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detection of sheep pox virus multiplication in sheep thyroid cells by acridine orange staining. 197772044
[adaptation and cultivation of the perego strain of ovine smallpox virus in tissue culture and an evaluation of its immunogenic properties].the strain perego of the sheep pox virus, used for the production of the ovinized vaccine in this country, was adapted and cultured in tissue cultures of lamb testes. a total of ten passages in succession of the virus were performed with the manifestation of a characteristic cytopathic effect in the cultures. the titer of the virus was found to be within the range of 10(3.5)cpe50, for the initial passages, to 10(4.5)cpe50, for the final passages. the activity and harmlessness of the virus was te ...1975173075
cultivation of sheep pox virus on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryo. 1978205986
[culture of the sheep pox virus on cells: application to vaccination and immunity control]. 1978213823
a new freeze-dried living virus vaccine against sheep-pox.a sheep-pox virus strain has been adapted and multiplied in primary lamb kidney cell cultures. the main characteristics of the strain have been verified in vitro after clones were isolated, and the results confirmed its identity. the safety and the potency of the strain have been investigated in sheep. the inoculation of the strain to sheep was followed by a post-vaccinal reaction materialised by a nodule at the site of inoculation and an increase of temperature by about 1 degree c. no reactions ...1979233780
structural proteins of sheep pox virus : analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 1978750468
[cultivation and study of the properties of the perego strain of the sheep poxvirus on heterologous tissue].strain perego of the sheep pox virus, after 11 passages in lamb testis cultures, was successfully adapted and cultivated in 10 successive passages in a heterologous tissue--secondary cultures of newborn calf kidney. the infected cultures produced a cytopathic effect similar to that observed in a homologous culture, the difference being that part of the degenerated cells came off from the wall of the flask. at the level of its 10th passage the virus exhibited a titer of 10(3)cpe50. the virus was ...19761025839
enhanced production of antibody with specific antigen.on inoculation of nonspecific stimulator of immunity (nsi), prepared from mycobacterium phlei (m. phlei), simultaneously along with sheep pox virus (spv) in sheep, the recipient has exhibited appreciable level of spv specific antibody as early as on 10th day which reached at peak level on 20th day and remained unaltered on 30th day of postimmunisation as evinced by serum neutralisation test (snt), enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (elisa) indirect, fluorescent antibody technique (fat) indirect, ...19921325943
isolation of sheep pox virus from a lamb in niger. 19911645483
orf: case report and literature review.ecthyma contagiosum, or orf, is an uncommon dermatosis resulting from cutaneous infection with sheep pox virus. it is generally a benign and self-limited condition. early clinical recognition is paramount to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention or extensive diagnostic workup. diagnosis is usually based on a clinically typical skin lesion, characteristic histology, and a history of sheep exposure. we report the case of an infected sheep farmer and review the literature.19911752035
a comparison of genomes of sheep pox virus isolates.sheep pox virus dnas from field isolates and vaccine strains were analysed by digestion with the restriction enzymes psti and bam hi. the restriction profiles generated by these enzymes show very close relationship between isolates from different geographical regions. the patterns of isolates can be grouped by the animal of origin (e.g. a cattle pox isolate can be differentiated from sheep pox isolate). the molecular weights of the genomes of different isolates varied from 91 to 94 mda. the rest ...19892576753
evolving of live modified sheep pox virus strains: evaluation of immunological responses. 19863021621
characterization of a sheep pox virus attenuated in cell culture. 19863026123
comparison of the external dimensions of capripoxvirus isolates.no significant difference was found between the external dimensions of the m forms of isolates of sheep pox virus from nigeria, sheep and goat pox virus from kenya and lumpy skin disease virus from south africa. earlier reports that isolates of capripoxvirus can be distinguished by their relative sizes could not be substantiated.19863809738
cytopathogenicity and neutralisation of sheeppox virus in primary cell culture of ovine and caprine origin. 19704099994
an autoradiographic and immunofluorescent study of the infectious cycle of sheeppox virus in cell cultures exposed to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine. 19684237003
[electron microscopic study of the morphogenesis of sheep pox virus in tissue cultures]. 19715169027
agglutination test for sheeppox virus using antiglobulin. 19675299944
study of sheeppox virus synthesis by fluorescent antibody technique. 19675340997
studies on sheep pox virus. i. adaptation and propagation of the virus in cell culture. 19695389783
studies on sheep pox virus. ii. immune and antibody response with cell culture adapted virus. 19695393511
studies on the immunogenic properties of tissue-culture sheep pox virus. 19655894137
propagation of sheeppox virus in cell culture. 19826127021
antigenic relationships among sheep pox, goat pox and contagious pustular dermatitis viruses.antigenic relationships among sheep pox, goat pox and contagious pustular dermatitis (cpd) viruses were determined by serological techniques using soluble antigens partially purified by deae-cellulose chromatography. homologous antigen-antibody reactions were characterized by the presence of 7 precipitation lines with sheep pox and of 5 ones each with goat pox and cpd viruses. the nature of cross-reactions of sheep pox, goat pox and cpd virus soluble antigens with corresponding sera suggested th ...19846151351
preliminary characterization of sheep immunoglobulins against sheep pox virus. 19806156896
cutaneous hypersensitivity in sheep injected with sheep pox virus soluble antigens. 19806161502
susceptibility of various cell culture systems to sheep pox virus strains. 19846480050
immunogenicity of sheep pox virus propagated in sheep kidney tissue culture cells. 19836662556
[multiplication of sheep-pox virus in cultured fetal sheep kidney cells]. 19816792998
adaptation of jaipur strain of sheeppox virus in primary lamb testicular cell culture. 19817287068
plaque formation by sheep pox virus adapted to lamb kidney cell culture. 19807390567
immunohistochemical detection of antigen in lamb tissues naturally infected with sheeppox virus.the present study describes the detection of sheeppox virus antigen in various lamb tissues, using an immunohistochemical technique, in sheeppox cases which occurred naturally. sheeppox viral antigen was detected in the cytoplasm of sheeppox cells and degenerated epithelial cells of the skin, lungs and digestive tract involving typical sheeppox lesions. nuclear staining was also observed in some typically deformed nuclei of sheeppox cells. the immunostaining of sheeppox virus showed a correlatio ...200010829571
the genomes of sheeppox and goatpox viruses.sheeppox virus (sppv) and goatpox virus (gtpv), members of the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae, are etiologic agents of important diseases of sheep and goats in northern and central africa, southwest and central asia, and the indian subcontinent. here we report the genomic sequence and comparative analysis of five sppv and gtpv isolates, including three pathogenic field isolates and two attenuated vaccine viruses. sppv and gtpv genomes are approximately 150 kbp and are strikingly similar t ...200212021338
[study of the phenomenon of sensitization of the sheep-pox virus]. 195513324592
[culture of the sheep pox virus on tissue cultures]. 195713427224
[experimental studies of antibodies neutralizing sheep pox virus]. 195613433065
[sheep pox virus cultured in vitro on testicular cells of the domestic sheep]. 195713510343
[growth curves of sheep pox virus cultured in vitro on testicular cells of the domestic sheep]. 195713510344
the growth and cytopathogenicity of sheep-pox virus in tissue cultures. 195813572731
[study of the biological properties of cultural variants of sheep pox virus]. 196313982577
[adaptation of the sheep pox virus to kem-la tissue cultures]. 196313982578
a classical live attenuated vaccine for sheep pox.a classical live attenuated sheep pox vaccine was prepared using the ranipet strain of sheep pox virus (spv) at the 50th passage in a secondary lamb testicular cell system. the tcid50 and rd50 were 10(9.63)/ml and 10(9.51)/ml. respectively. the sid50 of spv challenge virus was 10(5)/ml. the vaccine was found to have no adverse effects in laboratory animals, and was safe and effective in spv seronegative lambs. in the field, 660 sheep were vaccinated with an immunizing dose containing 1 x 10(2) t ...200415241965
trials for preparation of inactivated sheep pox vaccine using binary ethyleneimine.binary ethyleneimine (bei) was used to inactivate the local egyptian strain of sheep pox virus. the inactivation process was applied using final concentrations of bei at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3% for different incubation periods at 37 degrees c. the virus was completely inactivated after 7 hours incubation with by 2% bei final concentration; the inactivated virus was adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide gel when incubated for 6 hours in a concentration 1:1. the antibody levels were estimated by virus neutrali ...200315719613
the current status of sheep pox disease.sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. the causative agent, sheep p ...200616458357
[differentiation of capripoxvirus species and strains by polymerase chain reaction].a fast and simple method for capripoxvirus species identification has been developed. the method is based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mpcr) with species-specific primers and does not require nucleotide sequencing or restriction analysis of pcr products. to differentiate vaccine stains used in russia and countries of the former soviet union from epizootic isolates of sheep pox virus, a method based on restriction analysis of the ankyrin-repeat protein gene fragment amplified by pcr ha ...200616523702
protective immune responses induced by different recombinant vaccine regimes to rift valley fever.the glycoprotein (gp) and nucleocapsid (nc) genes of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) were expressed in different expression systems and were evaluated for their ability to protect mice from virulent challenge using a prime-boost regime. mice vaccinated with a lumpy skin disease virus-vectored recombinant vaccine (rlsdv-rvfv) expressing the two rvfv glycoproteins (g1 and g2) developed neutralising antibodies and were fully protected when challenged, as were those vaccinated with a crude extract of ...200616870311
a sheeppox virus outbreak in central turkey in 2003: isolation and identification of capripoxvirus ovis.poxvirus epidemics occur almost every year and cause significant economic losses for small-scale animal producers in turkey. in this study, the causative agent of the most recent epidemic in central anatolia was detected in clinical samples using electron microscopy (em) and amplified using an in house polymerase chain reaction procedure for the first time. additionally, the aetiological agent was isolated from a sheep and identified using em and pcr.200617139549
rapid preclinical detection of sheeppox virus by a real-time pcr assay.sheeppox virus (sppv) is a member of the capripoxvirus (capv) genus of the poxviridae family. members of this genus, which also include goatpox and lumpy skin disease viruses, cause economically significant disease in sheep, goats, and cattle. a rapid diagnostic assay for capv would be useful for disease surveillance as well as for detection of capv in clinical samples and for outbreak management. here we describe a fluorogenic probe hydrolysis (taqman) pcr assay designed for rapid detection of ...200818032617
cell culture adapted sheeppox virus as a challenge virus for potency testing of sheeppox vaccine.sheeppox virus from an outbreak of sheeppox that occurred in srinagar (jammu and kashmir, india) in 2000 was isolated by inoculation of susceptible sheep and further re-isolated in cell culture. the field virus, adapted to grow in lamb testes culture, was evaluated for its potential use as challenge virus in potency testing of sheeppox vaccine currently in use. the virus (passage 6) produced severe disease in susceptible sheep when inoculated subcutaneously with a dose of 106.2 tcid50. the virus ...200819024165
detection of antibodies against capripoxviruses using an inactivated sheeppox virus elisa.an indirect elisa was developed to detect antibodies specific for capripoxviruses in goat, sheep and cattle sera. heat-inactivated nigerian sheeppox virus was used as the elisa antigen. sera obtained from sheep and goats that were experimentally infected with different capripoxvirus isolates were used to develop and evaluate the sensitivity of the elisa. virus neutralization indexes were determined for the experimental sera in oa3.ts cells. the specificity of the elisa was determined using 231 s ...200919281604
detection of antibodies specific for sheeppox and goatpox viruses using recombinant capripoxvirus antigens in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.viruses in the genus capripoxvirus, family poxviridae, cause sheeppox, goatpox and lumpy skin disease, which are the most serious poxvirus diseases of production animals. despite the considerable threat that these viruses pose to livestock production and global trade in sheep, goats, cattle and their products, convenient and effective serodiagnostic tools are not readily available. to develop a more effective antibody detection capability, selected open reading frames from capripoxvirus dna were ...200919426763
a description of two outbreaks of capripoxvirus disease in mongolia.mongolia had no reported cases of capripoxvirus disease from 1977 until an outbreak of sheeppox in 2006-2007 and then goatpox in 2008. the two outbreaks occurred in geographically distant areas of mongolia and, most strikingly, were highly species-specific. the 2006-2007 sheeppox outbreak affected no goats and the 2008 goatpox outbreak affected no sheep despite communal herding. the diseases were diagnosed using the polymerase chain reaction and virus neutralisation test. the p32 gene of the mon ...201019939588
sheep pox virus induces proliferation of type ii pneumocytes in the lungs.the present study investigated the expression of pulmonary surfactant proteins (surfactant protein [sp]-a, sp-b, prosp-c), thyroid transcription factor-1 (ttf-1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) and the infiltration of cd3(+) t and cd79alphacy(+) b lymphocytes into the lungs of 10 lambs naturally infected with sheep pox virus. microscopical examination detected marked epithelial hyperplasia, sheep pox cells and neutrophilic infiltration in pock nodules. immunohistochemistry demonstrate ...201020181359
status of sheep sera to bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants and sheep pox in a few northern states of india.bluetongue (bt), peste des petits ruminants (ppr) and sheep pox are the most economically important viral diseases of sheep in india. serum samples obtained from sheep in five northern states of the country were screened for antibody against these agents to explore the extent of spread of these infections. a total of 516 serum samples were screened for the presence of antibodies against bt and ppr viruses. of these, 155 samples were also tested for antibodies against sheep pox virus. bt antibodi ...200820405449
development of a recombinant epsilon toxoid vaccine against enterotoxemia and its use as a combination vaccine with live attenuated sheep pox virus against enterotoxemia and sheep pox.sheep pox and enterotoxemia are important diseases of sheep, and these diseases cause severe economic losses to sheep farmers. the present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of formaldehyde-inactivated recombinant epsilon toxin as a vaccine candidate. the potency of the recombinant epsilon toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant in sheep was determined. vaccinated sheep were protected against enterotoxemia, with potency values of >5 iu being protective. further, the use of this ...201020427629
serodiagnosis of sheeppox and goatpox using an indirect elisa based on synthetic peptide targeting for the major antigen p32.sheeppoxvirus (sppv), goatpoxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) of cattle belong to the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae family and can cause significant economic losses in countries where they are endemic. despite the considerable threat that these viruses pose to livestock production and global trade in sheep, goats, cattle and their products, convenient and effective serodiagnostic tools are not readily available. toward this goal, two synthetic peptides corresponding to th ...201020854693
real time pcr method for simultaneous detection, quantitation and differentiation of capripoxviruses.the genus capripoxvirus (capv) comprises three members namely, sheep poxvirus (sppv), goat poxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) affecting sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. capv infections produce similar symptoms in sheep and goats, and the three viruses cannot be distinguished serologically. since there are conflicting opinions regarding the host specificity of capvs, particularly for goatpox and sheeppox viruses, the development of rapid genotyping tools will facilitate mor ...201021029751
use of the capripoxvirus homologue of vaccinia virus 30 kda rna polymerase subunit (rpo30) gene as a novel diagnostic and genotyping target: development of a classical pcr method to differentiate goat poxvirus from sheep poxvirus.sheep poxvirus (sppv), goat poxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) are capripoxviruses (capvs) responsible for causing severe poxvirus disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. serological differentiation of capvs is not possible and strain identification has relied on the implicitly accepted hypothesis that the viruses show well defined host specificity. however, it is now known that cross infections can occur and authentication of identity based on the host animal species ...201021115310
emerging capripoxvirus disease outbreaks in himachal pradesh, a northern state of india.both sheep and goat pox are contagious viral diseases and affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus capripoxvirus of poxviridae family. huge economic losses emanating from the disease outbreaks are the results of the wool and hide damage, subsequent production losses and also the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disease. this communication highlights clinico-epidemiological observations from the two sheep pox and ...201021214867
sequence analysis of attachment gene of lumpy skin disease and sheep poxviruses.in egypt, protection of cattle against lumpy skin disease (lsd) was carried out using a sheep poxvirus (kenyan strain) vaccination strategy. in the present study 15 skin nodules from lsd suspected cows and 5 scab samples from sheep pox (sp) suspected sheep were collected. hyperimmune rabbit sera to lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv)/ismailyia88 strain and sheep pox virus (spv)/ kenyan vaccinal strain were prepared. the causative agent in the collected samples was identified using immunoflourescence ...201021221919
comparative analysis of poxvirus orthologues of the vaccinia virus e3 protein: modulation of protein kinase r activity, cytokine responses, and virus pathogenicity.poxviruses are important human and animal pathogens that have evolved elaborate strategies for antagonizing host innate and adaptive immunity. the e3 protein of vaccinia virus, the prototypic member of the orthopoxviruses, functions as an inhibitor of innate immune signaling and is essential for vaccinia virus replication in vivo and in many human cell culture systems. however, the function of orthologues of e3 expressed by poxviruses of other genera with different host specificity remains large ...201121917954
phylogenetic analysis of chinese sheeppox and goatpox virus isolates.abstract: background: sheeppox virus (sppv) and goatpox virus (gtpv), members of the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae family are causative agents of sheep pox and goat pox respectively, which are important contagious diseases and endemic in central and northern africa, the middle and far east, and the indian sub-continent. both sheep pox and goat pox can cause wool and hide damage, and reduce the production of mutton and milk, which may result in significant economic losses and threaten th ...201222264255
differentiation of sheeppox and goatpox viruses by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.in the present study, the partial gene sequences of p32 protein, an immunogenic envelope protein of capripoxviruses (capv), were analyzed to assess the genetic relationship among sheeppox and goatpox virus isolates, and restriction enzyme specific pcr-rflp was developed to differentiate capv strains. a total of six goatpox virus (gtpv) and nine sheeppox virus (sppv) isolates of indian origin were included in the sequence analysis of the attachment gene. the sequence analysis revealed a high degr ...201223271576
development of multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection and differentiation of six dna and rna viruses from clinical samples of sheep and goats.multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and pcr protocols were developed and subsequently evaluated for its effectiveness in detecting simultaneously single and mixed infections in sheep and goats. specific primers for three dna viruses and three rna viruses, including foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), sheeppox virus (sppv), goatpox virus (gtpv) and orf virus (orfv) were used for testing procedure. a s ...201728111057
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant major envelope protein (rh3l) of buffalopox virus in animal models.buffalopox virus, a zoonotic indian vaccinia-like virus, is responsible for contagious disease affecting mainly buffaloes, cattle and humans. h3l gene, encoding for an immunodominant major envelope protein of intracellular mature virion of orthopoxviruses, is highly conserved and found to elicit neutralizing antibodies. therefore in the present study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant h3l protein of buffalopox virus in laboratory animal models has been evaluated. a pa ...201626723250
structural analysis and immunogenicity of recombinant major envelope protein (ra27l) of buffalopox virus, a zoonotic indian vaccinia-like virus.buffalopox virus (bpxv), an indian variant of vaccinia virus (vacv), is a zoonotic agent and affects buffaloes, cattle and humans. a27l is one of the conserved major immuno-dominant envelope proteins of orthopox viruses (opvs) involved in viral entry/maturation and elicits neutralizing antibodies. in this study, the a27l gene of bpxv-vij/96 strain encoding recombinant mature a27l (21s to e110) and c-terminal truncated a27l-lzd (21s to n84aa) proteins were cloned and over-expressed in escherichia ...201526319070
taqman based real-time duplex pcr for simultaneous detection and quantitation of capripox and orf virus genomes in clinical samples.a rapid and sensitive taqman based real-time duplex pcr (drt-pcr) assay for simultaneous detection, differentiation and quantitation of capripoxvirus (capv) and orf virus (orfv) dna, was optimized targeting the highly conserved dna polymerase genes of these virus genomes. two pairs of oligonucleotide primers and two hybridization probes labeled with cy5/bhq1 and hex/bhq1 for capv and orfv, respectively, were used in the drt-pcr assay. the assay was found to be specific only to targeted viruses a ...201424552953
a novel hrm assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses of medical and veterinary importance.poxviruses belonging to the orthopoxvirus, capripoxvirus and parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. here, we developed a novel multiplex pcr method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (cpxv) and camelpox virus (cmlv) [genus orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (gtpv), sheeppox virus (sppv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) [genus capripoxvirus]; orf virus (orfv), pseudocowpox virus ...201728216667
development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for specific and rapid detection of differential goat pox virus and sheep pox virus.capripox viruses are economically important pathogens in goat and sheep producing areas of the world, with specific focus on goat pox virus (gtpv), sheep pox virus (sppv) and the lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). clinically, sheep pox and goat pox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. this presents a real need for a rapid, inexpensive, and easy to operate and maintain genotyping tool to facilitate accurate disease diagnosis and surveillance for better management of cap ...201424438089
recombinant sheep pox virus proteins elicit neutralizing antibodies.the aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (sppv; genus capripoxvirus, family poxviridae) structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. sppv structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (vacv) strain copenhagen. four sppv proteins (sppv-orf 060, sppv-orf 095, sppv-orf 117, and sppv-orf 122), orthologs of immunodominant l1, a4, a27, and a33 vacv proteins, respect ...201627338444
capripox disease in ethiopia: genetic differences between field isolates and vaccine strain, and implications for vaccination failure.sheeppox virus (sppv), goatpox virus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) of the genus capripoxvirus (capv) cause capripox disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. these viruses are not strictly host-specific and their geographical distribution is complex. in ethiopia, where sheep, goats and cattle are all affected, a live attenuated vaccine strain (ks1-o180) is used for immunization of both small ruminants and cattle. although occurrences of the disease in vaccinated cattle are f ...201525907637
immunohistochemical evaluation of inflammatory infiltrate in the skin and lung of lambs naturally infected with sheeppox virus.the present study describes immunophenotypic characteristics of inflammatory infiltrate in the skin and lung of lambs naturally infected with sheeppox virus (spv). three lambs revealed typical cutaneous and pulmonary lesions of sheeppox. histologically, cutaneous and pulmonary lesions consisted of hyperplastic and/or degenerative changes in the epithelium with mononuclear cells, neutrophils, and typical sheeppox cells (spcs), which had a vacuolated nucleus and marginated chromatin with occasiona ...200616407491
epidemiological study of lumpy skin disease outbreaks in north-western iran.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is a highly contagious transboundary disease of cattle with major economic losses. this study was undertaken to address the emergence and epidemiological features of lsd in four north-western provinces of iran. these provinces have extensive borders with others country including iraq, turkey, azerbaijan and armenia. a population of 683 cattle from 91 farms were examined during lsd outbreak in iran during 2014-2016. the information of the farms including the population si ...201627633121
detection of capripoxvirus dna using a field-ready nucleic acid extraction and real-time pcr platform.capripoxviruses, comprising sheep pox virus, goat pox virus and lumpy skin disease virus cause serious diseases of domesticated ruminants, notifiable to the world organization for animal health. this report describes the evaluation of a mobile diagnostic system (enigma field laboratory) that performs automated sequential steps for nucleic acid extraction and real-time pcr to detect capripoxvirus dna within laboratory and endemic field settings. to prepare stable reagents that could be deployed i ...201526608662
comparison of the efficacy of neethling lumpy skin disease virus and x10rm65 sheep-pox live attenuated vaccines for the prevention of lumpy skin disease - the results of a randomized controlled field study.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is a viral disease of cattle and buffalo, caused by a capripox virus. a field study was performed during an lsd epidemic which occurred in 2012-2013 in israel, in order to assess the efficacy of two commercial vaccines for protection against lsd. fifteen dairy herds, vaccinated 2-5 months prior to study onset with a single dose of 10(2.5) tcid50 of rm65 attenuated sheep-pox vaccine, and not affected previously, were enrolled in the study. 4694 cows were randomized to be ...201526238726
genetic diversity of fusion gene (orf 117), an analogue of vaccinia virus a27l gene of capripox virus isolates.the fusion gene (orf 117) sequences of twelve (n = 12) capripox virus isolates namely sheeppox (sppv) and goatpox (gtpv) viruses from india were demonstrated for their genetic and phylogenetic relationship among them. all the isolates were confirmed for their identity by routine pcr before targeting orf 117 gene for sequence analysis. the designed primers specifically amplified orf 117 gene as 447 bp fragment from total genomic dna extracted from all the isolates. sequence analysis revealed a si ...201525663144
adverse reactions to field vaccination against lumpy skin disease in jordan.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is an emerging disease in the middle east region and has been recently reported in jordan. the aim of this study was to investigate the adverse reactions that were reported after vaccine administration. geographical areas enrolled in the study were free of the disease and away from the outbreak governorate. sixty-three dairy cattle farms, with a total of 19,539 animals, were included in the study. of those, 56 farms reported adverse clinical signs after vaccine administr ...201625098267
characterization of sheep pox virus vaccine for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus.lumpy skin disease is of significant economic impact for the cattle industry in africa. the disease is currently spreading aggressively in the near east, posing a threat of incursion to europe and asia. due to cross-protection within the capripoxvirus genus, sheep pox virus (sppv) vaccines have been widely used for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). in the middle east and the horn of africa these vaccines have been associated with incomplete protection and adverse reactions in cattl ...201424973760
development of a cost-effective method for capripoxvirus genotyping using snapback primer and dsdna intercalating dye.sheep pox virus (sppv), goat pox virus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) are very closely related viruses of the capripoxvirus (capv) genus of the poxviridae family. they are responsible for sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease which affect sheep, goat and cattle, respectively. the epidemiology of capripox diseases is complex, as some capvs are not strictly host-specific. additionally, the three forms of the disease co-exist in many sub-saharan countries which complicates the iden ...201324116084
detection of capripoxvirus dna using a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.sheep poxvirus (sppv), goat poxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) are the most serious poxviruses of ruminants. they are double stranded dna viruses of the genus capripoxvirus, (subfamily chordopoxvirinae) within the family poxviridae. the aim of this study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the detection of capripoxvirus (capv) dna.201323634704
sheeppox virus sppv14 encodes a bcl-2-like cell death inhibitor that counters a distinct set of mammalian proapoptotic proteins.many viruses express inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis), thereby countering host defenses that would otherwise rapidly clear infected cells. to counter this, viruses such as adenoviruses and herpesviruses express recognizable homologs of the mammalian prosurvival protein bcl-2. in contrast, the majority of poxviruses lack viral bcl-2 (vbcl-2) homologs that are readily identified by sequence similarities. one such virus, myxoma virus, which is the causative agent of myxomatosis, expr ...201222896610
the cultivation of sheep pox virus on the chorioallantoic membrane of the developing chicken embryo. 195713444582
[comparative study of the immunizing ability of some attenuated strains of sheep pox virus and of a sensitizing vaccine].the authors present the results of a study designed to compare the immunogenicity of several attenuated strains of sheep pox virus and a virus/immune serum vaccine. two of the strains studied present immunogenic characteristics that make them particularly interesting for the manufacture of a vaccine. the first, named djelfa, confers solid immunity to animals without provoking a vaccinal reaction; the second, known as romania, can provide protection beyond twenty-four months, but causes persisten ...200011107620
cytopathic effect in lamb testicle cells infected with sheeppox virus. 19826127942
autoradiographic study on sheeppox virus infection.terrinha, antónio m. (national laboratory for veterinary research, lisbon, portugal), josé d. vigário, josé l. nunes petisca, j. moura nunes, and armando l. bastos. autoradiographic study on sheeppox virus infection. j. bacteriol. 90:1703-1709. 1965.-an autoradiographic study of sheep embryo cell cultures infected with sheeppox virus showed that viral deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) synthesis starts at 10 to 11 hr after infection. the number of cells which supported viral dna synthesis increased unt ...19655854591
identification and size variation of terminal fragments of sheep pox virus genome.terminal fragments of sheep pox virus dna identified by snap-back analysis showed terminal covalent cross-links. southern blot hybridization using a terminal fragment probe confirmed the termini and terminal repeats (common sequences) of the sheep pox virus genome. terminal fragment length variability was observed between virus isolates.19911916939
polyclonal b-lymphocyte activation of sheep by mycobacterium phlei against sheep pox virus.a trypsinized preparation of mycobacterium phlei, non specific stimulator of immunity (nsi), and sheep pox virus (spv) were inoculated in different groups of sheep to activate b-lymphocytes and induce spv neutralizing substance(s). nsi sensitized sheep b-lymphocytes in the presence of nsi or lymphokine elaborated spv neutralizing substance(s). the spv sensitized b-lymphocytes also mediated such neutralizing substance(s). healthy control sheep b-lymphocytes failed to show any appreciable amount o ...19921324887
pox outbreaks in sheep and goats at makhdoom (uttar pradesh), india: evidence of sheeppox virus infection in goats.sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in india incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. this paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at makhdoom (uttar pradesh), india, during 2007 and another in goats at the central institute of research on goats, makhdoom (uttar pradesh), india during 2008. in the first outbreak, a local muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respecti ...201020673232
a duplex pcr assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of capripoxvirus and orf virus.a duplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was developed and optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of capripoxvirus (cpv) (including goat pox virus and sheep pox virus) and orf virus (orfv). two sets of specific oligonucleotide primers were designed and used for cpv and orfv, respectively. the duplex pcr dna products, which consisted of fragments of 413 bp for a29l gene of cpv, and 708 bp for p55 gene of orfv, were visualized by gel electrophoresis. the developed assay was found ...200717350223
an outbreak of sheep pox on a sheep breeding farm in jammu, india.an outbreak of sheep pox occurred in december 2001 on a sheep breeding farm in jammu, india. the farm maintains three exotic breeds of sheep, i.e. american merino, rambouillet and australian cross. the disease agent was confirmed as sheep pox virus by clinical and post-mortem examination as well as laboratory testing. typical pock lesions were dispersed over the body of the affected animals with nodular lesions observed in the lung tissue of the dead animals. sheep pox virus antigen and antibody ...200415861890
a short note on sheep pox virus soluble antigens studied by immunodiffusion. 19806775480
effect of cyclophosphamide on immune response of sheep against attenuated sheep pox virus. 19863570369
[expression of class ii antigens by alveolar macrophages from sheep infected experimentally with the sheep pox virus]. 19892554779
a vero cell derived combined vaccine against sheep pox and peste des petits ruminants for sheep.the combined sheep pox and peste des petits ruminants (ppr) vaccine was prepared in lyophilized form containing recommended doses of both vaccine viruses. safety and immunogenicity of this combined vaccine was evaluated in sheep. sheep immunized subcutaneously with 1ml of live attenuated vaccine consisting of 10(3)tcid(50) each of sheep pox virus (spv) romanian fanar (rf) strain and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv-sungri/96 strain) were monitored for clinical and serological responses for ...200919428860
rapid detection of orf virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification based on the dna polymerase gene.at present, there are no effective antiviral treatments available for contagious ecthyma, and rapid diagnosis is therefore critical for effective control of the disease. recently, the invention of a novel lamp technique that can rapidly amplify nucleic acids with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions has overcome some of the deficiencies of nucleic acid-based diagnostic tests and has made on-site diagnosis possible. to establish a flexible loop-mediated isothermal amplific ...201323183830
development of real-time and lateral flow dipstick recombinase polymerase amplification assays for rapid detection of goatpox virus and sheeppox virus.goatpox virus (gtpv) and sheeppox virus (sppv), which belong to the capripoxvirus (capv), are economically important pathogens of small ruminants. therefore, a sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for detection of gtpv and sppv is necessary to accurately and promptly control these diseases.201728716095
multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection and differentiation of sheeppox, goatpox and orf viruses from clinical samples of sheep and goats.a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mpcr) was developed and evaluated for detection of pox viral infections simultaneously using clinical samples from sheep and goats. specific primers for three pox viruses of sheep and goats including sheeppox virus (sppv), goatpox virus (gtpv) and orf virus (orfv) were designed targeting conserved sequences of the dna binding phosphoprotein (i3l) coding gene of capripoxvirus (capv) and the dna polymerase (e9l) gene of parapoxvirus for identification of thes ...201424134940
molecular characterization of indian sheeppox and goatpox viruses based on rpo30 and gpcr genes.sheeppox and goatpox are economically important diseases of small ruminants caused by sheeppox virus (sppv) and goatpox virus (gtpv), respectively. although sppv and gtpv have host preference, some strains may infect both sheep and goats. as capripox viruses (sppv, gtpv and lsdv) are antigenically related but genetically distinct, their differentiation requires analysis at molecular level. in the present study, rpo30 and gpcr genes of eight indian sppv and gtpv isolates were pcr amplified, clone ...201424952423
fit-for-purpose curated database application in mass spectrometry-based targeted protein identification and validation.mass spectrometry (ms) is a very sensitive and specific method for protein identification, biomarker discovery, and biomarker validation. protein identification is commonly carried out by comparing ms data with public databases. however, with the development of high throughput and accurate genomic sequencing technology, public databases are being overwhelmed with new entries from different species every day. the application of these databases can also be problematic due to factors such as size, ...201425011440
comparative efficacy of live replicating sheeppox vaccine strains in ovines.in the present study, two sheeppox vaccines made from strains [sheeppox virus-srinagar (sppv-srin) and ranipet (sppv-r)] indigenous to india and adapted to vero cells were compared in terms of their safety, potency, efficacy and antigenic value with the commercial in-use roumanian fanar (sppv-rf) vaccine, a foreign strain adapted in primary lamb testes cells. the safety test indicated that the sppv (sri and rf) vaccines were safe while sppv-r was not completely attenuated and caused excessive ad ...201121993305
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