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mechanism of vaccinia virus release and its specific inhibition by n1-isonicotinoyl-n2-3-methyl-4-chlorobenzoylhydrazine.the release of vaccinia virus from rk-13 cells and its specific inhibition by n(1)-isonicotinoyl-n(2)-3-methyl-4- chlorobenzoylhydrazine (imcbh) was studied. intracellular naked vaccinia virus (inv) was wrapped by intracytoplasmic membranes, forming an intracellular double-membraned virion. wrapped virions migrated to the cell surface, where the outer virion membrane presumably fused with the plasma membrane, releasing virus surrounded by the inner membrane, referred to as extracellular envelope ...1979501802
[persistence of the vaccinia virus and interferon production in the organs of vaccinated white mice].experiments in white mice vaccinated intradermally with live smallpox vaccine demonstrated penetration and long-term persistence of vaccinia virus in the spleen, lymph nodes, lungs and brain. in the same organs interferon was detected. after a certain period of time interferon was found in higher titers and for longer periods than in the blood of the animals which indicates its production directly in these organs.1979506205
biogenesis of poxviruses: mirror-image deletions in vaccinia virus dna.restriction endonuclease analysis of viral dna extracted from wild-type and temperature-sensitive mutants of vaccinia ihd-w (dales et al., 1978) revealed sequence alterations in approximately 20% of all ts clones examined. the rearrangements were due to deletions up to 250 nucleotide pairs long. using eco ri, sal i, bam i, hpa i and ava i, the deletions were always observed in the same fragments, while analysis with hind iii demonstrated deletions of identical size in the two terminal fragments. ...1979509515
antibody studies in natural bovine cowpox.serological studies on cows recovered from natural cowpox indicated that haemagglutinin-inhibiting (hai) antibody persisted for at least 27 weeks, and virus neutralizing (vn) antibody persisted for at least 98 weeks.1979512354
species specificity of interferon action: maintenance and establishment of the antiviral state in the presence of a heterospecific nucleus.the expression of the interferon-induced antiviral state was studied in heterokaryons and cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids). an autoradiographic assay for the antiviral state, in which the percentage of cells containing vaccinia viral dna factories was determined, was used. the expression of the antiviral state was dominant in homokaryons and heterokaryons formed by fusion of interferon-treated cells with untreated cells. cytoplasts derived from treated cells conferred resistance to virus growth on ...1979513194
abortive transcription products of vaccinia virus are guanylylated, methylated, and polyadenylylated.abortive transcription products were synthesized in vitro by uv-irradiated vaccinia virus particles that were incubated with all four ribonucleoside triphosphates or by unirradiated particles that were incubated in reaction mixtures deficient in ctp or utp. the rna sedimented at 4 to 6s in sucrose gradients, suggesting that premature termination had occurred, presumably in one case because the dna contained uv-induced pyrimidine dimers and in the other case because of ribonucleoside triphosphate ...1979513196
studies concerning the structure and organization of the vaccinia virus nucleoid. i. isolation and characterization of subviral particles prepared by treating virions with guanidine-hcl, nonidet-p40, and 2-mercaptoethanol. 1979516446
inhibition of protein synthesis by vaccinia virus. i. characterization of an inhibited cell-free protein-synthesizing system from infected cells. 1979516449
occurrence of interferon-like antiviral & antitumor factor(s) in extracts of some indigenous plants. 1979521062
multiple extraction of vaccinia virus from pulp material of buffallo calves. 1979521116
restriction endonuclease analysis of red cowpox virus and its white pock variant.the dna of red cowpox virus strain brighton or its white pock variant was analysed by cleavage with restriction endonucleases hindiii, xhoi, psti or kpni. physical maps were constructed and the genomes compared with that of vaccinia virus strain die. the size of the red cowpox genome is 23 to 29 megadaltons greater than that of vaccinia and results from the presence of additional, near terminal sequences. an internal region of about 75 megadaltons appears to be highly conserved between the two v ...1979521806
use of the 51chromium release test to demonstrate antigenic differences between extracellular and intracellular forms of vaccinia virus.complement-dependent antibody lysis of vaccinia-infected cells was examined to demonstrate the antigenic differences between extracellular (ecv) and intracellular (icv) forms of vaccinia virus. cytolytic antibodies present in the antisera raised against ecv or live virus (lv) were completely removed by absorption with infected cell membranes or purified ecv but not with purified icv. absorption with infected cell membranes also abolished the neutralizing activity of ecv and lv antisera against e ...1979521807
[antiviral activity of anomeric 5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridines].the inhibiting effect for herpes and vaccinia viruses of 2'-deoxyuridine derivatives containing the substitute in the position of 5-pyrimidine ring was studied. anomeric 5-isopropyl-2'-deoxyuridines were shown to produce a marked inhibiting effect in chick embryo fibroblasts infected with herpes virus and to have no effect on vaccinia virus replication, that is, to be specific antiherpetic agents. the alpha-anomer of 5-isopropyl-2'-deoxyuridine showed antiherpetic activity in vitro comparable wi ...1979524857
[value of ultrastructural morphology in the preparation of oncolysates of human malignant melanoma].the culture of human cutaneous malignant melanomas is an important stage in the preparation of oncolysates for therapeutic purposes. the authors recall the definition of oncolysate: lysis of the malignant melanocyte by vaccinia virus liberates masked antigens which when reinjected into the patient accelerate or restimulate the production of antibodies. culture is used to increase the number of malignant melanocytes, i. e. antigenic material, which is an essential precaution in tumours of small s ...1979525843
effect of cell-mediated immune factors on the replication of an attenuated temperature-sensitive mutant of vaccinia virus.studies of the in vivo multiplication of an attenuated temperature-sensitive strain of vaccinia virus (ts2) indicated that temperature sensitivity alone could not account for the attenuation. immunodepressive treatment of intracerebrally inoculated mice had a dramatic stimulatory effect on the multiplication of the attenuated strain and suggested that establishment of ts2 infection in the mice was hindered by host defense mechanisms mediated by cellular elements. experiments carried out in vitro ...1979528056
inhibition of protein synthesis by vaccinia virus. ii. studies on the role of virus-induced rna synthesis.cytoplasmic rna synthesis can be detected in vaccinia virus-infected hela cells in the presence of 2 micrograms/ml but not 20 micrograms/ml of actinomycin d. when rna synthesis is observed protein synthesis is inhibited in infected, treated cells. we had previously noted that such a correlation may also be observed in infected, cycloheximide-treated cells. if actinomycin d (20 micrograms/ml) is added to these cells at various times after infection and treatment, the inhibition of protein synthes ...1979528979
effect of n,n'-bis(methylisatin-beta-thiosemicarbazone)-2-methylpiperazine on vaccinia virus replication in vitro and in vivo. brief report.the inhibitory effect of n,n'-bis(methylisatin-beta-thiosemicarbazone)-2-methylpiperazine (compound tski-vi) and methisazone (marboran) on the growth of vaccinia virus (ihd strain) was studied in vitro and in vivo. the therapeutic indices of both compounds determined in vivo were similar, but tski-vi was found more efficient in vitro.1979539911
purity, anticomplementary activity, and viral antibody profile of nig preparations for intravenous and intramuscular use.16 normal immunoglobulin preparations of 4 different manufacturers for intravenous and intramuscular use were tested with regard to purity, anticomplementary activity, and viral antibody profile. besides igg, which accounted for the main part of the protein content, small amounts of iga, igd, and igm were found. ige was detected in every batch studied. some contained ige-concentrations, which are usually seen in atopic persons. anticomplementary activity was detected in preparations for i.m. app ...1979544291
laboratory diagnosis in a case of fatal progressive vaccinia due to manifest immunologic deficiencies.a case of progressive vaccinia is described, in a 21 years old man, diagnosed after 8 months of vaccinial lesion's evolution. the area of vaccination developed progressive necrosis and metastatic lesions evolved on various regions of the body. the vaccinia virus was isolated on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated eggs, from the cutaneous lesions, blood, internal organs and even from the apparently intact skin.--the serological tests indicated hypogammaglobulinemia with absence of neutral ...1979545950
[experiments on disinfection of vaccinia virus embedded in scabs and/or at the hand].vaccinia viruses embedded in rabbit dermal scabs were subjected to physical and chemical disinfection procedures. scabs were suspended in vitro without saline or in physiological saline, and left for 1 hour at 70 to 90 degrees c. a complete inactivation was achived only in those scab samples which had been incubated at 90 degrees c for 1 hour and suspended in physiological saline. scabs which had been placed in a disinfecting apparatus (vacudes 4000) filled with mattrasses consistently proved to ...1977557270
evaluation of central nervous system vaccinia antibody synthesis in multiple sclerosis patients.a serum/cerebrospinal fluid (csf) ratio method was used to determine whether elevated csf vaccinia antibody titers in some patients with multiple sclerosis are the result of central nervous system antibody synthesis or of a leak in the blood-brain barrier. nine of 20 multiple sclerosis patients were noted to have a depressed serum/csf vaccinia antibody ratio and a normal ratio for poliovirus-i, an agent thought not to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. these data suggest cent ...1977557758
synthesis of vaccinia viral antigens in hela cells in the presence of isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone.vaccinia virus antigens, in hela cells treated with the antipox virus drug isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone (ibt), were analyzed by immunoprecipitation, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the total radioactivity in the immunoprecipitate was decreased to almost 50% in the presence of the drug as compared to its absence. an inhibition also occurred with an ibt-dependent mutant (ibt(d)) when growing in the absence of ibt. however, similar levels of radioactivity wer ...1977557952
observations on the effects of formaldehyde on cockroaches and their flora: i. survival of vaccinia virus-infected cockroaches during fumigation with formaldehyde.in these studies it is shown that the common "british" and "american" adult cockroaches can survive exposure to formaldehyde fumigation carried out at double the strength and for four times as long as is recommended for disinfection of rooms. it is further reported that vaccinia virus ingested prior to the fumigation survives in the cockroach gut and may be excreted up to 5 days later. since cockroaches are ubiquitous and are to be found in most hospitals, laboratories and animal houses, these f ...1978563890
serologic and cross-immunity studies with contagious ecthyma and goat pox virus isolates from the western united states.contagious ecthyma and goat pox viruses were isolated from goats affected with papulopustular epidermal lesions. results of in vitro serum neutralization and in vivo cross-immunity studies indicate that these contagious ecthyma and goat pox isolates from the western united states are antigenically dissimilar and that exposure or vaccination with one isolate could not be used as a method of inducing immunity to the other. exposure to each isolate conferred immunity to re-exposure with the same ag ...1978565197
decreased lymphocyte transformation to vaccinia virus in multiple sclerosis.lymphocyte transformation to vaccinia virus was measured in multiple sclerosis (ms) patients and normal controls. there was a significant reduction of lymphocyte transformation to vaccinia virus in multiple sclerosis patients compared with the control group. in addition, a positive correlation existed between the degree of disability of the multiple sclerosis patients and the extent of lymphocyte transformation in the presence of vaccinia virus. there was no correlation between cell-mediated imm ...1978565482
[production of temperature-sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus with the aid of nitrosomethylurea, and their preliminary characteristics].the possibility of using nitrosomethylurea for production of one-hit temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of vaccinia virus suitable for genetic and biochemical studies was explored. the effect of nitrosomethylurea on replicating dna of the virus produced 26 ts mutants, the effectiveness of mutagenesis being 10%. in recombination experiments with 12 of them it was shown that all the mutants under study had single ts defects of the genome. all ts mutants were capable of synthesizing dna under nonpe ...1978565563
[rna transcripts of both strands of viral dna in cells infected with vaccinia virus].denaturated 3h-thymidine-labeled vaccinia virus dna was hybridized with an excess of "late" virus-specific rna isolated from virus-infected chick embryo cell cultures 8 hours postinfection. the percentage of dna converted into dna-rna hybrid under these conditions never exceeded 50%. if the rna preparation had been self-annealed prior to hybridization, the percentage was decreased slightly. on the other hand, if the self-annealed rna had been treated with rn-ase and the double-stranded dna-rna h ...1978569925
[specific cytolytic activity of human lymphocytes following vaccination with vaccinia virus and measles virus].human peripheral lymphocytes harvested 7 days after vaccination with vaccinia virus or measles virus lyse specifically target cells infected with the corresponding virus. this cytotoxic activity is found in a subpopulation of lymphocytes depleted of t-cells and containing lymphocytes bearing fc receptor. the activity can also be transferred by supernatant of immune lymphocytes on addition of normal lymphocyte. these results suggest that two types of cell are involved: an antibody-secreting cell ...1978571140
[attempts to activate virus replication in cell cultures]. 1978571668
transcription of both dna strands of vaccinia virus genome in vivo. 1979572602
growth and differentiation of normal and vaccinia virus infected bone marrow stem cells. 1979573489
interaction of assembled progeny pox viruses with the cellular cytoskeleton. 1979573519
[antiviral agents / 9th communication: virustatically active n-(1-adamantyl)-thiourea derivatives based on cyclic secondary amines (author's transl)].by nucleophilic addition of pyrrolidine (2a), piperidine (2b), 3-hydroxypiperidine (2c), and 4-hydroxypiperidine (2d) on 1-adamantyl-isothiocyanate (1), the n',n'-disubstituted n-(1-adamantyl)-thiourea derivatives 3a, 3b, 3c, and 3d are accessible. particularly 3d exhibits remarkable antiviral activity vaccinia and herpes virus.1977577881
electron microscopic study of hemadsorption on vaccinia virus infected cells.hemadsorption (had) induced in hep-2 cells infected with vaccinia virus was observed. in ultrathin sections, binding of 36 red blood cells (rbcs) was examined in detail and 3 types of had were observed: (1) direct and close binding of rbcs to infected hep-2 cells (cyto-had) was observed in cross sections of 27 rbcs (2) binding of rbcs through microvilli of infected cells was found in 11 rbcs, and (3) five rbcs were distorted to form tentacle-like projections by which they were bound to the hep-2 ...1977593170
a case of accidental oculofacial vaccinia in thailand. 1977596519
experimental vaccinia virus meningoencephalitis in adult albino mice: virological, light microscopic and ultrastructural studies. 1977602682
[reactivity to smallpox vaccines prepared from vaccinia virus strains lister and warszawa]. 1977607273
[combined inhibition of dna synthesis in the vaccinia virus with distamycin a and hydroxyurea in cell culture]. 1977607786
determination of protective humoral antibody levels against vaccinia virus reinfection. 1977617038
a new approach in immunotherapy with vaccinia oncolysates. 1977617403
the mode of replication of vaccinia virus dna. 1978619484
biogenesis of poxviruses: glycolipid metabolism in vaccinia-infected cells. 1978619485
characteristics of a coupled cell-free transcription and translation system directed by vaccinia cores.1. a coupled transcription and translation system is described in which protein synthesis is directed by mrna synthesised in situ by vaccinia virus cores. the cell-free system is based on a micrococcal-nuclease-treated reticulocyte lysate. 2. the polypeptides made in vitro include many authentic early vaccinia proteins, but also other proteins which were not detected in infected cells. 3. concentrations of cores which inhibit host cell protein synthesis in vivo caused a delayed inhibition of tra ...1978620672
in situ assay of poxvirus-induced and virion-contained deoxyribonucleases in dna polyacrylamide gels.cowpox virus and vaccinia virus wr specific dnases were identified by an in situ assay using dna-containing acrylamide gels. a dnase present in the isolated virions of strain cowpox and vaccinia wr was identified. its properties as determined by the in situ assay resembled those of the well-characterized dnase v1. the assay was also used to follow the time course of 'acid' dnase induction by cowpox virus in primary chick embryo fibroblasts.1978621135
common sequence at the 5' ends of the segmented rna genomes of influenza a and b viruses.guanylyl- and methyltransferases, isolated from purified vaccinia virus, were used to specifically label the 5' ends of the genome rnas of influenza a and b viruses. all eight segments were labeled with [alpha-(32)p]guanosine 5'-triphosphate or s-adenosyl[methyl-(3)h]methionine to form "cap" structures of the type m(7)g(5')pppn(m)-, of which unmethylated (p)ppn- represents the original 5' end. further analyses indicated that m(7)g(5')pppa(m), m(7)g(5')pppa(m)pgp, and m(7)g(5')pppa(m)pgpup were r ...1978621778
synthesis of polynucleotide 5'-triphosphatase in vaccinia virus-infected hela cells.synthesis of polynucleotide 5'-triphosphatase, which is presumably involved in the initial modification in the series of reactions by which 5'-termini of vaccinia mrna become capped and methylated, has been demonstrated in vaccinia virus infected hela cells. synthesis of the enzyme is prevented by actinomycin d and cycloheximide, suggesting that both de novo dna-dependent rna and protein syntheses are required. on the other hand, cytosine arabinoside, an inhibitor of viral dna replication, does ...1978621780
procedure for purification of intact dna from vaccinia virus.a procedure for the isolation of intact vaccinia dna molecules by chromatography on hydroxyapatite in the presence of 6 m urea is described. when lysates of virions containing 0.5 to 10 microgram of dna were employed, over 95% of the viral dna could be recovered free of poteins. vaccinia dna molecules isolated in this manner sedimented at 68s in neutral sucrose gradients and had an average contour length of 62.3 micrometer when examined in an electron microscope, and the dna could be cleaved wit ...1978621785
rheumatoid arthritis and generalized vaccinia. 1978621896
biogenesis of vaccinia: isolation of conditional lethal mutants and electron microscopic characterization of their phenotypically expressed defects. 1978622807
humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in humans before and after revaccination with vaccinia virus.twenty-six healthy males vaccinated 15 to 18 years ago with vaccinia virus were revaccinated. blood samples were collected before vaccination and 3 weeks after. the lymphocytes were tested in a blast transformation assay with vaccinia antigen and phytohemagglutinin, and interferon production was measured. the sera were subjected to neutralization and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (adcc) tests. all results were compared with clinical responses. the only test showing immunity in al ...1978624594
topical treatment of vaccinia virus infection with an interferon inducer in rabbits.ointment containing 1.7 mg/g of the interferon inducer poly (iclc) (a complex of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid and with poly-l-lysine and carboxymethylcellulose) was effective both prophylactically and therapeutically against vaccinia virus infection in rabbit skin. poly (iclc)-treated animals developed higher titers of local interferon and of circulating virus-neutralizing antibodies than placebo-treated animals. serum levels of greater than 100 units of interferon/ml were found 24 hr ...1978624854
influence of 5'-terminal cap structure on the initiation of translation of vaccinia virus mrna.the ability of methylated vaccinia virus mrna to bind to ribosomes derived from wheat germ of rabbit reticulocyte lysates has been studied after beta elimination, to remove the 5'-terminal m7g, and after "recapping" of beta-eliminated mrna molecules using guanylyltransferase.guanine-7-methyltransferase complex from vaccinia virions. removal of m7g from the mrna results in significant loss of ability to bind to ribosomes and to simulate protein synthesis in vitro. readdition of m7g, but not of un ...1978627567
clinical and immunological study of percutaneous revaccination in children who originally received smallpox vaccine subcutaneously.in a large multicenter smallpox vaccination study carried out from 1970 to 1973, it was found that 39% of children who were initially immunized by the subcutaneous route and then challenged percutaneously with a standard vaccination did not have measurable neutralizing antibody upon follow-up. because of this finding, a percutaneous revaccination study was conducted at the st. louis study center in 1975 and 1976. there were four study groups, which were composed on the basis of route of primary ...1978632346
the role of vaccinia virus in the evolution of some human hemopathies.six cases of severe hemopathy, detected following smallpox revaccination are described. their onset was favoured by vaccinia virus-induced suppression of cell-mediated and humoral immunity. in two leukemia patients humoral immunity was present, but insufficient to assure protection of the diseased organisms, the outcome being fatal. the pancytopenia syndrome recorded in 4 patients with anergy caused by autoimmune mechanisms had different outcomes: favourable in 2 cases and fatal in the other 2 p ...1978636310
cell-mediated immunity to viruses in hamsters. 1978640020
in vitro stimulation with mitogen and antigen in patients with monoclonal gammopathy.peripheral blood lymphocytes from 32 patients with defined paraproteinaemia (16 igg, 9 iga and 7 igm) and from 15 healthy donors were studied for their in vitro response to various stimuli, including for unspecific mitogens such as phytohaemagglutinin (pha), pokeweed mitogen (pwm) and concanavalin a (cona) as well as specific antigens such as purified tuberculin, candida, varidase, tetanus toxoid, vaccinia antigen and vaccinia-control antigen. mitogens and antigens were lyophilized in microtiter ...1978642400
particle heterogeneity in vaccinia virus populations during passage. 1978644883
[effect of phosphonoacetic acid on experimental vaccinia infection].the effect of phosphonoacetic acid (paa) on reproduction of vaccinia virus in chick embryo fibroblast cultures and on the development of vaccinia virus infection in rabbits was studied. in vitro the preparation was tested as a solution, in vivo as a solution and ointment. in rabbits, the preparation was applied epicutaneously and inoculated subcutaneously and intravenously. all these routes were found to be effective. a single application conferred a much lower protective effect than daily admin ...1978645058
genetic recombination between a temperature sensitive mutant and an isating beta thiosemicarbazone (ibt) resistant mutant of vaccinia virus. 1978649536
length heterogeneity in the dna of vaccinia virus is eliminated on cloning the virus. 1978658440
sinefungin, a potent inhibitor of virion mrna(guanine-7-)-methyltransferase, mrna(nucleoside-2'-)-methyltransferase, and viral multiplication.sinefungin (a9145) and a related metabolite, a9145c, were found to be potent inhibitors of newcastle disease virion and vaccinia virion mrna(guanine-7-)-methyltransferase and vaccinia virion mrna(nucleoside-2'-)-methyltransferase. both sinefungin and a9145c were competitive inhibitors of these s-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent enzymes having inhibition constants substantially less than s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine. these compounds also inhibited plaque formation by vaccinia virus in mouse l-cells.1978659406
purification of mrna guanylyltransferase from vaccinia virions.gtp:rna guanylyltransferase, the enzyme which catalyzes the guanylylation of the 5' termini of viral mrnas, has been isolated and purified approximately 10,000-fold from cores of vaccinia virus. s-adenosyl-methionine:mrna (guanine-7)-methyltransferase copurified with guanylyltransferase activity through chromatography on dna agarose, phosphocellulose, and centrifugation in glycerol gradients, suggesting that the two activities are closely associated. the molecular weight of native guanylyltransf ...1978659428
characteristics of reactions catalyzed by purified guanylyltransferase from vaccinia virus. 1978659429
studies on the mechanisms of vaccinia virus cytopathic effects. ii. early cell rounding is associated with virus polypeptide synthesis.vaccinia virus-induced morphological lesions were studied in llc-mk2, hela and l cells. in llc-mk2 cells, cell rounding occurs within 30 to 60 min after infection with 300, 900 or 2700 particles/cell and the time of appearance of these changes is dependent on the multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.). when cycloheximide (300 microgram/ml) is added to cultures at the time of infection, early cell rounding is prevented regardless of the m.o.i. however, cell rounding does occur when cycloheximide is r ...1978660161
vaccinia virus transcription: hybridization of mrna to restriction fragments of vaccinia dna. 1978664221
structure of vaccinia dna: analysis of the viral genome by restriction endonucleases. 1978664234
replication of vaccinia dna in mouse l cells. iv. protein synthesis and viral dna replication. 1978664237
the role of atp in the biogenesis of vaccinia virus mrna in vitro. 1978664258
relation of poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) synthesis to dna synthesis and cell growth.a permeable cell technique has been used to measure the synthesis of dna and poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) (poly(adpr)) in mouse l cells subjected to different perturbations of cell growth. cells leaving log phase growth and entering plateau phase, showed a decrease in dna synthesis and an associated increase in intrinsic poly(adpr) synthesis. in contrast to the variations in intrinsic poly(adpr) synthesis, the total poly(adpr) synthesis activity, measured in the presence of added dnaase, rema ...1978667059
effect of methylation of the n6 position of the penultimate adenosine of capped mrna on ribosome binding.an rna(2'-o-methyladenosine-n6)-methyltransferase isolated from hela cells was used to convert the ends of vaccinia virus mrnas containing m7g(5')pppam-to m7g(5')pppm6am-. under competitive conditions, there was no preferential binding of mrnas containing m6am residues within the capped ends relative to those containing am either to wheat germ ribosomes at 70 mm potassium acetate or to reticulocyte ribosomes at 120 mm potassium acetate. only at high concentrations of potassium acetate (200 mm) a ...1978670177
sequence complexity and relative abundance of vaccinia virus mrna's synthesized in vivo and in vitro.the sequence complexity and relative abundance of vaccinia virus mrna's, synthesized in vivo and in vitro, have been measured by dna-rna hybridization. up to 42% of [3h]thymidine-labeled virus dna can be protected from digestion with nuclease s1, a single-strand specific nuclease, after annealing to excess polyadenylylated mrna obtained at 7 h after infection. in contrast, only 26% of vaccinia virus dna is protected when hybridized to polyadenylylated rna obtained at 2 h after infection in the p ...1978671583
heat inactivation of vaccinia virus particle-associated functions: properties of heated particles in vivo and in vitro.the heat inactivation characteristics of several vaccinia virus particle-associated functions known to be involved in the transcription of the genome were examined. all functions were more resistant to heat than infectivity. noninfectious particles were generated which exhibited significant levels of activity of all enzymes examined, and their properties were investigaed both in vitro and in vivo. rna was synthesized in vitro by such particles, although transport of the rna into the surrounding ...1978671584
effect of uv irradiation on the expression of vaccinia virus gene products synthesized in a cell-free system coupling transcription and translation.the effect of uv irradiation on the expression of the vaccinia virus genome was investigated in a cell-free system coupling transcription with translation. exposure of vaccinia virus to an increasing dose of irradiation resulted in differential reduction in the syntheses of virus-specified polypeptides in the coupled system, with sensitivity being proportional to the size of the gene pro duct. this suggests that each translationally functional mrna species produced in vitro by vaccinia virus cor ...1978671585
soluble endoribonuclease activity from vaccinia virus: specific cleavage of virion-associated high-molecular-weight rna.a soluble endoribonuclease activity was extracted from purified vaccinia virus cores by treatment with sodium-deoxycholate and dithiothreitol. the soluble enzyme readily cleaved purified virion-associated high-molecular-weight rna to limit-sized fragments sedimenting at 8 to 12s. purified virion-released 8 to 12s polyadenylated mrna was not degraded by the enzyme extract. the soluble endoribonuclease did not require the presence of ribonucleoside triphosphates for activity.1978671588
measles and vaccinia antibodies in multiple sclerosis. 1978671683
rna methylation in vaccinia virus-infected chick embryo fibroblasts treated with homologous interferon.interferon-pretreatment of vaccinia-infected chick embryo fibroblasts resulted in a greater than 50% decrease in ribose methylation of the penultimate "cap" nucleotide in virus-specific mrna. however, in contrast to results obtained with cell-free systems, in intact infected cells there was (a) no detectable reduction in methylation of the 5'-ultimate m7g of viral mrna; (b) a virus specificity of the interferon-induced change in mrna "cap"-methylation seems unlikely and (c) analysis of the ribos ...1978673858
transcription of vaccinia virus mrna coupled to translation in vitro. 1978676075
[the virostatic effect of adenine-arabinoside monophosphate. experimental findings and preliminary clinical experiences].adenine arabinoside (ara-a), a synthetic nucleoside, is an antiviral agent, which is effective against poxviruses and viruses of the herpes group. the monophosphate (ara-amp) has the great advantage of better solubility, compared to the parent compound. experimental studies show the outstanding effect of ara-amp on the encephalitis by vaccinia-virus in white mice. even after immunesuppression by total body irradiation, the survival rate of the ara-amp treated animals was significantly higher com ...1978680620
initiation factor eif-4b (if-m3)-dependent recognition and translation of capped versus uncapped eukaryotic mrnas.translation of capped and uncapped eukaryotic mrnas is stimulated by addition of eif-4b to an mrna-dependent reticulocyte lysate system. m7g5 ppp inhibits translation of capped but not uncapped mrnas and reduces translation of capped vaccinia mrna to the level obtained with uncapped vaccinia mrna. exogenous eif-4b but no other initiation factor reverses inhibition of protein synthesis by m7g5'ppp. both capped and uncapped mrnas interact directly with eif-4b to form a stable complex, which can be ...1978681329
analysis of the methylated 'cap' structures of vaccinia mrna by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography.two different twodimensional cellulose thinlayer separations for blocked, methylated mrna 5'-termini are described. they allow rapid analysis even of complex mixtures of mrna "cap" structures on the basis of their methyl group content and base composition. these simple procedures are especially useful for the analysis of [3h-methyl]-labeled mrna in combination with tritium fluorography. a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the methylated "cap" structures of in vitro labeled vaccinia "core" ...1978683182
[cytogenetic study of the effect of vaccinia virus on cells from embryo and adult mice].after immunization with vaccinia virus an increase in frequency of aneuploids and secondary chromosomal constrictions is observed in adult mice. moreover, an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations was demonstrated. the increase in the number of secondary chromosomal constrictions indicates an activation of nucleolar-organizing regions.1978684811
antiviral activity of extracts from marine algae.extracts of two species of marine algae, constantinea simplex and farlowia mollis, were tested for antiviral activity in tissue culture and in experimental infections of mice. treatment of confluent mouse embryo fibroblast cell monolayers with either compound before viral inoculation was effective in inhibiting the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, vaccinia virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus, but not encephalomyocarditis virus, semliki forest virus, or murine cytomegalovi ...1978686707
effect of double-stranded rna associated with viral messenger rna on in vitro protein synthesis. 1978687583
formation of vaccinia virus dna-protein complex in the presence of isatin beta thiosemicarbazone (ibt).the association of newly synthesized vaccinia virus dna with proteins in infected hela cells was followed. a shift from a high density to a low density complex occurred between 3 and 6 h after infection. this process was not affected by isatin beta thiosemicarbazone (ibt), an inhibitor of pox virus growth. at 22 h after infection in the absence of ibt, mature virions of high density were observed; however, in the presence of the drug, high density dna-protein complexes, which lack the two main v ...1978690618
adsorption and penetration of enveloped and naked vaccinia virus particles.the adsorption and penetration of intracellular naked vaccinia virus (inv) and extracellular enveloped vaccinia virus (eev) were examined. the adsorption kinetics of inv and eev were similar, but inv adsorption was found to be more sensitive to the adsorption environment than eev. the pfu-to-particle ratio for the two virus particles indicated that eev was approximately two times as infectious as inv. kinetic studies at 37 degree c showed that eev penetrated cells more rapidly than inv. penetrat ...1978691111
polypeptide composition of extracellular enveloped vaccinia virus.extracellular enveloped vaccinia (eev) virus grown in sirc and in hela cells was purified by consecutive equilibrium centrifugations in sucrose and cesium chloride gradients. a higher degree of purity was obtained with virus material prepared in sirc cells. the polypeptides of purified eev and inv (intracellular naked vaccinia) virus were compared in polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. three proteins (200,000 molecular weight [200k], 95k, and 13k) detected in hela-derived inv were absent in ...1978691112
multiple roles for atp in the synthesis and processing of mrna by vaccinia virus: specific inhibitory effects of adenosine (beta,gamma-imido) triphosphate.adenosine (beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate (amp-pnp) and guanosine (beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate (gmp-pnp) are analogs of atp and gtp with non-hydrolyzable gamma-phosphates. although both amp-pnp and gmp-pnp were used in place of atp and gtp by escherichia coli rna polymerase to transcribe vaccinia virus dna, only gmp-pnp was used by the transcriptase present within vaccinia virus cores. amp-pnp specifically prevented initiation of transcription, since rna initiated in the presence of atp, gtp, a ...1978691115
simultaneous assay for mrna (guanine-7-)-methyltransferase and mrna(2'-o-nucleoside)methyltransferase of purified vaccinia (wr) virions. 1978697020
mrna(nucleoside-2'-)-methyltransferase from vaccinia virus. purification and physical properties.an s-adenosyl-l-methionine:mrna(nucleoside-2'-)-methyltransferase, one of at least three activities required for the 5'-terminal modification of mrna, has been purified from vaccinia virus particles. employing brome mosaic virus rna ending in m7g(5')pppg- as substrate, a simple deae-cellulose filter assay measuring the incorporation of methyl groups from s-adenosyl[methyl-3h]methionine to position 2' of the penultimate nucleoside was devised. starting from disrupted vaccinia virus cores, a 350-f ...1978701281
mrna(nucleoside-2'-)-methyltransferase from vaccinia virus. characteristics and substrate specificity.an mrna(nucleoside-2'-)-methyltransferase purified from vaccinia virus was shown to methylate the penultimate nucleoside of rna ending in m7g(5')pppn-. by contrast, rnas ending in pn-, ppn-, or even g(5')pppn- are not methyl acceptors. this specificity indicates that 2'-o-methylation is the final step in the formation of the m7g(5')pppnm- cap structure. both adenosine and guanosine are methylated, in accordance with the presence of these nucleosides in the penultimate position of vaccinia virus ...1978701282
absence of detectable capping and methylating enzymes in influenza virions.in the presence of mg(2+) and a specific dinucleotide primer (apg or gpg), the influenza virion transcriptase synthesizes the eight discrete segments of complementary rna (crna) containing polyadenylic acid (plotch and krug, j. virol. 21:24-34, 1977). virions were examined for their ability to cap and methylate crna containing di- or triphosphorylated 5' termini. by using the primers ppapg, pppapg, or ppgpg, viral crna was synthesized in vitro with [alpha-(32)p]-gtp and s-[methyl-(3)h]adenosylme ...1978702657
the effect of mixed infections induced by adenovirus type 5 and vaccinia virus, on the ultrastructure of kb cells. i. ultrastructure of kb cells infected with adenovirus type 5 and vaccinia virus (within a period of 24--72 hours). 1978708935
identification and characterization of ribosomal proteins phosphorylated in vaccinia-virus-infected hela cells.two-dimensional analysis of 32p-labelled ribosomal proteins revealed three proteins which are phosphorylated in vaccinia-virus-infected hela cells. all three proteins belong to the 40-s ribosomal subunits and were identified as s2, s6 and s16. the ribosomal protein s6 is phosphorylated also in uninfected hela cells. phosphoserine was detected in all three proteins, phosphothreonine only in the protein s2. phosphorylation of these ribosomal proteins in infected cells is dependent on the multiplic ...1978710442
atp-independent dna synthesis in vaccinia-infected l cells.mouse l cells can be made permeable to exogenous nucleotides by a cold shock in 0.01 m tris . hcl ph 7.8, 0.25 m sucrose, 1 mm edta, 30 mm 2-mercaptoethanol and 4 mm mgcl2. dna synthesis in permeabilized l cells requires atp whereas dna synthesis in permeabilized l cells that are infected with vaccinia virus is atp-independent. permeabilized l cells that are infected with ultraviolet-irradiated virus show a marked suppression of dna synthesis which is not corrected by an excess of deoxynucleosid ...1978718913
histological and ultrastructural changes in experimentally produced post-vaccinial lymphadenitis in rabbits.light and electron microscopic alterations in lymph nodes after intradermal vaccinia virus inoculation are described. in the early stages the lymph nodes show a diffuse lymphoreticular proliferation associated with the appearance of peculiar large cells called reticulolymphoblasts. this appearance can be mistaken for malignant lymphoma. later on, these changes are replaced by markedly hypertrophied lymphoid follicles which persist for long periods. these alterations can be mistaken for follicula ...1978722407
generation of virus-specific cytolytic activity in human peripheral lymphocytes after vaccination with vaccinia virus and measles virus.human peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) harvested after vaccination with vaccinia or measles virus showed a specific activity against virus-infected target cells. this activity peaked on day 7 and was specific for the target cells infected with the virus used for the vaccination. the cytotoxic activity was not related to hla markers. the cells involved in the cytolytic process were lymphocytes bearing fc receptors. in addition, the cytotoxic activity was abrogated by more than 90% by rabbit fab ...1978723792
expression of vaccinia virion surface tubule protein as a virus specific cell surface antigen.the sequential expression of a vaccinia virus specific antigen on the surface of infected cells has been followed by 125i-labelled anti-vaccinia igg. after an initial drop (during the first 30 minutes of infection) the amount of viral antigen at the cell surface increased steadily for the 12 hours tested. the expression of the antigen was found to depend on protein and rna synthesis from the start, but dependent on dna synthesis only after 4 hours. the senitivity of the phenomenon to ultraviolet ...1978727948
5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine and mrna function. the effect of enzymatic decapping and of cap analogs on translation of tobacco-mosaic-virus rna and globin mrna in vitro.1. decapped tobacco mosaic virus (tmv) rna and rabbit globin mrna were prepared by enzymic treatment of rnas with nucleotide pyrophosphatase purified from potato. the extent of removal of 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine 5'-monophosphate (m7gmp) from tmv rna was at least 97% as estimated by labeling of the 5' termini in vitro with s-adenosyl[methyl-3h]methionine catalysed by vaccinia virus methyltransferases. 2. the effect of enzymic decapping was compared with the effect of cap analogs on mrnas tr ...1978729595
specific secretion of polypeptides from cells infected with vaccinia virus.the pattern of polypeptides specifically secreted by cells after infection with vaccinia virus has been analyzed. a complex pattern of apparently virus-specified polypeptides exhibiting temporal control of the type seen with intracellular polypeptides after virus infection was observed. some of the specifically secreted polypeptides were shown to be modified by glycosylation and sulfation. the possible significance of these results is discussed.1978731794
concanavalin a-mediated cell agglutinability induced by vaccinia virions. 1978741652
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