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ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus (types 1 and 2) infected and uninfected kb cells: properties of the partially purified enzymes.mammalian ribonucleotide reductase is a complex enzyme modified in its activity by a complex regulatory system involving adenosine triphosphate (atp) and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. infection of kb cells with herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 or 2 induces the formation of an altered ribonucleotide reductase. the properties of partially purified reductase from uninfected kb cells have been compared with the enzymes obtained from hsv-1 and hsv-2 infected kb cells. we found that the virus-in ...197718550
measurement of antibodies to herpesvirus types 1 and 2 in human sera by microradioimmunoassay.the binding of 125i-labelled anti-human antibodies against the fc igg fragment to unlabelled antiviral immunoglobulins in the surface of infected cells was used to quantitate antibodies against herpes simplex virus type (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) in sera from patients with cervix carcinoma. the microradioimmunoassay technique (micro-ria) proved to be 5-10 times more sensitive than the microneutralization test. antibody titres determined by micro-ria correlated with neutralizing antibody titres t ...197722235
increased susceptibility to infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 of cold-adapted l cells.l cells (l-as subline) have been adapted to a temperature of 4 degrees c. in the cold-adapted cells, designated lc3, greater amounts of infectious herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) were synthesized than in the original l-as cells or in another control l-cell line. two strains of hsv-1 reached higher infectious titres in lc3 cells grown at 36 degrees c than in those grown at 32 degrees c. the hsv-2 strain tested replicated in lc-3 cells grown at 32 degrees c better than at higher ...197826196
biological effects of 5-carboxy-2'-deoxyuridine: hydrolysis product of 5-trifluoromethyl-2'-deoxyuridine.5-carboxy-2'-deoxyuridine (5-cooh-2'-durd) is a product of the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of 5-trifluoromethyl-2'-deoxyuridine. hydrolysis of 5-trifluoromethyl-2'-deoxyuridine to 5-cooh-2'-durd in phosphate-buffered saline was kinetically first order and was ph dependent. at 37 degrees c and ph 7.0, 7.5, and 8.0, hydrolysis occurred with rate constants of 4.19 x 10(-5), 9.30 x 10(-5), and 1.61 x 10(-4) s(-1), respectively, with corresponding half-lives of 45.7, 20.6, and 11.9 h. 5-cooh-2'-durd in ...197828691
differential feulgen-deoxyribonucleic acid hydrolysis patterns of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infected cells.infection of human embryonic lung cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-2) resulted in: (a) qualitative (nuclear cytopathologic) alterations and quantitative (nuclear area) differences in infected compared to control nuclei; (b) increased feulgen-deoxyribonucleic acid (f-dna) amounts in infected cells, probably due to viral dna; (c) higher f-dna levels in hsv-2 infected cells; and (d) increased rates of f-dna hydrolysis in viral-infected as compared to uni ...197547871
serological and epidemiological considerations of the role of herpes simplex virus type 2 in cervical cancer.to assess the possible biological significance of the observations that women with cervical cancer tend to be younger at first intercourse than control women, data from 1823 women were analyzed for the relationship between age at 1st intercourse and number of sex partners. women who were younger at first intercourse had more sex partners than did women who were older at first intercourse. the interdependence of age at first intercourse and number of sex partners does not exlude the possibility t ...197656227
in vivo and in vitro "markers" of human cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.the human uterine cervix offers a unique opportunity to study the early lesions of squamous cell carcinoma, i.e., carcinoma in situ and dysplasia [combined as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cin)]. in vivo, the patients with cin have the epidemiological common denominators or "markers" of early onset of coitus, multiple sexual partners, 1st delivery before age 20, and antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 more frequently than do controls. the lesions themselves have specific epithelial a ...197658720
expression of an early, nonstructural antigen of herpes simplex virus in cell transformed in vitro by herpes simplex virus.hyperimmune rabbit antiserum to an early, nonstructural herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-induced polypeptide (vp143) reacted in immunofluorescence tests with a variety of cell lines transformed by hsv-2. cytoplasmic fluorescence was observed in 10 to 50% of hsv-2-transformed cells, whereas no fluorescence was observed in cells transformed by other oncogenic dna viruses or by a chemical carcinogen. vp143-specific reactivity could be absorbed from anti-vp143 serum with hsv-2-transformed cells b ...197764626
glycoproteins specified by herpes simplex virus type 1: their synthesis, processing and antigenic relatedness to hsv -2 glycoproteins. 197565316
an immunofluorescence technique with counterstain on fixed cells for the detection of antibodies to human herpesviruses; antibody patterns in patients with hodgkin's disease and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.an indirect immunofluorescence (if) test on fixed cells with evans' blue counterstain is described for all four human herpesviruses, i.e., herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2), varicella-zoster virus (vzv), cytomegalovirus (cmv) and epstein-barr virus (ebv). comparison with immunodiffusion (id) for hsv-2 and with id and complement fixation (cf) for vzv and cmv demonstrated the specificity and high sensitivity of the if test. also introduced is a modification of the anti-compl ...197667099
occurrence of genital herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus infections in pregnancy.a total of 244 pregnant women, 172 in the first and 72 in the third trimester, were screened for genital herpes simplex (hsv) and cytomegalovirus (cmv) infections using virus isolation, cytological examination and serological studies. in addition, immuno-fluorescence staining of exfoliated cervical cells was used for the detection of hsv infections. herpes simplex virus (hsv) could not be isolated and no characteristic hsv altered cells were found in cytological (papa) smears. cytomegalovirus wa ...197767744
detection of herpes simplex virus-related antigens in the nuclei and cytoplasm of biochemically transformed cells with peroxidase/anti-peroxidase immunological staining and indirect immunofluorescence.herpes simplex virus (hsv)-related antigens have been demonstrated in the nuclei and cytoplasm of human and mouse cells biochemically transformed by ultraviolet light-irradiated hsv. this was accomplished by using peroxidase/anti-peroxidase immunological staining and indirect immunofluorescence with rabbit antisera that had high neutralizing titers against the hsv-specific thymidine kinase activity and virus infectivity. hsv-1 antisera reacted with antigens in cells biochemically transformed by ...197771279
elisa for herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies. 197772945
identification of a common antigen of herpes simplex virus bovine herpes mammillitis virus, and b virus.in immunoelectrophoretic analyses one common antigen was demonstrated in antigen preparations from herpes simplex virus types 1- and 2- (hsv-1 and hsv-2), bovine herpes mammillitis (bhm) virus-, and b virus-infected cells solubilized by triton x-100. the antigen was also demonstrated in solubilized purified hsv-1 and bhm virus. the common antigen was identified as antigen 11 of hsv-1 or hsv-2. differences were found in the polypeptide composition of the related antigens when isolated from the fo ...197878988
antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 in husbands of patients with cervical carcinoma. 197879964
type-common cp-1 antigen of herpes simplex virus is associated with a 59,000-molecular-weight envelope glycoprotein.the cp-1 antigen of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) is a glycoprotein found in the soluble portion of infected cells, in detergent extracts of infected cell membranes, and in the envelope of purified virus. antisera were prepared against a further purified form of cp-1 prepared from hsv soluble antigen mix; a glycoprotein, gp52, isolated from detergent-treated infected cells; and detergent extracts of purified virus. each of the antisera reacted with cp-1 to give a single immunoprecipitin ba ...197880458
immunoelectrophoretic identification and purification of herpes simplex virus antigens released from infected cells in tissue culture.proteins released from herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)-and type 2 (hsv-2)-infected hep-2 cells have been characterized by the crossed immunoelectrophoretic technique. both hsv type-common and type-specific antigens were found in the tissue culture medium 24 h after infection. antigen ag-6, an hsv-1-specific antigen, was found in high concentration in the medium as compared to other hsv antigens released from hsv-1-infected cells. the hsv-2-specific antigens, ag-4 and ag-1, were released in m ...197985610
a rapid technique for distinguishing herpes-simplex virus type 1 from type 2 by restriction-enzyme technology.a rapid simplified technique, based on restriction-endonuclease analysis of radioactively labelled d.n.a. is described; it distinguishes herpes-simplex virus type 1 strains from herpes-simplex virus type 2 unambiguously. large numbers of isolates can be screened in 4--5 days.197986095
observations of antigenic relatedness between viruses of the herpes simplex "neutroseron".the antigenic relatedness of three viruses of the herpes simplex type 1 neutroseron - herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) and bovine mammillitis virus (bmv) - has been examined by immune precipitation and virus neutralization tests. many virus-specific infected-cell polypeptides were shown to possess antigenic sites shared by both hsv-1 and hsv-2. cross-neutralization between the viruses is mediated through antibodies to at least two antigenic sites, one shared by hsv-1, hsv-2 and ...197887364
production of monoclonal antibodies against nucleocapsid proteins of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.we prepared mouse hybrid cell lines which produced antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 nucleocapsids. cell lines 1d4 and 3e1, respectively, secreted immunoglobulin g1 herpes simplex virus type 1 and immunoglobulin g1 herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies which immunoprecipitated proteins designated p40 and p45 from homologous nucleocapsid preparations but precipitated no proteins from heterologous preparations. in contrast, guinea pig antisera prepared against either herpes sim ...197991687
detection of herpesvirus type-specific antibody by a micro solid phase radioimmunometric assay.a micro solid phase radioimmunometric assay has been developed which measures type-specific antibody in human sera to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2). the test is performed by coating wells of microtiter plates with purified hsv-specified glycoproteins, vp123 and vp119, derived from hsv-1- and hsv-2-infected cells, respectively. the coated wells are then incubated with diluted unadsorbed sera and subsequently with radioiodinated goat anti-human igg reagent. because these m ...197994044
detection of herpes simplex virus infection of female genitalia by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method alone or in conjunction with the papanicolaou stain.the sensitive peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pxapx) method individually and in conjunction with the papanicolaou (pap) stain was used to detect herpes simplex virus (hsv) in specimens from human female genitalia. initial studies using a model system of hsv-1 or hsv-2-infected vero cells established (i) acetone as the most effective fixative, (ii) optimal dilutions of preimmunization and anti-hsv serum for differentiation of infected from noninfected cells, (iii) optimal concentration of 3,3'-diamino ...197994600
quantitative assay for transformation of 3t3 cells by herpes simplex virus type 2.the interaction of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) with swiss/3t3 cells was investigated. virus-induced cytopathic effects developed in the absence of production of infectious virus. hsv-2 inactivated with uv light (2, 4, 6, and 8 min) also induced cell death in the absence of virus replication. cell death was not detectable after infection by hsv-2 that had been inactivated by uv irradiation for 10, 12, and 14 min. 3t3 cells infected with uv-inactivated virus (10 and 12 m ...1975163369
induction of human cell dna synthesis by herpes simplex virus type 2.the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection on the synthesis of dna in human embryonic fibroblast cells was determined at temperatures permissive (37 c) and nonpermissive (42 c) for virus multiplication. during incubation of hsv-2 infected cultures at 42 c for 2 to 4 days or after shift-down from 42 to 37 c, incorporation of (3h)tdr into total dna was increased 2-to 30-fold as compared with mock-infected cultures. analysis of the (3h)dna suggested that host cell dna synthesis was ...1975163370
variation in susceptibility of different cell types to temperature-sensitive host range mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2. 1975163537
stimulation of human lymphocytes by herpes simplex virus antigens.lymphocytes from individuals with laboratory evidence of prior infection with herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 or type 2 demonstrated transformation (av antigens. higher stimulation indexes were obtained when lymphocytes were incubated with the homologous as compared with the heterologous antigen. higher mean lymphocyte stimulation indexes were also demonstrated in seropositive as compared with seronegative individuals. lymphocytes from children with hsv-1 stomatitis usually became responsive t ...1975163788
spleen cell-mediated cytotoxicity of hamster cells transformed by herpes simplex virus: evidence for virus-specific membrane antigen.the nature of the host's immune response to isografts of hamster embryo fibroblasts (hef) transformed by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) was investigated by the microcytotoxicity assay. it was found that spleen cells from tumor-bearing hamsters killed homologous tumor cells but not hef transformed by cytomegalovirus or para-(defective sv40)-adenovirus 7 (para-7). cytotoxicity was lost as the tumor increased in size. spleen cells from animals bearing isografts of hsv type 2 (hsv-2) transforme ...1975163859
herpes simplex virus microneutralization: a simplification of the test.the herpes simplex virus (hsv) microneutralization test has been simplified; its use has been demonstrated for the identification of hsv isolates as type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2) and for the measurement of antibodies to hsv-1 and hsv-2. in this test, the relation between the neutralization titer and virus input is linear, and thus test results can be expressed as corrected neutralization titers, rather than as the more complex neutralizing potency values previously proposed. by means of this ...1975163870
differential action of deoxynucleosides on mammalian cell cultures infected with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.cytopathic effects induced by eight serologically defined isolates of herpes simplex virus type 2 (tested on human amnion cells) were markedly inhibited by thymidine at a concentration of 5 mm; eight serologically defined isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1, however, were not significantly inhibited. a similar effect was seen with thymidine, deoxyguanosine, and deoxycytidine at 1-mm concentrations in tests with rabbit kidney cultures. the inhibitory effect of thymidine was not blocked by the ...1975163871
temperature-sensitive host range mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2.herpesviruses are capable of several types of infection of a host cell. to investigate the early events which ultimately determine the nature of the virus-host cell interaction, a system was established utilizing temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2. four mutants have been isolated which fail to induce cytopathic effects and do not replicate at 39 c in hamster embryo fibroblast cells. at least one mutant is virus dna negative. since intracellular complementation is detect ...1975163920
antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2-induced nonstructural proteins in women with cervical cancer and in control groups.sera obtained from 15 patients with cervical cancer, 10 patients with breast cancer, and 15 control women, individually matched with the cervical cancer patients, were examined for antibodies to early proteins synthesized in herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected cells. the method used was an indirect radioimmune precipitation test followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of immune precipitates. the relative reactivity to a major early nonstructural protein (vp134) was used ...1975165303
latent infection of sensory ganglia with herpes simplex virus: efficacy of immunization.mice were used to test the efficacy of active immunization in preventing latent infection of local sensory ganglia that follows inoculation of superficial epithelial surfaces with herpes simplex virus. substantial but not complete protection was observed in animals immunized and challenged with herpes simplex virus type 1, but no protection was noted in animals immunized and challenged with herpes simplex virus type 2. latent ganglionic infection can develop in immunized animals despite the pres ...1975166432
polypeptide synthesized in herpes simplex virus type 2-infected hep-2 cells. 1975166500
oncogenic transformation of primary hamster cells by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and an hsv-2 temperature-sensitive mutant.six oncogenically transformed cell lines were obtained following infection of hamster embryo fibroblasts with uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) or with an hsv-2 temperature-sensitive mutant. all lines produced undifferentiated fibrosarcomas in newborn hamsters, four of the six lines produced metastatic tumors in the lung, and sera from tumor-bearing hamsters contained neutralizing antibody to hsv-2. hsv-specific cell-surface antigen (s) was detected by immunogluorescence tests in ...1975166948
antibody patterns to herpesviruses in kaposi's sarcoma: serological association of european kaposi's sarcoma with cytomegalovirus.sera from patients with kaposi's sarcoma (ks) were examined for antibody titres to cytomegalovirus (cmv), epstein-barr virus (ebv) and herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 by four techniques: indirect haemagglutination (iha), complement fixation (cf), virus neutralization (nt) and indirect immunofluorescence (if). the patients were classified, according to the stage of disease, as progressive and regressive. control sera were obtained from healthy adults, matched for age, sex, race, socioeco ...1975166949
in vitro transformation of hamster cells by herpes simplex virus type 2 from human prostatic cancer cells.a cell-associated herpes simplex virus type 2 found in a human prostatic carcinoma induced in vitro transformation of hamster embryo cells. the transformed cells (yw-74) have been shown to be hamster cells by karyotype analysis. their epithelial morphology and growth pattern, which are different from the parental cell, have remained stable through cell passages. the presence of herpesvirus antigens in the transformed cells was determined by specific immunofluorescence and colony inhibition tests ...1975165889
antibodies to herpes simplex virus in jewish women with cervical cancer and in healthy jewish women of israel.herpes simplex virus (hsv) antibody titers were examined in sera from 39 jewish women with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (cacx) and in sera from controls matched by age and country of origin. highly significant differences were found between the cases and controls for both hsv type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv type 2 (hsv-2). compared to findings in other demographic areas, the geometric mean titer (gmt) of hsv-1 among the cacx cases were considerably higher, whereas the gmt for hsv-2 was i ...1975169365
comparison of the virion proteins specified by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.purified herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) virions were found to contain approximately the same number of polypeptides as hsv type 1 (hsv-1) virions. comparisons of the structural proteins specified by five independent hsv-2 isolates revealed some minor differences in their electrophoretic profiles on sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gels; certain invariant features of the electrophoretic profiles, however, allowed clear differentiation between all the hsv-2 isolates and hsv-1.1975171455
induction of cellular dna synthesis by a temperature-sensitive mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2. 1975171835
the fate of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna during abortive infection at 42 degrees c of hyman embryonic lung cells. 1975171852
solid phase radioimmunoassay for typing herpes simplex viral antibodies in human sera.an indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay (ria) was developed for typing antibody to herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) in human sera. the test is based upon absorption of sera with uninfected, hsv-1-infected cells and testing for residual antibody. the high sensitivity of the ria method for detecting hsv antibody permits examination of sera at high dilutions, and thus relatively small volumes of virus-infected cells are required for cross-absorption of antibodies. results ...1975172526
dna polymerase induction by dna-negative temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2. 1975173076
genital herpes simplex virus type 1 infection--variability in modes of spread.ever since the first report in 1967 of the association of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) with urogenital infections, we have noted the occasional isolation of hsv-1 from such sites. our most recent results of the typing of hsv isolates from 527 individuals with urogenital infections show that 10.9% of such infections in females and 3.4% in males are caused by hsv-1. we describe here the acquisition of a primary oral hsv-1 infection in a male after orogenital contact with his wife who had a ...1975173699
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity to target cells infected with type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus.the phenomenon of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytoxicity (adcc) has been extended to include target cells acutely infected with herpes simplex type 1 virus (hsv-1) or herpes simplex type 2 virus (hsv-2) in an in vitro system that employs immune human serum and human blood mononuclear cells. the cytotoxic reaction was detectable after 1 hr of incubation and was complete between 4 and 8 hr. the amount of adcc noted was directly proportional to the logarithm(10) of the effector: target cell ra ...1976173757
dna polymerase in pseudorabies virus infected cells.the dna polymerase activity in bhk 21/c13 cells infected with pseudorabies virus is inhibited by incubation with antiserum to pseudorabies but not by incubation with pre-immune serum or by antiserum to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). it also differs from the cell enzyme and the enzymes in hsv-1 or hsv-2 infected cells in its requirement for kcl in the in vitro assay. it seems likely, therefore, that pseudorabies virus specifies its own dna polymerase.1976173798
a study of the immuno-suppressive activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 and the tumor enhancing potential of the virus on yoshida sarcoma.the relative delays of yoshida sarcoma (ys) tumor induction were used as indicator for the immunosuppressive potential caused by the subcutaneous infection of sprague-dawley rats with approximately 10(7) tcd50 hsv-2. the tumor formation is clearly accelerated and the number of tumors is increased as compared to sham injected rats. the impairment of immunity is at its maximum when the virus and the ys cells are applied simultaneously, whereas virus given after the tumor is of no consequence. the ...1975174048
[seroepidemiological studies related to the association of genital herpes to cervical cancer (author's transl)].blood sera of 290 patients were examined for the presence of antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2): 1. lues - seronegative individuals, 2. patients with specific lues antibodies, and 3. patients with so-called carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. the group of syphilis-seropositive individuals served as control for the group with cervical lesions, because in both groups certain socioepidemiologic factors (promiscuity, early sexual i ...1975174969
deoxycytidine kinase from rabbit kidney cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2.when rabbit kidney cells were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain seibert) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (strain 316d), deoxycytidine kinase (cdr kinase) activity, assayed at 38 degrees, increased 5- to 15-fold relative to controls. the cdr kinase activity induced by type 2 virus was more thermolabile than the enzyme activity induced by type 1 virus. when cdr kinase activity was assayed at various temperatures between 0.5 and 38 degrees, maximum activity for type 1 enzyme was obta ...1976175378
experimental infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 in newborn rats: effects of treatment with iododeoxyuridine and cytosine arabinoside.sprague-dawley rats were inoculated, within 36 hr of birth, with either of two strains of herpes simplex virus type 2. the effects of treatment for five days with either 5-iododeoxyuridine or cytosine arabinoside in near toxic doses were studied. evaluation of treatment based on rate of survival, incidence of lesions, and isolation of virus from the central nervous system showed no appreciable difference between treated and untreated littermates. drug-related effects of retardation of growth and ...1975169311
igm antibody to a tumor-associated antigen (ag-4) induced by herpes simplex virus type 2: its use in location of the antigen in infected cells.rate-zonal centrifugation was used to separate 7s and 19s lg's from sera of patients with cervical cancer and of controls. the lg's were assayed for their ability to recognize ag-4, a tumor-associated antigen, and herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) by various serologic assays including neutralization, immunofluorescence, and complement fixation. these studies indicated that antibody to ag-4 is a macroglobulin; antibody-fixing complement with hsv-2 is a 7s lg. the results of various serologic assays ...1976176392
quantitation of the viral dna present in cells transformed by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus.two cell lines biochemically transformed by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus (hsv) each contain virus dna. a comparison of the kinetics of reassociation of 3h-labeled hsv dna in the presence and absence of either clone 139 (hsv-1 transformed) or clone 207 (hsv-2 transformed) dna showed that the presence of transformed cell dna increased the rate of reassociation of approximately 10% of the viral genome while having no effect on the remaining 90%. the cot1/2 of this reaction was approximately 1 ...1976176444
viral gene functions expressed and detected by temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus.the expression of hsv-specific gene functions by 22 ts mutants of hsv-1 in 15 complementation groups and 8 ts mutants of hsv-2 in 7 complementation groups has been studied at the nonpermissive temperature. four cistrons of hsv-1 and three cistrons of hsv-2 with defects in viral dna and dan polymerase synthesis were identified. dna-mutants of hsv-1 revealed a greater alteration in hsv polypeptide synthesis and viral assembly than dna- mutants of hsv-2. mutants with apparent defects in structural ...1975169028
anal infections caused by herpes simplex virus.herpes simplex infections of the perianal skin and anal canal are not uncommon, as evidenced by the present series of 16 cases, but have rarely been reported in the literature of the past. they are caused by the hsv-2 virus, which is also associated with genital lesions. there is abundant evidence that anogenital herpes is a venereal disease. anal herpes is most commonly transmitted by anal intercourse. when the infection is present inside the anal canal, especially in a primary attack, the pain ...1976176017
electron microscope observations on tubular structures in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2.the fine structure of filamentous structures and lattice-like structures found in herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cells was studied. by specimen tilting experiments, it was demonstrated that the lattice-like structures were the cross-sectional views of the tubular structures and the filamentous structures were the longitudinal sections. the observation in negatively stained preparations of isolated tubular structures revealed that the structure was constructed by regular array of ring shape ...1976176968
[the morphology and some properties of tubular structures found in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (author's transl)]. 1976177343
mutants of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 that are resistant to phosphonoacetic acid induce altered dna polymerase activities in infected cells.three mutants of herpes simplex virus (hsv) have been isolated which form plaques in the presence of 100 mug/ml phosphonoacetic acid (ppa). all three mutants (3 from hsv-1 strain 17 syn+, 14 from hsv-1 strain 17 syn, and 19 from hsv-2) induce viral dna synthesis and viral dna polymerase activity, and these are much less sensitive to ppa than the wild-type virus. the results support the hypothesis that ppa interacts directly with the viral dna polymerase protein, at least part of which is virus c ...1976177727
herpesvirus proteins: dna polymerase and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside kinase activities in temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2.eleven temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 strain hg52 were examined for ability to induce dna polymerase activity in bhk 21/c13 cells. all mutants induced dna polymerase at a permissive temperature, (31 degrees c) and all dna-positive mutants at a non-permissive temperature (38 degrees c). three dna-negative mutants induced no dna polymerase (ts 6, ts 9) or very little dna polymerase (ts 11), at a non-permissive temperature, while ts 1, also dna negative, induced a litt ...1976177730
effects of immunostimulants on resistance of newborn mice to herpes simplex type 2 infection.since age-dependent diminished macrophage function has been related to the increased susceptibility of newborn mice to herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection, the effect of several agents which might activate macrophages or other cells involved in immunity was investigated. bcg, typhoid vaccine, brucella vaccine, levamisole, or staphage lysate were administered to newborn mice prior to challenge with hsv-2. of these agents, only bcg, administered ip or id 6 days prior to challenge, was found to in ...1976177992
herpesvirus type 2-related antigens and their relevance to humoral and cell-mediated immunity in patients with cervical cancer.the central theme of this communication is the interaction of herpes simplex virus type 2 with its host. in addition to the productive infection, we are confronted by latency and, as suggested by recent studies, by cancer. the possible mechanisms of latency and the role it may play as a precursor of carcinogenesis are discussed. if virus is to coexist with its host, a defined level of molecular interaction between host and viral gene products must exist. the association of ag-4 with active tumor ...1976175945
cervical carcinogenesis with herpes simplex virus, type 2.in the past few years there have been a number of reports correlating a high frequency of herpes simplex virus type 2(hsv-2) infection with lesions of the uterine cervix. these studies have used a clinical history of herpetic infection or the demonstration of herpetic antibodies in the cancer patients. the present study was performed to evaluate any possible carcinogenic activity of the formalin-inoculated herpes simplex virus type 2 in the reproductive tract of the female mouse. this approach t ...1975168521
a search for herpes simplex virus type 2 markers in cervical carcinoma.carcinoma of the uterine cervix is now clearly recognized as the second most common malignant disease of women in the united states. epidemiological studies provided the first suggestive evidence that an infectious, venereally transmitted agent was involved in this disease in either a causal or a casual fashion. later cytohistopathological, virological, and seroepidemiological studies confirmed this observation and identified the suspect agent as herpes simplex virus type 2. recently, several la ...1976175943
editorial: herpesvirus and cancer of uterine cervix.frequent coitus with several partners or at a very young age carries the greatest risk of cancer of the uterine cervix. lowest risk is among celibate women and those who live in communities where marriage is stable and where premarital and extramarital coitus is infrequent. all evidence points to the venereal hypothesis of cervical cancer. herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) has been implicated. immunological defenses, oxygen tension, ph, and hormonal changes in the cervical tissues may also ...1976175880
herpes simplex virus dna in transformed cells: sequence complexity in five hamster cell lines and one derived hamster tumor.analyses of the hybridization kinetics of labeled herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) dna with dna from five hamster cell lines transformed by uv light-irradiated hsv-2 revealed the following. (i) viral dna sequences were detected in all five cell lines tested. (ii) none of the cell lines contained the full complement of hsv-2 dna. (iii) the amount of viral dna present in the cells varied in different transformed cell lines and ranged from 8 to 32% of the hsv-2 dna genome in 1 to 3 copies/cell. (iv) ...1976178927
human ecto- and endocervical epithelial cells as targets for herpes simplex type two infection in vitro.an in vitro method was used to compare the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) susceptibility of human ecto- and endocervical epithelial cells as well as the induced cellular alterations. hsv2 caused a productive infection and morphological alterations both in ecto- and endocervical epithelial cells, but the cytopathogenicity, virus production and development of hsv2 antigens showed a greater sensitivity of ectocervical cells to hsv2 infection. the cytopathogenicity and production of infectious v ...1976175640
[recurrent neonatal herpetic infection: isolation of herpes simplex virus type 2]. 1975179230
prospective double-blind evaluation of topical adenine arabinoside in male herpes progenitalis.thirty-four virologically proven episodes of herpes progenitalis in 32 men were treated in a prospective double-blind study with either adenine arabinoside ointment or an identical-appearing placebo for 7 days. clinical evaluation and quantitative virological studies were done on days 1, 3, and 8. there was a highly significant correlation between clinical response and quantitative virology. there was no difference in clinical or virological response between drug and control groups. primary atta ...1975174489
herpes simplex virus type 2 and acute aseptic meningitis. clinical features of cases with isolation of herpes simplex virus from cerebrospinal fluids.herpes simplex virus (hsv) was recovered from the cerebrospinal fluids (csf) of 10 patients with acute aseptic meningitis. hsv type 1 was isolated from the csf of a 6-month-old boy. the other 9 hsv isolates from csf were from adults in the age-group 15 to 29 years; 7 of these isolates were available for typing and were identified as hsv type 2. in a further 9 patients with acute aseptic meningitis and belonging to the same age-group a hsv infection was suggested by a significant titre rise in co ...1975174191
clonal derivatives of a herpes type 2 transformed hamster cell line (333-8-9): cytogenetic analysis, tumorigenicity and virus sequence detection.the characteristics of the syrian hamster cell line (333-8-9), putatively transformed by herpes virus type 2 (hsv-2), strain 333, have been examined. the line has been cloned and the clones characterized cytogenetically and morphologically. the original line and the clones have been assayed for tumorigenicity and for the presence of herpes-virus-specific nucleic acid sequences using in situ hybridization with 125i hsv-2 dna. the line 333-8-9 is hyperdiploid with a mode of 49 chromosomes and cont ...1976179958
comparison of herpes simplex virus isolates using a quantitative selection assay for transformation.transformation potential of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) was quantitatively compared in a system selecting for biochemical transformants. the highest frequency of transformation was obtained with hsv-2 strain 333. the transformation rates for two strains of hsv-1 were lower and distinctly different from hsv-2 and from each other. the dose of inactivating ultraviolet light received by the virus and the multiplicity of infection proved to be critical components of the proce ...1975179966
effect of adeno-associated virus on cancer expression by herpesvirus-transformed hamster cells.infection of herpes simplex virus type-2-transformed hamster tumor cells with adeno-associated virus type 1 before inoculation into hamsters specifically delayed the appearance of palpable tumors and increased the survival time of the animals. the data indicated that a defective virus of humans can influence cancer expression by a virus-transformed cell.1975171433
histocompatibility types and viral antibodies.serum neutralizing (nt) antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2), and histocompatibility (hl-a) types, were determined in multiple sclerosis (ms) patients and in control subjects. titers of nt antibodies to hsv-1 and to hsv-2 were increased among subjects bearing hl-a3 or hl-a7 or both, whether they suffered from ms or not. the increases were statistically significant in the ms group. the ms and control groups did not differ significantly in levels of hsv-1 or hsv-2 n ...1976180933
in vivo characteristics of temperature-sensitive host range mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2.the in vivo properties of four host range temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) were correlated with known in vitro characteristics. mutants and parental virus were inoculated into newborn and weanling mice and weanling hamsters by intracranial and subcutaneous routes, and into weanling rabbits by corneal scarification. in all cases the pattern of attenuation of mutants in vivo correlated with their stability in vitro at 39 degrees. the most attenuated mutant ...1975171235
the epidemiology and interrelationship of cervical dysplasia and type 2 herpesvirus in a low-income housing project.this report examines the association between cervical dysplasia and herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in a low-income housing project, atlanta, georgia. we established a clinic in this project at which women could receive a breast examination and papanicolaou smear and have blood drawn to be tested for herpesvirus type 2 antibodies. prevalence of herpesvirus rose sharply as age increased. there was a significant absence of antibodies in young, nulliparous women. dysplasia showed a tendency ...1975170825
optimal cooling and warming rates in the preservation of herpes simplex virus (type 2).fast rates of cooling and warming were optimal for survival of herpes simplex virus, type 2. under these conditions cryoprotectants were not necessary for virus preservation.1975170319
transformation of mouse cells after infection with ultraviolet irradiation-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2.a transformed mouse cell line (h238) was obtained following the infection of 238 mouse cells with ultraviolet (uv) irradiation-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). the transformed cells produced tumors with a 100% incidence within 8 weeks in 6-week-old syngeneic balb/c mice at an inoculum of 1 times 10(6). indirect immunofluorescence (if) tests revealed the presence of hsv antigens in the transformed cells. antibodies to hsv-2 were found in the sera of tumor-bearing animals by neutra ...1975170223
effect of zinc ions on synthesis of herpes simplex virus type 2-induced polypeptides. 1976181763
cellular transformation in vitro induced by herpes simplex virus (hsv). note iii. oncogenicity of some hsv-2-transformed cell lines.at high in vitro passage levels hsv-2-transformed hamster and rat cell lines were oncogenic for the homologous animals, inducing fusocellular or round-cell sarcomas. the cell lines obtained by in vitro cultivation of the tumors were free of infectious virus.1976181902
[the present status of the theory of induction of carcinoma of the cervix in man by herpes virus (author's transl)].a large body of evidence has accumulated during the past decade suggesting that hsv-2 infection of the cervix may be a major precursor of cervical carcinoma. a brief review of the more significant findings to date is presented.1975170159
letter: herpes simplex virus 2, (hsv2) as the carcinogen in cancer of the cerivx. 1975169222
persistent herpes simplex virus infections established in two burkitt lymphoma derived cell lines.examination of p3hr-i cells (epstein-barr virus [ebv] producer) persistently infected with the mal strain of herpes simplex virus type i (hsv-i) suggested that only a few cells were actively producing a virus indistinguishable from hsv-i (mal) despite the presence of immunofluorescent hsv-i antigens associated with the majority of cells. ebv-specific immunofluorescence was not altered in hsv-i persistently infected p3hr-i cells. hsv-i persistently infected cells, labelled for 72 h with 14c-thymi ...1976182914
dna-binding proteins induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 in hep-2 cells.affinity chromatography on single-stranded and double-stranded dna-cellulose indicates that 12 proteins previously identified from herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cells, ranging in molecular weight from 28 x 10(3) to 186 x 10(3), bind to dna-cellulose. the dna-binding proteins found in infected cells differed in relative binding strengths for denatured dna-cellulose. the virus specificity of these dna-binding proteins was further studied by comparison with dna-binding proteins isolated from ...1976183021
pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in mice after various routes of inoculation.the pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 was compared after inoculation of mice by different routes. intravaginal inoculation of hsv-1 and hsv-2 produced a local infection, with virus recovery from the vagina through 5 days. virus was recovered from the spinal cords 4 to 5 days after inoculation but not from liver, kidney, lung, spleen, or blood. intravenous or intraperitoneal inoculation of hsv-2 produced a focal necrotic hepatitis similar to that described previously (s. c. ...1976184048
tumor antigens in hamsters with sarcomas associated with herpesvirus type 2.tumor-associated antigens (tta) were demonstrated in preparations of hamster sarcomas associated with herpes simplex virus type 2, as well as in the sera of tumor-bearing hamsters. an immunoadsorption-in-gel method was employed to demonstrate and purify the taa and anti-taa. these results suggest the potential use of this technique for the demonstration of taa or of anti-taa in humans or animals with cancer.1975165539
demonstration of oncogenic potential of mammalian cells transformed by dna-containing viruses following photodynamic inactivation.the oncogenic properties of hamster embryo cells transformed by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) and sv40 virus following photodynamic inactivation using neutral red were determined by subcutaneous inoculation into newborn syrian hamsters. cells transformed by all three viruses produced palpable tumors after different latent periods. histopathological examination showed that hsv-2 tumors were fibrosarcomas and metastases were often seen in the lungs. hsv-2 primary tumors we ...1975165153
differential sensitivity of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to human interferon: antiviral effects of interferon plus 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine.with use of a standard assay for antiviral compounds, in which the compound to be tested is added after absorption of virus, the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) of human interferon for several strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is five to 10 times greater than it is for two strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). this differential susceptibility of hsv types to interferon is found whether tests are done with a liquid overlay and microtiter plates or with agarose overlay ...1976185303
comparative diagnostic aspects of herpes simplex virus tumor-associated antigens.sera from cancer patients and healthy individuals, obtained from two independent sources, were examined for their abilities to react with herpes simplex virus-associated tumor antigens, ag-4 and nva-taa (nonvirion antigen-tumor-associated antigen). both antigens were prepared by infection of hep-2 cells with herpes simplex virus type 2, and all antigen-antibody interactions were measured by the micro-complement fixation test. of sera from 16 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix, 81% (p les ...1976185398
consequences of herpes simplex virus type 2 and human cell interaction at supraoptimal temperatures.the consequences of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and human embryonic fibroblast cell interaction at different temperatures (37, 40, and 42 degrees c) were investigated. incubation at 37 or 40 degrees c was permissive for hsv-2 inhibition of host dna synthesis, induction of virus-specific dna replication, and infectious virus production. the amount of [methyl-3h]thymidine incorporated into viral dna and the final yield of new infectious virus were significantly reduced at 40 degrees c comp ...1976185418
herpes simplex virus gene expression in transformed cells. i. regulation of the viral thymidine kinase gene in transformed l cells by products of superinfecting virus.in this paper we show that the expression of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) gene for thymidine kinase (tk) in hsv-transformed cells is subject to regulation by two viral products synthesized during productive infection of these cells with a tk- mutant of hsv-1. the cell line used in this study is a derivative of tk-deficient mouse l cells that, after exposure to uv-inactivated hsv-1, had acquired the hsv-1 gene for tk (which we term a resident viral gene) and consequently expressed the ...1976185425
enzymatic basis for the selective inhibition of varicella-zoster virus by 5-halogenated analogues of deoxycytidine.5-bromodeoxycytidine (brdc) and 5-iododeoxycytidine, at a concentration of 100 mug/ml, effectively inhibit the replication of varicella-zoster (vz) virus in tissue culture. no toxicity could be demonstrated in uninfected cells under the same conditions. studies on the enzymatic basis for this selective inhibition were undertaken. infection of human embryonic lung cell monolayers with vz virus-infected cells results in the induction of thymidine (dt), deoxycytidine (dc), and brdc kinase activitie ...1976185427
oculogenital transmission of type 2 herpes simplex virus in adults.type 2 (genital) herpes simplex virus (hsv-2) was isolated from three patients (two adults and an 11-year-old girl) with acute ocular infections. two of these patients had acute blepharoconjunctivitis and one had acute keratoconjunctivitis. genital herpes infections had preceded the eye infections in the two adults. this was not the case in the 11-year-old, but she had been in close contact with her sister who had apparently had the genital disease. the study strongly suggests transmission of hs ...1976185732
type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus in corneal cell cultures.the pathogenicity of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in primary cultures of epithelia, stromal, and endothelial cells of rabbit corneas was studied at various incubation temperatures (30 degrees, 36 degrees, and 40 degrees c). we tested three strains each of type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2). at all three temperatures, the epithelial cells appeared to be more susceptible to both hsv-1 and hsv-2 than the stromal and endothelial cells. in general, less hsv-1 was requered than hsv-2 to infect the same t ...1976185735
a new method for the isolation of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna. 1976185791
deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools in synchronized human cells infected with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools in uninfected and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)- and hsv-2-infected kb cells were analyzed to determine whether ribonucleotide reductase functions in vivo in the presence and absence of thymidine (tdr). previously we showed that hsv-2 replication was inhibited in kb cells blocked in their capacity to synthesize dna by tdr. hsv-1 replication was not inhibited under these conditions. both hsv-1 and hsv-2 induced an altered ribonucleotide reductase resis ...1976176471
quantitative cytophotometry evaluated as a method for analyses of herpes simplex viral deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis.feulgen deoxyribonucleic acid (f-dna) microspectrophotometry was evaluated as a potential tool for quantification of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and 2(hsv-2) dna synthesis in single cells. since hsv dna synthesis has been extensively studied using incorporation of radioactive precursors into viral and cellular dna, microspectrophotometric measures were correlated with biochemical data obtained using tritium-labeled thymidine ([3h]tdr). it was established that: (i) viral-induced increaae ...1976178608
effect of cross-immunization on monotypic antibody responses to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.new zealand white rabbits were immunized subcutaneously with partially purified uv-inactivated preparations of herpes simplex virus (hsv-1 or hsv-2) in complete freund's adjuvant. after the initial immunizations, designated groups of animals received additional amounts of either hsv-1 or hsv-2 at 35-day intervals. sera were absorbed with lysates of cells infected with heterotypic virus and the residual monotypic antibodies were detected by 51cr-release assay using hsv-infected target cells. a po ...1976176275
potentiation of an adenovirus-associated virus by herpes simplex virus type-2-transformed cells.the herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2)-transformed cell line 333-8-9 was inoculated with adeno-virus-associated virus type 3 (aav-3) and examined by immunofluorescent (fa) techniques for evidence of aav-3 antigen synthesis. antisera prepared against the three sodium dodecyl sulfate-dissociated structural polypeptides (vp-1, vp-2, and vp-3) of aav-3 and against the whole aav-3 virion were used as probes to search for aav-3 fa-stainable antigens synthesized by these cells. the 333-8-9 cells inocu ...1975163319
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus type 2 infected target cells in the course of cervical carcinoma.the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (adcc) assay was used as a sensitive instrument to study if specific antibodies acting synergistically with lymphocytes to induce target cell destruction, could be detected in sera from patients with cervical carcinoma. significant cytotoxicity to herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) infected target cells was observed in sera of 17 out of 23 (74%) surviving patients with cervical cancer who were followed with at least two serum samples. a rise in cytoly ...1978101081
plaque dissociation of herpes simplex viruses: biochemical and biological characters of the viral variants.polycaryocytogenic (p) and non-polycaryocytogenic, or aggregating (a), stable variants were selected from a herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and from a herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2) which had not been deliberately exposed to known mutagenic agents. the p variant of hsv-1 (fp) differed from the a variant (fa) in polypeptides and glycoprotein patterns, but no gross differences were evident between the two variants of hsv-2 (gp and ga). each p variant proved more 'specific' than each a var ...1975186433
replication of herpes simplex virus in mouse spleen cell cultures stimulated by lipopolysaccharide.replication of hsv was demonstrated in spleen cell cultures of d2 and several other strains of mice after prestimulation with mitogenic doses of lps for 2 days. no viral replication occurred in unstimulated cultures or in cultures prestimulated with pha and con a, whereas there was some viral replication in spleen cell cultures of d2 mice after prestimulation with poly i-c. spleen cells of b6 mice did not support replication of hsv under any of the conditions we have tested thus far. the reasons ...1976186534
microfluorometric quantitation of size, deoxyribonucleic acid and viral antigenic determinants in cells productively infected with hsv-2.the interaction of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) with the eukaryotic human cell line (hep-2) was investigated by flow microfluorometric analysis. the three parameters that were quantitated include cell size, deoxyribonucleic acid content and the expression of virus-specific antigens. productively infected cells are always smaller than uninfected ones, and they resolve into two populations with respect to viral antigenic content. consistent with viral replication, one of these two populatio ...197994525
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