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comparison of antiviral and antitumor activity of activated macrophages. 1977191199
poxvirus infection of the baboon (papio cynocephalus).ten serial passages of monkeypox (mpv), vaccinia, variola, and chimpanzeepox (chimp-9) viruses were performed in baboons (papio cynocephalus) via skin scarification. comparisons of clinical and virological results indicate that mpv and vaccinia are very closely related and that variola and chimp-9 viruses are identical. these findings suggest that infections of simians with chimp-9 virus resulted from contact with variola virus, the source of which is still unknown. on the other hand, mpv in mon ...1976191209
carbocyclic arabinosyladenine, an adenosine deaminase resistant antiviral agent. 1977191615
comparative study of the antiviral activity of acyl derivatives of 2,2'-anhydro-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine and other nucleosides against encephalitis in mice.anti-deoxyribonucleic acid virus activities of 3'-o-acyl derivatives of 2,2'-anhydro-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl cytosine (cyclo-c) and 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-c) were evaluated by using an in vivo test system in mice. among the derivatives tested, 3'-o-decanoyl cyclo-c hydrochloride was the most effective against herpes simplex virus-induced encephalitis in mice when the drug was administered directly into infected brains of mice (target-organ treatment). a comparative study of the ...1977192142
in vitro and in vivo inhibition of virus multiplicaton by microwave hyperthemia.the effect of microwave hyperthermia (41 degrees and 43 degrees c) on virus multiplication have been explored in vitro (hsv-1 infected primary rabbit kidney cultures) and in vivo (mice infected with hsv-1 or vaccinia). in vitro the cells were inoculated with hsv-1 and heated to 41 degrees or 43 degrees c either before or after infection. virus yields were significantly decreased when the cells were exposed to hyperthemia within the first few hours after infection, while hyperthemia was without e ...1977192183
[prevention and therapy of viral diseases with special reference to interferon].human leukocyte interferon (hli) was used for treatment of human diploid fibroblasts before and after infection with vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv 1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2), and varicella zoster virus (vzv). vero cells were infected with medical lake macaque herpes virus (mlmv), and treated with hli in the same way. in all of these systems hli exhibited an antiviral effect when administered before infection, and this effect could be increased by additional hli tr ...1977192653
purification of vaccinia virus-induced thymidine kinase activity from [35s]methionine-labeled cells. 1977193257
antiviral activity of o'-methylated derivatives of adenine arabinoside. 1977193517
biogenesis of poxviruses: analysis of the morphogenetic sequence using a conditional lethal mutant defective in envelope self-assembly.a conditional lethal, temperature-sensitive mutant of vaccinia, defective in assembly of the virus envelope and maturation, was characterized and shown to mimic exactly the aberrations produced by rifampicin. analyses of the infection at restrictive and permissive temperatures were conducted with electron microscopy, isotopic pulse-chase experiments in which polypeptides were separated by polyacrylamide slab gels, and assays of core enzymatic activities. the data collected by several approaches ...1977194248
molecular complexity of vaccinia dna and the presence of reiterated sequences in the genome. 1977194409
cytotoxic interactions of virus specific effector cells with virus infected targets of different cell type.the action of sendai virus specific cytolytic t lumphocytes (ctl) against sendai virus infected macrophages was found to be h-2 restricted while sendai virus infected cell lines, including fibroblasts and tumour cells, were lysed across the h-2 barrier to some extent. the properties of the meth-a tumour cell, which was resistant to lysis by allogenic killer cells was investigated. sendai virus specific ctl failed to kill sendai virus infected meth-a cells but after vaccinia virus infection these ...1977194984
improved synthesis and in vitro antiviral activities of 5-cyanouridine and 5-cyano-2'-deoxyuridine.in order to evaluate the influence of the cyano group on the antiviral activity of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleosides, a moderate yield, unified approach to the synthesis of both 5-cyanouridine and 5-cyano-2'-deoxyuridine was developed. thus, treatment of the appropriate acetylated 5-bromouracil nucleoside with nacn or kcn in me2so at 90-110 degrees c gave, after deblocking, 35-45% yields of the corresponding 5-cyanouracil nucleosides. 5-cyanouridine was devoid of significant activity against vacci ...1977195058
oncogenic transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts with photoinactivated herpes simplex virus: rapid in vitro cloning of transformed cells. 1977196034
possible antigenic sub-divisions within the variola/vaccinia subgroup of poxviruses. 1977196573
enhancement of virus growth produced by thiols and disulphides.several thiols and disulphides have been found able both to shorten the latency phase and to increase the growth of several virus strains in cell cultures.1977196894
hindiii and sst i restriction sites mapped on rabbit poxvirus and vaccinia virus dna.the dnas of two closely related orthopoxviruses, rabbit poxvirus (rpv) and vaccinia virus (vv), were mapped by overlapping-fragment analysis using restriction endonucleases hindiii and sst i. the exact arrangement of these fragments was accomplished by total digestion of isolated partial restriction products and by end-fragment determination. rpv and vv dnas showed identical restriction patterns in an internal region comprising approximately 60% of the genome. the size, by electrophoretical anal ...1977197263
radiation enhanced reactivation of nuclear replicating mammalian viruses. 1977197551
[cytochalasins in virologic research]. 1977197711
phosphorylation of ribosomes in adenovirus infection [proceedings]. 1977198265
the origins of vaccinia virus. 1977198484
structural polypeptides of several strains of orthopoxvirus. 1977198638
interferon-induced transfer of viral resistance between animal cells. 1977198670
mammalian nucleolytic enzymes. 1977198848
[research on substances with antiviral activity. vii. activity and lipophilic of property n-alkyl-2-chloro-3-formylindole thiosemicarbazone].thiosemicarbazones of n-alkyl-2-chloroindole-3-carboxaldehydes were synthesized and investigated for antiviral activity against rna virus (parainfluenza type 3, ha-i/cr-8 stock) and dna virus (vaccinia virus, hid stock). the effect of lipophilicity on the activity against vaccinia virus was considered. relative lipophilicities were measured by a reversed phase thin-layer chromatographic technique. the most active compound n-isopropyl-2-chloroindole-3-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone appeared com ...1977200469
synthesis of n6- or 8-substituted 9-(beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-adenines and their antiviral activities against herpes simplex and vaccinia viruses. 1977201386
differentiation of variola, monkeypox, and vaccinia antisera by radioimmunoassay.poxvirus antisera adsorbed with "homologous" and "heterologous" poxvirus-infected chorioallantoic membranes (cam) were differentiated by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (ria). mixtures of the antiserum dilutions and infected cam were added directly (without centrifugation) to poxvirus-infected cam antigens affixed to wells of microtitration plates. the affixed antigens combined with unadsorbed antibodies, and the cross-reactive antigen-antibody complexes were removed by washing. the results showed ...1977201390
1,2,4-triazole amino nucleosides. 1-beta-d-3'-amino-3'-deoxyribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide and related nucleosides.the synthesis of 1-beta-d-3'-amino-3'-deoxyribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide--the 3'-amino analogue of ribavirin--and five related nucleoside analogues is described. each analogue exhibited ld50 concentrations greater than 100 microgram/ml against p-388 mouse lymphoid leukemia cells in tissue culture. antiviral testing indicated that none of the compounds exhibited significant activity.1977201758
poxvirus hosts and reservoirs. brief review. 1977202224
rescue of host-dependent conditional lethal mutants of vaccinia and rabbitpox viruses by yaba virus. brief report. 1977202231
virus infection of murine teratocarcinoma stem cell lines. 1977202395
comparison of five poxvirus genomes by analysis with restriction endonucleases hindiii, bami and ecori. 1978202667
5-o-alkylated derivatives of 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxyuridine as potential antiviral agents. anti-herpes activity of 5-propynyloxy-2'-deoxyuridine.alkylation of 5-hydroxyuridine or 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxyuridine with various activated alkylating agents in the presence of 1 equiv of naoh gave a series of new nucleoside analogues which were evaluated for antiviral activity against vaccinia virus, herpes simplex-1 virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus in both primary rabbit kidney cells and human skin fibroblasts. one of these analogues, 5-propynyloxy-2'-deoxyuridine, was a potent inhibitor of herpes simplex virus. structure-activity consideration ...1978202709
dna-binding proteins in the cytoplasm of vaccinia virus-infected mouse l-cells.mouse l cell fibroblasts were infected with vaccinia virus and labeled 2 to 3 h postinfection with [35s]methionine. labeled proteins were fractionated on native and denatured dna-cellulose columns and then analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. twenty-four 90,000 to 12,500, were detected. vdp-12a (molecular weight, 29,750) had affinity for denatured but not native dna, and its synthesis was dependent on viral dna replication. vdp-20 (molecular weight, 41,000) boun ...1978202739
cell-mediated immunity to measles virus in multiple sclerosis: correlation with disability.the blastogenic transformation of lymphocytes on exposure to antigen was used to investigate cell-mediated immune responses to viruses implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. in 12 patients with "early" multiple sclerosis, lymphocyte reactivity to measles virus, parainfluenza virus, and vaccinia virus did not differ significantly from reactivity in a healthy control group. however, there was a significant inverse correlation between the lymphocyte blastogenic response to measles an ...1978202889
isolation of two dna-binding proteins from the intracellular replication complex of vaccinia virus. 1978203092
quantitative immunoelectrophoretic studies of the l and s antigens of vaccinia virus.the l (10s) and s (7s) antigens of vaccinia virus have been characterized by their sensitivity to heat, to proteolytic enzymes and to periodate. the l antigen was heat labile and inactivated by proteolytic enzymes and periodate. treatment with trypsin for 1 min indicated that the s antigen was built up of at least two protein subunits of about 3s and 5s. one of the subunits was highly sensitive to heat and to proteolytic enzymes. on further treatment with trypsin the other subunit was split in t ...1977203163
factors concerning the immunity to poxvirus infection.two kinds of early antigens were shown in vaccinia-infected cells, one heat (56 degrees, 30 min)-stable (es antigen) and the other heat-labile (el antigen). both antigens do not induce circulating neutralizing antibody in rabbits, but resistance to intradermal inoculation of active virus was observed when animals were immunized with either antigen in combination with freund's complete adjuvant. vaccinia-specific haemagglutinin (vha) associated with infected cell membrane was purified and its ant ...1977203217
effect of vaccinia virus and herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, on the chromosomal system of human lymphocytes, in cultures in vitro. 1977203354
viral antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis and control patients: comparison between radioimmunoassay and conventional techniques.cerebrospinal fluid antibodies to measles, rubella, vaccinia, herpes simplex, and varicella-zoster viruses in four patient study groups (clinically definite multiple sclerosis [ms], early probable ms, optic neuritis, and control patients with other neurological diseases) were assayed by radioimmunoassay, complement fixation, hemagglutination-inhibition, or complement-enhanced plaque reduction methods. antibodies were more frequently found and at higher dilutions by radioimmunoassay than by other ...1978203605
defective macrophage immunity in newborn rabbits with fibroma virus-induced tumors. 1978203693
[potential virostatics. 1. quinoxalines]. 1977203954
[combined action of dna-synthesis inhibitors on the reproduction of dna viruses]. 1977204162
identification and study of a poxvirus isolated from wild rodents in turkmenia.a new poxvirus was isolated in 1974 from the kidney of a wild big gerbil (rhombomys opimus) caught in turkmenia, where these gerbils are wide-spread. the virus resembles cowpox virus and is markedly different from the virus of infectious ectromelia, the best-known poxvirus of rodents. the new virus is apparently identical to other poxvirus isolates made from white rats and felidae in the moscow zoo. experimental inoculation of the natural hosts--big gerbils and yellow susliks (citellus fulvus)-- ...1978204271
[antiviral effect of aqueous plant extracts in tissue culture].the aqueous extracts from 178 kinds of medicinal plants belonging to 69 families were examined from the point of their virustatic activity against herpes-, influenza-, vaccine- and poliovirus. 75 kinds proved to be virustatic against one or more kinds of virus. nearly one-third of the active plants belong to families that are known as especially rich in tannin. besides the virustatic activity a great number of extracts showed also a cytostatic activity.1978204315
changes in whole blood and serum components during francisella tularensis and rabbit pox infections of rabbits.rabbits infected with virulent francisella tularensis strain schu s4 or rabbit pox virus (utrecht strain) showed significant early changes in serum levels of trace metals, neutral fat and alkaline phosphatase activity. with f. tularensis infections a marked early leukopenia and a decrease in serum amino acids were also observed; the effect on amino acid levels was less pronounced in rabbit pox infections. in both diseases these changes preceded the appearance of acute phase globulins in the seru ...1977204323
[research on substances with antiviral activity. viii. benzindanoncarboxylic acids].new derivatives (esters, amides, nitriles, amidines, thiosemicarbazones and guanylhydrazones) of 1h-benz[e]indene-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-1-oxo-3-carboxylic acid and 1h-benz[e]indene-2,3-dihydro-7-methyl-3-oxo-1-carboxylic acid were prepared and tested for antiviral activities in vitro against vaccinia virus, hid stock and parainfluenza type 3 virus, ha-i/cr-8 stock. four compounds (ii g), (ii i), (iii b), (iii g), showed weak activity in vitro against vaccinia virus.1978204512
potential role of amphotericin b methyl ester in the prevention and therapy of herpetic keratitis.amphotericin b methyl ester (ame), a semisynthetic derivative of amphotericin b, was studied in the rabbit cornea for its potential role in prevention and therapy of hsv, vaccinia virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus. it was effective in the prevention of lesion formation by these three viruses and dose-related antiviral effects were shown. of these viruses hsv was the most sensitive to ame. the antiviral effect of ame was additive with those of idu and ribavirin. however, it was not effective ...1977205016
enhanced virus replication in mammalian cells exposed to commercial emulsifiers.mammalian cell cultures were used to show that a variety of commercial emulsifiers are capable of enhancing the sensitivity of these cells to infection with several viruses. some emulsifiers were not active as enhancers, and those viruses that responded to the enhancing emulsifiers were single-stranded ribonucldic acid viruses. the double-stranded viruses that were tested were nonresponders.1978205172
the virion and soluble antigen proteins of variola, monkeypox, and vaccinia viruses.the structural proteins in purified preparations of variola, monkeypox, and vaccinia viruses were separated and compared by using a high resolution sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. about 30 proteins were resolved for each virus by autoradiography of longitudinally-sliced gel rods. although the autoradioelectropherograms of each virus were similar, it was possible to differentiate them by their unique protein pattern in the 30,000 to 40,000 molecular weight region of the gels. a sin ...1977205632
(s)-9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine: an aliphatic nucleoside analog with broad-spectrum antiviral activity.(s)-9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine, a novel nucleoside analog, the sugar moiety of which is replaced by an aliphatic chain, inhibits the replication in vitro of several dna and rna viruses, including vaccinia, herpes simplex (types 1 and 2), measles, and vesicular stomatitis. it is also effective in vivo in reducing the mortality rate of mice inoculated intranasally with vesicular stomatitis virus.1978205946
antiviral effects of amphotericin b methyl ester.the methyl ester of amphotericin b (ame) is water soluble, retains antifungal activity, and is significantly less toxic in mammals than amphotericin b. in contrast to amphotericin b, which is not water soluble, ame exhibits antiviral effects against vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, sindbis virus, and vaccinia virus in a plaque reduction assay. no antiviral effects could be demonstrated against the unenveloped adenovirus type 4 or echovirus type 11. the extent of vi ...1978206201
multiple sclerosis: cellular and humoral immune responses to several viruses.one hundred and eight multiple sclerosis (ms) patients and 108 matched controls were studied for antibody levels and cellular immune responses to several viruses. there were significant increases in the mean titers of complement fixation (cf) or hemagglutination inhibition (hi), and complement-mediated cytotoxicity (cmc) tests for measles antibodies in ms patients; there was no increase in antibody titers to herpesviruses 1 and 2, or cytomegalovirus (cmv). the direct migration inhibition (dmi) t ...1978206860
immunological studies of heat-labile virus inhibitors. i. specificity of absorption onto sensitive viruses and specific response after virus infections.heat-labile virus inhibitor (hli) in normal sera of various mammalian species capable of neutralizing variola (vrv) and newcastle disease viruses (ndv) was studied immunologically. after sucrose density gradient centrifugation of guinea pig serum, the hli activity against vrv and that against ndv were both demonstrated in the same region sedimenting fastor than igm. absorption with partially purified vrv or ndv removed the hli activity on the homologous virus but not that on the other. prior sat ...1978207952
characterization of a dna-binding phosphoprotein from vaccinia virus replication complex. 1978208247
increased resistance of trisomic-21 cells to virus replication: role of interferon. 1978208250
5,6-dihydro-5-azathymidine: in vitro antiviral properties against human herpesviruses.5,6-dihydro-5-azathymidine (dhadt), a novel water-soluble nucleoside antibiotic, inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) in appropriately infected cell cultures to a greater extent than herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). vaccinia virus was less susceptible than hsv-2, and pseudorabies virus yields were not reduced at the concentrations studied. plaque formation by varicella-zoster virus was suppressed by dhadt. dhadt was slightly toxic to cells at concentrations that were inhibitory for h ...1978208459
the use of cytochalasins in studies on the molecular biology of virus--host cell interactions.in conclusion, one can say that the cytochalasins--in their brief history of application in virology--have proven to be valuable tools in studies on the molecular biology of virus--host cell interactions. on the other hand, viral systems can be useful in defining the primary sites of action of cytochalasins in certain cells. in interpreting the effects of cytochalasins on virus replication, however, one must take into consideration that the cytochalasins exert a wide variety of alterations in ce ...1978208877
inactivation of cytomegalovirus and semliki forest virus by butylated hydroxytoluene.butylated hydroxytoluene (bht) is an antioxidant that is widely used in foods because it prevents spoilage by delaying degradation of lipid components. this hydrophobic compound inactivated human and murine cytomegalovirus (cmv) and semliki forest virus (sfv). both human and murine cmv were inactivated more than 90% by 40 microgram of bht/ml after incubation for 1 hr at 37 c. under the same conditions, svf was inactivated about 75%, whereas poliovirus, which does not contain lipid membrane as a ...1978210237
sedimentation characteristics and molecular weights of three poxvirus dnas. 1978210571
attachment of herpes simplex virus to neurons and glial cells.cells of brain tissue of rabbits, rats and mice were dissociated and glial cells, neuronal perikarya and synaptosomes were separated by centrifugation on discontinuous ficol gradients. hsv was shown to attach well to rat and rabbit glial cells and synaptosomes but not to neuronal perikarya. of intracerebrally infected mice the fractions with glial cells contained the infective virus. the interactions between hsv and neuronal cells and the implication of the observations on the hsv infection of t ...1978211185
synthesis and antiviral acticity of some phosphates of the broad-spectrum antiviral nucleoside, 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (ribavirin).1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide 5'-phosphate (2) was prepared and converted into the following derivatives: the 5'-phosphoramidate 3, the 5'-diphosphate 4, the 5'-triphosphate 5, and the cyclic 3',5'-phosphate 6. the cyclic 2',3'-phosphate 7 was prepared from the parent nucleoside, 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (1), and was opened to the 2'(3')-phosphate 8. these compounds were found to exhibit significant antiviral activity against several viruses in ce ...1978211234
in vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases. ii. persistence and host-regulated thermosensitivity in cells of neural derivation infected with mouse hepatitis and measles viruses. 1978211715
[inactivation of viruses in water by anodic oxidation (author's transl)].the inactivating effect of anodic oxidation on viruses performed in an experimental electrolytic polarization unit was investigated with 11 different viruses suspended in tap and superficial water. furthermore attempts were made to define the influence of factors important in experimental and water respect. using concentrations up to 10(4) infectious units per ml representing a multiple quantity of the virus demonstrable in contaminated environmental waters all the viruses investigated could be ...1978211753
differential inhibitory effects of 5-bromodeoxyuridine on vaccinia and monkeypox viruses.replication of vaccinia and monkeypox viruses was impeded in the presence of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (budr) in rl-33 cells derived from rabbit lung tissue. the different degree of inhibition was found among strains of those viruses, in which it was evident that five strains (cv-1, lister, ihd, dairen-i and ikeda) of vaccinia viruses resulted in more reduced yields of infectious virus than four strains (sen-19, orang utan, copenhagen and sierra leone) of monkeypox viruses. there was also strain varia ...1978212474
ir-genes in h-2 regulate generation of anti-viral cytotoxic t cells. mapping to k or d and dominance of unresponsiveness.h-2 dependent and virus-specific ir genes regulate the generation of primary virus-specific k or d restricted cytotoxic t-cell responses in vivo. the following examples have been analyzed in some detail: first, dk restricted responses to vaccinia in sendai viruses are at least 30 times lower than the corresponding k-restricted responses irrespective of the h-2 haplotypes (k, b, d, dxs, dxq) of k and i regions; in contrast, lcmv infection generates high responses to dk. these findings are consist ...1978212503
inverted terminal repeats in rabbit poxvirus and vaccinia virus dna.in both rabbit poxvirus and vaccinia virus dna have demonstrated an identical distribution of eight hinfi. the length of the terminal repeats was found to be 3.4 to 3.6 megadaltons (mdaltons) for rabbit poxvirus dna and 7.4 to 8.0 mdaltons for vaccinia virus dna. maps of the hinfi restriction sites within isolated ecori end fragments of rabbit poxvirus and vaccinia virus dna phave demonstrated an identical distribution of eight hinfi sites in an internal part (approximately 2 mdaltons) of the ec ...1978212601
activation of endogenous type c virus in balb/c mouse cells by herpesvirus dna.several virion and nonvirion dnas were tested for the ability to activate endogenous type c virus in balb/c-derived mouse cells using the calcium precipitation technique. the dnas from all herpesviruses tested activated xenotropic type c virus synthesis. these included dnas from herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, epstein-barr virus, human cytomegalovirus, sa8 virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, pseudorabies virus, and herpes saimiri virus (m-dna). in contrast, dnas from vaccinia vir ...1978212761
[suppression of viral reproduction by means of specific action on the cell]. 1978212895
antiviral potential of phosphonoacetic acid.phosphonoacetate has been found to inhibit specifically the replication of herpes-viruses. a partial inhibition of vaccinia virus represents the only activity outside the herpesvirus class. the drug was found to be a specific inhibitor of the virus-induced dna polymerases. normal cellular polymerases were relatively insensitive to phosphonoacetate, resulting in low cellular toxicity. our working hypothesis is that the drug binds to the enzyme and that initiation of polynucleotide synthesis occur ...1977212978
contact inactivation of rna and dna viruses by n-methyl isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone and cuso4. 1977212986
effect of a novel adenosine deaminase inhibitor (co-vidarabine, co-v) upon the antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo of vidarabine (vira-atm) for dna virus replication.a new potent inhibitor of adenosine deaminase (co-vidarabine) was used in combination studies with adenine arabinoside (vidarabine, vira-atm) to protect this purine nucleoside from enzymatic deamination to the more weakly active metabolite, hypoxanthine arabinoside. comparing the combination to vidarabine alone, a significant increase (10-fold) of the antiviral activity of the combined drugs was observed against herpes and vaccinia viruses in tissue culture and subcutaneously, against cranial he ...1977212990
lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity in humans during revaccination with vaccinia virus.fifteen healthy human volunteers were revaccinated with vaccinia virus. blood samples (4 to 7) were obtained during the 3 weeks after revaccination. peripheral blood lymphocytes were washed extensively and tested for cytotoxicity against vaccinia-infected autologous and/or homologous skin fibroblasts. without addition of antibodies, peak levels of killing were observed on days 7 to 9. the killing did not depend on common hla markers. on days with peak activity, extensively washed lymphocytes sho ...1978213386
peritoneal macrophage activation indicated by enhanced chemiluminescence.a number of studies have demonstrated the ability of various bacterial preparations, protozoa, and chemicals to activate macrophages and concomitantly to enhance host resistance to both tumors and infections. recently, viral infections have been shown to have a similar effect upon macrophage function. to better define the metabolic state of activated macrophages, we have evaluated the ability of peritoneal cells (pc) from vaccinia virus- or murine cytomegalovirus-infected or corynebacterium parv ...1978213391
resistance of visna virus to interferon.visna is a slow infection of sheep caused by a retrovirus. the persistence of virus despite the immune response of the host is best explained by restricted genetic expression of the virus and consequently prolonged periods of residence inside cells. the purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the restriction in genetic expression of visna virus is mediated by interferon. sheep interferon induced by polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid in fetal lambs inhibited the growth of herp ...1978213502
effect of isoleucine deprivation of rabbitpox virus dna synthesis in mouse l cells.synthesis of rabbitpox dna was inhibited in mouse l cells deprived of isoleucine. time-course patterns of incorporation of radiolabelled precursors into viral dna revealed that synthesis of viral dna began about 6 h after reversal of the isoleucine-deficient state.1975213534
high voltage electron microscopic observations of some poxviruses. 1977214503
permeability changes of plasma and lysosomal membranes in hela cells infected with rabbit poxvirus.infection of hela-cell monolayer cultures with rabbit poxvirus induces a marked decrease in cell-associated protein and in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and beta-glucuronidase. this effect begins to occur around 10 hours post-infection (p.i.) and is accompanied by a concomitant rise of these enzyme activities in the culture medium. only few cells detach from infected monolayers and these cannot account for protein release. virion release can be inhibited at 4 degrees ...1978215105
the effect of mixed infections induced by adenovirus type 5 and vaccinia or smallpox virus, on the ultrastructure of kb cells ii. observations of changes in the ultrastructure of kb cells during 6--11 days infection with adenovirus type 5 and vaccinia virus. 1978215254
cell-free translation of purified virion-associated high-molecular-weight rna synthesized in vitro by vaccinia virus.virion-associated high-molecular-weight (hmw) rna synthesized in vitro by purified vaccinia virus particles has been translated in a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesizing system. purified hmw rna directs the synthesis of translation products which are identical to the translation products made in response to in vitro-synthesized, virion-released 8 to 12s mrna. the translation of hmw rna proceeds exclusively through a 5'-terminal cap-mediated initiation step. furthermore, only one coding sequ ...1978215785
enzymatic conversion of 5'-phosphate-terminated rna to 5'-di- and triphosphate-terminated rna.we have isolated from vaccinia virus cores an enzyme, 5'-phosphate-polyribonucleotide kinase, that in the presence of atp and mg2+ catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphate and 5'-diphosphate termini of rna to the 5'-triphosphate species. with the exception of datp, other nucleoside triphosphates were inactive as phosphate donors; activity with datp was 10% of that observed with atp. the purified enzyme did not phosphorylate 5'-hydroxyl- or 5'-monophosphate-terminated polydeoxyribonucleotides, al ...1978217000
[substances having antiviral activity. ix. synthesis and antiviral activity of 1-acyl-2-halo-3-formylindole thiosemicarbazones].some thiosemicarbazones of 1-acyl-2-chloro-3-formylindoles were synthesized and investigated for antiviral activity against vaccinia virus, hid stock and parainfluenza virus type 3 ha-i/cr-8 stock. evidence of antiviral activity was found only against vaccinia virus, and was particular significant with the m-substituted 1-benzoyl-2-chloro-3-formylindoles. the first results of 2-substitution of chlorine by bromine in the indole skeleton, are reported.1978217729
replication of animal viruses in differentiating muscle cells: vaccinia and herpes simplex virus type 1.cells cultured from the breast muscles of 11 to 12-day-old chick embryos were infected in the undifferentiated mitotic myoblast stage or in the terminally differentiated non-mitotic myotube stage with one of two dna viruses, vaccinia and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). dna synthesis was measured and production ov virus-specific dna detected in cells infected as myoblasts or myotubes by isotope labelling, autoradiographic and buoyant density centrifugation techniques. furthermore, fully fuse ...1978217953
inhibition of a complete replication cycle of human cytomegalovirus in actinomycin pre-treated cells.the study of human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) in cultures of human embryo lung fibroblasts, pre-treated with actinomycin d, has shown that under these conditions the virus infection does not proceed beyond the 'early' events of the virus replication cycle. in the same experimental conditions the growth of poliovirus type i, vaccinia virus and herpes simplex type i virus, was completely unaffected. these results suggest that the complete hcmv replication cycle requires some cellular function(s) betwe ...1979217966
3-substituted adenines. in vitro enzyme inhibition and antiviral activity.the direct alkylation of adenine at the 3 position has been extended to produce series of 3-alkyl-, 3-allyl-, and 3-(substituted benzyl)adenines. when these compounds were tested for enzyme inhibition and antiviral activity in vitro, 3-n-pentyladenine was found to be the most active compound in inhibiting the enzyme dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, and 3-(2-bromobenzyl)adenine showed the most striking inhibition of multiplication of vaccinia virus and of herpes simplex virus in tissue culture.1979218008
5-substituted uracil arabinonucleosides as potential antiviral agents. 1979218014
physical characterization of a stomatitis papulosa virus genome: a cleavage map for the restriction endonucleases hindiii and ecori.the genome of stomatitis papulosa virus (a parapoxvirus) was cleaved with the restriction endonucleases hindiii and ecori, each giving rise to 6 fragments respectively. double digestion with both enzymes resulted in 8 bands, two of which contained dna fragments in double molar concentrations as revealed by reciprocal digests of isolated dna fragments. the genome size, estimated by summation of the molecular weights of the fragments, is approximately 86 x 10(6) daltons, some 30 x 10(6) daltons sm ...1979218532
absence of interferon production in a newly established human cell line.a cell line established from human embryonic lung, hel-r66, was demonstrated to be highly susceptible to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, vaccinia virus, newcastle disease virus (ndv), japanese encephalitis virus (jev), western equine encephalitis (wee) virus, sindbis virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), and rabies virus. the maximal yields of ndv, jev, wee virus, and rabies virus in this cell line exceeded by 2--4 logs those in control human embryonic lung cells. inability of this cell l ...1979218901
studies of rna isolated from piptoporus betulinus as interferon inducer.crude rna isolated from piptoporus betulinus and two fractions of it obtained after the chromatography contain single-stranded rna. the crude rna, but not its chromatographic fractions, are resistant to the pancreatic rna-ase. the crude preparation of rna from p. betulinus contains beside ribose, considerable amounts of glucose, galactose and mannose. the crude rna from p. betulinus induces in the human fibroblasts interferon with specific activity of 400 units per mg of protein.1978219808
studies on the polypeptides of poxvirus. i. comparison of structural polypeptides in vaccina, cowpox and shope fibroma viruses.radioactively labeled vaccinia, cowpox and shope fibroma virions free from any detectable contamination with host cell protein, were dissociated into their constituent polypeptides, and these were then analyzed by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. the profiles of constituent polypeptide bands of four strains of vaccinia virus (ihd-w, ihd-j, lister and dis) were almost the same, except that a polypeptide of about 41,000 daltons was not detectable in the autoradiogram of ...1978219840
studies on the polypeptides of poxvirus. ii. comparison of virus-induced polypeptides in cells infected with vaccinia, cowpox and shope fibroma viruses.virus-induced polypeptides in cells infected with vaccinia, cowpox and shope fibroma viruses were examined by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography. at least 42 vaccinia virus-induced polypeptides were identified among the polypeptides of cells pulse-labeled with [35s]-methionine and/or of fractionated cells labeled with [14c]-leucine for 24 hr. they consisted of 15 polypeptides (early polypeptides) which were synthesized even in the presence of cytosine-1-beta-d-ara ...1978219843
antiviral action of benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones: 5-nitro-2-(2-dimethylaminoethyl) and 5-nitro-2-[2-(1-pyrrolidine)-ethyl] derivatives.two benzo[de]isoquinoline-diones, namely 5-nitro-2-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione and 5-nitro-2-[2-(1-pyrrolidine)-ethyl]-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione, caused inhibition of the viral replication, when assayed against herpes simplex and vaccinia viruses in chick embryo cell cultures. influenza and sindbis virus replication were unaffected by these chemicals. virucidal effects were unobserved. the inhibitory activity is time-related. ocular and dermal infections with vac ...1979221156
activation of reticuloendothelial cells following infection with murine cytomegalovirus.macrophage and reticuloendothelial system function was investigated in adult, female c3h mice during the course of a nonlethal infection with murine cytomegalovirus (mcmv). peritoneal macrophages harvested from mice infected three to 21 days previously were tumoricidal in vitro for a syngeneic mammary tumor cell line and showed antiviral activity by suppressing replication of vaccinia virus in a fibroblast monolayer. in addition, macrophages harvested from animals on days 7 and 14 after mcmv inf ...1979221597
vaccinia virus replication requires active participation of the host cell transcriptional apparatus.the ability of vaccinia virus to replicate in bsc-40 monkey cells whose nuclei have been functionally inactivated was examined. exposure of cell monolayers to ultraviolet radiation at doses that did not alter the cells' capacity to support a subsequent infection by a cytoplasmic virus (vesicular stomatitis virus) caused a reduction to less than 10% in the observed yield of infectious progeny from vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus (type 1) infections. similarly, replication of vaccinia vir ...1979221909
identification of orthopoxviruses by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of intracellular polypeptides. i. four major groupings. 1979222049
assay of human interferon in vero cells by several methods.four methods for the assay of human interferon in vero cells were compared based on the inhibition of viral cytopathic effect (cpe) in tubes, the inhibition of cpe in microplates, the reduction of plaques, and the inhibition of quantitative hemadsorption. for inhibition of cpe, sindbis virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, poliovirus type 2, and vaccinia virus were used for challenge. in the plaque reduction method, sindbis virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and poliovirus were employed, and newcas ...1979222803
antiviral activity of aliphatic nucleoside analogues: structure-function relationship.of a series of 58 aliphatic nucleoside analogues, (s)-9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine [(s)-dhpa] proved to be the most active congener, when assayed for antiviral activity in primary rabbit kidney cell cultures challenged with either vaccinia or vesicular stomatitis virus. whereas most analogues derived from substituted purine and pyrimidine bases and bearing various hydroxy- or amino-substituted alkyl chains did not show evidence of antiviral activity at a concentration of 2 mm, (s)-dhpa inhibit ...1979222906
synthesis and antiviral activities of arabinofuranosyl-5-ethylpyrimidine nucleosides. selective antiherpes activity of 1-(beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-ethyluracil. 1979222908
pantomycin: a new antimicrobial antibiotic. 1979223049
[the treatment of advanced malignant melanoma with vaccina oncolysates (author's transl)].ten patients with recurrent stage ii or iii malignant melanoma received a live vaccinia virus augmented malignant melanoma cell vaccine. no patient had adverse reactions. the 3 patients surviving (10, 18 and 19 months) had: positive skin reactions to the vaccine (as they had previous positive skin reactions to common recall antigens), elevated vaccinia antibody titers, and they showed lack of progression of the disease with immunotherapy.1979223123
vaccination against pox diseases under immunosuppressive conditions.pox diseases, caused either by smallpox virus or zoonotic pox viruses or animals, continue to be of potential danger to a non-vaccinated population. mass vaccinations will become necessary and will then also be administered to persons with immunological aberrations. the vaccines which are presently used against smallpox cause severe complications in such hosts. in contrast, the attenuated vaccinia virus strain mva is safe even under the conditions of immunosuppression and is recommended for the ...1978223909
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