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comparison of dna polymerase activities induced by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.hsv-2-induced a salt-stimulated dna polymerase activity in hep-2 cells at similar levels to that induced by hsv-1 virus at multiplicites of infection from 2 to 20 pfu/cell. de novo synthesis of protein and mrna was required for dna polymerase induction by both types. dna polymerase activity of three strains of each type was compared by response to various salt concentrations and by heat inactivation. strain-dependent, but not type-dependent differences were found by both tests. considerable cros ...1975187552
quantitative transformation of swiss/3t3 cells by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus type 2. 1975190148
plaque dissociation of herpes simplex viruses: biochemical and biological characters of the viral variants.polycaryocytogenic (p) and non-polycaryocytogenic, or aggregating (a), stable variants were selected from a herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and from a herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2) which had not been deliberately exposed to known mutagenic agents. the p variant of hsv-1 (fp) differed from the a variant (fa) in polypeptides and glycoprotein patterns, but no gross differences were evident between the two variants of hsv-2 (gp and ga). each p variant proved more 'specific' than each a var ...1975186433
genetic and physiological studies with herpes simplex virus type 2 temperature-sensitive mutants. 1975190124
chromosome changes in hamster cell line exposed to herpes simplex virus type 2. 1975190130
effects of adenine arabinoside on cellular immune mechanisms in humans.in vitro lymphocyte blastogenic responses to the commonly employed mitogens, phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed, and concanavalin a, were evaluated when adenine arabinoside (ara-a) in a concentration of 3 mug/ml was added to the culture materials. similarly, blastogenic and cytotoxic responses to cell cultures persistently infected with herpes simplex virus 1, herpes simplex virus 2, and varicella-zoster virus were determined in the presence of ara-a. no depression of these cellular immune responses b ...19751137371
[carcinoma of the uterine cervix and herpes simplex virus type 2. investigations on the causal relationship (author's transl)].epidemiological serological studies have shown that women with carcinoma of the uterine cervix show a higher incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2) than controls. the attempt to demonstrate the genomic dns of the hsv 2 in cells of carcinoma of the cervix by experiments of hybridization is reported. the investigations were carried out directly on material from carcinoma of the cervix and also on cell cultures from tumor material. the majority of the cultures grew fibroblasts but some cu ...19751095443
[correlation between positive syphilis sero-reactions and herpes simplex virus type 2 (herpes genitalis) antibodies]. 19751150441
a preliminary report on investigation of oncogenic potential of herpes simplex virus type 2 in cebus monkeys.a total of 301 female and 133 male cebus monkeys have been placed under study during a 3-year period. females are inoculated intradermally into the cervix every 6 months; 225 receive virus and 76 receive control material. more than 50% of the animals were infected on primary inoculation, and a similar percentage was foundon the 1st reinoculation. males are housed with females at 1:1 to 1:3 ratios. eighteen % of the males exposed to virus-inoculated females have become infected. to date, a total ...1976814995
changes of cyclic amp contents and lectin-mediated agglutination of mouse fibroblasts after exposure to uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus type 2. 1976192937
purification of herpesvirus nucleocapsids by fluorocarbon extraction.purified nucleocapsids were prepared from herpes simplex virus type-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 infected cells, using a fluorocarbon extraction technique with freon 113. fifty to 85% of the total nucleocapsid population remained 'nucleated' or full in terms of the nucleic acid core making them useful as a source of dna. cscl banded dna represented 30--40% of the theoretical yield of the total nucleocapsid population.1976195183
herpesviruses and cancer in man and subhuman primates.because there is strong evidence for the involvement of epstein-barr virus in the etiology of burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, we have discussed the relationship of epstein-barr virus to these two diseases in the context of geographic distribution, pathology, epidemiology, genetics, immunovirology, and biochemistry. we have also discussed the relationship of epstein-barr virus to other diseases, both malignant and non-malignant. although the etiologic relationship of herpes simpl ...1976187259
replication of herpes simplex virus in mouse spleen cell cultures stimulated by lipopolysaccharide.replication of hsv was demonstrated in spleen cell cultures of d2 and several other strains of mice after prestimulation with mitogenic doses of lps for 2 days. no viral replication occurred in unstimulated cultures or in cultures prestimulated with pha and con a, whereas there was some viral replication in spleen cell cultures of d2 mice after prestimulation with poly i-c. spleen cells of b6 mice did not support replication of hsv under any of the conditions we have tested thus far. the reasons ...1976186534
studies on kinetics of dna synthesis in cv-1 cell cultures infected with different multiplicities (moi) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2).infection of cv-1 cell cultures with hsv-2 at moi 5 respectively 1pfu/cell resulted in markedly different patterns of dna-synthesis. isolation and separation of cellular and viral dna on cscl equilibrium density gradients during the "late" phase after infection with 5pfu/cell revealed a rapid increase in synthesis of virus-specific dna (which banded at density q25 = 1.729 g/ccm) while synthesis of host cell dna (banding at 1.705 g/ccm) was constantly inhibited. 15 hours after infection and incub ...1976186742
comparison of dna facilitators in the uptake and intracellular fate of infectious herpes simplex virus type 2 dna.the comparative efficiencies of polyornithine, cacl2 and deae-dextran in enhancing the infectivity of exogenous herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 dna were examined. cacl2 was 12-times more effective in promoting genetic expression of viral dna than deae-dextran, while polyornithine did not mediate any hsv dna infectivity. a comparison of sedimentation profiles of dna extracted from cells inoculated with viral dna in the presence of each facilitator revealed that input 56 s hsv dna underwent mark ...1976187236
oculogenital transmission of type 2 herpes simplex virus in adults.type 2 (genital) herpes simplex virus (hsv-2) was isolated from three patients (two adults and an 11-year-old girl) with acute ocular infections. two of these patients had acute blepharoconjunctivitis and one had acute keratoconjunctivitis. genital herpes infections had preceded the eye infections in the two adults. this was not the case in the 11-year-old, but she had been in close contact with her sister who had apparently had the genital disease. the study strongly suggests transmission of hs ...1976185732
type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus in corneal cell cultures.the pathogenicity of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in primary cultures of epithelia, stromal, and endothelial cells of rabbit corneas was studied at various incubation temperatures (30 degrees, 36 degrees, and 40 degrees c). we tested three strains each of type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2). at all three temperatures, the epithelial cells appeared to be more susceptible to both hsv-1 and hsv-2 than the stromal and endothelial cells. in general, less hsv-1 was requered than hsv-2 to infect the same t ...1976185735
a new method for the isolation of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna. 1976185791
preliminary studies of nonvirion antigens associated with herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (hsv1 - hsv2).biochemical and radioimmunological studies have indicated the presence of a nonvirion antigen associated with herpes virus. guinea pig kidney cells were grown in culture and infected (i-cells) for 3h with herpes virus. uninfected cells (n-cells) served as control. the cells were collected and sonicated to obtain, after centrifugation, "soluble extract" (si, sn). the pellets were extracted with kcl (isp, nsp). sn, si were submitted to gel-filtration on sephadex g-200. extracts from i and n cells ...1976191042
cell surface antigens induced by herpes simplex virus (hsv).among the antigens induced by hsv on the surface of infected cells there are antigens binding anti-hsv antibodies by their combining (fab) site (hsv-ag), and others binding antibodies of various specificities, probably through their fc fragment (igr). hsv-ag were demonstrated by cytotoxicity and mixed agglutination tests; igr were made evident by passive hemadsorption. the ability to induce igr is especially characteristic of hsv-1 strains, being absent or limited with hsv-2 strains. igr were no ...1976188230
enzymatic basis for the selective inhibition of varicella-zoster virus by 5-halogenated analogues of deoxycytidine.5-bromodeoxycytidine (brdc) and 5-iododeoxycytidine, at a concentration of 100 mug/ml, effectively inhibit the replication of varicella-zoster (vz) virus in tissue culture. no toxicity could be demonstrated in uninfected cells under the same conditions. studies on the enzymatic basis for this selective inhibition were undertaken. infection of human embryonic lung cell monolayers with vz virus-infected cells results in the induction of thymidine (dt), deoxycytidine (dc), and brdc kinase activitie ...1976185427
dna-binding proteins of cells infected by herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2.proteins showing affinity for dna in hsv-1-and hsv-2-infected cells were compared by dna-cellulose chromatography and page. the proteins observed depended on the type of virus used to infect the cell; however, several examples of analogous polypeptides were present in cells infected by both virus types. proteins showing highest affinity for dna-cellulose were similar in molecular size in cells infected by both virus types.1976188782
effects of cytochalasin and alkaloid drugs on the biological expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna. 1976186287
[properties of herpes simplex virus type 2 and its relation to cervicouterine cancer]. 1976189359
reaction of antigens isolated from herpes simplex virus-transformed cells with sera of squamous cell carcinoma patients.antigens isolated from herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, or cytomegalovirus-transformed hamster cells were tested against 66 sera from non-cancer individuals or patients with different types of cancer. by use of the microcomplement fixation procedure to quantify all antigen-antibody interactions, it was observed that 94% (p less than 0.001) of all sera from patients with squamous cell carcinoma reacted with antigens from herpes simplex virus type 1-transformed cells, whil ...1976187320
lasar flow cytophotometric immunoperoxidase detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens in infected cultured human cells.human cells in culture (hep-2) were infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) at multiplicities of infection varying from 0.2 to 10, and fixed 6, 12, 18 and 24 hr after infection. infection-related antigens were detected by an indirect double antibody (peroxidase conjugated goat anti-rabbit to rabbit anti-herpes simplex virus type 2) immunoenzymatic staining reaction that rendered infection-related antigens visible by light microscopy. a corresponding series of laser flow cytophotometric ...1976187690
herpes simplex virus gene expression in transformed cells. i. regulation of the viral thymidine kinase gene in transformed l cells by products of superinfecting virus.in this paper we show that the expression of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) gene for thymidine kinase (tk) in hsv-transformed cells is subject to regulation by two viral products synthesized during productive infection of these cells with a tk- mutant of hsv-1. the cell line used in this study is a derivative of tk-deficient mouse l cells that, after exposure to uv-inactivated hsv-1, had acquired the hsv-1 gene for tk (which we term a resident viral gene) and consequently expressed the ...1976185425
comparative diagnostic aspects of herpes simplex virus tumor-associated antigens.sera from cancer patients and healthy individuals, obtained from two independent sources, were examined for their abilities to react with herpes simplex virus-associated tumor antigens, ag-4 and nva-taa (nonvirion antigen-tumor-associated antigen). both antigens were prepared by infection of hep-2 cells with herpes simplex virus type 2, and all antigen-antibody interactions were measured by the micro-complement fixation test. of sera from 16 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix, 81% (p les ...1976185398
consequences of herpes simplex virus type 2 and human cell interaction at supraoptimal temperatures.the consequences of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and human embryonic fibroblast cell interaction at different temperatures (37, 40, and 42 degrees c) were investigated. incubation at 37 or 40 degrees c was permissive for hsv-2 inhibition of host dna synthesis, induction of virus-specific dna replication, and infectious virus production. the amount of [methyl-3h]thymidine incorporated into viral dna and the final yield of new infectious virus were significantly reduced at 40 degrees c comp ...1976185418
antiviral effect of pyran against systemic infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 2.the immunomodulator pyran markedly protected 5-week-old mice from lethal intravenous infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. the 50% lethal dose was increased almost 100-fold in pyran-treated mice as compared with controls. although the protection was not as marked in older mice (10 and 16 weeks old), there was a significant increase in mean survival time. when the pathogenesis of herpesvirus disease was monitored in control and drug-treated mice, the effect of pyran was most evident in the ...1976185945
pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in mice after various routes of inoculation.the pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 was compared after inoculation of mice by different routes. intravaginal inoculation of hsv-1 and hsv-2 produced a local infection, with virus recovery from the vagina through 5 days. virus was recovered from the spinal cords 4 to 5 days after inoculation but not from liver, kidney, lung, spleen, or blood. intravenous or intraperitoneal inoculation of hsv-2 produced a focal necrotic hepatitis similar to that described previously (s. c. ...1976184048
clonal derivatives of a herpes type 2 transformed hamster cell line (333-8-9): cytogenetic analysis, tumorigenicity and virus sequence detection.the characteristics of the syrian hamster cell line (333-8-9), putatively transformed by herpes virus type 2 (hsv-2), strain 333, have been examined. the line has been cloned and the clones characterized cytogenetically and morphologically. the original line and the clones have been assayed for tumorigenicity and for the presence of herpes-virus-specific nucleic acid sequences using in situ hybridization with 125i hsv-2 dna. the line 333-8-9 is hyperdiploid with a mode of 49 chromosomes and cont ...1976179958
immunopotentiation and antiviral chemotherapy in a suckling rat model of herpesvirus encephalitis.encephalitis was induced in 10-day-old wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of approximately 100 50% tissue culture infective doses of herpes simplex virus type 2. treatment regimens included immunopotentiation with levamisole and combined therapy with levamisole and an antiviral agent, adenine arabinoside. rats treated with levamisole alone had significantly higher rates of survival than placebo-treated controls 14 days after injection of virus. combination therapy with levamisole and adeni ...1976180203
effect of cross-immunization on monotypic antibody responses to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.new zealand white rabbits were immunized subcutaneously with partially purified uv-inactivated preparations of herpes simplex virus (hsv-1 or hsv-2) in complete freund's adjuvant. after the initial immunizations, designated groups of animals received additional amounts of either hsv-1 or hsv-2 at 35-day intervals. sera were absorbed with lysates of cells infected with heterotypic virus and the residual monotypic antibodies were detected by 51cr-release assay using hsv-infected target cells. a po ...1976176275
anal infections caused by herpes simplex virus.herpes simplex infections of the perianal skin and anal canal are not uncommon, as evidenced by the present series of 16 cases, but have rarely been reported in the literature of the past. they are caused by the hsv-2 virus, which is also associated with genital lesions. there is abundant evidence that anogenital herpes is a venereal disease. anal herpes is most commonly transmitted by anal intercourse. when the infection is present inside the anal canal, especially in a primary attack, the pain ...1976176017
electron microscope observations on tubular structures in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2.the fine structure of filamentous structures and lattice-like structures found in herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cells was studied. by specimen tilting experiments, it was demonstrated that the lattice-like structures were the cross-sectional views of the tubular structures and the filamentous structures were the longitudinal sections. the observation in negatively stained preparations of isolated tubular structures revealed that the structure was constructed by regular array of ring shape ...1976176968
deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools in synchronized human cells infected with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools in uninfected and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)- and hsv-2-infected kb cells were analyzed to determine whether ribonucleotide reductase functions in vivo in the presence and absence of thymidine (tdr). previously we showed that hsv-2 replication was inhibited in kb cells blocked in their capacity to synthesize dna by tdr. hsv-1 replication was not inhibited under these conditions. both hsv-1 and hsv-2 induced an altered ribonucleotide reductase resis ...1976176471
a search for herpes simplex virus type 2 markers in cervical carcinoma.carcinoma of the uterine cervix is now clearly recognized as the second most common malignant disease of women in the united states. epidemiological studies provided the first suggestive evidence that an infectious, venereally transmitted agent was involved in this disease in either a causal or a casual fashion. later cytohistopathological, virological, and seroepidemiological studies confirmed this observation and identified the suspect agent as herpes simplex virus type 2. recently, several la ...1976175943
herpesvirus type 2-related antigens and their relevance to humoral and cell-mediated immunity in patients with cervical cancer.the central theme of this communication is the interaction of herpes simplex virus type 2 with its host. in addition to the productive infection, we are confronted by latency and, as suggested by recent studies, by cancer. the possible mechanisms of latency and the role it may play as a precursor of carcinogenesis are discussed. if virus is to coexist with its host, a defined level of molecular interaction between host and viral gene products must exist. the association of ag-4 with active tumor ...1976175945
dna polymerase in pseudorabies virus infected cells.the dna polymerase activity in bhk 21/c13 cells infected with pseudorabies virus is inhibited by incubation with antiserum to pseudorabies but not by incubation with pre-immune serum or by antiserum to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). it also differs from the cell enzyme and the enzymes in hsv-1 or hsv-2 infected cells in its requirement for kcl in the in vitro assay. it seems likely, therefore, that pseudorabies virus specifies its own dna polymerase.1976173798
deoxycytidine kinase from rabbit kidney cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2.when rabbit kidney cells were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain seibert) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (strain 316d), deoxycytidine kinase (cdr kinase) activity, assayed at 38 degrees, increased 5- to 15-fold relative to controls. the cdr kinase activity induced by type 2 virus was more thermolabile than the enzyme activity induced by type 1 virus. when cdr kinase activity was assayed at various temperatures between 0.5 and 38 degrees, maximum activity for type 1 enzyme was obta ...1976175378
editorial: herpesvirus and cancer of uterine cervix.frequent coitus with several partners or at a very young age carries the greatest risk of cancer of the uterine cervix. lowest risk is among celibate women and those who live in communities where marriage is stable and where premarital and extramarital coitus is infrequent. all evidence points to the venereal hypothesis of cervical cancer. herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) has been implicated. immunological defenses, oxygen tension, ph, and hormonal changes in the cervical tissues may also ...1976175880
an immunofluorescence technique with counterstain on fixed cells for the detection of antibodies to human herpesviruses; antibody patterns in patients with hodgkin's disease and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.an indirect immunofluorescence (if) test on fixed cells with evans' blue counterstain is described for all four human herpesviruses, i.e., herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2), varicella-zoster virus (vzv), cytomegalovirus (cmv) and epstein-barr virus (ebv). comparison with immunodiffusion (id) for hsv-2 and with id and complement fixation (cf) for vzv and cmv demonstrated the specificity and high sensitivity of the if test. also introduced is a modification of the anti-compl ...197667099
host range temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2.two small-plaque mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) (strain 333), whose growth at 39 c was blocked in certain cell types (cell-dependent temperature sensitivity), were compared compared with parental virus in a number of biological assays. one mutant (no. 69) was found to produce a large number of morphologically normal, but noninfectious, particles; under nonpermissive conditions, these mutant particles were able to interfere with the replication of wild-type hsv-2. the other mutant ...1976176473
cellular transformation in vitro induced by herpes simplex virus (hsv). note iii. oncogenicity of some hsv-2-transformed cell lines.at high in vitro passage levels hsv-2-transformed hamster and rat cell lines were oncogenic for the homologous animals, inducing fusocellular or round-cell sarcomas. the cell lines obtained by in vitro cultivation of the tumors were free of infectious virus.1976181902
igm antibody to a tumor-associated antigen (ag-4) induced by herpes simplex virus type 2: its use in location of the antigen in infected cells.rate-zonal centrifugation was used to separate 7s and 19s lg's from sera of patients with cervical cancer and of controls. the lg's were assayed for their ability to recognize ag-4, a tumor-associated antigen, and herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) by various serologic assays including neutralization, immunofluorescence, and complement fixation. these studies indicated that antibody to ag-4 is a macroglobulin; antibody-fixing complement with hsv-2 is a 7s lg. the results of various serologic assays ...1976176392
[the morphology and some properties of tubular structures found in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (author's transl)]. 1976177343
mutants of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 that are resistant to phosphonoacetic acid induce altered dna polymerase activities in infected cells.three mutants of herpes simplex virus (hsv) have been isolated which form plaques in the presence of 100 mug/ml phosphonoacetic acid (ppa). all three mutants (3 from hsv-1 strain 17 syn+, 14 from hsv-1 strain 17 syn, and 19 from hsv-2) induce viral dna synthesis and viral dna polymerase activity, and these are much less sensitive to ppa than the wild-type virus. the results support the hypothesis that ppa interacts directly with the viral dna polymerase protein, at least part of which is virus c ...1976177727
human ecto- and endocervical epithelial cells as targets for herpes simplex type two infection in vitro.an in vitro method was used to compare the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) susceptibility of human ecto- and endocervical epithelial cells as well as the induced cellular alterations. hsv2 caused a productive infection and morphological alterations both in ecto- and endocervical epithelial cells, but the cytopathogenicity, virus production and development of hsv2 antigens showed a greater sensitivity of ectocervical cells to hsv2 infection. the cytopathogenicity and production of infectious v ...1976175640
cross-reacting herpes simplex virus antigens in hamster and mouse cells transformed by ultraviolet light-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2.murine and hamster cell lines, each transformed with a different strain of herpes simplex virus (hsv), were examined for cross-reacting antigens by in vitro and in vivo assays. a comparative study by the indirect immunofluorescence technique detected common cross-reacting viral antigens. cytoplasmic fluorescence patterns were observed in the 333-8-9 hamster line, the h238 murine line, and the h238 clonal lines; these patterns were identical to the fluorescence pattern of hsv -2-infected controls ...1976178596
effects of immunostimulants on resistance of newborn mice to herpes simplex type 2 infection.since age-dependent diminished macrophage function has been related to the increased susceptibility of newborn mice to herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection, the effect of several agents which might activate macrophages or other cells involved in immunity was investigated. bcg, typhoid vaccine, brucella vaccine, levamisole, or staphage lysate were administered to newborn mice prior to challenge with hsv-2. of these agents, only bcg, administered ip or id 6 days prior to challenge, was found to in ...1976177992
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: therapeutic response to antiviral drugs.in vitro studies have demonstrated a relative resistance of herpes simplex virus type 2 to antiviral therapy when compared with herpes simplex virus type 1. the in vivo studies, however, show an excellent therapeutic response to both antiviral drugs in experimentally induced viral keratoconjunctivitis.1976180942
differential sensitivity of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to human interferon: antiviral effects of interferon plus 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine.with use of a standard assay for antiviral compounds, in which the compound to be tested is added after absorption of virus, the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) of human interferon for several strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is five to 10 times greater than it is for two strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). this differential susceptibility of hsv types to interferon is found whether tests are done with a liquid overlay and microtiter plates or with agarose overlay ...1976185303
temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2: a provisional linkage map based on recombination analysis.thirteen ts mutants of type 2 herpes simplex virus were backcrossed to a syncytial but not temperature-sensitive mutant of wild-type virus. this was an attempt to introduce a third marker, syncytial plaque morphology or syn, into at least some of the ts mutants. three ts mutants carrying the syn marker were obtained but only one, ts 9, was satisfactory for genetic experiments. three-factor crosses were carried out between ts 9 syn and the mutants which determined the order of eleven ts mutations ...1976181531
temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2: description of three new complementation groups and studies on the inhibition of host cell dna synthesis.three new complementation groups of type 2 herpes simplex virus are described bringing the total number of complementation groups characterized to 13. of the three new groups, ts 11 fails to make virus dna at non-permissive temperature (38 degrees c) whereas ts 12 and ts 13 synthesize only very small amounts of virus or cellular dna at 38 degrees c. ts 11, like ts 9 (halliburton & timbury, 1973) fails to switch off host cell dna synthesis at 38 degrees c. that this is a failure to switch off cel ...1976181532
herpesvirus proteins: dna polymerase and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside kinase activities in temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2.eleven temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 strain hg52 were examined for ability to induce dna polymerase activity in bhk 21/c13 cells. all mutants induced dna polymerase at a permissive temperature, (31 degrees c) and all dna-positive mutants at a non-permissive temperature (38 degrees c). three dna-negative mutants induced no dna polymerase (ts 6, ts 9) or very little dna polymerase (ts 11), at a non-permissive temperature, while ts 1, also dna negative, induced a litt ...1976177730
quantitative cytophotometry evaluated as a method for analyses of herpes simplex viral deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis.feulgen deoxyribonucleic acid (f-dna) microspectrophotometry was evaluated as a potential tool for quantification of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and 2(hsv-2) dna synthesis in single cells. since hsv dna synthesis has been extensively studied using incorporation of radioactive precursors into viral and cellular dna, microspectrophotometric measures were correlated with biochemical data obtained using tritium-labeled thymidine ([3h]tdr). it was established that: (i) viral-induced increaae ...1976178608
electron microscope studies of temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2.nine temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 representing eight complementation groups were assigned to two classes as a consequence of the virion forms and virus-specific cellular alterations observed in thin sections of mutant-infected human embryonic lung cells grown at the nonpermissive temperature. mutants in class a, one dna- and one dna +, failed to synthesize detectable virus particles. mutants in class b, 4dna- and 3dna+, produced moderate to large numbers of empty ...1976178905
collaborative study of temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2.eighteen complementation groups were identified by complementation tests and by phenotype from twenty temperature-sensitive mutants isolated independently in glasgow, scotland, and houston, tex.1976178919
herpes simplex virus dna in transformed cells: sequence complexity in five hamster cell lines and one derived hamster tumor.analyses of the hybridization kinetics of labeled herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) dna with dna from five hamster cell lines transformed by uv light-irradiated hsv-2 revealed the following. (i) viral dna sequences were detected in all five cell lines tested. (ii) none of the cell lines contained the full complement of hsv-2 dna. (iii) the amount of viral dna present in the cells varied in different transformed cell lines and ranged from 8 to 32% of the hsv-2 dna genome in 1 to 3 copies/cell. (iv) ...1976178927
letter: another view of herpes simplex virus type 2. 1976178936
viruses and cancer of the lower genital tract.the importance of viruses as oncogenic agents in animals is well established. recent work suggests that viruses may also be etiologically related to some human cancers. herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and the genital wart virus are prime suspects in carcinomas involving the female lower genital tract. in particular, a close association has been found between hsv-2 infection and cervical neoplasia in cytohistopathologic and seroepidemiologic studies. preliminary results of prospective studies ...1976179694
the detection of virus dna sequences in a herpes type 2 transformed hamster cell line (333-8-9).herpes simplex virus type 2 dna labelled in vitro with 125i has been used as a probe to search for virus dna sequences in the 333-8-9 line of transformed primary hamster cells and in clines derived from the line. virus dna sequences were present when the cells were examined initially but these sequences were lost on subsequent handling. no virus sequences were detected in clones derived from the line. it is suggested that the presence of virus dna is an unstable characteristic of the cell line a ...1976179957
histocompatibility types and viral antibodies.serum neutralizing (nt) antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2), and histocompatibility (hl-a) types, were determined in multiple sclerosis (ms) patients and in control subjects. titers of nt antibodies to hsv-1 and to hsv-2 were increased among subjects bearing hl-a3 or hl-a7 or both, whether they suffered from ms or not. the increases were statistically significant in the ms group. the ms and control groups did not differ significantly in levels of hsv-1 or hsv-2 n ...1976180933
ecto-ganglioside-sialidase activity of herpes simplex virus-transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts.cellular location of ganglioside-sialidase activity was determined in confluent hamster embryo fibroblasts transformed with herpes simplex virus type 2. approximately equal specific activities of ganglioside-sialidase activity were found to be associated with the crude lysosomal and crude plasma membrane fractions isolated from whole cell homogenates. whole transformed cells hydrolyzed exogenous ganglioside substrate, suggesting a partial location of the cellular sialidase on the outer surface o ...1976182699
quantitation of the viral dna present in cells transformed by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus.two cell lines biochemically transformed by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus (hsv) each contain virus dna. a comparison of the kinetics of reassociation of 3h-labeled hsv dna in the presence and absence of either clone 139 (hsv-1 transformed) or clone 207 (hsv-2 transformed) dna showed that the presence of transformed cell dna increased the rate of reassociation of approximately 10% of the viral genome while having no effect on the remaining 90%. the cot1/2 of this reaction was approximately 1 ...1976176444
transformation of human embryonic fibroblasts by photodynamically inactivated herpes simplex virus, type 2 at supra-optimal temperature.infection of human embryonic fibroblast cell monolayers with neutral red and light-inactivated herpes simplex virus, type 2 (hsv-2) at supra-optimal temperature (42 degrees c) resulted in persistence of viable cells in suspension culture at 37 degrees c which have properties in common with virus transformed cells: formation of cell aggregates, hsv-2-specific antigens and colony formation in soft methyl cellulose medium. these data are consistent with the idea that photodynamic inactivated hsv-2 ...1976181535
effect of zinc ions on synthesis of herpes simplex virus type 2-induced polypeptides. 1976181763
adenine arabinoside (ara-a) blocked hsv-2 infected human skin fibroblasts as targets for the detection of serum mediated and cellular cytotoxicity in patients with cervical carcinoma.human skin fibroblasts remained viable after infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) if grown after infection in the presence of adenine arabinoside (ara-a); the cells were specifically killed by normal human lymphoid cells in the presence of hsv-2 convalescent or rabbit immune serum, and this cytotoxicity could be blocked by a crude hsv-2 antigen preparation. antibodies capable of mediating such cytotoxicity against hsv-2 induced cell surface antigens could be detected in four out of ...1976182421
persistent herpes simplex virus infections established in two burkitt lymphoma derived cell lines.examination of p3hr-i cells (epstein-barr virus [ebv] producer) persistently infected with the mal strain of herpes simplex virus type i (hsv-i) suggested that only a few cells were actively producing a virus indistinguishable from hsv-i (mal) despite the presence of immunofluorescent hsv-i antigens associated with the majority of cells. ebv-specific immunofluorescence was not altered in hsv-i persistently infected p3hr-i cells. hsv-i persistently infected cells, labelled for 72 h with 14c-thymi ...1976182914
dna-binding proteins induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 in hep-2 cells.affinity chromatography on single-stranded and double-stranded dna-cellulose indicates that 12 proteins previously identified from herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cells, ranging in molecular weight from 28 x 10(3) to 186 x 10(3), bind to dna-cellulose. the dna-binding proteins found in infected cells differed in relative binding strengths for denatured dna-cellulose. the virus specificity of these dna-binding proteins was further studied by comparison with dna-binding proteins isolated from ...1976183021
induction of murine p30 by superinfecting herpesviruses.the interaction of endogenous type c viruses with superinfecting herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was investigated in two murine cell lines. replication of hsv-2 was suboptimal in random-bred swiss/3t3a cells and, in initial experiments, infection with a low virus-to-cell ratio resulted in carrier cultures with enhanced murine leukemia virus (mulv) p30 expression. immunofluorescence tests with swiss/3t3a cells productively infected with hsv-2 also showed hsv-associated cytoplasmic antigens an ...1976184296
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity to target cells infected with type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus.the phenomenon of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytoxicity (adcc) has been extended to include target cells acutely infected with herpes simplex type 1 virus (hsv-1) or herpes simplex type 2 virus (hsv-2) in an in vitro system that employs immune human serum and human blood mononuclear cells. the cytotoxic reaction was detectable after 1 hr of incubation and was complete between 4 and 8 hr. the amount of adcc noted was directly proportional to the logarithm(10) of the effector: target cell ra ...1976173757
serum antibodies to herpesvirus early antigens in patients with cervical carcinoma determined by anticomplement immunofluorescence technique.sera from patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix were used with the anticomplement immunofluorescence (acif) technique to develop a simple procedure for detection of antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) early antigens. test cells used in the acif assay were hep-2 cells infected with hsv-2 sequentially treated with inhibitors of protein and of dna synthesis. the cells were first treated for 7 h with cycloheximide (100 mug/ml) and then for 3 h with hydroxyurea (150 mug/ml). in ...197662718
herpes simplex virus type 2 and cancer of the prostate.a seroepidemiologic study was performed to determine if there was an association between antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 and cancer of the prostate, similar to that reported for herpes simplex virus type 2 and cervical carcinoma. no significant difference in herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies was seen between patients with cancer of the prostate and those with benign prostatic hypertrophy. further studies are needed to define the possible role of herpes simplex virus type 2 in the ...197662063
in vivo and in vitro "markers" of human cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.the human uterine cervix offers a unique opportunity to study the early lesions of squamous cell carcinoma, i.e., carcinoma in situ and dysplasia [combined as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cin)]. in vivo, the patients with cin have the epidemiological common denominators or "markers" of early onset of coitus, multiple sexual partners, 1st delivery before age 20, and antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 more frequently than do controls. the lesions themselves have specific epithelial a ...197658720
serological and epidemiological considerations of the role of herpes simplex virus type 2 in cervical cancer.to assess the possible biological significance of the observations that women with cervical cancer tend to be younger at first intercourse than control women, data from 1823 women were analyzed for the relationship between age at 1st intercourse and number of sex partners. women who were younger at first intercourse had more sex partners than did women who were older at first intercourse. the interdependence of age at first intercourse and number of sex partners does not exlude the possibility t ...197656227
type 2 herpes simplex virus infections.the problems related to herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 infections include: (1) the clinical diseases produced primarily at urogenital sites, but also in extragenital areas, and the frequent recurrences of such infections; (2) the severity of the diseases produced in immunocompromised hosts and in newborns, including a varity of ocular manifestations; and (3) the possible role of the virus in human cancers. the usually sexually transmitted mode of spread of this virus has increased current med ...1976982268
elisa for herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies. 197772945
immune responses to vaginal or systemic infection of balb/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 2.the temporal relationships among the humoral and cellular immune responses were defined in balb/c mice after vaginal or systemic infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). after vaginal infection, mice showed evidence of clinical vaginitis on days 4 to 6 and hsv-2 replication was detected locally in the vaginal secretions, cervix, vagina, and uterus before the virus subsequently spread to the central nervous system. death from encephalitis occurred between 7 and 10 days after infection. ...197772115
detection of herpes simplex virus-related antigens in the nuclei and cytoplasm of biochemically transformed cells with peroxidase/anti-peroxidase immunological staining and indirect immunofluorescence.herpes simplex virus (hsv)-related antigens have been demonstrated in the nuclei and cytoplasm of human and mouse cells biochemically transformed by ultraviolet light-irradiated hsv. this was accomplished by using peroxidase/anti-peroxidase immunological staining and indirect immunofluorescence with rabbit antisera that had high neutralizing titers against the hsv-specific thymidine kinase activity and virus infectivity. hsv-1 antisera reacted with antigens in cells biochemically transformed by ...197771279
occurrence of genital herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus infections in pregnancy.a total of 244 pregnant women, 172 in the first and 72 in the third trimester, were screened for genital herpes simplex (hsv) and cytomegalovirus (cmv) infections using virus isolation, cytological examination and serological studies. in addition, immuno-fluorescence staining of exfoliated cervical cells was used for the detection of hsv infections. herpes simplex virus (hsv) could not be isolated and no characteristic hsv altered cells were found in cytological (papa) smears. cytomegalovirus wa ...197767744
measurement of antibodies to herpesvirus types 1 and 2 in human sera by microradioimmunoassay.the binding of 125i-labelled anti-human antibodies against the fc igg fragment to unlabelled antiviral immunoglobulins in the surface of infected cells was used to quantitate antibodies against herpes simplex virus type (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) in sera from patients with cervix carcinoma. the microradioimmunoassay technique (micro-ria) proved to be 5-10 times more sensitive than the microneutralization test. antibody titres determined by micro-ria correlated with neutralizing antibody titres t ...197722235
ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus (types 1 and 2) infected and uninfected kb cells: properties of the partially purified enzymes.mammalian ribonucleotide reductase is a complex enzyme modified in its activity by a complex regulatory system involving adenosine triphosphate (atp) and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. infection of kb cells with herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 or 2 induces the formation of an altered ribonucleotide reductase. the properties of partially purified reductase from uninfected kb cells have been compared with the enzymes obtained from hsv-1 and hsv-2 infected kb cells. we found that the virus-in ...197718550
expression of an early, nonstructural antigen of herpes simplex virus in cell transformed in vitro by herpes simplex virus.hyperimmune rabbit antiserum to an early, nonstructural herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-induced polypeptide (vp143) reacted in immunofluorescence tests with a variety of cell lines transformed by hsv-2. cytoplasmic fluorescence was observed in 10 to 50% of hsv-2-transformed cells, whereas no fluorescence was observed in cells transformed by other oncogenic dna viruses or by a chemical carcinogen. vp143-specific reactivity could be absorbed from anti-vp143 serum with hsv-2-transformed cells b ...197764626
immune interactions with cells infected with herpes simplex virus: antibodies to radioiodinated surface antigens.lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination was used to study reactions between surface antigens and antibodies on bhk-21 cells infected with hsv-1 and hsv-2. isolation of iodinated surface antigens was achieved by indirect immune precipitation of triton x-100 disrupted cells with antisera to hsv and igg. analysis of immune precipitates by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) revealed at least 10 antigens, ranging in m.w. from 35 x 103 to 160 x 103 daltons. antigens were detectable on cell su ...1977187696
[investigations concerning the evidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) antibodies in patients with carcinoma of the cervix (author's transl)].the neutralizing antibodies to hsv-1 and hsv-2 were determined in the sera of 128 patients. infection was detectable in nearly 100% of the cases in each of the three investigated groups (patients with carcinoma of the cervix, female patients with chronic recurrent hsv infection in the genital area and a control group without and history of hsv infection). the percentage of patients displaying hsv-2 antibodies in the group with carcinoma of the cervix (38%) is significantly higher than in the con ...1977191994
long-term follow-up studies on herpes simplex antibodies in the course of cervical cancer: patterns of neutralizing antibodies.the kinetics of neutralization was used to study antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 in 90 patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix uteri. the first sera were drawn before treatment and consective sera were drawn at intervals thereafter. control groups consisted of 90 age-matched healthy women and 70 cancer patients suffering from malignancies other than cervix carcinoma. patients surviving during the observation period of 12-60 months had a significantly higher frequency of neutrali ...1977192072
specific non-immunoglobulin g antibodies and cell-mediated response to herpes simplex virus antigens in women with cervical carcinoma.non-immunoglobulin g-neutralizing antibodies to herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 were assayed in sera adsorbed with staphylococcus aureus cowan i. they were present in 8% of women with normal cervical smear and in 20, 41, and 74% of women with atypia, dysplasia, and cervical carcinoma, respectively. lymphocytes of the patients were tested for in vitro transformation by killed hsv type 1 and hsv type 2 (hsv-2), as well as by mitomycin c-treated hamster cells transformed by hsv or other viruses o ...1977192446
a sensitive method for the detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 specific thymidine kinase.thymidine kinase (tk) activity of uninfected and in vitro herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infected human fetal lung cells was analyzed. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out, and subsequent incubation of equally divided gel slices in the presence of normal or anti-hsv-2 specific tk serum, together with different substrates, was performed. small amounts of virus-specific enzyme could be detected using this combination of electrophoresis and antibodies and replacing atp by ctp in ...1977192698
role of macrophages in hepatitis induced by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in mice.a marked difference was found between herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) in the induction of hepatic necrotic lesions in mice inoculated intraperitoneally. although hsv-2 produced many large, progressive liver lesions in 4-week-old balb/c mice, hsv-1 only occasionally induced a few, self-limiting foci, which eventually healed. this was reflected in the isolation of hsv from the liver and spleen, two organs that are rich in macrophages. although hsv-1 could be only temporarily ...1977192671
the tumor enhancing property of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2).the s.c. infection of dbf-1 mice with hsv-2 has a tumor enhancing effect on simultaneously i.m. implanted mca-induced syngeneic spindle cell sarcoma. thus with the dosage used here, the first palpable tumors appeared on day 6 in the virus treated group as compared to day 9 p.i. in the sham treated batch. further, more tumors were formed: 75% among the infected and 40% among the sham injected. the tumor yield could be modulated: no difference between the 2 groups was found when the tumor cell dos ...1977193079
transfer of the gene for thymidine kinase to thymidine kinase-deficient human cells by purified herpes simplex viral dna.transformation of human cells from a thymidine kinase (atp:thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, ec 2.7.1.75)-negative to a thymidine kinase-positive phenotype has been achieved by using purified dna from herpes simplex virus type 2. the specific activity of the dna was in the range 0.5 to 2.0 transformants per microng and the efficiency of gene transfer was up to 1 transformant per 10(5) recipient cells. several transformed lines able to grow continuously in medium selective for thymidine kinase-pos ...1977193108
[oncogeny of herpes simplex viruses and lupidon].the part of the herpes simplex virus type 2 in the development of the cervex carcinoma of women is still an open question. after the serological findings that patients with cervix carcinoma have a higher rate of antibodies against type 2 than healthy women, which were initially published with great expectation, the molecular-virological examinations which were meanwhile carried out by several work groups to find traces of the herpes simplex virus type 2 in the carcinoma cells were negative, exce ...1977193311
quantification of the herpes simplex virus dna present in biochemically transformed mouse cells and their revertants.four cell lines biochemically transformed by u.v.-irradiated herpes simplex virus contain virus dna fragments ranging from 3 to 22% of the hsv genome. of five revertant clones selected for 3h-tdr or brdurd resistance, four had lost all detectable virus dna while the fifth, selected for brdurd resistance, retained the entire virus fragment but there was a reduction of virus copies per cell from 5 to 1. three 'supertransformed' revertant cell lines contained virus dna fragments ranging from 12 to ...1977196037
effect of immunization on acute and latent infections of vaginouterine tissue with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.inoculation of mice with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) by the vaginal route resulted in viral shedding during the acute phase of the infection and the development of a latent infection in vaginouterine tissue lasting up to one year in greater than 25% of the animals. immunization with either serotype of hsv markedly reduced viral shedding when animals were subsequently challenged with the homologous serotype, but immunization with hsv-2 was significantly less effective in ...1977192810
[epidemiology of herpes simplex diseases].the epidemiological principle of the herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections is to have the affected host survive, to persist in it and thus to make it to be a life long starting point for new infection chains. there is an accurately tuned correlation between virus and host organism, in which the persistence of the virus as a latent infection in the ganglion cells of sensory neurones is of central importance. in this state the virus cannot be attacked by the defensive power of the body. when chang ...1977193312
genetics of macrophage-controlled resistance to hepatitis induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice.the genetics of innate resistance of mice to hepatitis induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was analyzed by crossing resistant male gr to susceptible female balb/c mice and backcrossing females of this f1 generation to susceptible male balb/c mice. by scoring of macroscopic liver lesions and virus isolation studies from the liver 4 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of hsv-2, it appeared that the resistance was governed by one x-linked dominant gene or closely linked gene complex, ...1977197015
effect of silica on the pathogenic distinction between herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 hepatitis in mice.the role of macrophages in the difference in liver pathogenicity between herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) in mice was investigated by selectively blocking the macrophage function of the mice by silica. intravenous administration of 3 mg of silica 2 h before virus inoculation partially abolished the difference between the two virus types, as judged by macroscopic and microscopic examination of the livers and by virus isolation studies. intraperitoneal inoculation of 50 mg of ...1977197016
immunodiagnostic potential of a virus-coded, tumor-associated antigen (ag-4) in cervical cancer.the central theme of this communication is the recognition of an immunodiagnostic potential in a herpes virus antigen, the molecular interrelationship of which with cervical tumor cells is described. in addition to the productive infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) we are confronted by latency and, as suggested by recent studies, by cancer. these different types of virus-host cell interactions are discussed at the host, as well as at the cellular level. a defined level of mol ...1977192436
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