mechanism of protection of mice against vaccinia virus by bacterial allergy. 19751037714
the immune response to infection with vaccinia virus in mice. ii. appearance of hypersensitivity, production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and transformation of spleen cells in response to virus antigens.the appearance of specific hypersensitivity to virus antigens was examined in mice infected intravenously with vaccinia virus. both immediate hypersensitivity, transferable by serum, and delayed-type hypersensitivity, transferable only by cells, were apparent 8 days after infection and demonstrable for at least a further 130 days. production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor by lymphocytes from infected mice was measured directly in terms of inhibition of migration by antigen or indirect ...19751056960
modification of the 5'-terminus of mrna by soluble guanylyl and methyl transferases from vaccinia virus.rna guanylyl and methyl transferases have been solubilized from vaccinia virus cores. the guanylyl transferase specifically adds a gmp residue to the 5'-terminus of unmethylated vaccinia virus mrna to form the structures g(5')ppp(5')gp- and g(5')ppp(5')ap-. studies with [alpha-32p]gtp and [beta, gamma-32p]gtp indicated that only the alpha-phosphate is transferred. in the presence of s-adenosylmethionine, the methyl transferases convert the blocked 5'-termini to m7g(5')ppp(5')gmp- and m7g(5')ppp( ...19751058472
rapid lysis of vaccinia virus on neutral sucrose gradients with release of intact dna. 19761064285
poly (a) sequences of vaccinia virus messenger rna: nature, mode of addition and function during translation in vitra and in vivo. 19751078615
the effect of rheumatoid factor on the immune lysis of vaccinia virus-infected cells. 19751079172
the formation of virus polyribosomes in l cells infected with vaccinia virus.the fate of early virus messenger rna in the cytoplasm of vaccinia-infected l cells has been studied during the first hour after infection. the rna is made in the virus core structure from which it is rapidly released. it accumulates in the polyribsome fraction, where at least 75% is bound to ribosomes through an edta-sensitive link. three distinct structures have been identified as possible intermediates in virus polyribosome formation. the first is a ribonucleoprotein complex (rnp) in which vi ...19751079858
lysis mediated by t cells and restricted by h-2 antigen of target cells infected with vaccinia virus. 19751079922
thymus transplants: a look to the a review of thymus transplants performed in a variety of immunodeficiency syndromes, results in the digeorge syndrome seen uniformly successful. rapid restoration of lymphocyte responsibility in vitro and achievement of normal peripheral blood lymphocyte counts are characteristic. in nearly all other types of isolated thymic deficiency or combined immunodeficiency there has been only transient or meager restitution and more often than not complete failure. a few exceptions were noted in a com ...19751080059
[the effect of human leukocyte interteron (hif) on experimental viral keratitis in monkeys (author's transl)].12 african green monkeys were inoculated in both eyes with herpes simplex virus typ 1 and 16 rhesus monkeys with vaccinia virus. the right eyes were treated with human leukocyte interferon (hif) while the left eyes served as controls and showed the typical keratitis, 7 out of 8 herpes eyes and all 9 vaccinia eyes which were treated prophylactically or simultaneiously with hif showed no signs of disease. when hif was given later in the course of the infection the keratitis was either little influ ...19751080375
proceedings: cell-mediated defence against virus infections in mice. 19751080401
[analysis and differentiation of cytergic immune reactions: tuberculine type and cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity (author's transl)].the classic delayed tuberculine reaction represents a t-cell mediated immune reaction, detectable already before the formation of antibodies in the course of proteine sensitization. myocobacteria stimulate and enhance this reaction. the skin test reaction needs the whole antigen for induction. the reaction starts 6 to 8 hours later, shows maximal development 24 to 28 (-72) hours later and is characterized by inflammation, induration, sometimes with hemorrhagies, necroses and ulceration, a macrop ...19751081069
h-2 compatibility requirement for virus-specific t-cell-mediated cytolysis. the h-2k structure involved is coded by a single cistron defined by h-2kb mutant mice.lymphocytic choriomeningitis or vaccinia virus-immune spleen cells of h-2 mutant mice carrying a point mutation in the k region (b6 h-2ba, b6 h-2bf) cannot lyse infected wild-type h-2kb targets and vice versa. yet, cytotoxic t cells specific for infected h-2kba or h-2kbf targets are generated during virus infections as shown by cold target competition experiments. the critical structure for the apparent restriction by the k or d regions of the h-2 gene complex of cytolytic interactions between t ...19761082490
h-2 compatibility requirement for virus-specific t-cell-mediated cytolysis. evaluation of the role of h-2i region and non-h-2 genes in regulating immune response.lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (lcmv) and ectromelia virus-specific t-cell-mediated cytotoxicity was assayed in various strain combinations using as targets peritoneal macrophages which have been shown to express ia antigens. virus-specific cytotoxicity was found only in h-2k- or d-region compatible combinations. i-region compatibility was not necessary nor alone sufficient for lysis. six different i-region specificities had no obvious effect on the capacity to generate in vivo specific cyto ...19761085331
h-2 restriction of virus-specific t-cell-mediated effector functions in vivo. ii. adoptive transfer of delayed-type hypersensitivity to murine lymphocytic choriomeningits virus is restriced by the k and d region of mice, primary footpad swelling after local infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (lcmv) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) adoptively transferred by lcmv immune lymphocytes are t-cell dependent. nude mice do not develop primary footpad swelling, and t-cell depletion abrogates the capacity to transfer lcmv-specific dth. effector t cells involved in eliciting dose-dependent dth are virus specific in that vaccinia virus-immune lymphocytes could not elicit dth in lcmv-infected mi ...19761085340
target cell-dependent t cell-mediated lysis of vaccinia virus-infected cells.vaccinia virus specific cytotoxicity against infected target cells was observed in vitro. spleen lymphocytes from normal and immunized mice of the inbred strains c3h and dba/2 were incubated with vaccinia virus-infected and non-infected 51 cr-labeled mastocytoma p-815-x2 cells and l-929 fibroblasts, which were used as targets. cytotoxic lymphocytes could be isolated from the mice as early as 2 days after infection with vaccinia virus. the highest cytotoxic effect was obtained with lymphocytes ta ...19751086229
use of a restriction endonuclease in analyzing the genomes from two different strains of vaccinia virus.a restriction endonuclease from haemophilus influenzae (hind iii) specifically cleaved vaccinia dna into 14 fragments. the molecular weights of these fragments were determined by gel electrophoresis and ranged from 0.5 x 10(6) to 30 x 10(6). hind iii digestion of the dna from the wr and cv-1 strains of vaccinia revealed a small molecular difference in one of the resulting fragments. the average molecular weight of the entire vaccinia genome was calculated to be 125 x 10(6).19761086369
cells that express viral antigens but lack h-2 determinants are not lysed by immune thymus-derived lymphocytes but are lysed by other antiviral immune attack mechanisms.murine f9 teratoma cells do not express major transplantation antigens detectable by either serologic or alloreactive assays of thymus-dependent lymphocytes (t cells). such cells can be infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus or vaccinia virus, do express viral antigens on the cell surface, and can release infectious virus in amounts equivalent to those of other h-2 bearing murine cell lines. immunologic injury of virus-infected f9 cells occurs after the addition of specific antiviral a ...19761086476
the future of vaccinia. 19751090806
cell surface alterations induced by vaccinia and newcastle disease viruses (38486).a comparison was made of hep-2 cell surface changes induced by ndv or vaccinia virus infection. three parameters were examined as a function of time after infection: the kinetics of hemadosorption and the appearance of concanavalin (con a) binding sites, and alterations in electrophoretic mobility of single cells. the kinetics of appearance of con a binding sites was strikingly similar for both virus infections, whereas hemadsorption preceded nda synthesis and followed vaccinia synthesis. these ...19751093185
microcytotoxicity and serum blocking factors in malignant melanoma and halo nevus.microcytotoxicity assays of patients with malignant melanoma and halo nevi were performed. no good correlation could be found between percent cell inhibition and histopathological level of melanoma or the clinical staging. the percent cell inhibition was usually an index of response to vaccinia virus immunotherapy. actively regressing halo nevi showed high levels of percent cell inhibition, whereas inactive halo nevi had low levels of percent cell inhibition and blocking factor. immunologic reac ...19751094959
[potentiation of the antiviral activity of daunomycin by desmethylimipramine]. 19751095966
translation of viral rna in cell-free systems from eukaryotes. 19751098855
antigen-enhanced glucosamine incorporation by peritoneal macrophages in cell-mediated hypersensitivity. i. studies on biology and mechanism.the interaction between sensitized lymphocytes and specific antigen occurring in classic delayed hypersensitivity causes guinea pig peritoneal macrophages to incorporate increased amounts of glucosamine into tca precipitable, membrane-associated, cell surface material. antigen-induced stimulation of glucosamine also occurred in peritoneal exudate cells (pec) isolated from animals primed for cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity with certain strong antigens (klh, vaccinia virus) in incomplete freun ...19751100724
observations in immunotherapy of lymphoma and melanoma patients.maintenance of remission solely by repeated bcg vaccinations in seven patients with non-hodgkin's lymphoma who had achieved a complete clinical remission with initial standard therapy has provided sufficient encouragement to begin a randomized clinical trial. in vitro lymphocyte responses to mitogens and ppd used as parameters of cell-mediated immunity have not proved to be of value in predicting early or late recurrence in six pre-trial and trial patients. eight out of twenty-one patients with ...19751102163
interaction of vaccinia dna-binding proteins with dna in vitro. 19761108411
antiviral activity of o'-alkylated derivatives of cytosine arabinoside. 19751111551
antibody to vaccinia. ii. prevalence in blood donors.3.6% of sera from random blood donors were found to contain antibody to vaccinia antigen(s) when screened by ieop. antibodies of the strength previously suggested as suitable for use in the preparation of anti-vaccinia immune globulin (titre 2 or more) were only found in revaccinated donors, especially but not exclusively those bled within about 3 months of last vaccination.19751114789
study of the antigenic and immunogenic properties of neurovaccinia virus ts mutants.the antigenic and immunogenic properties of five ts mutants of neurovaccinia virus with markedly reduced pathogenicity for laboratory animals as compared with "wild" type virus were studied. the antigenic and immunogenic activities of the mutants correlated with their capacity to reproduce in the skin of the inoculated animals. when similar doses of uv-inactivated mutants were used for immunization of rabbits, significant differences (more than 100-fold) in their antigenic activity were found. w ...19751119943
[nasal autoinoculation with vaccinia virus]. 19751120352
purification of a protein kinase and two phosphate acceptor proteins from vaccinia virions.a novel protein kinase that requires protamine as an activator to catalyze the phosphorylation of viral acceptor proteins was extracted from vaccinia virus cores with deoxycholate and purified 250-fold by dna-cellulose and deae-cellulose column chromatography. the enzyme has a molecular weight of 62,000 as determined by sucrose gradient sedimentation. two heat-stable phosphate acceptor proteins were extracted from virus particles with a nonionic detergent and purified by heat treatment, precipit ...19751123320
inhibition of host protein synthesis by vaccinia virus: fate of cell mrna and synthesis of small poly (a)-rich polyribonucleotides in the presence of actinomycin d.purified vaccinia virus rapidly inhibited hela cell protein synthesis in the presence of actinomycin d. under these conditions host polyribosomes were extensively degraded but the mrna was stable as indicated by a greater than 90% recovery of prelabeled polyadenylylated rna. although actinomycin d prevented the synthesis of host mrna and poly(a) in uninfected cells, incorporation of adenosine into poly(a) was inhibited by less than 50% in infected cells. further analysis indicated that there was ...19751133878
isolation and characterization of a gamma-thiochromanone-4-thiosemicarbazone-resistant mutant of vaccinia virus.gamma-thiochromanone-4-thiosemicarbazone (tct) inhibits the growth of vaccinia virus in bscl cells by interfering with viral maturation. a mutant of the virus (tct(r)) which is resistant to this drug was isolated. this mutant also exhibits resistance to another thiosemicarbazone related compound, isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone (ibt). there is a good correlation between the cross-resistance of the two mutants ibt(r) and tct(r) to tct and ibt, respectively, and the similar antipoxvirus activity of ...19751137362
[an attenuated strain of vaccinia virus (mva). successful intramuscular immunization against vaccinia and variola (author's transl)].the attenuated mva strain of vaccinia virus was previously shown to be innocuous and immunogenic at intracutaneous injection. it was therefore suggested for clinical trial. preliminary results in human vaccinees are promising. the present experiments were initiated to study the intramuscular injection of the vaccine as a preferable route of administration. histological examination was done in rabbits and monkeys. at the site of injection there were but minor inflammatory reactions considerably l ...19751146441
a study of the ultrastructure of the buffalo pox virus.buffalo pox virus (strain bp 4) has been studied by electron microscopy of sections of infected chorioallantoic membrane cells. the ultrastructure of the virus has been described and compared with the ultrastructure of vaccinia virus. no differences between the two viruses were found. in relation to the ways of release two forms of mature virions have been described. these are probably analogous to the previously described c- and m-form of vaccinia.19751155117
smallpox vaccination revisited. some observations on the biology of vaccinia.sixty-two volunteers were studied to determine their local cutaneous, serologic, and virologic reactions to smallpox revaccination. of 55 subjects available for examination, 45 (82%) had major cutaneous reactions. subjects over 30 years old were more likely to have a major reaction. an increase in complement-fixing antibody titer was found in 74% of revaccinees with a major reaction. an increase in complement-fixing antibody titer was found in 74% of revaccinees with a major cutaneous reaction a ...19751155701
[approach to the development of an actovaccine using vaccinia virus as a model].injection of living vaccinia virus to the mesenteric vein of rabbits leads to its accumulation in liver in high concentration. in the other series of experiments vaccinia virus inactivated with gamma-radiation was inoculated into the mesenteric vein. later on the animals were sacrificed at various dates. homogenates were prepared from their liver. comparative study of these homogenates made it possible to reveal increased immunogenic activity of homogenate obtained 24 hours after intravenous ino ...19751162946
[experimental study of the ability of different strains of vaccinia virus to induce autoantibody formation].the intensity of autoantibody production to red blood cell lysate in guinea pigs inoculated with smallpox vaccine prepared from different strains was studied at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after vaccine inoculation. the dynamics of autoantibody production in the same animals as well as the influence of altered responsiveness of the animals pre-treated with dyphtheria toxin on the intensity of autoantibody production were determined. the autoantibody-inducing activity correlated with reactogenicity of ...19751162949
virus infections in laboratories in japan.virus infections in laboratories in japan from 1967 to 1972 were studied. major causative agents were influenza virus, australian antigen, rickettsia, and vaccinia virus. the cases reported were neither severe, nor lethal. it was suggested that these infections were caused either by aerosol or contact. measures to prevent infection in laboratories are discussed.19751164409
multiple sclerosis and elevation of cerebrospinal fluid vaccinia virus antibody.thirty percent of 33 patients with a clinical diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and an elevation of cerebrospinal fluid (csf) immunoglobulin g/albumin ratio greater than 2 standard deviations above the mean had elevation of the csf vaccinia neutralizing antibody titer. elevated titers were found in 1 of 23 patients with non-multiple sclerosis neurologic diseases and in none of the normal control patients. no linear correlation was found between the magnitude of the relative or absolute csf immunog ...19751167412
letter: epidemiology of cowpox. 19751167474
[inhibiting effect and mechanism of action of 5'-deoxy-5'-fluorothymidine on vaccinia virus reproduction].5'-deoxy-5'-fluorothymidine in concentrations 2.5 times 10-4 to 2 times 10-3 m was found capable of inhibiting vaccinia virus reproduction in tissue culture. its inhibiting effect was associated with the primary capacity to inhibit biosynthesis of thymidylic nucleotides in the stage of tdp and ttp synthesis which appears to be the consequence of inhibition of thydidylate kinase activity. under these conditions accumulation of tmp is observed. the data obtained permit to consider 5'-deoxy-5'-fluo ...19751168387
[effect of pyrimidine amino acid derivatives on vaccinia virus in tissue culture].the results of the study of antiviral properties of 9 derivatives of pyrimidine amino acids showed only n-(2-chloro-5-bromopyrimidil-4)-1-leucin to possess marked antiviral properties manifested in the capacity of this compound to inhibit the vaccinia virus dna synthesis in chick embryo fibroblast culture and, consequently, to reduce the infections activity of the virus. all the other derivatives of this class have no marked antiviral properties.19751168388
[effect of neurotropin on sart stress (stress caused by alteration of rhythms in environmental temperature) in mice and rats].we reported previously that by altering the rhythm of environmental temperature (art) the physiological mechanism was changed to an abnormal state which we termed specific art-stress (sart-stress). in the present report, the effects of neurotropin and other tranquilizers on this sart-stress state were investigated. neurotropin is an extract containing many conjugated polysaccarides isolated from the skin or tissues of rabbits which had been inoculated with the living cowpox virus. neurotropin pr ...19751169195
biogenesis of poxviruses: synthesis and phosphorylation of a basic protein associated with the dna. 19751169849
messenger activity of rna transcribed in vitro by dna-rna polymerase associated to vaccinia virus cores.the coding properties of rna transcribed in vitro by purified vaccinia cores have been investigated using krebs ascites tumor cells, l cells, and reticulocyte lysates. six to 10 proteins synthesized in vitro are separated on polyacrylamide gels by electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. their molecular weights vary from 10,000 to 44,000. the electrophoretic behavior of these proteins is similar to that of early proteins isolated from infected l cells. the tryptic peptide analy ...19751170340
synthesis and antiviral activity of certain 5'-monophosphates of 9-d-arabinofuranosyladenine and 9-d-arabinofuranosylhypoxanthine.a number of 5'-phosphates of 9-d-arabinofuranosyladenine and 9-d-arabinofuranosylhypoxanthine were prepared and tested against a variety of dna viruses in tissue culture. the syntheses of the antiviral agent 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosylhypoxanthine 5'-monophosphate (6) and a series of related nucleotides, 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine 5'-o-methylphosphate (3), 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosylhypoxanthine 5'-o-methylphosphate (7), 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosylhypaxanthine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate (13), and 9- ...19751171242
vaccinia virus variants as presumable cause of vaccinial complications.two vaccinia viruses isolated from patients with vaccinial complications (vaccinial ulcer, postvaccinial seizures) showed qualitative differences from the original parental strain. after intradermal injection of the viruses into the rabbit marked necroses developed, which the original strains did not produce. while the parental virus did not grow on the chorioallantoic membrane at 41 degrees c after 2 days incubation, the vaccinia variant produced typical lesions at that temperature. also the yi ...19751180697
polyamines in vaccinia virions and polypeptides released from viral cores by acid extraction.vaccinia virions propagated in the presence of [3h]ornithine were found to contain two labeled polyamines, spermine and spermidine. in complete virions the ratio of radioactively labeled spermine to spermidine was about 1:10, whereas in viral cores the ratio was 2:5. this suggests that some spermidine was preferentially lost during the conversion of virions to cores or that spermidine was present in the virions both inside and outside the core structure. addition of [3h]ornithine to vaccinia vir ...19751185852
the pathogenesis of vaccinia virus toxicity. ii. an electron microscopic study.the intravenous injection of mice with toxic doses of vaccinia virus, prepared in the ehrlich ascites carcinoma, usually produces fatal intravascular coagulation, within 24 hours. light and electron microscope studies demonstrate occlusion of the microcirculation of lungs and livers by fibrin. fibrin deposition appears to be prevented in mice injected with heparinized virus preparations. however, in lieu of fibrin deposition, within the microcirculation widespread intravascular platelet aggregat ...19751186130
isolation and characterization of vaccinia virus "nucleoids". 19751189287
viral keratitis-inhibitory effect of 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosylhypoxanthine 5'-monophosphate.topical application of 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosylhypoxanthine 5'-monophosphate (ara-hxmp) significantly inhibited the development of keratitis induced by types 1 and 2 herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus in the eyes of rabbits. parameters for evaluation of efficacy were infectivity (corneal opacity, lesion size, and type), draize (erythema, conjunctival swelling, and discharge), and reduction in titer of recoverable virus from the eye. when the relative efficacy of the related compounds 9-bet ...19751190753
purification of mrna guanylyltransferase and mrna (guanine-7-) methyltransferase from vaccinia virions.the sequences m7g(5')pppgm-and m7g(5')pppam-are located at the 5' termini of vaccinia mrnas. two novel enzymatic activities have been purified from vaccinia virus cores which modify the 5' terminus of unmethylated mrna. one activity transfers gmp from gtp to mrna and is designated a gtp: mrna guanylyltransferase. the second activity transfers a methyl group from s-adenosylmethionine to position 7 of the added guanosine and is designated a s-adenosylmethionine: mrna (guanine-7-)methyltransferase. ...19751194286
modification of rna by mrna guanylyltransferase and mrna (guanine-7-)methyltransferase from vaccinia virions.a purified enzyme system isolated from vaccinia virus cores has been shown to modify the 5' termini of viral mrna and synthetic poly(a) and poly(g) to form the structures m7g(5')pppa- and m7g(5')pppg-. the enzyme system has both guanylyltransferase and methyltransferase activities. the gtp:mrna guanylyltransferase activity incorporates gmp into the 5' terminus via a 5'-5' triphosphate bond. the properties of this reaction are: (a) of the four nucleoside triphosphates only gtp is a donor, (b) mrn ...19751194287
altered transfer rna methylase in bhk cells after vaccinia virus infection. 19751195579
the pathogenesis of vaccinia virus toxicity. i. the role of virus-platelet interaction.when mice are injected intravenously with a large dose of vaccinia virus, prepared in the ehrlich ascites carcinoma of the mouse, there is a precipitous loss of plasma fibrinogen and blood platelets. death occurs usually within 24 hours. a specific role of the virus in this toxic syndrome can be demonstrated when heparin is employed to circumvent intravascular coagulation and fibrinogen loss. heparin does not prevent a profound thrombocytopenia from occurring, but it modifies the rate of platele ...19751195668
[on the problem of persistence]. 19751199199
comparison of the ability of small molecular interferon inducers: tilorone and acridine drugs.the antiviral activity and induction of interferon-like substance by mepacrine (quinacrine, atabrine) and acranil in mice, described previuosly, was studied in more detail and compared with tilorone. the serum substance induced by acranil was characterized as mouse interferon. acranil, given parenterally, proved to be as strong as tilorone regarding interferon stimulation, in spite of the presence of only one side chain in the acrainl molecule. mepacrine was found to be a wealer interferon induc ...19751200845
detection of vaccinia virus in blood of the experimentally infected rabbits. 19751203602
possibilities of in vivo & in vitro reactivation of heat inactivated vaccinia virus. 19751205536
proceedings: effects of isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone-related compounds on vaccinia virus strains. 19751205800
proceedings: control of thymidine kinase synthesis in the cells infected with ihd strain of vaccinia virus. 19751205801
experiments on terminal disinfection by formaldehyde vapor in the case of smallpox.the usually recommended terminal disinfection by formaldehyde vapor is unable to completely inactivate vaccinia viruses embedded in scabs. in view of our results, we recommend doubling the concentration of formaldehyde (10 g of formaldehyde per m3 of space) and prolonging the time of exposure to 24 h for terminal disinfection in the case of smallpox. subsequent disinfection by scrubbing assumes special importance, since no complete inactivation of the scabs occurs.19751206108
restriction enzyme digests of rapidly renaturing fragments of vaccinia virus dna.vaccinia virus dna fragments that have been denatured by alkali and then neutralized contain a fraction that rapidly reforms duplex structures. the fraction is enriched by fractionating on hydroxyapatite columns and serves as as substrate for digestion by two restriction endonucleases isolated from hemophilus parainfluenzae, hpa i and hpa ii. the patterns obtained by gel electrophoresis of the digested fragments show the presence of three major bands after hpa i digestion and four major bands af ...19751206800
effect of smallpox vaccination on the product of conception. 19751212077
[hypoparathyroidismus following l-asparaginase and vaccinia virus infection. effect of hypocalcemia on phagocytosis and the function of lymphocytes].rabbits, treated with injections of 4000 iu of l-asparaginase, develop the clinical and chemical signs of hypoparathyroidism. a simultaneous vaccination with vaccinia virus (strain "elstree") markedly increase the tetanic symptoms ("conditioned deficiency"). l-asparaginase may influence the cellular immunity by hypocalcemia. two mechanisms are discussed: 1. the suppression of the phagocytosis, recognizable by the absence of signs for vaccinal allergy by deficiency of macrophages in the intraderm ...19751214695
[the effect of trichinella spiralis on the susceptibility and antibody production to vaccinia virus].trichinella spiralis exerts an immunodepressive effect on production of antihemagglutinins to vaccinia virus in mice, increases the susceptibility to the virus in mice and rabbits. deaths of mice inoculated with vaccine virus and generalization of the vaccination process in rabbits were observed at 33 days of invasion.19751216835
the influence of smallpox revaccination upon the foetus.serological, virological, anatomo- and histopathological investigations were performed in pregnant women subjected to smallpox revaccination. serological findings were normal; no vaccinia virus was isolated from 210 placentae collected upon therapeutical abortion. anatomopathological investigation of 15 placentae showed various lesions, while the embryo were free from any histopathological changes. the data prove that smallpox immunization does not affect the embryo directly, but only through th ...19751224533
[studies on the marker behavior of various vaccinia virus strains]. 19751229198
laboratory characteristics of british and dutch strains of cowpox virus. 19751236713
electron microscopy study of the development of neurovaccinia virus in rabbit blood leucocyte electron microscopy of rabbit blood leucocytes cultured after infection with a large dose of neurovaccinia virus, virus particles can be observed within 24 hours in the cytoplasm of the monocytoid cells (monocytes and macrophages) and occasionally in the polymorphonuclear cells, but never in the lymphocytes. the morphology of the virus particles does not differ from the description of these particles in other types of host cells. the virus replication cycle in the monocytoid cells is slow and ...19751237518
interactions between vaccinia virus and sensitized macrophages in vitro.the action of peritoneal exudate cells (pec) from normal and vaccinia virus infected mice on infectious vaccinia virus particles was investigated in vitro. pec from immune mice showed a significantly higher infectivity titre reduction (virus clearance, vc) than normal cells. this effect could be clearly attributed to the macrophage. vaccinia virus multiplied in pec from normal animals while there was no virus propagation in cells from immunized mice. the release of adsorbed or engulfed virus was ...19751239255
evidence for an "early early" vaccinia virus-induced protein which causes a density change of infected l-m cells.the density decrease of vaccinia virus-infected l-m cells observed in a ficoll density gradient by 2 h postinfection was found to be dependent on rna synthesis and protein synthesis but independent of dna synthesis. using low multiplicities of infection, the required rna and protein species appeared to be synthesized before parental viral dna became sensitive to dnase, i.e., while the bulk of input virus was still at the core stage of uncoating. to date only thymidine kinase and a vaccinia virus ...19751239518
comparison of the antiviral effects of 5-methoxymethyl-deoxyuridine with 5-iododeoxyuridine, cytosine arabinoside, and adenine arabinoside.the antiviral activity of 5-methoxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (mmudr) was compared with that of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (iudr), cytosine arabinoside (ara-c), and adenine arabinoside (ara-a). at concentrations of 2 to 4 mug/ml, mmudr was inhibitory to herpes simplex virus type 1, but concentrations as high as 128 mug/ml were not inhibitory to three other herpesviruses tested (equine rhinopneumonitis virus, murine cytomegalovirus, and feline rhinopneumonitis virus) or to vaccinia virus. the other nucle ...19751239978
phosphonoacetic acid treatment of shope fibroma and vaccinia virus skin infections in rabbits.the antiviral efficacy of phosphonoacetic acid (paa) was studied in localized skin lesions of rabbits produced by the intradermal inoculation of vaccinia virus (vv) and of shope fibroma virus (sfv). systemic administration of paa by intraperitoneal injections had no significant effect on the pustular lesions induced by vv or on the benign skin tumors caused by sfv. a complete suppression of the appearance of vv-induced pustular lesions was achieved by 2% paa ointment applied twice daily for 4 da ...19761245751
phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins in hela cells infected with vaccinia virus. 19761246353
h-2-like specificities of foreign haplotypes appearing on a mouse sarcoma after vaccinia virus infection. 19761250351
[susceptibility of mice to infection with vaccinia neuropathogenic strain as related to mice strain, age, sex and weight]. 19761256124
effect of cytosine, arabinoside, iododeoxyuridine, ethyldeoxyuridine, thiocyanatodeoxyuridine, and ribavirin on tail lesion formation in mice infected with vaccinia virus.mice infected intravenously with vaccinia virus develop characteristic lesions over the entire tail surface. this experimental virus infection presents a highly sensitive and reliable model for evaluating the antivaccinia activity of antiviral compounds. ara-c (1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine), ribavirin (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide), iudr (5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine) as well as two novel analogs of iudr, etudr (5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine), and ncsudr (5-thiocyanato-2'-deoxyur ...19761257248
evaluation of measurements of infectious titers of the vaccinia virus in passaged human embryonic fibroblasts.measurements of infectivity of the vaccinia virus on 11 cell lines derived from human embryos and passaged several times were analyzed statistically. various cell lines showed different sensitivity and differentiated response in various passages.19761259538
high-voltage electron microscope study of the release of vaccinia virus from whole cells.high-voltage (1,000-kv) electron microscope examination of whole bsc-1 cells infected with vaccinia virus at different times after infection revealed the presence of increasing numbers of virions no longer confined to factories but situated along the cell periphery of monolayer cells. stereoscopic images showed each virus enclosed within a membrane-like component of the host cell cytoplasm. viruses within factories appeared to lack similar enclosures. cytochalasin b, but not vinblastine, caused ...19761271521
effect of 5-bromodeoxyuridine on vaccinia virus-induced polypeptide synthesis: selective inhibition of the synthesis of some post-replicative polypeptides.the effect of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (brdu) on vaccinia virus-induced polypeptide synthesis in bsc-1 cells has been investigated. most virus-induced pre- and post-replicative polypeptides were synthesized in concentrations of 5-bromodeoxyuridine that inhibited virus growth. the synthesis of a few post-replicative polypeptides, however, was severely inhibited under these conditions; included in this group was the precursor of a major core component, polypeptide p4b. a delay in the switch-off of pre- ...19761271530
[our experiences with the 2-stage method of vaccination against smallpox (mva virus pre-vaccination)]. 19761272640
biogenesis of vaccinia: specific inhibition of rapidly labeled host dna in vaccinia inoculated cells. 19761274178
expression cloning of a human dual-specificity phosphatase.using an expression cloning strategy, we isolated a cdna encoding a human protein-tyrosine-phosphatase. bacteria expressing the kinase domain of the keratinocyte growth factor receptor (bek/fibroblast growth factor receptor 2) were infected with a fibroblast cdna library in a phagemid prokaryotic expression vector and screened with a monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. among several clones showing decreased anti-phosphotyrosine recognition, one displayed phosphatase activity toward the kin ...19921281549
decline in ctl and antibody responses to hiv-1 p17 and p24 antigens in hiv-1-infected hemophiliacs irrespective of disease progression. a 5-year follow-up study.ctl and antibody responses to hiv-1 p17 and p24 antigens were monitored from 1986-1991, in 4 hemophiliacs. the patients had been infected with hiv-1 between 1980 and 1984. two patients have remained asymptomatic while two progressed to aids in 1990. ctl were boosted by culturing with peptides from p17 aa 86-115, or p24 aa 265-279; and aa 270-373 or pha. lysis was measured on autologous or allogeneic targets pulsed with peptides or infected with recombinant vaccinia virus carrying hiv-1 gag or in ...19921281655
carbohydrate determinant neuac-gal beta (1-4) of n-linked glycans modulates the antigenic activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein the present study we investigated to what extent the peripheral carbohydrate structure of n-linked glycans influences the antigenic properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120). recombinant gp120 was purified from gmk cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing gp120. purified gp120 was then coated onto 96-well elisa microplates and subjected to sequential removal of peripheral monosaccharide units. modified or unmodified gp120 was then incubated ...19921281869
development of a vaccine for the prevention of aids, a critical appraisal.the pathogenesis and clinical expression of hiv-1 infection in humans is considered in terms of classical pathogenetic studies of viral infections for which successful vaccines have been produced. the unique features of hiv pathogenesis are defined, and gaps in knowledge identified as a framework for considering designs for immune intervention. envelope-derived candidate vaccines have been used in immunization and challenge experiments in siv/macaque or hiv/chimpanzee models, presented either as ...19921281948
[expression of hiv-1 tat gene under the control of p 7,5 kd vaccinia virus promoter in cv-1 cells].the transient expression of the hiv-1 gag genes and a hiv-1 ++trans-activator protein (tat)-encoded was made in cultured cv-1 cells. in recombinant plasmids, the gag gene was under the control of hiv-1 ++trans-activator sequence (tar) and the tat gene was under the control of a 7.5-kd vaccinia promoter. transactivation of gag gene expression, which was stimulated by a tat gene expression product, was observed in the presence of wild vaccinia virus. the transaction was immunologically evaluated f ...19921283722
development of a recombinant vaccinia-rabies vaccine for oral vaccination of foxes against improve both safety and stability of the vaccines used in the field to vaccinate foxes against rabies by the oral route, a recombinant vaccinia virus, expressing the immunizing g protein of rabies virus (vvtgg rab-26d3 187 x p strain) has been developed. the c-dna corresponding to the glycoprotein of the era strain of rabies virus has been inserted into the thymidine kinase (tk) gene of the vaccinia virus (copenhagen strain). the efficacy of this recombinant strain was tested by the oral rout ...19921286744
serum antibodies to hiv-1 in recombinant vaccinia virus recipients boosted with purified recombinant gp160. niaid aids vaccine clinical trials network.serum antibody responses were studied in detail in four vaccinia-naive volunteers in a phase i trial evaluating primary vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the hiv-1 gp160 envelope glycoprotein (hivac-1e, oncogen/bristol-myers squibb), followed by booster immunization with baculovirus-derived rgp160 (vaxsyn, microgenesys). prior to boosting, low-titer fc receptor (fcr)-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancing (ade) activity was detected in two of four volunteers but no igm, ig ...19921287035
[problems associated with the development of vaccines based on recombinant vaccinia virus].a collection of single and double vaccinia virus recombinants was prepared. the recombinants contained either genes for different forms of surface protein or core protein of hbv or the gene for glycoprotein i of varicella-zoster virus. cells infected with the recombinants produced the respective foreign antigens. specific antibodies against the heterologous antigens were induced in mice immunized with the recombinants. the insertion of the second foreign gene into the genome of single recombinan ...19921288884
characterization of vaccinia virus dna replication mutants with lesions in the d5 gene.the vaccinia virus d5 gene encodes a 90 kda early protein that is essential for viral dna replication. in this report we map and explore the phenotypes of the temperature sensitive mutants bearing lesions in this gene: ts17, ts24, ts69 (wr strain) and ts6389 (ihd strain). viral dna synthesis was virtually undetectable during non-permissive infections performed with ts17, and incorporation of 3h-thymidine ceased rapidly when cultures were shifted to the non-permissive temperature in the midst of ...19921291243
dod-sponsored virus vaccine development: an investigator's perspective. 19921297278
[cloning the gene for vaccinia virus strain l-ivp growth factor in escherichia coli].the growth factor gene of the vaccinia virus livp strain has been primarily cloned in a 4.3 kbp long bamhi-ecori fragment and then subcloned in a 440 bp fragment. it was shown that clone 4 of the livp strain contains a single copy of this gene while the wr strain contains a repeat. the gene is located on a 4.3 kbp bamhi-ecori fragment but not on a 2.2 kbp fragment and has four nucleotide changes, three of which result in amino acid substitutions.19921298881
biotransformation of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline by cdna-expressed human cyp1a2 and cyp2e1.six human cytochrome p450s expressed in hepg2 cells using vaccinia virus cdna-directed expression, were used to study the biotransformation of caffeine and its metabolites. cyp1a2 alone was responsible for caffeine 3-demethylation and paraxanthine 7-demethylation; in addition, 1a2 catalysed virtually all reactions related to caffeine and its metabolites. the metabolic profile of caffeine biotransformation by cyp1a2 averaged 81.5% for paraxanthine, 10.8% for theobromine and 5.4% for theophylline ...19921302044
immunologic and antiviral therapy in herpetic keratitis.a group of 113 patients with herpetic keratitis who were administered besides the classical therapy (local and general) immunologic and antiviral treatments was studied. the following romanian non-toxic preparations were used: "sre immunostimulent", "moroxidin" chlorhydrate and "antiherpin". the control group including 120 patients received a classical treatment and the first signs of recovery appeared after 30 days; in 32% of the patients recurrences, were recorded during the first year. the re ...19921304828
immune recognition of human t-cell leukemia virus type-i (htlv-i) by mhc-restricted cytotoxic t our studies, it was demonstrated for the first time that htlv-i gag and px, and env and px antigens are the target antigens recognized by cd8+ ctl in association with rt-1k and rt-1l class i antigens, respectively, in the rat system. furthermore, the gag-expressing rvv and the env-expressing rvv were shown to have the potential to induce htlv-i-specific ctl in wka and lew rats, respectively. these results suggest that, in general, htlv-i structural and non-structural antigens can be recognize ...19921308259
recombinant vaccinia virus with influenza hemagglutinin protects old mice from influenza infection. 19921308994
the varicella-zoster virus immediate-early protein ie62 is a major component of virus particles.varicella-zoster virus (vzv) open reading frame (orf) 62 potentially encodes a protein with considerable amino acid homology to the herpes simplex virus (hsv) immediate-early regulatory polypeptide icp4 (or ie3). to identify and characterize its protein product(s) (ie62), we used a rabbit antiserum prepared against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the c-terminal 13 amino acids of the predicted protein. this antiserum reacted with phosphorylated polypeptides of 175 to 180 kda that were made i ...19921309252
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