[methods of expressive evidence of orthopoxviral infections tested on material from vaccinial skin lesions of rabbits (author's transl)]. 1977141340
emergence of foreign h-2-like cytotoxicity and transplantation targets on vaccinia and moloney virus-infected meth. a tumour cells.using cytotoxic effector cells of different anti-h-2 specificities, new cell-mediated lympholysis targets, normally undetected on meth. a tumour cells, were shown after passage with vaccinia or moloney virus. the h-2d cml targets on meth. a cells recognized by anti-b10.d2 effector cells were presented only after simultaneous vaccinia virus passage, while passage with moloney virus caused the emergence of h-2b targets. small but significant killing of vaccinia virus-passaged meth.a was als ...1977142300
comparison of t cell-mediated immune responsiveness of nzb, (nzb x &nzw)f1 hybrid and other murine strains.the age-dependent capacity of nzb and (nzb x nzw)f1 hybrid, balb/c, dba/2, c57bl/6 and c3h mice to generate t cell-mediated immune responses was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by measuring the following effector functions: (a) the time course of alloreactive cytotoxic t-cell activity triggered in vitro was comparable for nz and other mouse strains; cell reactivity generated in vivo against el4 tumour cells was low in young (nzb x nzw)f1 mice and in dba/2 mice but was comparable for ol ...1977142594
cell-mediated cytotoxicity against virus-infected target cells in humans. ii. interferon induction and activation of natural killer cells.the mechanisms by which human lymphocytes lyse virus-infected allogeneic fibroblast cultures were analyzed with particular consideration of the role of anti-viral antibodies and interferon. human cells infected with viruses were able to induce high levels of interferon upon contact with human lymphocytes. interferon, whether produced by lymphocytes after direct infection with virus or induced upon exposure of lymphocytes to virus-infected fibroblasts, appeared to be responsible for enhancing the ...1978150448
t cell-mediated immune responses of lupus-prone bxsb mice and other murine strains.cellular-mediated immunity in the newly described bxsb strain of mice, which is prone to autoimmune disease, has been compared with that of two other strains, c57bl/6 and 129/j. quantificaiton of cytotoxic t cell responses to alloantigens and viruses (lymphocytic choriomeningitis and vaccinia virus) showed no difference in the kinetics of appearance and relative activity of cytotoxic t cells per spleen between the young and old bxsb and the control mice. the t cell-dependent primary footpad swel ...1979159146
specific increase in polyamine levels in chick embryo cells transformed by rous sarcoma virus.chick embryo fibroblasts and chorioallantoic membranes of chick embryos infected with oncogenic or nononcogenic viruses were analyzed for polyamines. nononcogenic viruses (influenze, newcastle disease, or vaccinia virus) had no effect on the polyamine content of chorioallantoic membranes. transformation of chorioallantoic membranes by a wild-type or temperature-sensitive mutant strain of rous sarcoma virus under permissive conditions (37 degrees) caused a 2- to 4-fold increase in cellular spermi ...1975162861
a modified structure at the 5'-terminus of mrna of vaccinia virus. 1975162886
persistence of vesicular stomatitis virus in interferon-treated cell cultures. 1975163524
methylated nucleotides block 5'-terminus of vaccinia virus messenger rna.studies on the nature and location of the methylated nucleotides in mrna synthesized in vitro by vaccinia virus particles revealed an unusual 5'-terminal structure. evidence that the pyrophosphate group is blocked by 7-methylguanosine and that both 2'-o-methyl-adenosine and 2'-o-methylguanosine occupy penultimate positions was presented. according to this model, the 5'-termini of vaccinia virus mrnas are: 7meg-5'ppp-5'gmepnp and 7meg-5'amepnp.1975164018
assembly of viruses. 1975164048
identification and interrelationships of the variola/vaccinia subgroup of poxviruses. 1975164050
structural and functional alterations in cultured cells infected with cytocidal viruses. 1975164054
response of camels to intradermal inoculation with smallpox and camelpox viruses.young camels were inoculated intradermally with either camelpox or smallpox virus and the courses of infection, including serological response, were compared. camelpox virus was highly infectious; generalized disease resulted which was transmitted naturally to contact animals. smallpox virus produced only transient lesions at the inoculation site and a less marked serological response. nevertheless, the camels inoculated with smallpox virus subsequently resisted a severe challenge with camelpox ...1975164403
reproduction of vaccinia virus (strain neurolapina) in rabbit blood leucocytes in vitro.the determining factor in vaccinia virus reproduction is the initial pattern and subsequent development of the given cell populations, in relation to the infection multiplicity, interferon production and other factors. the sensitive cells in fresh suspensions may be the blood monocytes and the small lymphocytes are virus-resistant. in cultures, transformed lymphocytes (blast cells) and macrophages play the major role in virus reproduction. the macrophages are probably of greater significance for ...1975165236
reaction of mouse strains to skin test for ectromelia using an allied virus as inoculum. 1975165420
persistent or slow viral infections and related diseases.the discovery of persistent transmissible agents by veterinarians has led to striking advances in the infectious cause of neuropathies of human beings. there is evidence for persisting infection in congenital rubella and the herpes group of viruses including cytomegalovirus infections. hepatitis types a and b are candidates for inclusion in the category of persisting viral infections. the rubeola or measles virus is established as a persistent virus which causes elevated antibodies in the serum ...1975165638
comparative study of the protein kinase associated with animal viruses. 1975166492
vertebrate dna polymerases. 1975166759
[research on substances with antiviral activity. ii. derivatives of n-substituted 2-chloro-3-formylindoles].thiosemicarbazones and amidinohydrazones of n-substituted 2-chloroindole-3-aldehydes were synthesized and investigated for antiviral activity against rna virus (parainfluenza type 3, ha-i/cr-8 stock) and dna virus (vaccinia virus, hid stock). the thiosemicarbazones of 1-(o,m,p,-chlorobenzoyl)-2-chloroindole-3-aldehydes were more active than methisazone against vaccinia virus.1975166871
effect of human leukocyte interferon on vaccinia-and herpes virus-infected cell cultures and monkey corneas.pretreatment of human fibroblast cultures with human leukocyte interferon (hif, 1,000 iu/ml) resulted in a 24-h delay of virus replication after infection with vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2. additional hif treatment 24 h after infection effectively lowered the maximum yield of viral infectivity. equal results were obtained in simian cells with 3,000 iu of hif per ml. the spread of two cell-bound herpesviruses, varicella zoster virus and medical lake macaque herpesviru ...1975166924
virus isolation and titration at 33 degrees and 37 degrees c.various prototype viruses and original specimens were comparatively titrated in cell cultures at 33 degrees and 37 degrees c. higher titers at 37 degrees were consistently obtained with adenoviruses; for other viruses (enteroviruses, herpesvirus hominis, vaccinia virus, parainfluenza viruses) the titers were mostly identical at either temperature. original specimens and prototye strains showed the same behavior. the habit to cultivate viruses from throat swabs at 33 degrees c is unsatisfactory f ...1975167268
a quantitative estimation of poxvirus genome fraction transcribed as "early" and "late" mrna. 1975167512
human and primate poxviruses: i. growth characteristics of cytolytic and tumor variants.the dual potential of poxviruses to be cytolytic and tumorgenic has been extended. yaba monkey tumor virus formed foci on monkey and human embryonic cells. cytolytic or plaque-forming virus was isolated from yaba tumor homogenates by selective sucrose centrifugation and passage through monkey or human embryonic cells. monkey pox virus (mpv) was cytolytic for monkey cells or human embryonic cells, but upon passage onto young monolayers of human carcinoma cells, hela, produced a restricted cytopat ...1975167685
virus survival on inanimate surfaces.the persistence of several types of viruses on hard, inanimate surfaces under different relative humidities, temperatures, and types of surfaces was investigated. no differences in survival on glass, vinyl asbestos tile, ceramic tile, and stainless steel were found. under conditions of low humidity and room temperature, adenovirus, poliovirus, and herpes simplex virus survived for at least 8 weeks. vaccinia and coxsackie viruses survived for at least 2 weeks but differences due to surfaces found ...1975167927
streptovirudins, new antibiotics with antibacterial and antiviral activity. i. culture taxonomy, fermentation and production of streptovirudin complex.a new antibiotic complex has been isolated from cultures of streptomyces strain no. ja 10124. on the basis of taxonomic studies, the producing microorganism is described as streptomyces griseoflavus (krainsky, 1914) waksman et henrici, 1948, subsp. thuringiensis subsp. nov., type strain ja 10124. the antibiotic complex, designated as streptovirudin, was isolated from extracts of both mycelium and culture filtrate. it is a white amorphous material which consists of ten closely related components ...1975168173
the immune response to infection with vaccinia virus in mice. i. infection and the production of antibody neutralizing cell-associated and cell-free virus.the onset, duration and magnitude of antibody responses to a poxvirus infection were examined. mice were inoculated intravenously with the wr strain of vaccinia virus and developed pocks on their tails. the number of pocks was related to the size of the inoculum. virus was detectable in the spleen and infected mice were subsequently immune to intravenous and intra-nasal challenge. sera of infected animals neutralized both cell-free and cell-associated virus. antibody against cell-free virus appe ...1975168248
immune and non-immune macrophage resistance to the fibroma-myxoma virus complex. 1975168379
abortive infection of a rabbit cornea cell line by vesicular stomatitis virus: conversion to productive infection by superinfection with vaccinia abortive infection of a rabbit cornea cell line (rc-60) by vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), yielding less than 1 pfu/cell, was converted to a productive infection, yielding 1,900 pfu/cell, when cells were superinfected with vaccinia. studies on the synthesis of vsv-directed rna in rc-60 cells suggest that the abortive infection by vsv alone may be due in part to (i) a limited production of 40s virion rna and (ii) a markedly reduced activity of virion-bound transcriptase activity in rc-60 cel ...1975168405
counter immunoelectrophoresis in rapid diagnosis of pox virus infections.the use of the counter immunoelectrophoresis technique enhanced the reaction between vaccinia virus and its antibody. by means of 0.7% and 1% solutions of agarose, sharp, clear lines of precipitation were obtained within 30 minutes at 200 volts.1975168478
interferon induction and action in transformed poikilothermic cells.the production and effect of interferon in the virus-transformed cell line tgk1, originating from kidney cells of testudo gracea were studied and compared to those in the primary cell culture. west nile virus and newcastle disease virus were used as inducers. interferon production in tgk1 cells began 6 hr later than in the primary cell culture and reached the maximum 64 iu, 18 hr after virus inoculation. in the primary culture, interferon production increased till the 48th hr reaching a fourfold ...1975168742
antiviral activity of 5-ethyl pyrimidine deoxynucleosides. 1975168897
[rna fragments, in vivo inhibitors of shope fibroma and vaccinia virus multiplication].rna-fragments rich in purine nucleotides and resulting from degradation of ribosomal rna from e. coli m 500 sho-r with pancreatic rnase exhibit only in vivo an inhibitory effect on shope fibroma and vaccinia virus multiplication.1975168984
thymidine kinase isozymes of normal and virus-infected cells. 1975169026
antiviral activity of a pyrazino-pyrazine derivative.the 2,3-dihydroxy-6-bromo-pyrazino-[2,3-beta]-pyrazine is a substance selected during the antiviral screening of pyrazino-pyrazine derivatives. the compound shows antiviral activity in vitro against measles, ndv, some influenza viruses and against herpes simplex and zoster, infectious canine hepatitis and vaccinia viruses. it had no effect on echo 9 virus. therapeutic trials showed activity also on herpetic keratoconjunctivitis experimentally induced in rabbits.1975169110
antiviral activity of adenine arabinoside and iododeoxyuridine in human fetal intestinal and tracheal organ vitro antiviral activities of two potentially clinically useful antiviral compounds, adenine arabinoside and iododeoxyuridine, were examined in human fetal intestinal and tracheal organ cultures infected with herpesvirus hominis (types 1 and 2) or vaccinia virus. the two compounds were similarly active against the viruses in organ culture, and minimal inhibitory concentrations could be determined by titration of organ culture fluid harvests into tissue culture or directly in the organ culture ...1975169312
fluoroimidazoles as antiviral agents and inhibitors of polynucleotide biosynthesis. 1975169446
effect to tween 80 and aquasol a on virus plaque formation.the enhancement of vesicular stomatitis virus plaques on human embryonic lung cells in the presence of tween 80 or aquasol a was studied to determine the optimal conditions for the enhancement. enhanced numbers and sizes of vesicular stomatitis virus plaques occurred when aquasol a or tween 80 was added to the cell culture 30 min before virus adsorption but not when added after adsorption. these substances did not have a direct effect on the virus and did not have an effect on virus adsorption o ...1975170202
detection by radioimmunoassay of antibodies in human smallpox patients and vaccinees.a radioimmunoassay procedure was developed for determining smallpox and vaccinia antibodies in human sera. the test detected and measured both primary and secondary immune responses in persons infected with variola virus or vaccinia virus. the antibody titers obtained by complement fixation, hemagglutination inhibition, plaque reduction neutralization, and radioimmunoassay methods were compared. in sequential serum specimens, the radioimmunoassay test indicated fourfold or greater increases in a ...1975170309
antibody titers by mixed agglutination to varicella-zoster, herpes simplex and vaccinia viruses in patients with multiple sclerosis.antibody titers to varicella-zoster (v-z), herpes simplex (hsv) and vaccinia viruses were determined in sera collected in buffalo, ny, from patients with multiple sclerosis (ms), patients with other diseases, and normal individuals. the mixed agglutination test employing cell cultures infected with one of the above viruses as a source of antigen was used to determine antibody titers. the geometric mean titer (gmt) for v-z in 59 ms cases was significantly higher than that observed in patients wit ...1975170625
in vitro translation of natural mrnas in a cell-free system containing components from interferon-treated chicken fibroblasts and factor preparations from mouse ascites cells or rabbit reticulocytes.the effect of interferon has been studied in a mixed cell-free protein synthesizing system. hemoglobin (hb) and encephalomyocarditis virus (emc)-rna can be efficiently translated in vitro in a system containing s-30 lysates or run-off ribosomes from primary chick embryo fibroblasts (cef) and a postmicrosomal supernatant from mouse ascites cells or a ribosomal-wash preparation from rabbit reticulocytes. ribosomes prepared from cef pretreated with high doses of homologous interferon (500 units/ml) ...1975170753
[sensitivity of various primate cells and animal viruses to the antiviral activity of human leukocyte interferon (author's transl)].u cells (a permanent, human amnion cell line) were protected against infection with semliki forest virus (sfv) by human interferon (hif) from peripheral leukocytes. despite the usual genus-specific action of interferons, mouse l929 cultures (a permanent mouse fibroblast cell line) were also protected by hif. the antiviral action of hif in six other primate cell cultures was also examined. it is of interest that two lymphoblastoid cell lines, rpmi1788 and kaplan, were insensitive to hif. the sens ...1975170886
in-vitro demonstration of cell-mediated immunity to vaccinia virus in man.cell mediated immunity to vaccinia virus in man was studied by lymphocyte transformation. vaccinia antigen, propagated on bhk-21 and vero cells, could be used successfully for in-vitro testing after partial purification as well as crude infectious homogenates. vaccinia antigen preparations were effective both in the infective and the inactivated state. inactivation was usually accompanied with a certain loss of stimulating activity. development of cell mediated immune response in-vitro after fir ...1975171872
on the molecular mechanism of the antiviral activity of trifluorothymidine. 1975171993
studies on the biochemical basis for the antiviral activities of some nucleoside analogs. 1975171994
biological activities of some purine arabinosides. 1975171996
studies on the effect of inactivated viruses on the growth of poxvirus variolae. ii. the effect of some viruses varying in heat-inactivation degree. 1975172175
viral replication and interferon production in fetal and adult ovine leukocytes and spleen cells.peripheral blood leukocyte and spleen cell cultures derived from adult sheep and from third-trimester (107 to 145 days of gestation) and second-trimester (70 to 98 days of gestation) fetal lambs were examined for their ability to support viral replication and to produce interferon. bluetongue virus, herpesvirus hominis type 2, and chikungunya virus failed to replicate in either leukocyte or spleen cell cultures derived from adult ewes or in cultures from second- or third-trimester fetal lambs. s ...1975172452
synthesis of herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, and adenovirus dna in isolated hela cell nuclei. i. effect of viral-specific antisera and phosphonoacetic acid.purified nuclei, isolated from appropriately infected hela cells, are shown to synthesize large amounts of either herpes simplex virus (hsv) or vaccinia virus dna in vitro. the rate of synthesis of dna by nuclei from infected cells is up to 30 times higher than the synthesis of host dna in vitro by nuclei isolated from uninfected hela cells. thus hsv nuclei obtained from hsv-infected cells make dna in vitro at a rate comparable to that seen in the intact, infected cell. molecular hybridization s ...1975172658
[experimental results with systematically synthetized substances for antiviral chemotherapy / 4th communication: the role of physical binding in the synthesis of antiviral chemotherapeutics and its influence on potential mutagenic effects (author's transl)].13 antiviral substances containing specific hydrogen bridge linkage systems out of the classes of 2-substituted 4-phenylthiazoles, 4-phenylimidazoles and indandiones-(1,3) were tested for their mutagenic potency in the host-mediated assay, in bone marrow of rats, in spermatogonia of mice and in the micronucleus test of rats. only one substance, n1-methyl-n2-[4-phenylthiazolyl-(2)]-urea, was found to be mutagenic. this fact substantiates the hypothesis that the antiviral effectiveness of the subs ...1975173351
induction and in vitro demonstration of cellular immunity to dna and rna viruses in guinea-pigs.guinea-pigs were immunized with different cells infected with vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, herpesvirus saimiri, and the virus of vesicular stomatitis. development of cellular immunity against these viruses was observed with transformation of blood and spleen lymphocytes and with the migration inhibition test using peritoneal exudate cells. cellular immunity against vaccinia virus was first seen 6 days after the inoculation of cell-bound vaccinia virus by lymphocyte transformation ...1975173485
viral-induced thymidine kinase isozymes. 1975174152
swinepox. virus isolation, experimental infections and the differentiation from vaccinia virus infections.the isolation of swinepox virus in primary pig kidney cell cultures is reported. the differentiation from vaccinia virus was possible with challenge infections of convalescent pigs and the use of the agar gel diffusion precipitation (agdp) test and immuno-electroosmophoresis (ieop). using both immune precipitation tests reactions of identity were obtained between the heterologous antigens of swinepox and vaccinia viruses. a total of 829 pig sera from the field were tested for precipitating antib ...1975174522
ultrastructural aspects of experimental swinepox with special reference to inclusion bodies.a light and electron microscopic study was performed on pox-like epidermal lesions in an experimentally infected pig. light microscopical investigation of semithin sections revealed the presence of nuclear vacuoles and of different types of cytoplasmic inclusions. in electron microscopical studies large numbers of both immature and mature virus particles and the cytological changes indicative of pox virus infection were observed. various types of intra-cytoplasmic inclusions -- i.e. fibrillar in ...1975174523
antiviral and antimetabolic activities of poly (7-deazaadenylic acid) and poly (7-deazainosinic acid). 1975175799
[antiviral effect of acridine derivative c 283]. 1976176540
[sensitivity of normal and rous virus-transformed lines of armenian hamster cells to infectious viruses].the capacity of normal (nhet) and rous virus-transformed cell line of armenian hamster both producing (shet sh-r) and not producing (shet k-3) virus to support reproduction of vaccinia and newcastle disease viruses was demonstrated. the former of these viruses replicated in the cell cultures with cytopathic effect, the latter did so without causing cell degeneration. the degree of newcastle disease virus reproduction in all 3 cultures was the same whereas vaccinia virus synthesis in shet sh-r wa ...1975176825
[virucidal activity of the disinfectant "gigasept" against different enveloped and non-enveloped rna-and dna-viruses, pathogenic for men. i. investigation in the suspension test (author's transl)]."gigasept" is a highly efficient chemical disinfectant on the basis of succine dialdehyde and form aldehyde. the virucidal capacity was assayed in the suspension test procedure with different representative rna and dna viruses with and without an envelope, such as polio wild virus type i, coxsackie virus type b 3, adeno virus type 3, herpes virus type ) and vaccinia virus. parameter for disinfectant activity was the virus inactivation kinetic, i. e. interdependence of titer reduction vs. disinfe ...1975176845
the effect of tilorone hydrochloride on the growth of several animal viruses in tissue cultures.tilorone hydrochloride, at a concentration of 10 mug/ml inhibits the growth of herpes simplex virus type 1 in bs-c-1 cells. the growth of vaccinia virus in bs-c-1 cells is partially inhibited; however, six viruses containing rna, including four members of the togavirus group grown in chick fibroblasts, are not affected by the drug. the inhibition of the growth of herpes virus by tilorone hydrochloride is greater when the multiplicity of infection is lower than 1 p.f.u/cell and when the drug is a ...1976177724
experimental viral infections of the inner ear. i. acute infections of the newborn hamster labyrinth.acute viral infections of the inner ear were produced in neonatal hamsters. viruses were inoculated percutaneously through the temporal cartilage into the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces of the labyrinth or were inoculated intracerebrally to reach the perilymphatic spaces via the cochlear aqueduct. selective vulnerability of inner ear structures was demonstrated using a variety of viruses. influenza virus infected only the mesenchymal cells of the perilymphatic channels of the cochlea; mu ...1976177808
cell-mediated immunity to microbial antigens in mother and child.we have looked at evidence for the transplacental passage of cell-mediated immunity in man. the lymphocyte response of mother-neonate pairs was assessed to non-specific mitogens, allogeneic cells, and to microbial antigens. although six mothers were known to be chronic carriers of herpes simplex virus only one of their neonates responded to this viral antigen. on two occasions a lymphocyte response was induced in cord blood by antigens to which the mother did not respond. this paradox remains un ...1975178473
growth inhibition of cells in cultures and of vaccinia virus infected hela cells by derivatives of trifluorothymidine.the effects of 5-trifluoromethyluracil (f3thy), 5-trifluoromethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (f3dthd), f3dthd-5'-p, and f3dthd-5'-methylphosphonate on the growth of hela cells, novikoff hepatoma cells, l5178y mouse leukemia cells, and on the replication of vaccinia virus in hela cells have been determined. f3thy and f3dthd-5'-methylophosphonate were approximately 500-fold and 100-fold less effective, respectively, than f3dthd or f3dthd-5'-p in their inhibition of these cells. f3dthd and f3dthd-5'-p are pot ...1976178485
characterization of a virion protein kinase as a virus-specified enzyme.antibodies which completely inhibited the enzymatic activity of the protein kinase associated with virions of frog virus were obtained by immunization of rabbits with the purified enzyme. this inhibition provided a specific probe for the frog virus protein kinase, since this antiserum had no inhibitory effect on a variety of other protein kinases, including the activity of uninfected cells, or the protein kinase associated with vesicular stomatitis virus or vaccinia virus cultivated in the same ...1976178663
synthesis and biological studies of 3-(beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-2,3,-dihydro-6h-1,3-oxazine-2,6-dione, a new pyrimidine nucleoside analog related to uridine.reaction of the trimethylsilyl derivative of 2,3-dihydro-6h-1,3-oxazine-2,6-dione (2, "uracil anhydride") with protected 1-o-acetylribofuranoses in the presence of stannic chloride gave the corresponding block nucleosides. 3-(2,3-5-tri-o-2',2',2'-trichloroethoxycarbonyl-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-2,3-dihydro-6h-1,3-oxazine-2,6-dione (4c) thus prepared from the protected sugar 3c, 1-o-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-o-(2,2,2-trichloroethoxycarbonyl)ribofuranose, gave, on removal of the protecting groups with zinc du ...1976178870
reactions of 2-acyloxyisobutyryl halides with nucleosides. 6. synthesis and biological evaluation of some 3'-acyl derivatives of 2,2'-anhydro-1-(beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine hydrochloride.the reactions of cytidine with 22 different 2-o-acyloxyisobutyril chlorides lead to the isolation of the corresponding 2,2'-anhydro-1-(3'-o-acyl-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine hydrochlorides 9. these compounds, which all show cytotoxicity against hela cells in tissue culture, have been examined for antiviral and antileukemic activity. activity against dna viruses (vaccinia and herpes) in tissue culture is maximal in compounds containing acyl groups with 8--12 carbon atoms. activity against l12 ...1976178871
reactions of 2-acyloxyisobutyryl halides with nucleosides. 7. synthesis and biological evaluation of some 2,2'-anhydro-1(3',5'-di-o-acyl-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine hydrochlorides.the direct acylation of 2,2'-anhydro-1(beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine hydrochloride (cycloc) with a homologous series of saturated and unsaturated acyl chlorides in dimethylacetamide has been investigated. such acylation reactions have made available a considerable number of 3',5'-diesters of cycloc that have been examined for biological activities. the compounds all show cytotoxicity against hela cells in tissue culture, and with the exception of the highly insoluble long-chain diesters (c16- ...1976178872
reactions of 2-acyloxyisobutyryl halides with nucleosides. synthesis and biological evaluation of some 3"-acyl and 3',5'-diacyl derivatives of 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine.previous papers in this series have described efficient syntheses of 3'-o-acyl and 3',5'-di-o-acyl and 3',5'-di-o-acyl derivatives of 2,2'-anhydro-1-(beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine hydrochloride (1,3). it has now been shown that the 2,2'-anhydro linkage in 1 and 3 can be selectively and efficiently cleaved by treatment with a mixture of pyridine and methanol giving the corresponding 3'-o-acyl derivatives of 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine (2,4). the selective hydrolysis of the more soluble d ...1976178873
vaccinia virus meningitis in mice after intracerebral inoculation.the pathogenesis of experimental vaccinia virus infection in weanling mice after intracerebral inoculation was followed with virological, histological, and immunohistological methods. high-dose inoculation, virus spread from brain to thoracic and abdominal viscera probably by an undetected early viremia. virus did rise to detectable levels in blood by day 5 and was found to be associated with the mononuclear cell fraction. by day 12, 30% of the animals had died and no further deaths occurred. ri ...1976179952
evaluation of 6-azauridine and 5-iododeoxyuridine in the treatment of experimental viral infections.the potential antiviral activity of 6-azauridine and 5-iododeoxyuridine was evaluated in a coordinated study at five institutions. experimental models in five species, the mouse, rabbit, swine, cat, and ferret, were established with use of 10 viruses: herpesvirus hominis types 1 and 2, murine cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, shope fibroma virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, swine influenza virus, feline viral rhinotracheitis virus, feline panleukopenia virus, and ferret distemper virus. ...1976180189
effective antiviral prophylaxis and therapy by systemic application of human interferon in immunosuppressed monkeys.rhesus monkeys treated with antilymphocytic globulin were infected with vaccinia virus or with medical lake macaque herpesvirus. at the sites of inoculation of vaccinia virus, animals not treated with interferon developed typical pustulous reactions and then smaller secondary lesions. human leukocyte interferon (5 x 10(5) international units per day) injected intramuscularly, either from one day before to three days after infection or for seven days beginning on the first day of primary reaction ...1976180202
[standardization of viral hemagglutination inhibition tests]. 1975180389
[polyadenylic acid sequence in viral rna]. 1976180689
rescue of vesicular stomatitis virus from homologous and heterologous interferon-induced resistance in human cell cultures by human cell cultures the ability of poxviruses to rescue vesicular stomatitis virus from human interferon-induced resistance was significantly more efficient than the ability to rescue it from simian interferon-induced resistance. the sensitivity of the poxvirus to interferon was not related to its ability to rescue vesicular stomatitis virus.1976181327
use of cell cultures with persistent virus infections to test the efficacy of antiviral compounds.bhk-21 cells persistently infected with either vaccinia or foot and mouth disease virus were used to study the efficacy of antiviral compounds. the results of the persistent infection cell culture (picc) test were compared with those obtained by the plaque reduction (pr) test. the comparison showed that: (1) the picc test is more informative than the pr test; (2) stimulative as well as inhibitory activities of compounds are detectable, and (3) since the picc test can be carried on for several we ...1976182439
oral immunization against smallpox.attenuated vaccinia strain penetrates the mucous membranes of the oral and pharyngeal cavity; local lesions are not produced, even if high doses of attenuated virus are applied. attenuated vaccinia virus thus offers the possibility of oral and nasal immunization against smallpox in man. several groups of monkeys were immunized by the oral and nasal route. the subsequent challenge with virulent smallpox virus resulted in strongly mitigated clinical symptoms as compared to non-immunized controls ...1976182585
[production and characterization of some mouse embryo cellular substrates in vitro].cell cultures with a different multiplication potential in vitro, depending upon the strain source used, were obtained from mouse embryos belonging to the cva, c57 black a2g and swiss strains. only the swiss 12 culture underwent spontaneous transformation and was carried through more than 50 passages in vitro. the swiss-12 substrate proved not to be contaminated either by viruses or micoplasma. it is less sensitive than other elective cell substrates to infection with attenuated polioviruses, cy ...1976183259
[stability of teschen, hcc, nd and vaccinia viruses against 5 disinfectants]. 1976183417
[tc marker of the attenuated vaccinia vaccide strain "mva" in human cell cultures and protective immunization against orthopox diseases in animals]. 1976183419
[aerosol vaccination against mousepox (infectious ectromelia) in comparison with other vaccination methods using vaccinia and mousepox vaccines]. 1976183420
langerhans cells at the sites of vaccinia virus inoculation.langerhans cells in the epidermis at the sites of vaccina virus inoculation were studied with the electron microscope. the cells contained unusually increased numbers of the langerhans cell granules. such abnormal langerhans cells have not been described except for in histiocytosis x. vaccinia virus particles were found in the langerhans cells, where they were located individually or embedded in the granular matrix or in lysosomes.1976183611
application of the fluorescent antibodies method for rapid diagnosis caused of diseases by pox viruses.the results of application of the fluorescent antibodies method (mfa) with the diagnostic purpose of detecting pox antigen in specimens from smallpox patients are presented, the method was found highly effective for the examination of material taken directly from the patients (smears) in the early stages of disease (maculo-papular and vesicular). the results of examination of smears from pustular fluid and scabs were not reliable in 44% of cases due to the presence of nonspecific fluorescence of ...1976184205
application of the fluorescent antibodies method for rapid diagnosis caused of diseases by pox viruses.the results of application of the fluorescent antibodies method (mfa) with the diagnostic purpose of detecting pox antigen in specimens from smallpox patients are presented. the method was found highly effective for the examination of material taken directly from the patients (smears) in the early stages of disease (maculo-papular and vesicular). the results of examination of smears from pustular fluid and scabs were not reliable in 44% of cases due to the presence of nonspecific fluorescence of ...1976184207
synthesis and antiviral and antimicrobial activity of certain 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-4,5-disubstituted imidazoles.starting with aica ribonucleoside the following nucleosides were prepared. methyl 5-amino-1-(2,3,5-tri-o-acetyl-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate (5) was converted into methyl 5-chloro-1-(2,3,5-tri-o-acetyl-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate (6) via diazotization in the presence of cuprous chloride. similarly, 5-amino-1-(2,3,5-tri-o-acetyl-beta-d-ribofuanosyl)imidazole-4-carbonitrile (9) was converted into 5-chloro-, 5-bromo-, and 5-iodo-1-(2,3,5-tri-o-acetyl-beta-d-ribofura ...1976184281
synthesis and anti-dna -virus activity of the 5'-monophosphate and the cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate of 9-(beta-d-xylofuranosyl) guanine.9-(beta-td-xylofuranosyl)guanine (xylo-g) was converted chemically to the 9-(beta-d-xylofuranosyl)guanine 5'-monophosphate (xylo-gmp) and 9-(beta-d-xylofuranosyl)guanine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate (c-xylo-gmp). these compounds were tested against a variety of dna viruses in tissue culture in parallel with 9-(beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)adenine (ara-a). this evaluation revealed that xylo-g, xylo-gmp, and c-xylo-gmp were all moderately active but less effective than ara-a. when the four compounds were ...1976184282
antiviral and antimetabolic activities of formycin and its n1-, n2-, 2'-o- and 3'-o-methylated derivatives. 1975184795
factors involved in the expression of cowpox virus-specific antigen in sendai virus carrier cells.formation of cowpox virus-specific cell surface antigen (cpvs-ag) hvj (sendai virus) carrier cells compared to that in parent cells. temperature shifts from 32 to 35 to 37 degrees c for these carrier cultures reduced this enhancing activity, making them equivalent to parent cells. the eclips phase and one-step growth of cpv in the carrier cells were shorter than in normal cells. extracts of carrier cells exhibited a stimulating activity causing the temporary rise and subsequent lowering of cpv i ...1976185330
[discriminant-analytic structure-effect relationship of qualitative biological data. virostatic effect of isatin-beta-isothiosemicarbazones]."yes/no" results from the plaque-diffusion inhibition test concerning the virostatic activity of substituted isatin-beta-isothiosemicarbazones against mengo- and vaccinia-viruses can be described discriminant analytically by means of simple substituent constants. the discriminant analysis permits quantitative structure-activity analysis of qualitative and semi-quantitative test data, thus offering a chance for theoretical synthesis optimization already at the level of rough screening.1976185860
specific inactivation of herpes simplex virus by silver nitrate at low concentrations and biological activities of the inactivated virus.the infectivities of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 were inactivated by silver nitrate at concentrations of 30 mum or less, which did not affect at all the infectivities of hemagglutinating virus of japan, vesicular stomatitis virus, poliovirus, vaccinia virus, and adenovirus. the inactivated virus retained the capability of adsorbing to the cell, with an adsorption kinetics quite similar to that of intact virus, and of inducing the concanavalin a agglutinability in the infected cells, where ...1976185946
activity of albumin conjugates of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine and cytosine arabinoside on poxviruses as a lysosomotropic approach to antiviral chemotherapy. 1976186717
production of interferon in human diploid cell cultures.eleven human diploid cell lines were compared for their ability to produce interferon in response to newcastle disease virus. sensitivity of the cultures of mm, sindbis vsv and vr viruses was also studied. human cells derived from various tissue of a single embryo responded variably to interferon inducer. using selected viruses interferon production was studied in two systems, in cultures of leukocytes and in human embryonic cells.1976187142
antiviral activity of carbopol, a cross-linked polycarboxylate.carbopol, a polymer of acrylic acid cross-linked with allylsucrose, was found to impart resistance to virus infection in mice which received an intraperitoneal injection of the polycarboxylate 1 or 4 days before either intravenous vaccinia virus challenge or intranasal herpes simplex virus challenge. an interferon-like substance was detected in the blood stream 20-40 hours after the intraperitoneal injection of carbopol. the antiviral activity of this cross-linked polycarboxylate could be due to ...1976187146
sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay method for detection of certain viral antibodies in sera and cerebrospinal indirect solid-phase radioimmunoassay (ria) was applied to titration of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) antibodies against a variety of viruses including rubella, mumps, measles, herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, and vaccinia. the test used fixed, virus-infected cells as a source of antigen, and conditions for optimal production of viral antigen were determined for each virus-host cell system. in acute, uncomplicated viral infections, sera taken 2 to 5 days after onset generally had low h ...1976187618
effect of selective complement deficiency on the rate of neutralization of enveloped viruses by human sera.the capacity of human sera genetically deficient in selective complement (c) components to enhance neutralization of enveloped viruses was examined by kinetic plaque reduction assays. vaccinia virus, a dna virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), an rna virus, were studied. exogenous rabbit: or human antibody to vaccinia virus, and guinea pig or human antibody to vsv were provided in limiting, c-dependent concentrations. igg antibodies predominated in most of the antisera employed. c5-defici ...1977187701
an antigenically atypical strain of variola virus.the kuwait-5-67 strain of variola virus, although indistinguishable from variola virus in its other properties, behaved atypically in immuno-diffusion tests with antivaccinia serum. the precipitation line pattern produced was similar to that of cowpox virus but lacked one of the main precipitation bands given by all other strains of variola, alastrim and vaccinia viruses tested. trypsin treatment of cowpox virus preparations revealed the missing precipitation line but did not do so with the kuwa ...1976187725
a-type inclusion markers of wild white and other variola-related poxviruses. 1976187818
cell surface antigens induced by herpes simplex virus (hsv).among the antigens induced by hsv on the surface of infected cells there are antigens binding anti-hsv antibodies by their combining (fab) site (hsv-ag), and others binding antibodies of various specificities, probably through their fc fragment (igr). hsv-ag were demonstrated by cytotoxicity and mixed agglutination tests; igr were made evident by passive hemadsorption. the ability to induce igr is especially characteristic of hsv-1 strains, being absent or limited with hsv-2 strains. igr were no ...1976188230
determination of the mass of viruses by quantitative electron microscopy.the photometric method of quantitative determination of dry mass by electron microscopy has been applied to the study of various types of viruses: animal, plant, insect, and bacterial. the method is applicable to all viruses having a mass of 1 x 10-18g or greater. the molecular weight of viruses can be calculated from the mass value by multiplying it by avogadro's number. in comparison to other methods of determining the molecular weight of viruses, sedimentation and diffusion, sedimentation equ ...1976189345
survival of some viruses in the sea-water samples collected from the gulf of gdaƄsk. preliminary studies. 1976189869
a new approach in specific, active immunotherapy.a vaccinia virus-lysed autochthonous tumor cell vaccine (vaccinia oncolysate) is introduced as a new specific, active immunotherapeutic agent against human cancer. mouse experiments showed the vaccine to be a safe and potent immune mechanism stimulator. human experimentation was undertaken in the knowledge of relative safety of the components of the vaccine, i.e. vaccinia vaccine and lysed, autochthonous tumor cells. vaccine-treated patients had advanced metastatic cancer but reacted to one or m ...1977189895
[determination of autohemolysin formation using the plaque test. demonstration of autoimmune phenomena following vaccinations and infections].a simple and sensitive modification of the plaque assay for the evaluation of autohaemolysin-producing cells (apc) in the peripheral blood is described: very small chambers, (volume less than or equal to 0.03 cc) made out of glass slides (75 x 25 mm), are filled with a diluted (1:7) blood cell suspension. after incubation for 26 hours the haemolytic plaques produced by apc in the thin monolayer of blood cells can be counted under the microcope at a magnification up to 320-fold. the number of apc ...1977190096
[microbial resistance to formaldehyde. i. comparative quantitative studies in some selected species of vegetative bacteria, bacterial spores, fungi, bacteriophages and viruses].the resistence of different microorganisms to formaldehyde was determined. as test objects served gram-negative and gram-positive vegetative germs (klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella paratyphi-b, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis), bacterial spores (bacillus cereus, bacillus pumilus, bacillus stearothermophilus, bacillus subtilis), fungi (aspergillus niger, candida albicans), bacteriophages (escherichia coli phages, t1, t2, t3), and viruses (adenovirus, poliomy ...1976190825
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