Publications

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single-virus fusion experiments reveal proton influx into vaccinia virions and hemifusion lag times.recent studies have revealed new insights into the endocytosis of vaccinia virus (vacv). however, the mechanism of fusion between viral and cellular membranes remains unknown. we developed a microfluidic device with a cell-trap array for immobilization of individual cells, with which we analyzed the acid-dependent fusion of single virions. vacv particles incorporating enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) and labeled with self-quenching concentrations of r18 membrane dye were used in combina ...023870263
virotherapy, gene transfer and immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies.malignant cells are susceptible to viral infection and consequent cell death. virus-induced cell death is endowed with features that are known to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. thus danger signals emitted by cells succumbing to viral infection as well as viral nucleic acids are detected by specific receptors, and tumor cell antigens can be routed to professional antigen-presenting cells. the anticancer immune response triggered by viral infection is frequently insufficient to er ...023243597
virological and preclinical characterization of a dendritic cell targeting, integration-deficient lentiviral vector for cancer immunotherapy.dendritic cells (dcs) are essential antigen-presenting cells for the initiation of cytotoxic t-cell responses and therefore attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. we have developed an integration-deficient lentiviral vector termed id-vp02 that is designed to deliver antigen-encoding nucleic acids selectively to human dcs in vivo. id-vp02 utilizes a genetically and glycobiologically engineered sindbis virus glycoprotein to target human dcs through the c-type lectin dc-sign (cd209) and also ...025658613
development of replication-competent viral vectors for hiv vaccine delivery.to briefly describe some of the replication-competent vectors being investigated for development of candidate hiv vaccines focusing primarily on technologies that have advanced to testing in macaques or have entered clinical trials.023925000
development of a new hydrogen peroxide–based vaccine platform.safe and effective vaccines are crucial for maintaining public health and reducing the global burden of infectious disease. here we introduce a new vaccine platform that uses hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)) to inactivate viruses for vaccine production. h(2)o(2) rapidly inactivates both rna and dna viruses with minimal damage to antigenic structure or immunogenicity and is a highly effective method when compared with conventional vaccine inactivation approaches such as formaldehyde or β-propiolacton ...022635006
oncolytic vaccinia virus therapy of salivary gland carcinoma.to examine the therapeutic effects of an attenuated, replication-competent vaccinia virus (glv-1h68) against a panel of 5 human salivary gland carcinoma cell lines.023429949
the cultivation of the granules of vaccinia virus.the technique is described whereby vaccinia "granules" are separated from all other material of glycerolated vaccinia calf lymph and cultivated in vitro with embryonic tissues. these "granules"remain alive, as tested by rabbit corneal inoculation, for as long as 71 days, when grown in connection with growing tissue; they fail to remain potent if cultivated with dying cells, showing in this way the same characteristics as whole vaccine virus. the potency of the " granules" increases with the age ...192619869163
experiments with the virus of poliomyelitis.1. efforts to adapt the virus of poliomyelitis to the rabbit organism and to produce poliomyelitis in rabbits by testicular injection and by brain injection after testicular passage produced no evidence that the virus could be adapted in this manner. suggestive symptoms produced in very young rabbits were duplicated in non-specifically treated and in uninoculated controls. the admixture of a vaccine virus, adapted to the rabbit organism, with the poliomyelitis virus in similar injections and pas ...193019869727
centrifuge experiments with the virus of vaccinia.centrifuge experiments have been carried out with cell-free, active filtrates of vaccinia virus. the experiments have shown that the virus can be concentrated by this method, even in filtrates which have been subjected to prolonged preliminary centrifugation to throw down any inert particles which may have been present in the original filtrate. this fact, together with the knowledge that the virus can be almost completely held back by the berkefeld n filter, as reported previously (5) indicates ...193019869732
flocculation experiments with variola and vaccinia virus. 193118013231
the maternal transmission of vaccinial immunity in swine.the introduction of vaccinia virus into the skin of swine calls forth a typical vesicular reaction which may be followed by a solid immunity. this acquired state of resistance was utilized in determining the route of immunity transmission from sow to young. the suckling young of immune sows, vaccinated on the 7th day or earlier, showed no reaction to the virus. their hand-fed litter mates, however, were susceptible and reacted with the formation of vesicles. these observations indicate that the ...193219870106
immunisation with inactive vaccinia virus. 193220475121
the maternal transmission of vaccinial immunity in swine : ii. the duration of active immunity in the sow and of passive immunity in the young.the protective substances produced by vaccinia virus in swine are transmitted repeatedly to the young by way of the colostrum of the sow. in 2 instances suckling immunity was demonstrable in the young of 6 successive farrowings which numbered 37 and 57 individuals, respectively. the immunity acquired by suckling began to decline during the 2nd month and was practically negligible by the end of the 3rd month. vaccinia virus introduced cutaneously during the first few days of life in the passively ...193419870300
purification of vaccinia virus. 193418014017
the protective action of rabbit serum for vaccinia virus at high temperatures. 193617807361
a study of generalized vaccinia in the chick embryo.1. chick embryos infected by the chorio-allantoic route with a bacteria-free strain of vaccinia virus develop a general dissemination of the virus throughout the entire organism with the exception of the central nervous system. 2. quantitative estimation of the distribution of the virus in the various organs of the infected chick by cutaneous inoculation on the rabbit skin offers no evidence for a heightened affinity of the virus for special tissues. 3. histological study of the lesions in the v ...193619870469
studies on the mechanism of immunity in typhus fever : ii. allergic and toxic reactions produced with rickettsia prowazeki.the intradermal inoculation of mexican typhus virus into immune guinea pigs produces a local reaction which is similar in its appearance to the lesion observed in the skin of normal animals submitted to the same treatment. the reaction in the immune animal appears earlier and fades sooner than the lesion in the normal guinea pig. the inoculation of heat-killed or formalin-killed rickettsiae produces no significant reactions at the site of the intradermal injection in typhus immune guinea pigs. t ...193619870562
the fate of vaccinia virus on cultivation in vitro with kupffer cells (reticulo-endothelial cells).the pathogenic activity of vaccinia virus is in large part suppressed when it is mixed with living kupffer cells or clasmatocytes in the test-tube and injected intradermally. vaccinia increases in quantity when introduced into cultures of kupffer cells in vitro, and survives in immediate association with these elements. no antiviral principle is elaborated by them under such conditions.193819870763
the behavior of pox viruses in the respiratory tract : i. the response of mice to the nasal instillation of vaccinia virus.a catarrhal reaction manifested by a coryza and a pneumonia of characteristic pathology was regularly produced in mice by the nasal instillation of vaccinia virus. inoculation into embryonated eggs indicated that the virus entered the circulation as early as the 2nd day after injection. the vaccinial catarrh was readily transmissible by the passage of nasal exudate but not by contact. dosage was important in establishing the virus in the nasal passages, the limiting dilution being approximately ...193819870795
the lymphatic pathway from the nose and pharynx : the dissemination of nasally instilled vaccinia virus.vaccinia virus dropped into the nose of a susceptible animal does not appear in cervical lymph in less than 12 hours. after 12 hours, and thereafter continuously for 7 days, a stream of virus is entering the blood through the cervical lymph ducts. virus passes through the lymph nodes. virus is fixed by the lymphocytes, and the significance of this is discussed.193919870833
the behavior of pox viruses in the respiratory tract : iii. the survival of variola and vaccinia viruses in the lungs of mice previously infected with variola.recovery from the transient pulmonary reaction which accompanies the nasal instillation of variola virus in mice was followed by a measurable protection against the homologous virus and also against vaccinia. variola virus which regularly survived in the lung of normally susceptible mice through the 5th day was noticeably reduced in titer on the 3rd day in the lung of recovered animals, and usually eliminated by the 5th day. vaccinia virus produced a less severe systemic reaction in recovered mi ...194019870989
propagation of vaccinia virus in the rabbit fetus.1. a method is described for propagation of bacteria-free vaccinia virus in the rabbit fetus. 2. for the production of severe generalized infection, affording a high yield of virus, the following conditions were found to be favorable: the use of 24 day fetuses, a virus dosage of 10,000 adult rabbit skin units, injection into multiple sites, and an incubation period of 4 days in utero. 3. under these conditions the virus was found to disseminate widely in the infected fetus, being recoverable par ...194019871018
the prolonged coexistence of vaccinia virus in high titre and living cells in roller tube cultures of chick embryonic tissues.1. the virus of vaccinia in so called roller tube cultures of mixed embryonic chick tissue rapidly increases to maximal titre. 2. under these conditions the quantity of virus in the tissue remains at or near the maximum for at least 9 weeks and considerable amounts are present in the fluids removed each day. 3. the same results are obtained when only fragments of embryonic chick heart are employed. 4. many, though not necessarily all, of the cells in infected cultures remain alive and retain the ...194019871031
experiments in connexion with an attempt to produce a neurotropic strain of vaccinia virus in sheep. 194120475606
studies on microorganisms in simulated room environments : vi. the disappearance of vaccinia virus from air. 194116560475
culture on the chick chorio-allantois as a test of inactivation of vaccinia virus. 194216560579
a study of the ph stability of vaccinia virus. 194221434062
morphological structure of rickettsiae.the morphological structures of the rickettsiae of epidemic and endemic typhus fever, rocky mountain spotted fever, and q fever are similar to one another and to certain bacteria. the rickettsial organisms in common with the elementary bodies of vaccinia virus and all bacteria would appear to have a limiting membrane which surrounds a substance that seems to be protoplasmic in nature; numbers of dense granules are embedded in the inner protoplasm.194319871289
increased resistance to viral infection as a result of increased fluid in tissues.experiments are described in which it is shown that the estrogenic hormone (alpha-estradiol propionate) increases the amount of extracellular fluid in the skin. since previous work showed that this hormone increases resistance of rabbits to vaccinia virus, it is suggested that the increased resistance is the result of increased fluid in the tissues. in further test of this thesis, experiments were performed in which the extracellular fluid in the skin was increased by the intraperitoneal injecti ...194319871316
the stability of variola virus propagated in embryonated eggs.after 24 transfers in embryonated eggs a strain of variola virus (chinese) was established in the testis of the rabbit and maintained for 11 passages at intervals of 7 days. residence in the rabbit testis was not accompanied by any significant alteration in the species identity of the virus. a second strain of variola virus (minnesota) was transferred 180 times in embryonated eggs with no apparent change in its behavior. subsequent attempts, however, to maintain this strain in the rabbit by seri ...194319871324
inactivation of vaccinia and ectromelia virus haemagglutinins by lecithinase. 194620273974
herpes simplex; treatment by repeated vaccination with vaccinia virus. 194620279881
the effect of penicillin on the vaccinia virus. 194620281474
the effect of enzyme inhibitors, nutriles, and substitution compounds on the growth of vaccinia virus. 194621064747
the relationship between the virus of infectious ectromelia of mice and vaccinia virus. 194620985786
the haemagglutinins of vaccinia and ectromelia viruses. 194620985878
the production of vaccinia haemagglutinin in rabbit skin. 194620985879
studies of the complement-fixation reaction in virus systems; activities of vaccinia virus antigens and antisera. 194620992659
resistance induced by vaccinia virus to pertussis infection in mice. 194720249669
the effect of metabolites, metabolite antagonists and enzyme-inhibitors on the growth of the vaccinia virus in maitland type of tissue cultures. 194720249677
resistance induced by vaccinia virus to pertussis infection in mice. 194720251678
[not available]. 194720268199
studies in infectious ectromelia of mice; immunization of mice against ectromelia with living vaccinia virus. 194720270648
the effect of metabolites, metabolite antagonists and enzyme-inhibitors on the growth of the vaccinia virus in maitland type of tissue cultures. 194720294488
the superinfection of the rabbit papilloma (shope) by extraneous viruses.1. the potentialities that viruses have for the superinfection of virus tumors have not been recognized nor has the fact that a single cell can harbor more than one virus. 2. rabbit papillomas, induced by the papilloma virus (shope), were superinfected by b virus, myxoma virus, vaccinia virus, and probably, virus iii. similar attempts at superinfection by herpes virus were without success. the criteria for parasitization included the histopathological finding of specific inclusion bodies, the re ...194719871661
influence of roentgen radiation on the spread of vaccinia virus in young rabbits. 194818102537
attenuation of vaccinial virus by interfacial adsorption. 194818869359
on the synergism of some gram-positive cocci and vaccinia virus. 194818878134
on the growth-promoting action of living vaccinia virus upon mice. 194818883303
studies on the scarlet fever toxoid; on the viristatic action of streptococcus toxoid upon vaccinia virus. 194818883304
inhibition of growth of the vaccinia virus by beta-2-thienylalanine and its reversal by phenylalanine. 194818884243
varicelliform eruption of kaposi due to vaccinia virus complicating atopic eczema. 194818916948
histological appearance of mouse sarcoma 180 infected by vaccinia virus. 194918112025
the effect of rabbit immune serum on haemagglutination through vaccinia virus. 194918136878
haemagglutination through vaccinia virus; the aptitude of buffalo pulp for haemagglutination through vaccinia virus. 194918151879
the effects of antagonists on the multiplication of vaccinia virus in vitro. 194917787837
haemagglutination through vaccinia virus; inhibition after revaccination. 194915393602
the virostatic and virucidal action of alpha-haloacylamides on vaccinia virus in vitro. 194915403935
the sterilization of bacteriological media and other fluids with ethylene oxide.ethylene oxide is an effective sterilizing agent for bacteriological broths, milk, and serum. a short time after it has exerted its sterilizing effect, the treated fluids again become capable of supporting bacterial growth. ethylene oxide has been shown to destroy a number of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, aerobic and anaerobic spore-forming bacilli, fungi, and vaccinia virus. no organisms have been encountered which withstand its action. the quantity of ethylene oxide necess ...195015415502
[mixture of tyrothricin and beta-phenoxyethyl alcohol harmless to vaccinia virus and suitable for purification of smallpox vaccine]. 195014777812
effects of purine derivatives and analogues on multiplication of the vaccinia virus. 195014794918
toxic factor(s) in vaccinia virus and its neutralization by penicillin; a preliminary communication. 195014813807
vaccination, vaccinia virus and vaccine lymph. 195024538092
studies on chemotherapy of vaccinia virus. i. an experimental design for testing antiviral agents. 195114824089
[a thermo-stable strain of vaccinia virus]. 195114830174
preliminary and short reports; effect of aureomycin and terramycin on the vaccinia virus in the chick embryo. 195114803817
[dissemination of vaccinia virus in the rabbit]. 195114921192
studies on the chemotherapy of vaccinia virus. ii. the activity of some thiosemicarbazones. 195114888894
protection of mice against vaccinia virus by administration of benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone. 195114891903
studies on vaccinia virus. i. the development of hemagglutinating and infective particles in the chorioallantois of the chick embryo. 195114898076
studies on vaccinia virus. ii. neutralization of vaccinia virus by normal guinea pig serum. 195114898077
protection of mice against the vaccinia virus by the administration of phenoxythiouracils. 195114908071
studies on reactivation of ultraviolet irradiated vaccinia virus with visible light. 195114915212
kaposi's varicelliform eruption due to vaccinia virus. 195214918787
intracellular development of vaccinia virus. 195214930059
in vitro and in vivo action of aureomycin on vaccinia virus in the chick embryo and in the rabbit. 195214946429
effect of hyaluronidase on reaction of rabbits to intradermal inoculations of vaccinia virus. 195214949036
a phagicidal and virucidal agent in maple fruit (acer platanoides l.) preparations; investigations with e. coli bacteriophage and vaccinia virus. 195213030206
spontaneous mutation of cowpox-virus by means of egg-passage. 195213031551
immunizing potency against variola of strains of vaccinia virus seeds used in india for the preparation of vaccine lymph. 195213034295
on the influence of the spreading factor to the potency of the vaccinia virus. 195213097704
[unclassified skin disease; isolation of vaccinia virus as a pathogenic agent]. 195212993878
[the demonstration of vaccinia virus in the spinal cord of young cattle]. 195213006751
developmental forms of vaccinia virus. 195313028262
studies on the agglutination of the vacinia virus by the electron microscope. 195313201249
egg cultivated tumor protects embryo against vaccinia virus. 195313120850
inhibition of the experimental vaccinial infection of rabbits' skin by homologous inactivated virus. 195313142735
effect of cortisone and hyaluronidase on the production of hemagglutinin of influenza and vaccinia viruses in suspended cell cultures. 195313142736
[experimental studies on the action of the vaccinia virus introduced into the eye of the rabbit]. 195313160183
intracellular development of pox viruses. 195313168969
[aureomycin and the vaccinia virus]. 195313171566
effect of thiosemicarbazones and dichlorophenoxy thiouracil on multiplication of a recently isolated strain of variola-vaccinia virus in the brain of the mouse. 195313035111
effect of vaccinia on cells grown in tissue culture. 195313047451
observations on the effect of adrenal steroids on vaccinia virus. i. the effect of cortisone in experimental vaccinia-virus keratoconjunctivitis of the rabbit. 195313050704
some factors involved in the titration and neutralisation of vaccinia virus. 195313051121
a comparison of the morphology of vaccinia and myxoma viruses. 195313066396
intracellular forms of pox viruses as shown by the electron microscope (vaccinia, ectromelia, molluscum contagiosum).the intracellular development of three pox viruses has been studied with the electron microscope using thin sections of infected tissue. cells infected with vaccinia, ectromelia, and molluscum contagiosum viruses all form developmental bodies preliminary to the production of mature virus. developmental bodies, believed to be virus precursors, are round to oval, slightly larger than mature virus particles, less dense to electrons, and have a more varied morphology. it is suggested as a working hy ...195313069658
[the testicles and adrenals of rabbits inoculated with vaccine virus and diphtheria anatoxin and treated with cortisone or gonadotropins]. 195313075784
inactivation of vaccinia virus by a diffusible component from hydrolyzed hyaluronic acid. 195313076197
destruction of myelin in the central nervous system of experimental animals by enzymatic activity of vaccinia virus. 195313081038
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