsv. in this report, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a vaccine containing highly purified, inactivated hsv-2 particles (with and without additional recombinant glycoprotein d) formulated with a monophosphoryl lipid a/a ...202031611098
nucleoside-modified mrna encoding hsv-2 glycoproteins c, d, and e prevents clinical and subclinical genital herpes.the goals of a genital herpes vaccine are to prevent painful genital lesions and reduce or eliminate subclinical infection that risks transmission to partners and newborns. we evaluated a trivalent glycoprotein vaccine containing herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) entry molecule glycoprotein d (gd2) and two immune evasion molecules: glycoprotein c (gc2), which binds complement c3b, and glycoprotein e (ge2), which blocks immunoglobulin g (igg) fc activities. the trivalent vaccine was administere ...201931541030
intranasal nanoemulsion-adjuvanted hsv-2 subunit vaccine is effective as a prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine using the guinea pig model of genital herpes.genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease representing a major global health concern. currently, there is no approved vaccine and existing antiviral therapies exhibit limited efficacy. herein, we describe an intranasal (in) vaccine comprised of hsv-2 surface glycoproteins gd2 and gb2 formulated in a nanoemulsion adjuvant (ne01-gd2/gb2). using the hsv-2 genital herpes guinea pig model, we demonstrate that in ne01-gd2/gb2 induces higher levels of neutralizing antibody compared to a monovale ...201931515143
successful application of prime and pull strategy for a therapeutic hsv vaccine.one promising approach for a herpes simplex virus vaccine uses a vaccine to prime and a chemoattractant to pull immune cells into the genital tract. we evaluated subunit vaccines (prime) and imiquimod (pull) in the guinea pig (gp) model of recurrent herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2). following vaginal hsv-2 infection, gps were vaccinated with various combination of glycoproteins and adjuvant with or without subcutaneous or local applications of imiquimod after infection. animals were examined ...201931396405
herpes simplex virus 2 in autonomic ganglia: evidence for spontaneous reactivation.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) can be transmitted in the presence or absence of lesions, allowing efficient spread among the general population. recurrent hsv genital lesions are thought to arise from reactivated latent virus in sensory cell bodies of the dorsal root ganglia (drg). however, hsv-2 has also been found latent in autonomic ganglia. spontaneous reactivation or a low level of chronic infection could theoretically also occur in these peripheral nervous tissues, contributing to the pres ...201930894469
therapeutic mucosal vaccination of herpes simplex virus 2-infected guinea pigs with ribonucleotide reductase 2 (rr2) protein boosts antiviral neutralizing antibodies and local tissue-resident cd4+ and cd8+ trm cells associated with protection against recurrent genital herpes.reactivation of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) from latency causes viral shedding that develops into recurrent genital lesions. the immune mechanisms of protection against recurrent genital herpes remain to be fully elucidated. in this preclinical study, we investigated the protective therapeutic efficacy, in the guinea pig model of recurrent genital herpes, of subunit vaccine candidates that were based on eight recombinantly expressed hsv-2 envelope and tegument proteins. these viral protein an ...201930787156
development of disease and immunity at the genital epithelium following intrarectal inoculation of male guinea pigs with herpes simplex virus type 2.most analyses of genital immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) have been performed in females, consequently immune protection of the male genital epithelium is incompletely understood. we developed a model of male genital hsv-2 infection resulting from intrarectal inoculation of guinea pigs. vesicular lesions developed transiently on the perineum and foreskin concurrent with acute virus shedding. virus shedding and recurrent genital lesions were also detected after establishment of a l ...201930412859
preclinical safety evaluation of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2.oncolytic virotherapy is a new and safe therapeutic strategy based on the inherent cytotoxicity of oncolytic viruses and their ability to replicate and spread within tumors in a selective manner. in a previous study, a new type of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2 (ohsv-2, named oh2) was constructed to treat human cancers. that study demonstrated that oh2 is genetically and biologically stable. its antitumor activity was maintained, even after passaging the virus for >20 generations. to adva ...201930499341
vaccine-mediated inhibition of the transporter associated with antigen processing is insufficient to induce major histocompatibility complex e-restricted cd8+ t cells in nonhuman primates.major histocompatibility complex e (mhc-e) is a highly conserved nonclassical mhc-ib molecule that tightly binds peptides derived from leader sequences of classical mhc-ia molecules for presentation to natural killer cells. however, mhc-e also binds diverse foreign and neoplastic self-peptide antigens for presentation to cd8+ t cells. although the determinants of mhc-e-restricted t cell priming remain unknown, these cells are induced in humans infected with pathogens containing genes that inhibi ...201931315990
acute infection and subsequent subclinical reactivation of herpes simplex virus 2 after vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) is a common sexually transmitted infection with a highly variable clinical course. many infections quickly become subclinical, with episodes of spontaneous virus reactivation. to study host-hsv-2 interactions, an animal model of subclinical hsv-2 infection is needed. in an effort to develop a relevant model, rhesus macaques (rm) were inoculated intravaginally with two or three hsv-2 strains (186, 333, and/or g) at a total dose of 1 × 107 pfu of hsv-2 per animal. in ...201930333177
a trivalent gc2/gd2/ge2 vaccine for herpes simplex virus generates antibody responses that block immune evasion domains on gc2 better than natural infection.vaccines for prevention and treatment of genital herpes are high public health priorities. our approach towards vaccine development is to focus on blocking virus entry mediated by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein d (gd2) and to prevent the virus from evading complement and antibody attack by blocking the immune evasion domains on hsv-2 glycoproteins c (gc2) and e (ge2), respectively. hsv-2 gc2 and ge2 are expressed on the virion envelope and infected cell surface where they are p ...201930551986
increased frequency of virus shedding by herpes simplex virus 2-infected guinea pigs in the absence of cd4+ t lymphocytes.reactivation of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) results in infection of epithelial cells at the neuro-epithelial junction and shedding of virus at the epithelial surface. virus shedding can occur in either the presence or absence of clinical disease and is usually of short duration, although the shedding frequency varies among individuals. the basis for host control of virus shedding is not well understood, although adaptive immune mechanisms are thought to play a central role. to determine the i ...201930463981
vaccine-induced antibodies to herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread correlate with protection against genital disease in guinea pigs.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein d (gd2) subunit antigen is included in many preclinical candidate vaccines. the rationale for including gd2 is to produce antibodies that block crucial gd2 epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread. hsv-2 gd2 was the only antigen in the herpevac trial for women that protected against hsv-1 genital infection but not hsv-2. in that trial, a correlation was detected between gd2 elisa titers and protection against hsv-1, supporting the ...201829791513
griffithsin carrageenan fast dissolving inserts prevent shiv hsv-2 and hpv infections in vivo.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) pre-exposure prophylaxis (prep) strategies with proven in vivo efficacy rely on antiretroviral drugs, creating the potential for drug resistance and complicated treatment options in individuals who become infected. moreover, on-demand products are currently missing from the prep development portfolio. griffithsin (grft) is a non-antiretroviral hiv entry inhibitor derived from red algae with an excellent safety profile and potent activity in vitro. when combined ...201830250170
herpes simplex virus 2 latency-associated transcript (lat) region mutations do not identify a role for lat-associated micrornas in viral reactivation in guinea pig genital models.despite the long-standing observation that herpes simplex virus (hsv) latency-associated transcript (lat) promoter deletion viruses show impaired recurrence phenotypes in relevant animal models, the mechanism by which these sequences exert this phenotypic effect is unknown. we constructed and evaluated four mutant hsv-2 isolates with targeted mutations in the lat promoter and lat-associated micrornas (mirnas) affecting (i) the lat tata box; (ii) the lat icp4-binding site; (iii) mirna i (mir-i) a ...201829720520
the ticking clock of hsv-2 pathology.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is the causative agent of genital herpes. matsuzawa et al have demonstrated that, in a mouse model, hsv-2 pathology is influenced by the time infection occurs. increased expression of the hsv-2 receptor nectin-1 under the control of clock coincided with an increase in viral titer suggesting that hsv-2 infection is regulated by the host circadian clock.201829273146
image gallery: lenalidomide for the treatment of pseudotumoral herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in human immunodeficiency virus infection. 201829357582
high-risk behaviour and hiv infection risk among non-local men who have sex with men with less than a single year's residence in urban centres: a multicentre cross-sectional study from china.traditionally, subjects' migration status has usually been defined on the basis of their registered residency status. we attempted to redefine migration based on the duration of residency in their cities of migration and to explore more precisely the impact of migration on hiv infection risk in men who have sex with men (msm).201829348258
exogenous oestrogen inhibits genital transmission of cell-associated hiv-1 in dmpa-treated humanized mice.hiv affects more women than any other life-threatening infectious agent, and most infections are sexually transmitted. hiv must breach the female genital tract mucosal barrier to establish systemic infection, and clinical studies indicate virus more easily evades this barrier in women using depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (dmpa) and other injectable progestins for contraception. identifying a potential mechanism for this association, we learned dmpa promotes susceptibility of wild-type mice to ...201829334191
school support as structural hiv prevention for adolescent orphans in western kenya.using a clustered randomized controlled trial design, we evaluated whether support to keep kenyan orphaned adolescents in school reduces the risk of hiv infection.201829107569
expression and characterization of the soluble form of recombinant mature hsv-2 glycoprotein g for use in anti-hsv-2 igg serodiagnostic immunoassay.herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) specific glycoprotein g (gg-2) is widely used as the antigen of choice for serodiagnosis of hsv-2. in order to develop an elisa for serodetection of hsv-2 igg in patient sera, the soluble form of the mature gg-2 antigen (mgg-2), gg283-649, was expressed using a baculovirus expression system. gg283-649 contains the complete extracellular domain of mgg-2 including the c-terminal region, which despite homology to gg-1, does not cross-react with hsv-1 antibodies p ...201829104048
intramuscular delivery of replication-defective herpes simplex virus gives antigen expression in muscle syncytia and improved protection against pathogenic hsv-2 strains.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) is the leading cause of genital herpes and increases the risk of hiv infection, but there is no effective vaccine. a replication-defective hsv-2 mutant virus, dl5-29, is effective in animal models and has been in a phase i trial. previous studies have shown that dl5-29 gives higher antibody responses and better protection when inoculated intramuscularly (im) as compared with subcutaneously (sc). however, the basis for this effect has not been defined. we confirmed ...201829069622
a concise synthesis of rhamnan oligosaccharides with alternating α-(1→2)/(1→3)-linkages and repeating α-(1→3)-linkages by iterative α-glycosylation using disaccharide building blocks.a concise synthetic route to rhamnan oligosaccharides with alternating α-(1→2)/(1→3)-linkages and repeating α-(1→3)-linkages is reported. this synthesis was achieved by iterative α-glycosylation using disaccharide building blocks and through orthogonal coupling between thioglycosides of l-rhamnose. to investigate the detailed structure-activity relationship of rhamnan sulfate from monostroma nitidum against herpes simplex virus type 2, the synthesized oligosaccharides, bearing different orthogon ...201829156420
co-infection of human herpesvirus type 2 (hhv-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) among pregnant women in rio de janeiro, brazil.pregnant women who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) are particularly vulnerable to severe and recurrent infections with human herpesvirus 2 (hhv-2). neonatal transmission of hhv-2 has been associated with malformations and neurological sequelae in infants, which makes it very important to perform antenatal monitoring for genital herpes. in the study, 134 pregnant women infected with hiv were tested for hhv-2 igm and igg using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) a ...201828914079
heterogeneity of herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence from a national probability survey in mexico, 2012.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) seroprevalence and associated infection risk factors show differences by regions and countries. the aims of the study were to determine the hsv-2 seroprevalence and to evaluate the risk factors for hsv-2 in a national representative survey among adolescents and adults in mexico.201828876288
transcriptional analysis of the guinea pig mucosal immune response to intravaginal infection with herpes simplex virus type 2.genital herpes infection in guinea pigs closely models human infection but tools for immune characterization are limited. immunity to hsv infection at the vaginal epithelial surface was characterized in guinea pigs using pcr-based array analysis of vaginal swab samples. ifnγ was one of the most significantly upregulated genes throughout the infection and over 40% of genes with significantly altered expression were linked to ifnγ based on interferome analysis. ifnγ transcripts and biologically ac ...201829604476
the potential of currently unavailable herpes virus vaccines.despite overwhelming experimental work, there are no licensed vaccines against the most frequent alphaherpesviruses, namely herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (hsv1 and 2) nor against the epstein-barr virus (ebv), a member of the subfamily gammaherpesvirus. areas covered: since the dnas of both hsvs reside in the regional sensory ganglia in a latent state (i.e. as circularized episomal molecules), a corresponding vaccine might be useful for immunotherapy rather than prevention of primary infection. he ...201829313728
association between virus exposure and depression in us adults.mood disorders are common mental illnesses. among the factors associated with major depression are exposures to infectious diseases including hepatitis c, influenza, varicella-zoster, and herpes viruses. in this study, we sought to evaluate further associations between viral exposure and depression. from the us center for disease control's national health and nutrition examination survey, we obtained data about depression status, antidepressant use, exposure to hepatitis a, hepatitis b, herpes s ...201729287239
determining the igm and igg antibodies titer against hsv1, hsv2 and cmv in the serum of schizophrenia patients.schizophrenia is a destructive clinical syndrome with diverse mental pathologies. different mechanisms and factors have a role in this disease. a possible mechanism is that teratogenic viruses cause brain changes and results in the disease appearance. the schizophrenia patients were diagnosed by psychologists and with the consent of patients, five cc of venous blood was drawn. than serum samples were isolated and immunoglobulin m (igm) and immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies against herpes simplex ...201729036805
herpesviruses in etiopathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis: a meta-analysis based on case-control studies.previous studies have found that herpesviruses are associated with aggressive periodontitis (agp). however, these findings are controversial. this meta-analysis was aimed at clarifying the association between herpesviruses and agp.201729036216
molecular evolution of herpes simplex virus 2 complete genomes: comparison between primary and recurrent infections.herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 are large, double-stranded dna viruses that cause lifelong persistent infections characterized by periods of quiescence and recurrent disease. how hsv evolves within an infected individual experiencing multiple episodes of recurrent disease over time is not known. we determined the genome sequences of viruses isolated from two subjects in the herpevac trial for women who experienced primary hsv-2 genital disease and compared them with sequences of viruses ...201728931680
[investigation of bacterial and viral etiology in community acquired central nervous system infections with molecular methods].in this multicenter prospective cohort study, it was aimed to evaluate the bacterial and viral etiology in community-acquired central nervous system infections by standart bacteriological culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methods. patients hospitalized with central nervous system infections between april 2012 and february 2014 were enrolled in the study. demographic and clinical information of the patients were collected prospectively. cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples of the ...201728929964
association between infection burden and adult height.although highly heritable, adult height is also associated with numerous environmental factors, including exposure to infection. particularly in developing regions of the world, infection burden appears to slow growth during childhood. using a large database representative of the us population, we examined associations between adult height and leg length and an infection-burden index based on past exposure to toxocara species, toxoplasmosis gondii, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis a, hepatitis b, hepa ...201728926748
[herpes simplex virus infection: an overview of the problem, pharmacologic therapy and dietary measures].treatment of infectious diseases remains one of the principal research target for many researchers and healthcare providers worldwide. herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) are common human pathogens with an estimated 60-95% of the adult population infected by at least one of them. the worldwide disease burden of hsv is substantial, and acyclovir and related nucleoside analogues (viral dna polymerase inhibitors) as therapies have led to significantly increased treatme ...201728914066
performance of commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays for diagnosis of herpes simplex virus-1 and herpes simplex virus-2 infection in a clinical setting.us food and drug administration-approved enzyme-linked immunoassays (eia) for determining type-specific herpes simplex virus (hsv) serostatus are widely used in clinical practice. we compared the performance of such assays with the university of washington western blot (uw wb) in patients who sought confirmation of their hsv serology result.201728876290
pregnancy outcomes in association with stds including genital hsv-2 shedding in a south african cohort study.genital herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) shedding in pregnant women in association with neonatal herpes infection has been widely studied but there is limited evidence of its association with pregnancy outcomes.201728396556
an intravaginal ring that releases three antiviral agents and a contraceptive blocks shiv-rt infection, reduces hsv-2 shedding, and suppresses hormonal cycling in rhesus macaques.women globally need access to multipurpose prevention technologies (mpts) that prevent human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), sexually transmitted infections that increase hiv acquisition/transmission risk, and unintended pregnancy. seeking an mpt with activity against hiv, herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2), and human papillomavirus (hpv), we developed a prototype intravaginal ring (ivr), the mzcl ivr, which released the antiviral agents miv-150, zinc acetate, and carrageenan (mzc for short) and the c ...201728600625
hsv-1/hsv-2 infection-related cancers in bantu populations driving hiv-1 prevalence in africa: tracking the origin of aids at the onset of the 20th century.at the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in bantu populations of sub-saharan africa were discovered. they were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. in 1983, in san francisco, calif., usa, cancer epidemics were related to infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) known as aids disease. yet since 1996, it is known that hiv-1 strains are not the only ones involved. in sub-saharan africa, recurrent orobuccal herpes simpl ...201728413399
dna vaccine encoding hpv16 oncogenes e6 and e7 induces potent cell-mediated and humoral immunity which protects in tumor challenge and drives e7-expressing skin graft rejection.we have previously shown that a novel dna vaccine technology of codon optimization and the addition of ubiquitin sequences enhanced immunogenicity of a herpes simplex virus 2 polynucleotide vaccine in mice, and induced cell-mediated immunity when administered in humans at relatively low doses of naked dna. we here show that a new polynucleotide vaccine using the same technology and encoding a fusion protein of the e6 and e7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (hpv16) is immunogen ...201728166181
patterns of prevalent hpv and sti co-infections and associated factors among hiv-negative young western cape, south african women: the evri trial.to estimate the prevalence and describe the patterns of concurrent human papillomavirus (hpv) and stis and associated factors among hiv-negative young western cape, south african women participating in the efficacy of hpv vaccine to reduce hiv infection (evri) trial.201728490581
results of real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay in renal transplant recipients with sterile pyuria.urinary tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization after renal transplantation. patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs suffer not only from common uropathogens but also from opportunistic infections caused by unusual uropathogens. sterile pyuria is associated with numerous infectious agents including viruses, fungi, and atypical or fastidious organisms. the objective of this study was to investigate the pathogens using real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction ...201728735999
distinct effects of the cervicovaginal microbiota and herpes simplex type 2 infection on female genital tract immunology.genital inflammation is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) transmission, and may increase hiv-susceptible target cells and alter epithelial integrity. several genital conditions that increase hiv risk are more prevalent in african, caribbean, and other black (acb) women, including bacterial vaginosis and herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) infection. therefore, we assessed the impact of the genital microbiota on mucosal immunology in acb women and microbiome-hsv-2 interactio ...201728201724
human infectious diseases and risk of preeclampsia: an updated review of the literature.preeclampsia (pe) is one of the major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries. in recent years, a growing body of literatures suggests that infections by bacteria, viruses, and parasites and their related inflammations play an important role in the pathogenesis of pe.201728577241
the efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (green tea) in the treatment of alzheimer's disease: an overview of pre-clinical studies and translational perspectives in clinical practice.alzheimer's disease (ad) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia characterized by cognitive and memory impairment. one of the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of ad, is the oxidative stress being involved in ad's development and progression. in addition, several studies proved that chronic viral infections, mainly induced by human herpesvirus 1 (hhv-1), cytomegalovirus (cmv), human herpesvirus 2 (hhv-2), and hepatitis c virus (hcv) could be responsible for ad's ...201728642806
acute recurrent lymphocytic meningitis in an immunocompetent hiv-positive african woman: is it a mollaret's meningitis or not?we report a case of acute recurrent meningitis in an hiv-positive immunocompetent woman. in this case, a 34-year-old african woman with a known hiv infection presented with symptoms of acute meningitis. she was on combination antiretroviral therapy with abacavir, lamivudine, and nevirapine. her hiv rna level was <70 iu/ml, and cd4 counts were 640 cells/mm(3). this indicates that she was not immunocompromised. she was febrile on examination, with marked neck stiffness. her cerebrospinal fluid rev ...201728835824
herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 educational assessment of young adults in rural southwest virginia.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) causes genital herpes, one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (stis) in the u.s. hsv-1, commonly associated with cold sores, is increasing as a cause of genital herpes. abstinence-only sexual health classes, commonly taught in virginia, generate young adults who are under-educated in sexual health, increasing sti risks. college students in southwest virginia were surveyed to assess comprehensiveness of high school health education regarding hsv-1 an ...201728654651
latent virus reactivation in astronauts on the international space station.reactivation of latent herpes viruses was measured in 23 astronauts (18 male and 5 female) before, during, and after long-duration (up to 180 days) spaceflight onboard the international space station . twenty age-matched and sex-matched healthy ground-based subjects were included as a control group. blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected before, during, and after spaceflight. saliva was analyzed for epstein-barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1. urine was a ...201728649633
[evaluation of viral etiology in central nervous system infections from a university hospital point of view in izmir based on seven years data].the serious diseases of the central nervous system (cns); encephalitis and meningitis, have high mortality and morbidity rate especially not diagnosed and treated in time. nucleic acid testing (nat) is the tool of choice for viral diagnosis in cns infections. in this study, viral etiological agents found in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples sent to our university hospital virology laboratory for laboratory diagnosis of cns infections were retrospectively evaluated and results were compared with ...201728566076
capacitive dna sensor for rapid and sensitive detection of whole genome human herpesvirus-1 dsdna in serum.this work presents a rapid, highly sensitive, low-cost, and specific capacitive dna sensor for detection of whole genome human herpesvirus-1 dna. this sensor is capable of direct dna detection with a response time of 30 s, and it can be used to test standard buffer or serum samples. the sensing approach for dna detection is based on alternating current (ac) electrokinetics. by applying an inhomogeneous ac electric field on sensor electrodes, positive dielectrophoresis is induced to accelerate dn ...201728328089
comparison of acyclovir and multistrain lactobacillus brevis in women with recurrent genital herpes infections: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study.we performed a randomized double-blind controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of multistrain probiotic and acyclovir in women patients with recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections. eighty-one patients enrolled in the study were being treated with multistrain lactobacillus brevis one vaginal capsule every 12 h and oral acyclovir 400 mg twice daily for 6 months. of 53 patients who completed both treatment courses, no important differences were identified betwe ...201728852985
a herpes simplex virus type 2 deleted for glycoprotein d enables dendritic cells to activate cd4(+) and cd8(+) t cells.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is highly prevalent in the human population producing significant morbidity, mainly because of the generation of genital ulcers and neonatal encephalitis. additionally, hsv-2 infection significantly increases the susceptibility of the host to acquire hiv and promotes the shedding of the latter in the coinfected. despite numerous efforts to create a vaccine against hsv-2, no licensed vaccines are currently available. a long-standing strategy, based on few viral ...201728848543
effect of hsv-2 infection on subsequent hiv acquisition: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.hiv and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections cause a substantial global disease burden and are epidemiologically correlated. two previous systematic reviews of the association between hsv-2 and hiv found evidence that hsv-2 infection increases the risk of hiv acquisition, but these reviews are now more than a decade old.201728843576
the us2 gene product of herpes simplex virus 2 modulates nf-κb activation by targeting tak1.hsv-2 is one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens worldwide and hsv-2 infection triggers cytokine and chemokine production. however, little is known about which hsv-2 genes engage in the regulation of nf-κb signaling and what mechanisms are involved. in a screen of the unique short (us) regions of hsv-2, we observed that hsv-2 us2 activates nf-κb signaling. we additionally indicated that deficiencies of us2 decrease hsv-2 wt mediated nf-κb activation and cytokine and chemokine produ ...201728827540
seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) among pregnant women who participated in a national hiv surveillance activity in haiti.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), one the most common causes of genital ulcers, appears to increase both the risk of hiv acquisition and hiv transmission. hsv-2/hiv co-infection among pregnant women may increase the risk of perinatal transmission of hiv. this study describes rates of hsv-2 among pregnant women in haiti and hsv-2 test performance in this population.201728821230
interaction between herpesvirus entry mediator and hsv-2 glycoproteins mediates hiv-1 entry of hsv-2-infected epithelial cells.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) acquisition and transmission via unclear mechanisms. herpesvirus entry mediator (hvem), an hsv-2 entry receptor, is highly expressed on hiv-1 target cells (cd4+ t cells) and may be incorporated into hiv-1 virions, while hsv-2 glycoproteins can be present on the infected cell surface. since hvem-gd interaction together with gb/gh/gl is essential for hsv-2 entry, hvem-bearing hiv-1 (hiv-1/hvem) may enter hsv- ...201728809154
extracts of equisetum giganteum l and copaifera reticulate ducke show strong antiviral activity against the sexually transmitted pathogen herpes simplex virus type 2.equisetum giganteum l and copaifera reticulate ducke have been traditionally used by women of the tacana tribe in the bolivian amazonas for genital hygiene and for treatment of genital infection/inflammation.201728807852
multipurpose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate electrospun fibers for the prevention of hiv-1 and hsv-2 infections in vitro.sexually transmitted infections affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. both human immunodeficiency virus (hiv-1 and -2) and herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) remain incurable, urging the development of new prevention strategies. while current prophylactic technologies are dependent on strict user adherence to achieve efficacy, there is a dearth of delivery vehicles that provide discreet and convenient administration, combined with prolonged-delivery of active agents. to address these need ...201728797967
rubella, herpes simplex virus type 2 and preeclampsia.preeclampsia is a major health problem. although, the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not fully understood, there are recent studies on association between infections and preeclampsia.201728747200
seminal vesicle fluid increases the efficacy of intravaginal hsv-2 vaccination.once considered merely as a vehicle for spermatozoa, it is now clear that seminal plasma (sp) induces a variety of biological actions on the female reproductive tissues able to modulate the immune response against paternal antigens. to our knowledge, the influence of sp on the immune response against sexually transmitted pathogens has not been yet evaluated. we here analyzed whether the seminal vesicle fluid (svf), which contributes almost 60% of the sp volume in mice, could modulate the immune ...201728745327
sting is an essential mediator of the ku70-mediated production of ifn-λ1 in response to exogenous dna.we previously identified ku70, a subunit of a dna repair protein complex, as a cytosolic dna sensor that induces the production of interferon-λ1 (ifn-λ1) by human primary cells and cell lines. ifn-λ1 is a type iii ifn and has similar antiviral activity to that of the type i ifns (ifn-α and ifn-β). we observed that human embryonic kidney (hek) 293t cells, which are deficient in the innate immune adaptor protein sting (stimulator of ifn genes), did not produce ifn-λ1 in response to dna unless they ...201728720717
modelling infectious diseases with relapse: a case study of hsv-2.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. although there is still no licensed vaccine for hsv-2, a theoretical investigation of the potential effects of a vaccine is considered important and has recently been conducted by several researchers. although compartmental mathematical models were considered for each special case in the previous studies, as yet there are few global stability results.201728716140
highly conserved intragenic hsv-2 sequences: results from next-generation sequencing of hsv-2 ul and us regions from genital swabs collected from 3 continents.understanding the variability in circulating herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) genomic sequences is critical to the development of hsv-2 vaccines.201728711653
validation of a membrane touch biosensor for the qualitative detection of igg class antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2.a novel type of biosensor was assessed for application to the qualitative determination of circulating antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). the device utilises a high activity hsv-2 type specific gg2 antigen for antibody capture and commercially available elisa reagents. the study compares the diagnostic performance of a prototype hsv-2 biochip to well-established in vitro tests routinely applied in clinical procedures. a panel of human serum samples (n = 60) previously characteris ...201728708188
nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) study for the detection and quantitation of cholesterol in hsv529 therapeutic vaccine candidate.this study describes the nmr-based method to determine the limit of quantitation (loq) and limit of detection (lod) of cholesterol, a process-related impurity in the replication-deficient herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 candidate vaccine hsv529. three signature peaks from the 1d (1)h nmr of a cholesterol reference spectrum were selected for the identification of cholesterol. the loq for a cholesterol working standard was found to be 1 μg/ml, and the lod was found to be 0.1 μg/ml. the identity ...201728694932
no role of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection on hiv progression in naïve hiv patientsherpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is a common infection in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) patients and may accelerate hiv progression by rising hiv viral load and decreasing cd4 count. however, the available data regarding the influence of hsv-2 seropositivity on hiv progression in hiv individuals are inconclusive. therefore, we aimed to determine hsv-2 seroprevalence in naïve hiv patients and normal controls and also investigate the relation of hiv viral load and cd4 count with hsv-2 sero ...201728688377
comparison of the antiviral potential among soluble forms of herpes simplex virus type-2 glycoprotein d receptors, herpes virus entry mediator a, nectin-1 and nectin-2, in transgenic mice.herpesvirus entry mediator a (hvem), nectin-1 and nectin-2 are cellular receptors of glycoprotein d (gd) of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2). it has been shown that soluble forms of hsv gd receptors have the antiviral potential in cultured cells and transgenic mice. here, to compare antiviral potential of soluble forms of hvem, nectin-1 and nectin-2 against hsv-2 infections in vivo, transgenic mice expressing fusion proteins consisting of the entire ectodomain of hvem, nectin-1 or nectin-2 an ...201728671524
optimized dna vaccine enhanced by adjuvant il28b induces protective immune responses against herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice.antigen-specific immune responses determine the efficacy of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) vaccines. to optimize the immunogenicity of the antigen gd2, we developed the gd2δul25 dna vaccine encoding hsv-2 glycoprotein d and ul25 gene encoding viral capsid vertex proteins in this study. the gd2 and gd2δul25 dna vaccines were compared with formalin-inactivated hsv-2 (fi-hsv-2), and results showed a greater protective immune response induced by gd2δul25 than by gd2. therefore, gd2δul25 was cho ...201728650722
chronic herpetic retinitis: clinical features and long-term outcomes.chronic uveitis treated with immunosuppressive agents may have unfavorable outcomes due to delays in diagnosis. the aim of this study was to review initial data from clinical and ocular assessments and patient outcomes following specific treatments for atypical herpes virus ocular infections.201728628343
herpes simplex virus-2 transmission following solid organ transplantation: donor-derived infection and transplantation from prior organ recipients.owing to limited availability of donor organs, previous solid organ transplant (sot) recipients are increasingly considered as potential organ donors. we report donor-derived transmission of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) to two clusters of sot recipients with transmission from the original donor and an hsv-2-infected recipient who subsequently became a donor.201728618165
analysis of cervical lesions for presence of hsv-2 and hpv-16 and hpv-18 in iranian patients by pcr.objective cervical cancer (cc) is one of the leading causes of deaths from cancer among women worldwide. viral infections is now one of the known risk factors for cc. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), human papilloma virus types 16 (hpv-16) and human papilloma virus types 18 (hpv-18) in iranian patients with cc using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). materials and methods this case-control study was conducted on a total of 45 patient ...201728609291
does maternal hsv-2 coinfection increase mother-to-child transmission of hiv? a systematic review.reducing hiv mother-to-child transmission (mtct) is critical to ending the hiv pandemic. reports suggest that herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2), a common coinfection in hiv-infected individuals, is associated with increased mtct, but results have been conflicting. we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to quantify the magnitude of this relationship (prospero no. crd42016043315).201728600331
prevalence, incidence and correlates of hsv-2 infection in an hiv incidence adolescent and adult cohort study in western kenya.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections are associated with increased risk of hiv transmission. we determined hsv-2 prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors, incidence among persons with indeterminate results, and prevalence of hsv-2/hiv co-infection among young adults (18-34 years) and adolescents (16-17 years) enrolled in an hiv incidence cohort study in western kenya.201728586396
herpes simplex virus type 2 myelitis: case report and review of the literature.non-traumatic myelopathies can result from a wide spectrum of conditions including inflammatory, ischemic, and metabolic disorders. here, we describe the case of a 60-year old immunocompetent woman who developed acute back pain followed by rapidly ascending flaccid tetraparesis, a c6 sensory level, and sphincter dysfunction within 8 h. acyclovir and steroids were started on day 2 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid. magnetic r ...201728539913
erratum to: precision of the kalon herpes simplex virus type 2 igg elisa: an international inter-laboratory assessment. 201728525965
racial/ethnic disparities at the end of an hiv epidemic: persons who inject drugs in new york city, 2011-2015.to examine whether racial/ethnic disparities persist at the "end of the hiv epidemic" (prevalence of untreated hiv infection < 5%; hiv incidence < 0.5 per 100 person-years) among persons who inject drugs (pwid) in new york city.201728520494
sexual network drivers of hiv and herpes simplex virus type 2 transmission.hiv and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections are sexually transmitted and propagate in sexual networks. using mathematical modeling, we aimed to quantify effects of key network statistics on infection transmission, and extent to which hsv-2 prevalence can be a proxy of hiv prevalence.201728514276
migrating microbes: what pathogens can tell us about population movements and human evolution.the biology of human migration can be observed from the co-evolutionary relationship with infectious diseases. while many pathogens are brief, unpleasant visitors to human bodies, others have the ability to become life-long human passengers. the story of a pathogen's genetic code may, therefore, provide insight into the history of its human host. the evolution and distribution of disease in africa is of particular interest, because of the deep history of human evolution in africa, the presence o ...201728511559
surgical excision for recurrent herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) anogenital infection in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv).recurrent anogenital herpes simplex virus infections are common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), of whom approximately 5% develop resistance to acyclovir. we present a case of a 49-year-old man with hiv who had an 8-year history of recurrent left inguinal herpes simplex virus type 2 ulcerations. he initially responded to oral acyclovir, but developed resistance to acyclovir and eventually foscarnet. the lesion progressed to a large hypertrophic mass that required surgical exc ...201728508238
a trivalent subunit antigen glycoprotein vaccine as immunotherapy for genital herpes in the guinea pig genital infection model.an estimated 417 million people worldwide ages 15 to 49 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), the most common cause of genital ulcer disease. some individuals experience frequent recurrences of genital lesions, while others only have subclinical infection, yet all risk transmitting infection to their intimate partners. a vaccine was developed that prevents shingles, which is a recurrent infection caused by varicella-zoster virus (vzv), a closely related member of the herpesvirid ...201728481687
a herpes simplex virus type 2-encoded microrna promotes tumor cell metastasis by targeting suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 in lung cancer.certain viruses use micrornas to regulate the expression of their own genes, host genes, or both. a number of micrornas expressed by herpes simplex virus type 2 have been confirmed by previous studies. however, whether these micrornas play a role in the metastasis of lung cancers and how these viral micrornas precisely regulated the tumor biological process in lung cancer bone metastasis remain obscure. we recently identified the high expression of an acutely and latently expressed viral microrn ...201728468588
herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition among hiv-1-infected adults treated with tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate as part of combination antiretroviral therapy: results from the actg a5175 pearls study.tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (tdf) disoproxyl fumarate (tdf) has in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and reduced hsv-2 acquisition as preexposure prophylaxis. whether tdf-containing antiretroviral therapy (art) reduces hsv-2 acquisition is unknown.201728453835
vaccination to reduce reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2. 201728453833
acyclovir resistant acute herpes simplex encephalitis associated with acute retinal necrosis: a case report and review of the literature.a 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for investigation of high fever, decreased consciousness and bilateral visual impairment. his cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis of mononuclear cells and an increased protein concentration. flair images revealed multiple high-intensity lesions in the frontal lobe, part of which was enhanced with gadolinium. despite initiating treatment with acyclovir and corticosteroids, his consciousness and visual acuity deteriorated. immunopatholog ...201728450685
correction for mahic et al., "maternal immunoreactivity to herpes simplex virus 2 and risk of autism spectrum disorder in male offspring".[this corrects the article doi: 10.1128/msphere.00016-17.].201728435887
reply to magaret and wald, "autism link to herpes simplex virus 2 antibody in pregnancy likely to be spurious". 201728409568
autism link to herpes simplex virus 2 antibody in pregnancy likely to be spurious. 201728405628
effectiveness of early antiviral therapy in disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) with fulminant hepatic failure.background liver failure in the neonatal population is a life-threatening complication and has a wide array of etiologies, including infectious, immune-mediated, metabolic, or drug-induced. although neonatal herpes simplex virus (hsv) hepatitis only accounts for 1% of all acute liver failures, it has an extremely aggressive clinical course that carries a mortality rate of 85%. case report we report a rare case of disseminated neonatal hsv-2 with late presentation associated with fulminant liver ...201728392553
herpes simplex virus type 2 acute retinal necrosis in an immunocompetent patient.to report a case of acute retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus 2 in an otherwise healthy patient.201728252688
a randomized safety and pharmacokinetic trial of daily tenofovir 1% gel in term and near-term pregnancy.vaginal tenofovir (tfv) 1% gel may reduce incident hiv-1 and herpes simplex virus 2 infection. pregnancy may increase risk of hiv acquisition, and incident hiv in pregnancy potentiates perinatal hiv transmission. our objective was to investigate the safety and pharmacokinetics of seven days of tfv 1% vaginal gel in term and near-term pregnancy.201727658440
the effect of school attendance and school dropout on incident hiv and hsv-2 among young women in rural south africa enrolled in hptn 068.to estimate the association between school attendance, school dropout, and risk of incident hiv and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection among young women.201728692544
hiv prevalence and correlated factors of female sex workers and male clients in a border region of yunnan province, china.female sex workers (fsws) and their male clients are vulnerable to hiv infection and serve as a bridge in hiv transmission from the high-risk population to the general, low-risk population. to examine the factors of fsws and male clients that correlate with the prevalence of hiv infection in the chinese-vietnamese border region, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in the hekou county of the yunnan province of china. we performed a questionnaire survey to collect data on demographics, ...201728901213
hiv prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men in dar es salaam, tanzania.limited studies and differential risk behaviours among men who have sex with men(msm) in africa calls for population specific studies. we present results from the largest integrated bio-behavioural survey among msm in africa to inform programming.201729140871
seropositivity to herpes simplex virus type 2, but not type 1 is associated with cervical cancer: nhanes (1999-2014).herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv1 and hsv2) are infectious agents, and their association with cancer occurrence in human is a controversial topic for decades. we addressed this subject using all available continuous national health and nutrition examination survey (nhanes) cross-sectional data from 1999 to 2014.201729115946
[co-infections of hiv, syphilis and hsv-2 among men who have sex with men at the voluntary hiv counseling and testing clinics in shanghai].objective: to understand the prevalence rates of hiv-syphilis and hiv-herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) co-infections and related factors among men having sex with men (msm) who had visited the voluntary hiv counseling and testing (vct) clinics in shanghai, china. methods: 756 eligible msm who attended the vct clinics of shanghai municipality and putuo district during march to august, 2015 were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey with questionnaire interview and blood testing for h ...201729060980
antiviral effects of lactobacillus crispatus against hsv-2 in mammalian cell lines.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infectious disease is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases. as regards, vaginal lactobacilli play an important role in protecting host against the urogenital pathogens; here we assessed the potential antiviral activity of lactobacillus crispatus against hsv-2 infection in vitro.201729037754
optimized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting cytomegalovirus infections during clinical trials of recombinant vaccines.in clinical trials of cytomegalovirus (cmv) glycoprotein b (gb) vaccines, cmv infection is detected by first depleting serum of anti-gb antibodies and then measuring anti-cmv antibodies with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kit, with confirmation of positive findings by immunoblot.201729035763
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