TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
limited proteolysis of herpes simplex virus glycoproteins that occurs during their extraction from vero cells.herpes simplex virus glycoproteins extracted from infected vero cells can be smaller in apparent size than the same viral products extracted from infected hep-2 cells. here we show that the differences in size result primarily from limited proteolysis, during or after their extraction, of the viral glycoproteins made in vero cells. in the absence of appropriate protease inhibitors, both mature and immature forms of four different glycoproteins specified by herpes simplex virus type 2 were signif ...19846321794
replication origins and a sequence involved in coordinate induction of the immediate-early gene family are conserved in an intergenic region of herpes simplex virus.we have determined the structure of the 5' portion of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsf-2) immediate-early (ie) mrna-3 and have obtained the dna sequence specifying the n terminus of its encoded polypeptide, vmw182, its untranslated leader and the intergenic region between iemrnas-3 & 4/5. comparison of the hsv-2 intergenic sequences with the hsv-1 equivalent region identifies several conserved regions: (1) an at-rich element with core consensus taatgarat which is likely to be the 'activator' seq ...19846322134
resistance of herpes simplex virus to 9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl]guanine: physical mapping of drug synergism within the viral dna polymerase locus.a herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) mutant ts6 (strain hg52) induces a heat-labile viral dna polymerase at the nonpermissive temperature and is markedly resistant to 9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl]-guanine [2'-nor-2'-deoxyguanosine; 2'ndg]. this antiviral drug requires hsv thymidine kinase for phosphorylation to an active inhibitor (2'ndg-triphosphate), and thymidine kinase-deficient mutants of hsv exhibit varying degrees of resistance to 2'ndg, with the hsv type 1 (hsv-1) b2006 ...19846324203
synthesis of some phosphonates with antiherpetic activity.several keto phosphonates, phosphonoacetates , and dialkyl phosphonates containing (aryloxy)aryl groups were synthesized and evaluated for antiherpteic activity. two of the most active compounds, 12 and 16, were evaluated topically in the mouse vaginal model against herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2. compound 16 exhibited an increased survival rate, as well as increased survival time. evaluation of 16 in the guinea pig skin test against hsv-2 produced a reduction in virus titer, as well as in me ...19846325695
early interactions between human cytomegalovirus and cells.adsorption of cytomegalovirus (cmv) to human fibroblasts was not inhibited by preincubation with other herpes viruses (hsv-1, hsv-2, vzv). transport of virus to the nucleus was studied using virus labelled with 3h-thymidine. radioactivity was found in the nucleus 20 minutes after virus had been added to the cells. in order to assess the expression of the virus genome, synthesis of early (ea) and late (la) antigens was studied. assayed on permissive human lung fibroblasts, a plaque purified virus ...19846320772
oligosaccharide chains of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein glycoprotein was purified by h966 monoclonal antibodies linked to sepharose from herpes simplex virus type 2-infected hep-2 cells labeled with [3h] glucosamine. the glycoprotein was subjected to pronase digestion and the glycopeptides were fractionated by con a-sepharose in a major fraction (88.5% of total radioactivity) unbound to the lectin gel and in a minor species which bound to the lectin as a n-linked diantennary oligosaccharide. mild and strong acid hydrolysis of con a-unbound and c ...19854026310
[herpes simplex virus infections].there are two serological types of herpes simplex virus, hsv-1 and hsv-2. the types can be differentiated by different methods. after a primary infection hsv reaches the sensory ganglions by the way of peripheral nervous tracts. the virus remains for life in the ganglion as virus genome. after activation and return movement a new infection can appear. a lot of various diseases are caused by primary infection, reactivation or reinfection. the diagnosis in herpes virus diseases includes the detect ...19854039869
viral meningitis.viral meningitis is part of the aseptic meningitis syndrome but must be distinguished from bacterial meningitis on the basis of a careful examination of the csf and sound clinical judgment. enteroviruses probably account for the bulk of cases of aseptic meningitis that occur in the united states and which are reported to the centers for disease control each year. the seasonal pattern in the incidence of aseptic meningitis is largely due to the seasonal variation of enteroviral infections. early ...19853990441
cigarette smoking, herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, and cervical a case-control study, we investigated the relation of cigarette smoking and genital herpes virus infection to cervical abnormalities. although cases and controls differed according to several factors, multiple logistic analyses indicated that age, education, and cigarette smoking were the only independent risk factors for histologically confirmed disease. relative risk estimates were 1.92 and 3.68 for past and current smokers, respectively. the results indicated that smoking and genital herpe ...19854003639
nucleosides. 133. synthesis of 5-alkenyl-1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)cytosines and related pyrimidine nucleosides as potential antiviral agents.the synthesis of 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)cytosines with a halovinyl or vinyl substituent at c-5 was accomplished from the corresponding 5-iodo (fiac, 1) and/or 5-chloromercuri nucleoside analogues with use of li2pdcl4- and pd(oac)2-mediated coupling reactions. thiation of the benzoylated derivative of the 5-ethyluracil nucleoside 3 followed by s-methylation and then ammonolysis provided 5-ethyl-2'-fluoro-ara-c. 5-ethynyl-2'-fluoro-ara-c (19a) and 5-ethynyl-2'-fluoro-ara-u (19 ...19854009596
degradation of cellular mrnas induced by a virion-associated factor during herpes simplex virus infection of vero cells.we have used northern blot hybridization to study the accumulation of specific cellular mrnas in vero cells infected with herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 or type 2. hsv-1 infection decreased the cytoplasmic levels of beta- and gamma-actin, beta-tubulin, and histone h3 and h4 mrnas, though not all at the same rate. hsv-2 infection resulted in a more rapid decrease in actin and histone mrna levels compared with hsv-1 infection. the turnover rate of each type of mrna studied was accelerated in hs ...19854020960
synergistic antiviral effects of acyclovir and vidarabine on herpes simplex infection in newborn mice.277 5-7-day-old white swiss mice were infected intranasally with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) to mimic disseminated herpetic infection in human newborns. the antiviral efficacy of acyclovir, vidarabine and specific antiserum (sas) alone and in combination was assessed. a significant increase in survival rate (52%) was observed with the combination of acyclovir (80 mg/kg/day) and vidarabine (125 mg/kg/day) compared to either compound (24 and 6%, respectively) when therapy was begun 30 h aft ...19854028874
enhancement of non-specific resistance to viral infection by muramyldipeptide and its analogs.antiviral activity of muramyldipeptide (mdp) and its lipophilic derivatives, b30-mdp and mdp-lys(l18), was investigated in mice infected with vaccinia virus (vv) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). mice administered these compounds subcutaneously or orally were protected against vv in tail lesion tests and against hsv-2 in skin lesion tests, respectively. since in vitro antiviral activity was not demonstrated with these compounds in cultured mammalian cells infected with either vv or hsv-2, ...19852412489
expression in bacteria of gb-glycoprotein-coding sequences of herpes simplex virus type 2.a plasmid with an insert that encodes the glycoprotein b(gb) gene of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) has been isolated. dna sequences coding for a portion of the hsv-2 gb peptide were cloned into a bacterial lacz alpha expression vector and used to transform escherichia coli. upon induction of laczpo-promoted transcription, some of the bacteria became filamentous and produced inclusion bodies containing a large amount of a 65-kdal peptide that was shown to be precipitated by broad-spectrum a ...19852412940
study of interferon production during pregnancy in mice and antiviral activity in the placenta.although the mortality rate after herpes simplex virus type 2 inoculation was not significantly different between pregnant mice and nonpregnant mice, systemic interferon production was very high during late pregnancy compared with that in nonpregnant mice. antiviral activity was detected in placentas from all noninfected pregnant mice (80 to 320 u/ml in 20% suspension). the antiviral activity had a broad spectrum and was also effective in the cells of other species; an antiviral effect was shown ...19852413760
the antiviral activity of tetrazole phosphonic acids and their analogues.5-(phosphonomethyl)-1h-tetrazole and a number of related tetrazoles have been prepared and their effects on the replication of herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2 have been investigated as well as their abilities to inhibit the dna polymerases induced by these viruses and the rna transcriptase activity of influenza virus a. contrary to an earlier report, 5-(phosphonomethyl)-1h-tetrazole was not an efficient inhibitor of the replication of hsv-1 and hsv-2 in tissue culture. analogues of 5-(phosphonom ...19852417198
detection of herpesvirus cervicovaginitis by a sequential papanicolaou--immunoperoxidase technique.herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection constitutes an immediate threat to the neonate of pregnant women who deliver vaginally, and thus requires a rapid, specific means of diagnosis that is easily applicable to cervicovaginal smears. we applied the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique to variously fixed, previously stained papanicolaou smears from 60 women with hsv and 18 negative controls using an hsv-2 antibody and either diaminobenzidine (dab) or aminoethylcarbazol (aec) as the chromogen and may ...19852424682
production of lymphokines and interferon by immune cells involved in recovery of mice from herpes simplex virus type 2 hepatitis.adoptive transfer of spleen cells from mice 4 days after infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) reduced the virus titer in the liver of recipient mice infected 24 h before transfer. macrophage chemotactic factor (cf) and macrophage migration inhibition factor (mif) were produced by day 3 of infection in spleen cell cultures stimulated with hsv-2, but not with control antigen, i.e. 1 day before the cells are active in adoptive transfer. interferon was produced in cultures established ...19852408997
immunity to herpes simplex virus: virus reactivation modulates lymphokine activity.cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus (hsv) was studied in patients with recurrent disease and in seropositive controls. supernatants from cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbls) obtained during recrudescence (zero to three days after onset of lesions), convalescence (four to 14 days), and quiescence (greater than 14 days) were assayed for their ability to augment natural killer activity of normal pbls against k562 target cells. supernatants obtained during recrudescence, ...19852411825
immunoblotting and elisa analysis of hsv-1 and hsv-2-specified polypeptides by using an immunoblocking method.herpes simplex virus (hsv) specified polypeptide antigens were analyzed by immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) methods. in general, the virus specified proteins showed marked cross-reactivity. however, the hsv-1 specified glycoprotein c could be detected by hsv-1 infected rabbit antiserum only. two low molecular weight polypeptides showed considerable reactivity with hsv-2 induced immune sera as revealed by an immunoblocking modification of the immunoblotting method. the ...19852412480
comparative activities of combinations of acyclovir, vidarabine or its 5'-monophosphate, and cloned human interferons against herpes simplex virus type 2 in human and mouse fibroblast cultures.human interferon-alpha a/d (bgl), an alpha-hybrid cloned interferon, displays activity in both human and mouse cell lines. we measured the effects of this interferon in double and triple combinations with acyclovir, vidarabine or its 5'-monophosphate against herpes simplex virus type 2 in mouse and human fibroblasts. a 75% cytopathic effect reduction assay employing a modified checkerboard technique was used. results in human fibroblasts were compared with those obtained when recombinant human i ...19852418779
detection of herpes simplex virus type-2 antigen(s) in biopsies from carcinoma of the uterine cervix.indirect immunofluorescence technique was employed to detect herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) antigens in tumor biopsies from 215 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. a total of 169 samples (79%) revealed brilliant nuclear fluorescence. inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor mass were positive to 60 of the 215 patients (28%). samples showed no significant variation in the degree of fluorescence or proportion of cells binding hsv antibody with advancement in the clinical stage of ...19852431113
studies on the herpes simplex virus alkaline nuclease: detection of type-common and type-specific epitopes on the enzyme.five monoclonal antibodies to the alkaline nuclease of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 have been used in immunoperoxidase tests to demonstrate the nuclear localization of the enzyme within hsv-1- and hsv-2-infected cells and to purify the enzyme from cells infected with either virus by immunoadsorbant chromatography. affinity chromatography with a 32p-labelled extract of hsv-2-infected cells has enabled us to demonstrate that the nuclease eluting from the immunoadsorbant is a phosphopro ...19852578550
human cytotoxic t cell clones directed against herpes simplex virus-infected cells. iii. analysis of viral glycoproteins recognized by ctl clones by using recombinant herpes simplex viruses.human cytotoxic t cell (ctl) clones specific for herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1- and type 2-infected cells were generated and were analyzed with regard to the viral glycoproteins they recognize on autologous hsv-infected cells. by use of target cells infected with wild-type hsv strains, a gc deletion mutant of hsv-1, and hsv-1 x hsv-2 intertypic recombinants, some hsv-1-specific ctl clones were found to be directed against l region-encoded ga/b-1, and others against s region-encoded glycoprot ...19852579149
frequency of herpes simplex virus-specific helper t lymphocyte precursors in the lymph node cells of infected mice.we have established a limited dilution assay to estimate the frequency of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv)-specific, interleukin 2 (il 2)-producing helper t lymphocyte precursors (htl-p). the estimated frequency of such cells in suspensions of local lymph node (ln) cells 5 days after in vivo virus infection was 1:2470 to 1:5800. frequencies of htl-p in cells from uninfected mice were below levels of detection of our system and were judged to be below 1:100,000. removal of lyt-2+ cells from resp ...19852579150
antibody response to type-common and type-unique epitopes of herpes simplex virus polypeptides.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv1) and type 2 (hsv2) polypeptides with type-common and type-unique epitopes were identified using cross-adsorbed hyperimmune rabbit sera and western blotting techniques. twelve hsv1 and fourteen hsv2 polypeptides with type-specific epitopes were identified. cross-adsorbed human sera reacted to a subset of the type-specific epitopes defined by rabbit sera. human sera with both hsv1- and hsv2-specific antibodies were identified by their reaction to hsv1-type-specifi ...19852580054
rapid detection of cytomegalovirus in cell culture by indirect immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibody to an early nuclear antigen.a method for the rapid detection of cytomegalovirus (cmv) in mrc-5 cells 48 h after inoculation with clinical specimens was developed. a commercially available monoclonal antibody to a cmv early nuclear antigen was used in an indirect immunoperoxidase (ipa) staining procedure performed directly on acetone-fixed cell monolayers in standard tubes (16 by 125 mm). of 190 clinical specimens tested, 30 specimens produced cmv cytopathic effect in tissue culture (tc-cpe) within 14 days after inoculation ...19852581991
dna-binding protein associated with herpes simplex virus dna polymerase.purified preparations of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna polymerase made by many different laboratories always contain at least two polypeptides. the major one, of about 150,000 molecular weight, has been associated with the polymerase activity. the second protein, of about 54,000 molecular weight, which we previously designated icsp 34, 35, has now been purified. the purified protein has been used to prepare antisera (both polyclonal rabbit serum and monoclonal antibodies). these reagents have ...19852578573
herpes simplex virus hepatitis in mice: effects of treatment with trisodium phosphonoformate.clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) induced focal necrotic hepatitis in icr/schö mice. the extent of the hepatitis could be considerably reduced by trisodium phosphonoformate (pfa) administered for 3 days in a daily dose of 400-600 mg/kg. the hsv hepatitis in mice could serve as a suitable model for testing antiherpetic drugs.19852869661
a prospective study of association of herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus infection with cervical neoplasia in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in thousand one hundred thirty-four women, enrolled in a prospective study of the development of cervical neoplasia in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (des) in utero, were examined at least once a year. twenty-three women developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cin) of different degrees during the 7-year follow-up period and were matched with women who did not develop cin during the study period. serum samples were obtained at the time of entry into the study and at the time of diagno ...19852981778
antigenic and biochemical analysis of gb of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 and of cross-reacting glycoproteins induced by bovine mammillitis virus and equine herpesvirus type antiserum was produced to the oligomeric form of glycoprotein b (gb) induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strain 17. this antiserum gave a single common precipitin line in agar gel immunodiffusion with hsv-1, hsv-2, bovine mammillitis virus (bmv) and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). it also neutralized hsv-1, hsv-2 and bmv but not ehv-1. absorption of the antiserum with excess hsv-2 or bmv antigen resulted in an hsv-1-specific neutralizing antiserum. in immunoprecipitation, two pr ...19852981966
characterization of the gene encoding herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein c and comparison with the type 1 counterpart.the gene encoding the glycoprotein c (gc) of herpes simplex virus type 1 maps to the region of the viral genome from 0.62 to 0.64. recently, a herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein previously designated gf and now designated gc was mapped to a homologous location. analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 2 mrna species encoded in this region revealed a major transcript of 2.5 kilobases, a 0.73-kilobase transcript (the 5' ends of which were mapped by primer extension), and several minor speci ...19852982036
herpes simplex virus latency in a hyperresistant clone of mouse neuroblastoma (cl300) cells.herpes simplex virus (hsv) hyperresistant neuroblastoma cells (clone cl300 rii) were latently infected with hsv-1 if cultured in presence of hsv-neutralizing antibody for one or two passages after infection and then passaged further without antibody. by superinfecting hsv-1 latently infected cl300 rii cells with hsv-2, progeny virus with hsv-1 characteristics was regularly rescued. such retrieval of hsv-1 decreased with passage of the latently infected cells.19852982359
antiviral activity of cp-20,961 against herpes simplex viruses in vitro.the antiherpesvirus activity of cp-20,961 [n,n-dioctadecyl-n',n'-bis (2-hydroxyethyl) propanediamine, or avridine] was investigated in cultured guinea pig embryo (gpe) cells. plaque formation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv1) and type 2 (hsv2) was inhibited, but vesicular stomatitis virus replication was not inhibited, in gpe cells treated with cp-20,961 before infection. the id50 concentration of cp-20,961 for hsv was about 50 micrograms/ml for 3-4 days of pretreatment. after virus adsorpti ...19852982759
herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of endothelial, epithelial, and fibroblast cells induces a receptor for c3b.we recently demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv 1) induces a receptor on human umbilical vein endothelial cells for complement component c3b (c3br). we assigned this receptor function to hsv 1 viral glycoprotein c (gc) based on several observations: tunicamycin, which prevents glycosylation and expression of n-linked glycoproteins on the surface of infected cells, markedly reduced expression of the c3br; monoclonal antibodies to hsv 1 gc blocked detection of the c3br, whereas mono ...19852982950
acute and latent infection by thymidine kinase mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2. 19852982968
herpes simplex virus sequences involved in the initiation of oncogenic morphological transformation of rat cells are not required for maintenance of the transformed state.we have determined the herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 dna sequences responsible for the initiation of morphological transformation and have investigated the retention and expression of these sequences in morphologically transformed cells and in tumours derived from these cells. all the transformed cells analysed were selected by a focus formation assay and are oncogenic in the inbred host rat. cloned hindiii and bg/ii fragments from the hsv-2 genome were assayed for the ability to initiate mo ...19852983000
evidence for a direct role for both the 175,000- and 110,000-molecular-weight immediate-early proteins of herpes simplex virus in the transactivation of delayed-early promoters.we reconstructed the regulated induction of delayed-early (de) transcription that occurs during herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection by using a transient expression system in which recombinant target genes were cotransfected into vero cells together with intact activating genes. plasmids containing cloned hsv-1 or hsv-2 immediate-early (ie) genes stimulated by up to 100-fold the expression from recombinant constructs containing the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene under the ...19852983086
the herpes simplex virus amplicon: analyses of cis-acting replication functions.previous studies have shown that defective virus vectors (amplicons) derived from herpes simplex viruses could be efficiently propagated in virus stocks in the presence of trans-acting helper virus functions. the present study established that two separate cis-acting functions--a dna replication origin and a cleavage/packaging signal--are required for amplicon propagation. using deleted derivatives of cloned amplicons, we mapped one of the viral dna replication origins (ori-2 or oril) at coordin ...19852983310
protection from genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by vaccination with cloned type 1 glycoprotein d.guinea pigs were vaccinated with truncated herpes simplex virus type-1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein d produced in the genetically engineered mammalian cell line gd10.2. vaccinated animals formed antibodies that neutralized both hsv-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in an in vitro neutralization assay. vaccinated animals were challenged with hsv-2 by intravaginal infection. animals that received the immunogen in freund's complete adjuvant were completely protected from the clinical manifestations ...19852983428
a prospective study of herpes simplex virus infection in a defined population in houston, texas.a seroepidemiologic study was conducted to determine the incidence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus in a population of middle-class caucasian women. in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol did not influence the frequency of herpes simplex virus infection. the frequency of infection increased with age and number of sex partners and a 50% increase in incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection was noted during the 4-year period of the study. subclinical herpes simplex virus type 2 infe ...19852983557
combination chemotherapy: interaction of 5-methoxymethyldeoxyuridine with trifluorothymidine, phosphonoformate and acycloguanosine against herpes simplex viruses.methoxymethyldeoxyuridine (mmudr) when used in combination with either trifluorothymidine (f3tdr) or phosphonoformate (pfa) showed synergistic activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) in vitro, whereas mmudr and acycloguanosine (acg) combination was antagonistic against herpes viruses. hsv-1 mutants resistant to acg, arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-a), mmudr or pfa were isolated. drug-resistant hsv-1 virus mutants were analyzed for cross sensitivity to acg, ara-a, f ...19852984988
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of antibodies against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in human sera.a rapid and reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) is described for determining antibodies in human sera against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2). the sera were absorbed for 30 min with heterologous virus-infected-cell extracts to remove cross-reacting antibodies and then were applied to elisa plates containing the target antigens, immunoaffinity-purified hsv-1 glycoproteins gc and gd and hsv-2 glycoproteins gd and gf. the absorbance index, defined as the ra ...19852985643
evaluation of two immunofluorescence assays with monoclonal antibodies for typing of herpes simplex indirect immunofluorescence assay and a direct immunofluorescence assay were evaluated for typing clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (hsv). the indirect immunofluorescence assay (electro-nucleonics, inc.) correctly identified 16 hsv type 2 (hsv-2) isolates, but failed to identify 4 of 14 hsv-1 isolates because of background fluorescence and instability of reagents. forty-nine hsv-1 isolates were correctly typed by direct immunofluorescence assay (kallestad laboratories, inc.), but 1 of ...19852985651
direct inactivation of viruses by mcp-1 and mcp-2, natural peptide antibiotics from rabbit leukocytes.six homologous peptides were purified to homogeneity from rabbit granulocytes or alveolar macrophages and tested for their ability to inactivate herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). two of the peptides, mcp-1 and mcp-2, showed considerable in vitro neutralizing activity, whereas four structurally homologous peptides (np-3a, np-3b, np-4, and np-5) were relatively ineffective. inactivation of hsv-1 by mcp-1 or mcp-2 depended on peptide concentration and on the time, temperature, and ph of the incu ...19852985808
vaccinia virus recombinant expressing herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein d prevents latent herpes in humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein d gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. tissue culture cells infec ...19852986288
[prevention and therapy of herpesvirus infections].the group of the human-pathogenic herpesviruses comprises five subgroups: herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), varicella zoster virus (vzv), cytomegalovirus (cmv), and epstein-barr virus (ebv). primary infection with these ubiquitous herpesviruses usually occurs in childhood or during adolescence and frequently remains inapparent. however, it can also give rise to a variety of clinical pictures. important clinical manifestations of herpesvirus infections are ...19852986378
synergism between recombinant human interferon and nucleoside antiviral agents against herpes simplex virus: examination with an automated microtiter plate automated, quantitative, cytopathic effect (cpe) inhibition assay with human fibroblasts in 96-well microtiter plates was used to examine the combination of recombinant human interferon-alpha (rifn-alpha a) and acyclovir, vidarabine, or dihydroxypropoxymethyl guanine against herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) in vitro. fifty percent cpe (cpe50) end points, calculated from optical density readings of crystal violet-stained monolayers in an automated spectrophotometer, represent ...19852987369
lack of oral hsv-2 in a college student population.a population of individuals with a high incidence of genital herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), due most likely to oro-genital contact, was examined to determine the incidence of oral herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection. herpes simplex virus was isolated from the oral cavity of 43 college students whose symptoms ranged from singular lesions of the lips with minimal discomfort to severe oral disease with systemic involvement resulting in lymphadenopathy, chills, sweat, myalgia, and fe ...19852993498
synthesis and antiherpes simplex virus activity of 9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propylthio)methyl]guanine.the synthesis of the thio analogue (thio-dhpg, 2) of 9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine (dhpg, 1) is described. the synthesis of 2 proceeded via the condensation of acetoxymethyl sulfide 9 with diacetylguanine 10 to give the protected nucleoside analogue 11. although catalytic hydrogenolysis failed, the benzyl ether functionalities of 11 were successfully cleaved by an acetolysis reaction to furnish 14. ammonolysis of 14 gave 2, which was also transformed to sulfoxide 15 and sulfone 16. ...19852993615
application of antibody to synthetic peptides for characterization of the intact and truncated alpha 22 protein specified by herpes simplex virus 1 and the r325 alpha 22- deletion mutant.the alpha 22 protein is one of five proteins synthesized immediately after infection of permissive cells with herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2). on the basis of the reported nucleotide sequence of the hsv-1 gene, we synthesized two peptides containing the predicted amino acids 12 through 23 (12 residues) and 21 through 36 (16 residues) in two hydrophilic domains near the n terminus of the protein. rabbit antisera made against these peptides were then used to characterize the alpha 2 ...19852993651
virion component of herpes simplex virus type 1 kos interferes with early shutoff of host protein synthesis induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 186.herpes simplex virus (hsv) strains hsv type 1 (hsv-1) kos and hsv-2 186 are representative of delayed and early shutoff strains, respectively, with regard to their ability to inhibit protein synthesis in friend erythroleukemia cells. when these cells were simultaneously infected with hsv-1 kos and hsv-2 186, hsv-1 kos interfered with the rapid suppression of globin synthesis induced by hsv-2 186. the observed interference was competitive and not due to exclusion of hsv-2 by hsv-1 at the level of ...19852993660
cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus ascending myelitis in a patient with acquired immune deficiency ascending myelitis was the presenting feature of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids) in a homosexual man who also had kaposi's sarcoma, pneumocystis pneumonia, and disseminated cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection. neuropathological studies showed profuse cytomegalic cells throughout the brain and spinal cord, but no inflammatory response. at postmortem examination, cmv and herpes simplex virus, type 2 (hsv-2), were recovered from multiple sites throughout the central nervous s ...19852994553
immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of serological responses in patients infected with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.serological responses to soluble membrane and cytoplasmic antigens specified by herpes simplex type 1 (hsv1) and 2 (hsv2) were studied by immunoblotting and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). in the immunoblotting test, polypeptides migrating like the hsv1-specified glycoprotein c showed type-specific reactivity but could not always be detected. the immunoblotting and elisa results were in agreement when antibody responses to hsv1- and hsv2-specified antigens were compared, and they a ...19852995271
differences in humoral immunogenicity between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.infection of nmri mice with increasing doses of six different strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) induced increasing levels of neutralizing antibodies. in contrast, three strains of hsv-2, irrespective of the dose, induced only marginal antibody responses. only strain hg 52 (hsv-2) at high doses of infection stimulated antibody formation. the virus content of some organs in 6- to 8-week-old mice appeared to be lower after hsv-2 than after hsv-1 infection. application of immune-modulat ...19852995556
inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication in vitro by human cytotoxic t cell clones and natural killer cell clones.the abilities of human cytotoxic t cell (ctl) clones and natural killer (nk) cell clones to inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in vitro were shown. the specificities of clones inhibiting hsv replication were the same as those of cytotoxicity in hsv type specificity and hla restriction, i.e. hsv type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv type 2 (hsv-2) common ctl clones inhibited the replication of both hsv-1 and hsv-2 in autologous cells, but not in allogeneic cells. hsv-1-specific ctl clones inh ...19852995557
acute and latent herpes simplex virus neurological disease in mice immunized with purified virus-specific glycoproteins gb or gd.groups of 5-week-old balb/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with approximately 10 micrograms of purified alum-precipitated glycoprotein gb or gd of either herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2) origin. control mice received injections of alum-precipitated 1% bovine serum albumin (bsa). following a second immunization 4 weeks later, seroconversion was confirmed by demonstrating the presence of glycoprotein-specific antibody by immune precipitation. all animals were challenged ...19852995573
(+/-)-2-amino-3,4-dihydro-7-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)-1- cyclopentyl]-7h-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ones: new carbocyclic analogues of 7-deazaguanosine with antiviral activity.5-allyl-2-amino-4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine (3) was chlorinated and ozonized to yield (2-amino-4,6-dichloro-pyrimidin-5-yl)acetaldehyde (5). acetalization of 5 with ethanol afforded a new pyrimidine intermediate 6 which can lead to 2-amino-3,4-dihydro-7-alkyl-7h-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ones and therefore to carbocyclic analogues of 7-deazaguanosine. the 7-substituent was a cyclopentyl analogue of the arabinofuranosyl moiety in 10a, lyxofuranosyl moiety in 10b, and ribofuranosyl moiety in 10c. comp ...19852995667
effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on interaction of human cytomegalovirus with host cell: conversion of a nonproductive state of cell to a productive state for virus replication.the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso) on the interaction of human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) with host cell was studied. confluent state of a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line (a204) showed a much lower susceptibility to hcmv infection when compared to that in subconfluent actively growing cell cultures. treatment of confluent cultures with dmso, however, converted many nonproductive cells in these cultures to a productive state for virus replication. infectious center assay revealed that approxima ...19852996216
protection of mice against fatal herpes simplex type 2 infection by liposomes containing muramyl tripeptide.intravenous administration of liposomes containing muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine, a lipophilic derivative of muramyl dipeptide that activates macrophages to a cytolytic state in situ, significantly protected mice against lethal challenge with herpes simplex virus type 2. these findings suggest that the systemic activation of macrophages by liposomes containing an immunomodulator can lead to prophylaxis of severe infections caused by herpesviruses.19852984772
herpes simplex viral infection in human neonates: an immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study.specimens obtained at autopsy from six neonates with herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections were examined microscopically, electron microscopically, and immunohistochemically. coagulative necrosis with inclusions was found in the livers and adrenal glands in all cases, as well as in various other organs, including the spleen, bone marrow, lungs, esophagus, tongue, and thymus, in some cases. distinct hemorrhagic diathesis was found in three cases. no characteristic clinical findings, such as skin ...19852997017
anti-herpes simplex virus and cytostatic activity of some new 5-substituted 1-(4-hydroxybutyl)-and 1-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl) uracil nucleoside analogues.two series of 5-substituted acyclic uracil nucleoside analogues (5-x-acyclo-u) were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against three herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strains and one type 2 (hsv-2) strain in a plaque inhibition assay on human embryonic lung fibroblast (helf) cell cultures as well as for their ability to inhibit the proliferation of baby hamster kidney cells in suspension (bhk-s) culture. acyclovir [9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine; acv] and (s)-9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adeni ...19852864819
humoral immune response to herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoproteins in patients receiving a glycoprotein subunit vaccine.serial serum specimens from 22 herpes simplex virus (hsv)-seronegative recipients of an hsv type 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein subunit vaccine were analyzed by radioimmunoprecipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the development of antibodies to hsv-2 gb, gd, and g80, a complex of gc and ge. volunteers received 50 (n = 12) or 100 micrograms (n = 10) of vaccine at days 0, 28, and 140; sera were drawn weekly for 8 weeks and again at days 140, 147, and 365. among seronegative volunteers, an ...19852997470
evaluation of two rapid methods for the detection of herpes simplex virus antigen in patient indirect immunofluorescent antibody procedure (ifa) for the detection and typing of herpes simplex virus (hsv) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) procedure were compared with conventional viral culture. specimens for culture and elisa were inoculated into serum free viral transport medium (vtm) and, for ifa, onto slides provided in the kit. tissue cultures (mrc-5 and primary rabbit kidney) were inoculated and examined daily for cytopathogenic effect (cpe). the remaining vtm was ...19852998264
topical butylated hydroxytoluene treatment of genital herpes simplex virus infections of guinea pigs.the effect of topical treatment with butylated hydroxytoluene (bht) was evaluated in primary and recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection of guinea pigs. in the first experiment, treatment with placebo, 5%, 10%, or 15% bht was initiated 48 h after viral inoculation and continued 4 times daily for 15 days. during primary infection no differences in maximum lesion severity or titers of virus in lesions were observed, however, lesion duration was reduced in bht-treated animal ...19852998276
herpes simplex virus type 2 and human papillomavirus type 16 in cervicitis, dysplasia and invasive cervical carcinoma.sera and biopsies of cervical lesions from 55 women with benign or malignant disease were analyzed for evidence of infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) or human papillomavirus (hpv). in addition, information regarding known risk factors for cervical cancer was obtained by interview. the sera were tested for hsv-2 antibodies and the biopsies were tested for hpv or hsv dna sequences by southern blot hybridization. hsv-2 sequences were detected in 2/13 (15%) invasive neoplasms and in ...19852981783
synthetic glycoprotein d-related peptides protect mice against herpes simplex virus challenge.glycoprotein d (gd) of herpes simplex virus (hsv) protects mice from a lethal challenge by either hsv type 1 (hsv-1; oral) or hsv-2 (genital). we evaluated whether synthetic peptides representing residues 1 through 23 of gd (mature protein) can be used as a potential synthetic herpesvirus vaccine. the immunogenicity of the peptides was demonstrated by the biological reactivity of antipeptide sera in immunoprecipitation and neutralization assays. all sera which immunoprecipitated gd had neutraliz ...19852999419
effect of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 on surface expression of class i major histocompatibility complex antigens on infected cells.cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) generated in c57bl/6 (h-2b) mice in response to infection with the serologically distinct herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2) were cross-reactive against target cells infected with either serotype. however, hsv-2-infected cells were shown to be much less susceptible to ctl-mediated lysis, and analysis through the use of hsv-1 x hsv-2 intertypic recombinants mapped the reduced susceptibility to a region contained within 0.82 to 1.00 map units of the ...19852999432
a modular system for the assay of transcription regulatory signals: the sequence taatgarat is required for herpes simplex virus immediate early gene activation.a modular system for assaying the activity of transcriptional regulatory signals based on herpes simplex virus (hsv) promoter and terminator sequences linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene has been used to study activation of hsv immediate early (ie) gene expression. insertion of the sv40 72 base pair (bp) repeat increased mrna levels by 15-fold thus demonstrating the ability of the hsv ie promoter to respond to a heterologous enhancer. a fragment containing part o ...19852999706
expression of the herpes simplex virus type-2 major dna-binding protein (icp8) gene in cos-1 the use of an sv40 origin of replication plasmid vector and the cos-1 cell system, expression of the gene encoding the herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) major dna binding protein (icp8) has been achieved. the hsv-2 4.5 kb bglii 0 dna fragment containing the icp8 coding region was inserted into the plasmid vector psvod containing the sv40 origin of replication. transfection of cos-1 cells by the resultant recombinant plasmid (psvod20), and subsequent multiplication of this plasmid, led to th ...19853000103
synergistic effect of human leukocyte interferon and nonoxynol 9 against herpes simplex virus type 2.the nonionic surfactant nonoxynol 9 (np9), in combination with human alpha interferon, synergistically reduced the titer of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in vitro. the degree of synergy was highest at an interferon concentration of 10(3) iu/ml and an np9 dilution of 1:1,500. we postulate that np9 inactivates extracellular hsv-2, whereas interferon inhibits hsv-2 replication at the intracellular level.19853000288
antiviral activity of 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine against herpes simplex viruses in cell culture, mice, and guinea pigs.the susceptibility of 3 laboratory strains and 24 clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) to 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine was determined in plaque reduction assays in vero cells. the median effective doses were 8.6 and 7.8 microm, respectively. the drug was less potent than acyclovir and other related antiviral drugs, but it had a high therapeutic index against both hsv-1 and hsv-2. drug-resistant viruses were readily produced in cell culture. these variants were c ...19853000291
construction of rat cell lines that contain potential morphologically transforming regions of the herpes simplex virus type 2 genome.hybrid recombinant plasmids were constructed; they were composed of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) thymidine kinase (tk) gene and dna sequences of hsv2 that have been reported to induce morphological and/or oncogenic transformation of rodent cells in culture. several plasmids were made in two versions, with or without the simian virus 40 enhancer sequences. these plasmids were employed to transfect contact-inhibited rat-2 tk- cells. it was demonstrated that cell lines with stably integra ...19853000980
recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infection in guinea pigs.after recovery from initial genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections, female guinea pigs developed spontaneous recurrent infections characterized by discrete erythematous or vesicular herpetic lesions on the external genital skin. hsv type 2 (hsv2) caused significantly more recurrent infections in guinea pigs than did hsv type 1 (hsv1). hsv2-infected animals demonstrated a significant decline in frequency of recurrences over time. the viral nature of the recurrent lesions was confirmed by r ...19853000982
the cervical tumor-associated antigen (icp-10/ag-4) is encoded by the transforming region of the genome of herpes simplex virus type 2.bglii fragment c mapping between 0.416 and 0.580 map units (mu) on the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) genome was used for in vitro translation to identify proteins encoded on this fragment. rna homologous to the bglii c fragment directs the synthesis of three proteins with approximate molecular weights of 144,000, 52,000 and 27,000. the 27,000 dalton protein is encoded by sequences within the ecori/hindiii ae fragment (0.419-0.525 mu) that overlap the immortalizing sequences within bglii c. ...19853001010
typing of herpes simplex virus isolates with monoclonal antibodies and by nucleic acid spot hybridization.fifty-one clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (hsv) were typed by an enzyme immunoassay (eia) using mouse monoclonal antibodies, by dna spot hybridization, and by restriction enzyme analysis using restriction endonuclease eco ri. extracts of vero cells infected with the isolates were used for coating microtitre plates or denatured and spotted onto nitrocellulose filters. viral antigens passively adsorbed to microtitre plates were detected by an indirect eia using mouse monoclonal antibodie ...19853001118
detection of herpes simplex virus type 2-specific antibody with glycoprotein g.a recently described herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 (hsv-2)-specific glycoprotein (gg-2) was purified on an immunoaffinity column prepared with monoclonal antibody. this purified antigen was used in an immunodot enzymatic assay on nitrocellulose paper for the detection of hsv-2 antibodies in human serum. the test was very sensitive in that hsv-2 antibodies were detected in the convalescent sera of 132 of 134 patients with recurrent genital infections in which hsv-2 had been isolated earlier. ...19853001136
increased mutation frequency after herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in non-permissive xc cells.the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection on the frequency of mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hgprt) locus was studied in the non-permissive xc cell line. when the cells were infected with 20 to 800 p.f.u./cell, there was initially a lag in cell growth and cell death, but after 4 days there was no difference in growth rate between infected and control cultures. however, the mutation frequency, as determined by the number of 6-thioguanine-resist ...19852981968
herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis in two homosexual men with persistent lymphadenopathy.within a 5-month period, 2 homosexual men with persistent lymphadenopathy developed clinical findings consistent with herpes simplex virus (hsv) encephalitis. these signs included abrupt change in mental status, seizures, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, and localized electroencephalographic abnormalities showing temporal lobe involvement. initial computed tomographic scans were unremarkable. treatment with adenine arabinoside was instituted and temporal lobe biopsies were performed. although vi ...19852983602
risk of recurrence after treatment of first-episode genital herpes with intravenous determine whether intravenous acyclovir treatment for a first episode of genital herpes could prevent or reduce subsequent recurrences, we combined and analyzed the results of two independently conducted, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. sixty-one patients were enrolled in the two trials; 30 received the drug, and 31 received placebo. at entry the demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical features of acyclovir- and placebo-treated patients from the two centers showed no si ...19853001952
herpes simplex virus antigen detection in human acute encephalitis: an immunohistochemical study using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method.autopsy specimens from six patients with clinically diagnosed herpes simplex virus (hsv) encephalitis were studied. since immunocytochemistry has been reported to be a more reliable and successful method to identify hsv as the etiologic agent, antitype 1 hsv (hsv1) and antitype 2 hsv (hsv2) and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (abc) method were applied to brain paraffin sections. positive immunostaining was observed in front-orbital, mediobasal temporal lobes, cingulate gyrus, and insula. th ...19853002087
microcarriers in combination with enzyme immunofiltration and immunofluroescence for the detection of herpes simplex virus antigens in culture.a microcarrier culture system in combination with enzyme immunofiltration with a herpes simplex virus (hsv) group monoclonal antibody was found to be as sensitive as immunofluorescence for the detection of hsv type 1 (hsv-1) in cell cultures and to give specific identification at the same time as the appearance of the cytopathic effect with very high infectious inocula and within 10 to 24 h of the appearance of the cytopathic effect with very high infectious inocula and within 10 to 24 h of the ...19852984242
problems associated with the use of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine for typing herpes simplex virus.when 0.5 microgram of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) per ml was incorporated directly into cell culture medium inoculated with eight known positive specimens, one herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) isolate grew in the presence of bvdu and was misidentified. by plaque assay, the titers of 15 hsv-1 strains were reduced by more than 3 log10 by bvdu, and the titers of 16 hsv-2 strains were reduced by less than 2 log10. titers of hsv-1 acyclovir-resistant strains were reduced by less th ...19852984249
identification and typing of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by monoclonal antibodies, sensitivity to the drug (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine, and restriction endonuclease analysis of viral dna.with development of antiviral drugs, the need to identify a virus as to drug sensitivity becomes increasingly of importance. the compound (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) has been shown to be much more inhibitory to the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and varicella-zoster virus as opposed to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). we have typed over 170 isolates, using an immunofluorescent technique and sensitivity to the drug bvdu. these results were then compared to ...19852984324
comparison of western blot analysis to microneutralization for the detection of type-specific herpes simplex virus antibodies.a newly developed system (as described in the previous paper) employing separated herpes simplex virus (hsv) polypeptides electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose paper, western blot analysis (wba), was compared to microneutralization (mn) for the detection of type-specific antibody to hsv types 1 and 2 in 98 human sera. sera containing hsv1-specific antibodies reacted at least twofold more densely (as quantitated by densitometric scanning) to hsv1 than hsv2 polypeptides, while sera wit ...19852984325
synthesis and antitumor and antiviral activities of a series of 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-5-halocytosine (5-halocytidine) cyclic 3',5'-monophosphates.a series of 1-beta-ribofuranosyl-5-halocytosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphates (1-4) has been prepared. direct halogenation of cytidine 3',5'-monophosphate (ccmp) yielded the cl, br, and i compounds while 5-f-ccmp (1) was obtained on cyclization of the 5'-monophosphate. on in vitro testing of 1-4 against l1210 and p388 leukemias, only 1 showed significant low-level activity (id50 = 3.1 x 10(-4) mmol/l). derivatives 2-4 were inactive at 10(-1) mmol/l and also proved to have low viral ratings against ...19852984417
synthesis and processing of glycoprotein gg of herpes simplex virus type 2.monoclonal antibody 13 alpha c5-1-a11 immunoprecipitated two major polypeptides of molecular weights 108,000 and 120,000 from extracts of herpes simplex virus type 2-infected bhk-21 cells labeled with [35s]methionine or [3h]glucosamine. in pulse-chase experiments, both labels were chased from the 120,000-molecular-weight peptide (120k peptide) into the 108k molecule. endoglycosidase h (endo h) reduced the 120k peptide to a 112k peptide but did not affect the 108k peptide. similar profiles were o ...19852987534
the consensus sequence ygtgttyy located downstream from the aataaa signal is required for efficient formation of mrna 3' termini.our previous dna sequence comparisons of 3' terminal portions from equivalent herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 genes identified a conserved sequence (consensus ygtgttyy; y = pyrimidine) located approximately 30bp downstream from the aataaa signal. we report here that this signal is located downstream from 67% of the mammalian mrna 3' termini examined. using constructions with the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) gene linked to an hsv 'terminator' fragment, we show ...19852987822
prevalence of serum antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: application of an elisa technique to 100 cases of anogenital herpes.sera of 100 patients affected by anogenital herpes were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) technique using partially purified antigens obtained by extraction from the nuclei of infected vero cells. herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) was isolated from the anogenital lesions of 17 patients and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) from 83 patients. the relative proportions of antibody of the igg class to hsv-1 and hsv-2 were determined and their ratio (r) was calculated, except ...19852988144
synthesis and antiviral activity of 11-azapentacyclo[]decane.11-azapentacyclo[]decane (6a) as well as its 6,7-dimethyl derivative 6b was synthesized by a novel, four-step sequence that holds promise for the construction of a variety of cage compounds with bridging nitrogen atoms. the hydrochloride salt of 6a was shown to possess no antiviral activity against either the influenza virus a/victoria/3/75 or the herpes simplex viruses hsv-1 and hsv-2.19852989519
synthesis and biological activities of 2-pyrimidinone nucleosides. 2. 5-halo-2-pyrimidinone 2'-deoxyribonucleosides.1-(2-deoxy-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-5-bromo-2-pyrimidinone (brpdr) and 1-(2-deoxy-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-5-iodo-2-pyrimidinone (ipdr) have been synthesized by condensation of the appropriate silylated bases 2a and 2b, respectively, with 3,5-bis-o-(p-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-alpha-d-ribofuranosyl chloride (8) in 1,2-dichloroethane, in the presence of sncl4, followed by separation of the anomeric blocked nucleosides via column chromatography and subsequent deprotection with methanolic ammonia. both brpd ...19852989522
synthesis and antiherpetic activity of (s)-, (r)-, and (+/-)-9-[(2,3-dihydroxy-1-propoxy)methyl]guanine, linear isomers of 2'-nor-2'-deoxyguanosine.racemic 9-[(2,3-dihydroxy-1-propoxy)methyl]guanine [(+/-)-indg], a new analogue of acyclovir (acv) and a structural analogue of 2'-nor-2'-deoxyguanosine (2'ndg), was synthesized and found to inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2). subsequently, its optical isomers, (r)- and (s)-indg, were prepared from chiral intermediates. the chloromethyl ethers of 1,2-di-o-benzyl-d- and -l-glycerol were made and reacted with tris(trimethylsilyl)guanine to give the 9-alky ...19852989523
analysis of world-wide age-specific data for the association of cervical cancer with infections by herpes simplex virus type incidence data obtained from the scientific literature are used to expand to age-specific incidence rates the observation that the incidence of invasive cervical cancer in many human populations is related to the incidence of infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in the same community. the data for the incidence of the tumor were obtained from international registries. data for prevalence of hsv-2 antibodies were used to evaluate the incidence of past primary infections ...19852989664
development of molecular probes for simian herpesvirus detection.a number of serologic procedures are available for specifically determining past infection due to h. hominis, or h. simiae (b virus). a herpesvirus isolated from primate tissues, however, does not lend itself to specific identification. procedures currently in routine use simply do not provide an unequivocal identification of the isolate. we have previously demonstrated that h. simiae contain polypeptide and glycoprotein antigens distinct from those of other herpesviruses. at selected intervals, ...19852989049
antiherpes effects and pharmacokinetic properties of 9-(4-hydroxybutyl) guanine and the (r) and (s) enantiomers of 9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)guanine.three acyclic guanosine analogs with similar structures, the (r) and (s) forms of 9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)guanine and 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine, were compared for antiherpes activity in vivo and in vitro. the three guanosine analogs were viral thymidine kinase-dependent inhibitors of virus multiplication. in cell cultures, (s)-9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)guanine was the least active of these three drugs against a variety of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) strains. this was also th ...19852990325
analysis of the hsv-2 early ag-4 antigen.genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections can be distinguished from present or past hsv-1 infections by an ag-4 antigen complement fixation assay. the assay which utilizes a 4 hour hsv-2 infected cell extract prepared at a multiplicity of infection (moi) of 1.0 pfu/cell, appears to consist of several viral proteins. studies using monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal rabbit hyperimmune serum, hsv-1 x hsv-2 intertypic recombinant viruses and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggest tha ...19852990385
retrieval of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 genetic information from murine trigeminal ganglia by superinfection with heterotypic virus in vivo.mice previously latently infected with the f strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) can be successfully colonized with a second virus strain if hsv-2 is introduced at the same peripheral site as hsv-1. on the other hand, hsv-1 strains seemed able mutually to exclude establishment of latency with each other. mice (3 months or 3 years after nasal infection) latently infected with hsv-1 were thus superinfected with hsv-2. the mice were sacrificed 2 days post-infection when hsv-2 replication ...19852991439
the effect of triterpenoid compounds on uninfected and herpes simplex virus-infected cells in culture. i. effect on cell growth, virus particles and virus replication.the related triterpenoid compounds carbenoxolone sodium (cbx) and cicloxolone sodium (ccx) have been investigated in clinical trials for treatment of herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections. when the drugs were tested in vitro, two dose-related effects on bhk cells became apparent: the rate of cell growth was reduced and the drugs exhibited cytotoxicity at high concentrations. flow 2002 cells, in contrast, were apparently unaffected by all drug concentrations tested. the effect of up to 3 days inc ...19852991440
drug-resistant mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 with a mutator or antimutator phenotype. 19852991710
metabolism of the carbocyclic analogue of (e)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in herpes simplex virus-infected cells. incorporation of c-ivdu into dna.the carbocyclic analogues of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) and (e)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (ivdu), in which the sugar moiety is replaced by a cyclopentane ring and which have been designated as c-bvdu and c-ivdu, respectively, are, like their parent compounds bvdu and ivdu, potent and selective inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and, to a lesser extent, herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) replication. we have now synthesized the radiolabeled c-ivdu analogue, ...19852993282
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