effect of viruses on luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of human neutrophils.the effects of newcastle disease, herpes simplex, vaccinia, encephalomyocarditis, vesicular stomatitis and reoviruses on in vitro function of neutrophils were studied in ficoll-hypaque-separated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn) employing the technique of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. newcastle disease, herpes simplex vaccinia, and reoviruses depressed chemiluminescence by 98, 65, 46, and 29%, respectively, while encephalomyocarditis and vesicular stomatitis viruses had no inhibitory eff ...1979223982
effect of aphidicolin on viral and human dna polymerases. 1979224865
interferon production by mammalian cells grown in a serum-free medium.interferon, produced by rabbit heart cells grown in a serum-free medium, failed to protect rabbit heart serum-free cells, but protected rabbit heart serum-containing-medium cells against vaccinia and vesicular stomatitis virus. interferon produced in serum-free cells had a greater species specificity than that produced in serum-containing media. the difference in activity was shown to be due to lack of adsorption by serum-free-medium cells.1979225261
plaque formation by a host range mutant of vaccinia virus in non-permissive cells co-infected with yaba virus.a host-dependent conditional lethal mutant of vaccinia virus strain dis was rescued to form plaques in a non-permissive cell line jinet co-infected with yaba virus, a poxvirus serologically distant from the rescued virus. the efficiency of plaque formation under optimal conditions in this system was comparable to that in vero cells which were permissive for the mutant. the plaque number of the mutant in jinet cells was influenced greatly by the multiplicity of yaba virus, the interval between in ...1979225417
replication of vaccinia dna and studies on the structure of the viral chromosome. 1979226322
biogenesis of poxviruses: role for the dna-dependent rna polymerase ii of the host during expression of late functions.the participation of host rna polymerase ii in the vaccinia life cycle was examined by comparing efficiency of multiplication after treating the ama+ sensitive and ama 102 drug resistant lines with alpha-amanitin. in the latter, resistance is due to a mutation in rna polymerase ii. the toxin profoundly reduces synthesis of virus-specified polypeptides and morphopoeisis in ama+ but not in ama 102 rat myoblasts without appreciably altering vaccinia dna replication in either cell type. this implica ...1979226996
orthopoxvirus strains defective in surface antigen induction.various strains of vaccinia, variola, whitepox, monkeypox and cowpox viruses were examined for their capacity to induce a specific early antigen detectable on the surface of infected cells. the elstree strain of vaccinia, two strains of variola minor and white variants of cowpox and monkeypox viruses lacked the capacity to induce the antigen. variation of the parent cowpox and monkeypox viruses to white variants was always accompanied by the loss of the antigen-inducing capacity.1979227999
n-alpha-cocoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester, dl-pyroglutamic acid salt, as an inactivator of hepatitis b surface antigen.n-alpha-cocoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester, dl-pyroglutamic acid salt (cae), exhibited a strong inactivating effect on hepatitis b surface antigen. concentrations of cae required for 50 and 100% inactivation of the antigen were 0.01 to 0.025% and 0.025 to 0.05% respectively. cae completely inactivated hepatitis b surface antigen at the lowest concentration compared with various compounds including about 500 amino acid derivatives, sodium hypochlorite, 2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether, and so ...1979228595
comparison of cowpox-like viruses isolated from european zoos. brief report.poxviruses isolated from captive carnivores in russia (moscow virus) and elephants in germany (elephant virus) were very closely-related to cowpox virus. immunological analysis with absorbed sera separated elephant virus but not cowpox and moscow virus, whereas polypeptide analysis separated cowpox but not elephant and moscow virus. a combination of biological tests separated all three. the epidemiological implications are briefly reviewed.1979229799
serologically cross-reactive polypeptides in vaccinia, cowpox and shope fibroma immunoprecipitation method coupled with sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) was used to identify the serologically cross-reactive polypeptides in orthopoxvirus (vaccinia and cowpox viruses) and leporipoxvirus (shope fibroma virus). two early and four late polypeptides in cells infected with vaccinia or cowpox virus were specifically immunoprecipitated with antiserum against shope fibroma virus. two early and two late polypeptides in cells infected with shope fibroma virus cross- ...1979230296
5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridines which selectively inhibit herpes simplex virus replication. 1979230717
[inhibition of vaccinia, sindbis and para-influenza virus replication by isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone derivative and methisazone in vitro and in vivo]. 1979232050
conservation and variation in orthopoxvirus genome structure.orthopoxvirus dna from representative strains of rabbitpox, vaccinia, monkeypox, variola, cowpox and ectromelia viruses was analysed by cleavage with restriction endonucleases hindiii, xhoi or smai. genome mol. wt. vary from about 120 x 10(6) for rabbitpox to about 145 x 10(6) for cowpox. physical maps of cleavage sites are similar and characteristic for strains of the same orthopoxvirus type. the distribution of hindiii sites suggests that an internal region of mol. wt. about 30 x 10(6) is high ...1979232137
[the resistance of a maternally-derived immunity of baby mice against mousepox--experiments regarding a special possibility of immunization with orthopox viruses (author's transl)].in the scope of research concerning new proplylactic possibilities against mousepox we tested the resistance of a passive immunity of baby mice whose mothers had been immunized before or during pregnancy several times with either the vaccinia virus strains mva, cvb or the so-called attenuated ectromelia virus strain "hampstead" respectively. the vaccines cvb and "hampstead" were found to cause the production of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies only. a passively-transmitted immunity of bab ...1979232602
[analysis of vaccinia virus genome with restriction endonucleases ecori, bamhi, kpni and hindiii].restriction endonucleases ecori, bamhi, hind iii and kpni were used for analysis of acccinia virus dna. the number and size of restriction endonuclease fragments were determined by gel electrophoresis and the analysis of 3h-labeled vaccinia virus dna. it was shown that many ecori and bamhi fragments had the same and similar sizes. the exact number of ecori and bamhi fragments were estimated only after analysis of [3h]-labeled vaccinia dna. the vaccinia genome sizes calculated from hindiii, kpni ...1979232745
glycyrrhizic acid inhibits virus growth and inactivates virus particles.screening investigations in antiviral action of plant extracts have revealed that a component of glycyrrhiza glabra roots, found to be glycyrrhizie acid, is active against viruses. we report here that this drug inhibits growth and cytopathology of several unrelated dna and rna viruses, while not affecting cell activity and ability to replicate. in addition, glycyrrhizic acid inactivates herpes simplex virus particles irreversibly.1979233133
5-propyl-2'-deoxyuridine: a specific anti-herpes both primary rabbit kidney cells and human skin fibroblasts, 5-propyl-2'-deoxyuridine proved inhibitory to herpes simplex virus at a concentration as low as 1 micrograms/ml, whereas concentrations higher than 200 micrograms/ml were required to inhibit vaccinia virus replication or normal cell metabolism.1978233730
generation of both cross-reactive and virus-specific t-cell populations after immunization with serologically distinct influenza a viruses.specificity of cytotoxic t-cell function was investigated for a range of different influenza viruses. t cells from mice immunized with a or b strain influenza viruses, or with vaccinia virus, showed reciprocal exclusion of cytotoxicity. extensive cross-reactivity was, however, found for lymphocyte populations from mice infected with a variety of serologically distinct influenza a viruses, though serum antibodies did not cross-react when tested in a radioimmunoassay using comparable target cells ...1977233901
antiviral protection by virus-immune cytotoxic t cells: infected target cells are lysed before infectious virus progeny is assembled.virus-immune cytotoxic t cells can inhibit effectively growth of vaccinia virus in acutely infected target cells in vitro by destroying infected target cells before infectious virus progeny is assembled. together with the fact that virus-specific t cells are demonstrable after 3 days, very early during infection, and with strong circumstantial evidence from adoptive transfer models in vivo, these data suggest that in some virus infections t cells may in fact act cytolytically in vivo to prevent ...1977233908
synergic action of distamycin a and hydroxyurea on the reproduction of dna viruses in cell cultures.the antiviral activity of the combination of distamycin a (da) pand hydroxyurea (hu) on the reproduction of vaccinia and pseudorabies viruses was investigated. the drug combination exerted a significant synergic inhibitory effect on the vaccinia virus yield and on the plaque formation in chick embryo cells. similar experiments on pseudorabies virus showed an additive effect. the possible mechanism of the mutual enhancement of the antiviral activity is discussed.1975235201
isolation of vaccinia virus from children with postvaccinal encephalitis at late intervals after vaccination. 1975235206
characterization of a protein kinase and two phosphate acceptor proteins from vaccinia virions.the phosphorylation of two purified vaccinia virus proteins (acceptors i and ii) by a protein kinase isolated from vaccinia virus cores has been studied. phosphorylation of viral acceptor proteins by the purified enzyme was dependent on the presence of atp, mg2+, and protamine or other basic proteins, and was maximal at alkaline ph values. cyclic mononucleotides did not stimulate the vaccinia protein kinase under a variety of conditions. protamine, however, was shown to function as an enzyme act ...1975235513
[differences in the quality of vaccinia viruses with normal and abnormal post-vaccination course (with neurological complications) (author's transl)].conventional vaccinia strains were cultured at different temperatures, because it is known that vaccinia viruses which are human pathogens grow even at higher temperatures (41 degrees c). neither the vaccination strains nor the vaccinia viruses which were isolated from vaccination vesicles after normal (n equals 7) or abnormal primary vaccinations (n equals 2) multiplied at higher incubation temperatures; vaccinia viruses isolated from csf of four patients with neurological complications behaved ...1975236900
characterization of a polyriboadenylate polymerase from vaccinia virions.a poly(a) polymerase with a molecular weight of approximately 80,000 containing 51,000 and 35,000 molecular weight subunits, was purified by affinity chromatography from vaccinia virus cores. the enzyme had a ph optimum of about 8.6, was dependent on divalent cations, and had considerably more activity with mn-2+ than mg-2+. at equimolar concentrations, other ribonucleoside triphosphates inhibited poly(a) polymerase activity by less than 10%; nacl was extremely inhibitory at concentrations above ...1975237910
streptovirudins -- new antibiotics with antiviral activity. the antiviral spectrum and inhibition of newcastle disease virus in cell cultures.streptovirudins are new antibiotics isolated as a mixture of several structurally related compounds from fermentations of streptomyces griseoflavus (krainsky) waksman et henrici var. thuringensis ja 10124. they possess antiviral activity against rna and dna viruses cultivated in chick embryo cells, namely sindbis, fowl plague, newcastle disease (ndv), pseudorabies, vaccinia and sheep abortion viruses. the naturally formed streptovirudin complex, in concentrations of 20-2.5 mug/ml inhibited the v ...1975241229
elimination of naturally occurring crosslinks in vaccinia virus dna after viral penetration into cells.vaccinia virus dna, extracted from purified virus or from the cytoplasmic fraction of virus-infected cells very shortly after infection, was analyzed by sedimentation in alkaline and neutral sucrose gradients. the sedimentation properties of vaccinia dna under denaturing conditions changed, immediately after penetration into the cell, from the characteristic circular viral dna (crosslinked double-stranded linear dna) to nicked circular dna or to single-stranded molecules. this transition occurre ...1977266214
5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine and mrna function: influence of potassium concentration on translation in vitro.vaccinia mrnas containing either 5'-terminal m7g or unmethylated 5'-terminal structures were synthesized in vitro and their relative efficiencies of translation were compared in wheat germ and reticulocyte cell-free protein-synthesizing systems. the importance of the m7g group for efficient translation increases as the k+ concentration is raised. at k+ concentrations optimal for translation of mrna containing m7g, unmethylated mrna is translated at the same relative low efficiency in both cell e ...1977269388
sites of transcription initiation in vivo on xenopus laevis ribosomal dna.we report the results of a novel method for locating sites of transcription initiation using a complex of capping enzymes from vaccinia virions that catalyze the reaction pppg + s-adenosylmethionine + (p)ppxpypzp..... -->(7m)gpppxpypzp..... [ensinger, m. j., martin, s. a., paoletti, e. and moss, b. (1975) proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 72, 2525-2529]. this enzyme complex will cap di- or triphosphate termini but will not cap monophosphate or hydroxyl termini. xenopus laevis 40s precursor rrna from oo ...1977271962
in vitro inhibition of protein synthesis by purified cores from vaccinia virus.the mechanism of the shutoff of cellular protein synthesis in vaccinia virus-infected cells has been investigated by using in vitro systems. purified vaccinia cores cause inhibition of endogenous mrna translation in nonpreincubated reticulocyte lysates and ehrlich ascites tumor cell-free systems. translation of viral mrna from turnip yellow mosaic virus is also impaired in wheat germ cell-free extracts. the block induced by vaccinia cores in protein synthesis is not due to a decrease in the avai ...1978272632
antiviral activities of 4'-(9-acridinylamino)-methanesulfon-m-aniside (sn11841).sn11841 [4'-(9-acridinylamino)-methanesulfon-m-aniside] is an antitumor compound discovered by b.f. cain. the ld50 for balb/c mice with single intraperitoneal dosage is approximately 25 mg/kg. rlv-(rauscher leukemia virus)-induced splenomegaly, a disease indicator in balb/c mice, is inhibited at sn11841 doses not causing acute mortality. the life span of rlv-infected mice increases at some sn11841 doses. sn11841 does not have direct, or virolytic effects on rlv under conditions approximating tho ...1977280145
activation of reticuloendothelial system macrophages and enhancement of host resistance to a transplantable osteogenic sarcoma in mice by an extract of brucella aqueous-ether extract of brucella abortus, bru-pel, enhanced resistance of mice to a transplantable osteogenic sarcoma (ogs). the results presented in this report suggest that bru-pel is an effective immunomodulator and that one mechanism through which it enhances host resistance is activation of phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system. peritoneal macrophages from mice inoculated with bru-pel 14 days previously were cytotoxic for ogs cells in vitro, limited the multiplication of va ...1978282007
visualization of an inverted terminal repetition in vaccinia virus inverted terminal repetition was observed in dna molecules extracted from vaccinia virus. the repeated sequence was visualized by (i) nicking the hairpin loops present of the ends of vaccinia virus dna, (ii) separating the strands of dna by alkali denaturation, (iii) allowing the single strands to self-anneal, and (iv) examining the dna with an electron microscope. single-stranded circular molecules, each of which contained a duplex projection (3.54 +/- 0.12 micron) representing the terminal ...1978283397
transfer of 5'-terminal cap of globin mrna to influenza viral complementary rna during transcription in vitro.we have recently demonstrated that globin mrnas are effective primers for influenza viral rna transcription in vitro catalyzed by the virion transcriptase [bouloy, m., plotch, s. j. & krug, r. m. (1978) proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 75, 4886-4890]. here, we present direct evidence that the 5'-terminal methylated cap of the globin mrnas is transferred to viral complementary rna (crna) during transcription. chemical (beta-elimination) or enzymatic removal of the cap of globin mrnas eliminated essenti ...1979287003
generation of cytotoxic t lymphocytes during coxsackievirus b-3 infection. i. model and viral specificity1.the production of cytotoxic cells in the spleen of adult male balb/c mice infected with coxsackievirus b-3 has been examined. an in vitro 51cr release assay was used to measure cytotoxic activity against virus-infected and uninfected neonatal sygeneic fibroblasts. cytotoxicity of immune spleen cells against virus-infected targets was detected on the 3rd day after infection, reached a peak on day 7, and then declined to low levels by days 12 and 14. spleen cells obtained 3 and 5 days after infect ...1977300399
lymphocytotoxic antibodies in multiple sclerosis. 1977300662
neonatally tolerant mice fail to react against virus-infected tolerated cells. 1977301251
recognition of alterations induced by early vaccinia surface antigens and dependence of virus-specific lysis on h-2 antigen concentration on target cells.specific recognition of antigens by cytolytic t lymphocytes sensitized to vaccinia virus was tested by monolayer adsorption. adsorption was possible only on monolayers also expressing syngenic h-2 as viral antigens present during the sensitization phase. vaccinia-virus-infected target cells were subjected to papain and neuraminidase treatment. h-2 antigenic determinants could be removed by papain treatment. due to virus-specific inhibition of host-cell protein synthesis, reexpression of h-2 anti ...1977302176
immune response in humans after vaccination with vaccinia virus: generation of a virus-specific cytotoxic activity by human peripheral lymphocytes.after vaccinia virus vaccination of human volunteers, local indurations developed within 10 days, and regional adenopathy was detected in half of the individuals. their peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) harvested at different days after vaccination showed specific activity against target cells infected with vaccinia virus with a peak activity at day 7. the specificity of the cytotoxic activity was not related to hla markers, since autologous, homologous, and heterologous infected target cells w ...1977302316
treatment of fatal disseminated vaccinia virus infection in immunosuppressed mice.studies were performed to compare the therapeutic effectiveness of three antiviral drugs (ara-a, ara-c and idu) on the course of fatal disseminated vaccinia virus infection in immunosuppressed mice. treatment with ara-a begun as late as 7 days after virus infection was significantly effective in preventing death; no antiviral effect of the other two drugs was demonstrated.1977302323
inhibition of host protein synthesis in vaccinia virus-infected cells in the presence of cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine).cordycepin inhibited efficiently viral mrna and polyadenylic acid syntheses in vaccinia virus-infected cells, but allowed the shutoff of host protein synthesis to occur. therefore, cordycepin was used to study this shutoff in the absence of gene expression. ribosome transit time was increased in infected cells, revealing an inhibition at the level of elongation and/or release of polypeptide chains. however, the disappearance of heavy polysomes in vaccinia virus-infected cells showed that the inh ...1978304489
immune effector cell activity in canines: failure to demonstrate genetic restriction in direct antiviral cytotoxicity.experiments were undertaken to establish whether the cytotoxic activity of canine immune effector cells against viral antigens was affected by the genotype of the target cell (genetic restriction). puppies from three different breeds were infected with vaccinia virus, and the peripheral blood leukocytes were collected at various times for measurement of their cytotoxicity against autologous and heterologous vaccinia virus-infected and uninfected skin fibroblasts. in all cases cytotoxicity only o ...1978304843
on the thymus in the differentiation of "h-2 self-recognition" by t cells: evidence for dual recognition?in the thymus, precursor t cells differentiate recognition structures for self that are specific for the h-2k, d, and i markers expressed by the thymic epithelium. thus recognition of self-h-2 differentiates independently of the t cells h-2 type and independently of recognition of nonself antigen x. this is readily compatible with dual recognition by t cells but does not formally exclude a single recognition model. these conclusions derive from experiments with bone marrow and thymic chimeras. i ...1978305459
the lymphoreticular system in triggering virus plus self-specific cytotoxic t cells: evidence for t help.the thymus determines the spectrum of the receptor specificities of differentiating t cells for self-h-2; however, the phenotypic expression of t cell's specificity for self plus virus is determined predominantly by the h-2 type of the antigen presenting cells of the peripheral lymphoreticular system. furthermore, virus specific helper t cells are essential for the generation of virus-specific cytotoxic t cells. for cooperation between mature t cells and other lymphocytes to be functional in chi ...1978305460
studies on the mechanisms of vaccina virus cytopathic effects. i. inhibition of protein synthesis in infected cells is associated with virus-induced rna synthesis.the mechanism of vaccinia virus-induced inhibition of protein synthesis was studied in llc-mk2, hela and l cells. removal of cycloheximide (300 microgram/ml) from cells infected at a multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) of 300 particles/cell at 4 h after infection resulted in the resumption of both host and virus protein synthesis in llc-mk2 cells, but not in hela and l cells. in order to determine whether virus-induced rna synthesis, which occurs in infected cells in the presence of cycloheximide ...1978307049
[local reaction and neutralization test in smallpox vaccination after previous inoculation with mva. stickl's graduated vaccination (author's transl)].of 200 first inoculations and 8 revaccinations, the sera were examined for content of neutralizing vaccine antibodies 3 weeks after the mva graduated inoculation. in spite of imponderables which affect the failure rate in the "clinical trial", a positive result was obtained on first vaccination in 85%. in vaccinated children with a negative neutralization test a distinct booster effect was obtained with a "main vaccination" after about six months. the same effect was seen with revaccinations. fo ...1978307672
host range restriction of vaccinia virus in chinese hamster ovary cells: relationship to shutoff of protein synthesis.chinese hamster ovary cells were found to be nonpermissive for vaccinia virus. although early virus-induced events occurred in these cells (rna and polypeptide synthesis), subsequent events appeared to be prevented by a very rapid and nonselective shutoff of protein synthesis. within less than 2 h after infection, both host and viral protein syntheses were arrested. at low multiplicities of infection, inhibition of rna synthesis with cordycepin resulted in failure of the virus to block protein s ...1978310474
vaccinia-specific cytotoxic t-cell responses in the context of h-2 antigens not encountered in thymus may reflect aberrant recognition of a virus-h-2 complex.balb/c (h-2kd-dd) spleen and lymph node populations were specifically depleted of alloreactive potential by filtration through h-2 different, irradiated recipients. these negatively selected t cells were then stimulated with vaccinia virus in mice expressing the foreign h-2 determinants encountered previously in the filter environment. strong virus-immune cytotoxic t-cell responses were seen in the context of h-2kk and h-2ks, but not 2h-2kb. the t cells generated were not cross-reactive for the ...1979310857
cellular immune response to measles, mumps, and vaccinia viruses in multiple sclerosis.the cell-mediated immune response to measles, mumps, and vaccinia viruses was studied in ms patients, normal controls, and neurological disease controls using a lymphocyte proliferation assay. a small but significant difference was found in the response to measles between the ms and normal control groups but not between the ms and neurological disease control groups. in each of the groups, the response of both peripheral blood leukocytes and purified t-cells to measles was significantly less tha ...1979315204
immunogenetic studies on meth-a-vaccinia tumour cells in vivo and in vitro. 1977326975
effect of human fibroblast interferon on vaccination in volunteers. 1978342530
[resistance of serratia marcescens to an etbylene oxide-methyl bromide mixture and the possibility of using it to control the effectiveness of disinfectant measures].the authors studied the serratia marcescens (strain no. 851) resistance to the okćbm mixture by the method of test objects in comparison with the vaccine virus (strain b-51) at a temperature of 20, 30, and 40 degrees c. resistance of the mentioned bacteria to the okćbm mixture proved to be somewhat greater than that of the vaccine virus at 20 and 30 degrees c, whereas at 40 degrees c their resistance was found to be practically identical. this permits to use serratia marcescens to control the ef ...1978352054
meningeal exudate cells in vaccinia meningitis of mice: role of local t cells.intracerebral inoculation of vaccinia virus into adult ddd mice produced intensive meningitis several days after infection. the inflammatory reaction could be quantitated by counting cells obtained from this inflammatory lesion. the local virus titer increased until day 5 and subsequently decreased rapidly with time. concomitant with this titer decrease, numerous meningeal exudate cells appeared in the lesion. the cytotoxic activity of these cells against vaccinia virus infected cells was studie ...1978352957
[production of antiserum for preparation of fitc-conjugated immunoglobulins intended for poxvirus detection].the experience of using sheep as donors of hyperimmune smallpox antiserum produced by immunization with vaccinia virus grown in the homologous tissue is described. in the preparatory stage of immunization four intravenous or intramuscular injections of a low dose of the antigen were used. subsequently, as the need in the serum arose (10--14 days before) the animals were given a "hit" dose of the antigen (20 ml) intravenously. with this immunization schedule it was possible to obtain smallpox ant ...1978358600
[why does tetanus not occur among brazilian amerindians of the amazon region? a critical analysis of the problem and the elements involved]. 1978368946
portraits of viruses: the poxviruses. 1979372132
[viral hypothesis of multiple sclerosis: new aspects].a review is presented of the epidemiological and serological data on which the viral hypothesis of multiple sclerosis is based. recent experiments investigating the capacity of viruses to establish chronic infections are presented as a model to explain the clinical course of the disease. finally, studies of the molecular interactions of vaccinia virus with the myelin membrane serve as a basis on which to discuss the problem of the mechanism of demyelination.1979373106
[preparation and characteristics of diploid cell strains from the tissues of a bovine embryo].two strains of diploid cells were prepared from the lung (bel-2) and skin-muscle (smbe-3) tissues of a bovine embryo. according to the results of morphological and karyological studies, these cultures consisted of fibroblast-like cells retaining diploid chromosome number (60) in the process of long-term cultivation. these cell populations have a limited life span (75-80 passages) and 3 growth phases. the species appurtenance of bel-2 and smbe-3 cells was confirmed. the cells were not contaminate ...1979373247
experimental viral infections of the temporal bone. i. experimental otitis media due to vaccinia virus in hamsters.clinical and pathologic studies of patients with smallpox suggest that conductive hearing loss is a frequent complication of smallpox and that it is due to otitis media. a possible experimental model for this hearing loss has been developed by study of the pathogenesis of acute vaccinia virus infections of hamster middle ears. infant hamsters developed severe necrotic otitis media, and vaccinia viral antigen was demonstrated by fluorescent antibody staining in large confluent areas of epithelial ...1979376758
widespread eczema vaccinatum acquired by contacts. a report of an autopsy case.a 4-month-old male infant predisposed to allergic dermatitis acquired wide-spread eczema vaccinatum by contacts with a recently vaccinated sibling. he died of acute purulent peritonitis following a perforation of multiple duodenal ulcers. fluorescence immunocytochemical and electron microscopic studies on the skin lesions revealed the presence of viral antigens and numerous virus particles compatible morphologically with those of the mature form from the same batch of smallpox vaccine given to t ...1979377910
[evaluation of the inhibiting action of virazole on the reproduction of the vaccinia virus in tissue culture].experimental data of the evaluation of the antiviral activity of virazole in tissue culture using the fluorescent antibody technique are presented. administration of virazole in the maintenance medium in a concentration range of 800--6.25 microgram/ml immediately after vaccinia virus adsorption exerts a marked inhibiting effect reducing virus reproduction by 3.1--1.6 1g, respectively. the chemotherapeutic index of the drug is 128. in a one-cycle experiment, virazole in the minimal effective conc ...1979380162
the effect of template secondary structure on vaccinia dna polymerase.vaccinia virus dna polymerase will utilize a substrate consisting of phi x174 dna primed with a strand of a unique restriction fragment, but the reaction is inefficient. examination of the reaction products by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a few discrete fragments, each corresponding to an extended primer strand. this result implies that specific barriers exist on the phi x174 template which impede, but do not completely halt, the progress of the enzyme. only a few per cent of th ...1979381293
edward jenner, william woodville, and the origins of vaccinia virus. 1979381378
the effect of bcg-vaccination on vaccinia virus infections in mice.pretreatment with bcg yielded a high degree of protection against experimental vaccinia virus infections in mice. corynebacterium parvum and aristolochia acid were less protective; other immunostimulants were ineffective.1979389657
multiplication of vaccina virus in the livers of mice after frog virus 3-induced damage to sinusoidal cells. 1979390146
[history of smallpox vaccination in romania and source of the ic strains of vaccinia virus].smallpox existed in romania since the 17th century, when both variolation and vaccinia were used for preventing the disease. jenner's vaccination was performed in 1801 in cluj and tirgu mures and extended to the entire country during the following 31 years. the vaccinia virus strain used for preparing the smallpox vaccine was received in 1893 from the vaccine institute of berlin by prof. riegler of the faculty of veterinary medicine, bucharest. in 1949, it was taken over by the cantacuzino insti ...1979394273
[effect of various mannich bases, isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone derivatives, on vaccinia virus replication in vitro and in vivo]. 1979396195
investigations of the antiviral activity of some nitroso-urea derivatives. inhibitory action of the iob-252 nitroso-urea derivative on vaccinia virus incell cultures.the nitroso-urea derivative iob-252 was administrered in monkey kidney cell cultures in a concentration of 40 mug/ml 24 hours before inoculation of vaccinia virus and maintained afterwards in a concentration of 25 mug/ml. the drug inhibited vaccinia virus multiplication, hemagglutinin synthesis and late cytopathic effect, but did not prevent early cytopathic lesions. iob-252 inhibited the synthesis of interferon initiated by a viral inductor and blocked the antiviral effect of an exogeneous inte ...1977403676
comparative studies of several vaccinia virus strains by intrathalamic inoculation into cynomolgus monkeys.from the comparative studies of the virulence of several vaccinia virus strains by intrathalamic inoculation into cynomolgus monkeys, the following results were observed. the cv1 virus was most virulent, the new york city board of health, ikeda, em63, and lister viruses were slightly less virulent, and dis and lc16 viruses least virulent. the characteristic findings were widespread inflammatory lesions in the meninges and choroid plexus which were closely associated with the replication of vacci ...1977404993
single radial immunodiffusion test for detecting antibodies against surface antigens of intracellular and extracellular vaccinia virus.antibodies to surface antigens of intracellular naked vaccinia virus (inv) and in limited studies extracellular enveloped virus (eev) were determined by single radial immunodiffusion tests (srdt) with immobilized virions in agarose gels. antibodies to inv were demonstrable in rabbit hyperimmune sera (one to four visible zones), smallpox convalescent sera and sera from re-vaccinated individuals. a difference in specificity of antibodies reacting with inv and eev was detectable by srdt. the srdt p ...1977407326
cell-mediated immune response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis and vaccinia virus in rats.the parameters of cell-mediated immune responses of rats to infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus or vaccinia virus were assessed by measuring primary footpad swelling, increased weights of the local lymph nodes, increased numbers of lymphocytes per lymph node, and the course of virus-specific cytolytic activity by these lymphocytes. except for lack of a defined swelling caused by vaccinia virus injected into the hind footpads of rats, the kinetics of all these responses correlated a ...1977408419
[penetration of vaccinia virus through the mucosa of the small intestine and its dissemination in the body following enteric immunization of monkeys].the authors studied the penetration of variolo-vaccine virus through the mucosa of the small intestine of macacus rhesus in enteral immunization, by immunofluorescent and virological methods. fifteen minutes after the immunization the variolo-vaccine virus was revealed at the surface of the mucosal prismatic epithelium and in the t. mucosa propria within the cytoplasm of cells of the macrophage type. dissemination of the process with detection of the variolo-vaccine virus in the blood, the lymph ...1977409010
a comparison of neurovirulence of vaccinia virus by intrathalamic and/or intracisternal inoculations into cynomolgus monkeys. 1977409906
[influence of a complex of poly(i). poly(c) and poly-l-lysine on the course of vaccinia in monkeys].experiments of 22 macaca rhesus monkeys were carried out to study the interferon-inducing and antiviral activity of poly(i) - poly(c) and of its complex with poly-l-lysine. the complexed double-stranded polyribonucleotide induced active production of serum interferon and markedly protected the monkeys inoculated intradermally with vaccinia virus (10 monkey id50 by intradermal inoculation). the effectiveness of the protective effect depended on the schedule and routes of administration of the pre ...1977410162
[differences in the repair activity of cells from inbred strains of mice following exposure to the chemical carcinogen--4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide]. 1978415853
impaired defense against vaccinia in a child with t-lymphocyte deficiency associated with inosine phosphorylase defect.a case of progressive vaccinia associated with a profound deficiency of cellular immunity and a defect in inosine phosphorylase is described. a striking contrast was observed between humoral immunity, which showed little if any impairment, and a severe cellular defect affecting both markers and functions of t lymphocytes. the child died despite treatment with methosazone, levamisole, transfer factor, irradiated blood transfusions, and a thymus graft. an adequate serum level of antibody to vaccin ...1978416187
interferon enhances the fragility of lysosomes in l-929 mouse fibroblasts.infection of interferon-treated l-929 mouse fibroblasts with vaccinia wr virus is followed by severe cytolysis within 3 to 4 h. it is shown that this cytolysis cannot be caused by enzymes released from lysosomes into the cytosol. however, there is evidence that homologous interferon has a noxious effect on lysosomes. this phenomenon appears to be another aspect of the anticellular functions of interferon.1978418151
methylation of vaccinia virus-specific mrna in the interferon-treated chick cell. 1979425328
further studies on a vaccinia virus cytotoxin present in infected cell extracts: identification as surface tubule monomer and possible mode of action.a vaccinia virus-specific cytotoxic protein (3--10 x 10(4) daltons) had previously been detected in extracts of infected hela cells. in this study the protein has been shown to be a late gene product and a virion component--almost certainly the monomer of the surface tubules of the vaccinia virion. the relationship of this cytotoxin to a number of early vaccinia-induced cytopathic effects was examined: it was not the mediator of vaccinia-induced early cell rounding, did not inhibit protein or rn ...1979426631
effect of capping upon the mrna properties of satellite tobacco necrosis virus ribonucleic acid.the mrna guanyltransferase-mrna methyltransferases of vaccinia virions can be used to introduce a 5'-terminal m7g(5')pp(5')apm... capping group onto the rna of satellite tobacco necrosis virus (stnv rna) to yield intact capped stnv rna. studies with an in vitro system from wheat germ and limiting quantities of capped and uncapped stnv rna show that the rates and extents of formation of initiation complexes of protein synthesis by intact capped and uncapped stnv rna are identical, suggesting that ...1979427119
formation of cross-linked molecules during vaccinia dna replication.the appearance of cross-linked dna molecules during the replication of vaccinia virus dna was investigated. conversion of full size dna molecules to cross-linked molecules occurs several hours after completion of dna synthesis. inhibition of rna synthesis by actinomycin d did not prevent this transition; however, interruption of protein synthesis by streptovitacin a resulted in partial inhibition of the process.1979429148
inhibition of vaccinia virus growth by zinc ions: effects on early rna and thymidine kinase synthesis.accumulation of thymidine kinase activity in vaccinia virus-infected cells was severely inhibited by zinc ions if the drug was added within 1 h postinfection. if added later, zinc ions had no effect on the enzyme synthesis. a fraction of rna which is normally synthesized in infected cells, was missing from a proper part of the gradient if the cells were treated with zinc ions within 1 h postinfection (as has been shown by cosedimentation of pulse-labeled rnas in isokinetic gradients). it is sugg ...1979430599
vaccinia virus infection of hela cells. ii. disparity between cytoplasmic and nuclear viral-specific rna. 1979442529
on the inhibitory effect of 2-amino-4,6-dichloropyrimidine on growth of vaccinia virus.2-amino-4,6-dichloropyrimidine prevents maturation of vaccinia virus. proteins synthesized in the presence of the drug are not assembled into virions.1979446602
association between h-2 and vaccinia virus-induced antigens on the surface of infected cells.the relationship between h-2 molecules and vaccinia virus-induced antigens on the surface of h-2d infected cells was investigated by the differential redistribution method and by the blocking capacity of monospecific anti-h-2 sera on an anti-vaccinia cell-mediated cytotoxicity (cmc). capping of either h-2k or h-2d molecules upon addition of monospecific and anti-h-2 sera was followed by the complete redistribution of viral antigens, suggesting the formation, on the cel membrane, of complexes of ...1979448095
biogenesis of vaccinia: evidence for more than 100 polypeptides in the virion. 1979462799
biogenesis of vaccinia: complementation and recombination analysis of one group of conditional-lethal mutants defective in envelope self-assembly. 1979462810
in vitro translation of immediate early, early, and late classes of rna from vaccinia virus-infected cells. 1979462811
inhibition of vaccinia virus late protein synthesis by isatin-beta-thiosemicarbazone: characterization and in vitro translation of viral mrna. 1979462812
which is the factual basis, in theory and clinical practice, for the use of vaccinia immune globulin for the prevention or attenuation of complications of smallpox vaccination? 1979462898
persistent warts protected from immune attack by a blocking factor.severe warts of 20 years duration, highly resistant to therapy, were found to contain a soluble factor which blocked the local expression of cellular immunity, without affecting systemic immune responsiveness. this finding enabled us to propose therapy by infection, and this had a limited success.1979465319
phosphorylation in vivo of a vaccinia-virus structural protein found associated with the ribosomes from infected cells.when vaccinia-virus-infected cells were labeled with radioactive phosphate in the absence of viral gene expression an additional phosphoprotein, containing phosphoserine, was found specifically associated with the ribosomes. the phosphoprotein was removed from the ribosomes following a 0.5 m kcl washing or after edta treatment. this additional phosphoprotein was found in infected cells after either a long (3-4 h) or a short (30 min) labeling period; it was detected when the infected cells were i ...1979467437
influence of whole body x-irradiation of mice on their susceptibility to vaccinia virus infection. 1979468328
purification and properties of the deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase induced by vaccinia virus.the vaccinia virus-induced dna polymerase has been purified about 500-fold from a cytoplasmic extract of vaccinia-infected hela cells. analysis of the purified fraction by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals a single polypeptide of 110,000 daltons, which is greater than 95% pure. this polypeptide co-sediments with polymerase activity through a glycerol gradient. the sedimentation coefficient of the enzyme is 6.3 s, and its stokes radius is 4.6 nm. the molecular weig ...1979468791
intermolecular duplexes formed from polyadenylylated vaccinia virus rna.approximately 15% of the polyadenylic acid-containing cytoplasmic rna labeled from 5 to 7 h after vaccinia virus infection formed intermolecular duplex structures characterized as double-stranded rna by rnase resistance, density in cs2so4, base composition, chromatography on cellulose, and ability to inhibit reticulocyte cell-free protein synthesis. both sucrose gradient sedimentation and electron microscopic analysis indicated that the double-stranded regions were several hundred to more than a ...1979480457
translation of specific vaccinia virus rnas purified as rna-dna hybrids on potassium iodide gradients.a procedure has been developed for purifying specific mrnas by hybridization to fragments of dna and isolation of the hybrids by potassium iodide equilibrium buoyant density centrifugation. the hybrids obtained are essentially free of unhybridized rna as well as double-stranded rna. moreover, the rna in the hybrids is undamaged and can be translated in vitro. application of this procedure to mapping vaccinia virus genes is described. a total of 34 polypeptides have been assigned to three regions ...1979493115
interaction of a limited set of proteins with different mrnas and protection of 5'-caps against pyrophosphatase digestion in initiation complexes.a variety of 5'-3h-methyl-labeled, oxidized viral mrnas were used as probes for detecting in wheat germ initiation complexes proteins that interact with, and can be cross-linked to, the 5'-cap structure. a limited and reproducible set of specific proteins was obtained with the different mrnas. the binding of these proteins to the 5'-end of mrna apparently results in protection against nucleotide pyrophosphatase digestion of the cap even in initiation complexes in which the 5'-end is susceptible ...1979493138
[use of anaplyxasis for evaluating the reactogenicity of commercial strains and series of a vaccine virus]. 1979494895
vaccinia virus infection of the central nervous system in x-irradiated mice.the effect of x-irradiation on experimental vaccinia infection of balb/c mice was studied. as compared with nonirradiated controls, the x-irradiated animals exhibited (i) a time lag in virus replication (delayed, but protracted replication); (ii) a delayed and repressed immune response: (iii) more severe acute cytocidal infection of leptomeninges, choroid plexus, ependyma, and vessels, with extensive damage to the brain-barrier system; and (iv) noncytocidal, latent infection of glial cells and n ...1979500184
abortive replication of vaccinia virus in activated rabbit macrophages.during the course of infection of rabbits with vaccinia virus, macrophages obtained from the peritoneal cavity develop bactericidal activity and the replication of vaccinia virus becomes restricted in these cells. the abortive replication of vaccinia virus in the activated macrophages was characterized in the present study. the virus adsorbed to and was uncoated equally well in macrophages from both normal and infected rabbits. a burst of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis of comparable magnitude t ...1979500210
identification of the vaccinia hemagglutinin polypeptide from a cell system yielding large amounts of extracellular enveloped virus.hela, sirc, and rk-13 cells were compared as to their production of intracellular naked vaccinia virus (inv) and extracellular enveloped vaccinia virus (eev) after infection with vaccinia strains wr and ihd-j. ihd-j produced more eev from all three cell lines than did wr, although both strains produced approximately the same quantity of inv. the most efficient eev release was from rk-13 cells infected with ihd-j, which was 200 times more than from wr-infected sirc cells. this permitted for the f ...1979501796
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