interferon-producing capacity of human tonsil cells and properties of interferon produced by these cells.tonsils excised from human beings for chronic tonsillitis have been shown to be an accessible and sufficiently rich source of human lymphocytes. tonsil cells produced interferon as intensively as blood leukocytes and the properties of this interferon were similar to those of leukocyte interferon. the optimal conditions for interferon production by tonsil cells were established.19765865
electron microscopy of virus particles in ultrathin frozen sections.a procedure with the use of polyethylene glycol (peg) 600 to support biological materials for ultracryotomy was developed. developing and mature virions were demonstrated by electron microscopy in negatively stained frozen sections of vaccinia virus-infected human diploid cells and of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 infected primary rabbit kidney cells. approximate localisation of the virus particles in the cells was possible.19765872
some biological and physical properties of molluscum contagiosum virus propagated in cell culture.molluscum contagiosum virus propagated in fl cells of human amnion origin has a one-step growth cycle time of 12 to 14 h. the appearance and exponential increase of intracellular virus preceded the release of extracellular virus by approximately 2 h. demonstration of comparable titers of extracellular and intracellular virus at the end of the replication cycle indicated that a substantial amount of virus remained associated with cells exhibiting cytopathogenic changes. mean buoyant density value ...19768651
properties of dna ligase from uninfected and virus-infected hela cells.hela cells contain a high m.w. form of dna ligase which can be completely converted to a low m.w. form. stokes radius, frictional ratio, sedimentation coefficient, molecular weight, ph dependence, and heat inactivation rate of the two forms have been studied. the major properties of the two forms of dna ligase in hela cells (in particular molecular weights and ph dependence) resemble those of the "dimer" and "monomer" structures described in cultured human cells (pedrali, g., spadari, s., ciarro ...19769621
interference stimulated by tick-borne encephalitis virus: influence of divalent cations.the effects of divalent cations (barium, cobalt, calcium, copper, magnesium, zinc and iron) on the interference of tick-borne encephalitis (te) virus with vaccinia virus in detroit-6 cell cultures were investigated. an increase in interference was shown in the presence of cobalt, zinc, copper, and magnesium. barium and iron displayed a marked inhibitory action. but an increase in interference was not parallel with an increased production of interferon.19769799
molluscum contagiosum -- a defective poxvirus?purified preparations of molluscum contagiosum virus contain a dna-dependent rna polymerase (ec with similar but not identical properties to those of the enzyme found in vaccinia virions. the ultraviolet inactivation kinetics of the rna polymerase from both viruses were similar, displaying fast and slow components. ultraviolet irradiation destroyed the interfering capacities of molluscum and inactivated vaccinia virions, and the interferon-inducing capacity of molluscum virus slowly and ...197611275
computer evaluation of antiviral activities of some thiosemicarbazones in experiments in vivo.a new mathematical method based on 3-, 4- or 6-point parallel-line assays was applied for working out a computer programme used to evaluate the activity of some new isatin-beta-thiosemicarbazone derivatives against vaccinia virus, studied in vivo.197611668
white rats as source of pox infection in carnivora of the family felidae. 197611675
further characterization of deoxyribonucleases from vaccinia virus. 197714440
stability in drinking and surface water of nine virus species from different genera (author's transl).the stability of nine viruses, aujeszky, sindbis, vesicular stomatitis, newcastle disease, vaccinia, fmd, hcc, reo and teschen virus in drinking and surface water was investigated comparatively at temperatures of 9 and 15 degrees c as well as the influence of water factors like seasonal difference in temperature, ph value, hardness and sort of water. the results can be summarized as follows: 1. at temperatures of 9 to 15 degrees c the majority of the viruses remained stabil in natural water for ...197714460
6-mfa, an antiviral agent from aspergillus ochraceus atcc 28706: influence of body weight and mineral oil administration of the antiviral activity in mice.sera obtained from mice treated with 6-mfa, an antiviral agent from aspergillus ochraceus atcc 28706 showing high interferon activity, could be transferred to healthy animals to make them resistant to semliki forest virus (sfv) infection. body weight of mice directly influenced, within limits, the proportion of treated mice surviving challenge virus infection as well as interferon production. mineral oil (liquid paraffin, b. p.) administered prior to 6-mfa increased both the level of interferon ...197715439
cellular proteases increased in paramyxovirus (sendai virus) carrier cells possibly responsible for enhanced formation of cowpox virus-specific cell surface antigen.cowpox virus (cpv) growth and its s-ag (cell surface antigen) formation in hvj (sendai virus) carrier cells pre-treated with actinomycin d or puromycin were not affected as much as those in parent cells. these suggest the different cellular functions of carrier cells. the activity of carrier cell extracts causing a characteristic degradation of cpv reacted with them in vitro disappeared after the pre-incubation of extracts with hemoglobin or casein. measurements of cellular protease activities ...197715532
a dna nicking-closing enzyme encapsidated in vaccinia virus: partial purification and properties.vaccinia virus cores contain an activity which is able to relax both left-and right-handed superhelical dna. this virus-specific nicking closing enzyme has been highly purified and differs from the corresponding host enzyme in salt optimum, in sedimentation coefficient, and in polypeptide composition as determined on sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels. the enzyme is probably newly synthesized after the cessation of host protein synthesis which follows virus infection. the most highly pur ...197717115
purification of vaccinia virus by zonal centrifugation and analysis of viral protein composition.vaccinia virus propagated in rotated cultures of rk13 cells was purified by sucrose density gradient zonal centrifugation. the purified virus was dissociated with sodium dodecyl sulfate end its protein composition analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the protein composition of the virion envelope, isolated by the non-ionic detergent nonidet p-40, was also determined.197717277
utilization of the mva-immunization schedule from the view point of the public health service.the world-wide smallpox eradication program sponsored by the who has been successful. furthermore the legislation regarding smallpox vaccination in the federal republic of germany has been given a new form. the place of the previous mass-vaccination has been taken by vaccination of individuals. under this aspect safe procedures for vaccination are required. any vaccination used by public health service has to fulfill the following criteria: high protection against the disease without adverse sid ...197717567
an analysis of factors influencing the isolation rate of herpes simplex virus.attempts were made to improve the rate of isolation of herpes simplex virus (hsv) from clinical specimens by minimizing loss of virus infectivity during transportation and employing the most sensitive cells for isolation. basical analyses using standard strains of type 1 and type 2 hsv indicated that virus titer decrease was marked even at low temperatures in environments free of proteinous stabilizer such as normal serum or tissue extract, negating the generally held concept that hsv is stable ...197717816
antiviral effect of tebrofen.tebrofen inhibited the replication of western equine encephalomyelitis (wee) virus in multicycle experiments in chick embryo cell cell cultures. the compound did not inhibit the replication of vaccinia and newcastle disease viruses.197718926
demonstration of vaccinia virus antigen in brains of postvaccinal encephalitis cases.five lethal cases of postovaccinal encephalitis (pve) were examined in attempts to detect the viral antigen by the fluorescent antibody techniques and to isolate the infectious vaccinia virus. histologically, the brain tissues were characterized by meningoencephalitis, with perivascular infiltrations and inflammatous reactions mainly in leptomininx, chroid plexus and ependyma. by direct immunofluorescence staining, vaccinia virus antigen was found in the brain specimens of one case, but not in t ...197721318
pathogenicity of a vaccine strain of vaccina virus in rabbits administered by intravenous route.the pathogenicity of the lister (elstree) strain, a vaccinia virus, in rabbits after intravenous injection was studied by histopathological and immunofluorescent methods. inoculation of 1 x 10(7) pfu (pock-forming unit) virus into weanling and young adult rabbits caused severe emaciation and high mortality within 2 weeks. pathological findings were characterized by vesicular lesions along muco-cutaneous junction areas of the eyes, nose and mouth and by inflammatory changes in the brain, mainly i ...197724130
preparation of highly purified vaccinia virus haemagglutinin. 197826207
temperature-sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus. i. isolation and preliminary characterization.fifty-seven temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of a neurotropic variant of vaccinia virus were obtained. a comparison of the effectiveness of 6 different mutagens showed that in in vivo experiments nitrosomethylurea induced 10%, nitrosoguanidine 8%, and bromodeoxyuridine 2.5% ts mutants. in vitro, at the same degree of inactivation, uv irradiation, hydroxylamine and nitrous acid induced 2.5% ts mutants. out of 49 mutants studied, 27 had a dna+ phenotype, 19 a dna+/-and 3 a dna- phenotype. under ...197826208
capacity of clones of vaccinia virus to multiply at different temperatures and ph values.the study of the biological characteristics of ten clones, isolated from plaque, of vaccinia virus has made evident that two of these characteristics--the capacity to multiply at 40 degrees c and the type of cpe in animal cell cultures--can be used as genetic markers of neuropathogenicity, valued in relationship to the property to induce demyelinating encephalitis in mice injected intracerebrally or intravenously. the most neurovirulent clones demonstrated high capacity to multiply at 40 degrees ...197826362
antiviral activity of dipyridamole derivatives.among 46 novel pyrimido 5.4-d pyrimidine derivatives, 26 compounds were found to exhibit antiviral activity as revealed in a test programme against mengo, coxsackie b1, fowl plague, vaccinia and pseudorabies viruses, as concerns inhibition of plaque formation and of infectious virus yield. attempts to disclose structure-activity relationships by discriminant analysis pointed to a possible importance of hydrophobic substitution for the antiviral effectiveness against mengo virus of the derivative ...197829467
evidence for an alkaline protease in vaccinia virus. 197935880
comparative studies on poxvirus strains isolated from camels.five poxvirus strains isolated from camels in egypt, iran and the u.s.s.r. were investigated. the morphology and size of the negatively stained virions of the investigated strains were identical. the strains produced minute white pock lesions localized mainly on the infected area of the chorioallantoic membrane, without generalization of lesions or death of embryos. the ceiling temperature and the haemagglutinating activity of the different strains were different. all the strains were apathogeni ...197835942
antiviral activity of certain isatinisothiosemicarbazones against mengo and vaccinia virus infections in mice.among eleven isatinisothiosemicarbazones (iits) examined only 1-ethylisatin-s-n-butylisothiosemicarbazone (zimet 189/69) proved to be significantly effective against lethal mengo and neurovaccinia virus-induced encephalitis in mice when administered subcuaneously (s.c.) in doses of 1 mmole/kg body weight per day. with peroral (p.o.) administration all the drugs failed to prevent mortality in mengo virus-infected mice. against this virus zimet 189/69 was effective over a concentration range from ...197935958
antiviral activity of benzothiazole and benzothiazolinethione derivatives in cell cultures.the virus inhibitory activity of benzothiazole, benzothiazolinethione and naphthothiazole derivatives was tested with vaccinia virus, newcastle disease virus (ndv) and western equine encephalomyelitis (wee) virus in the agar-diffusion plaque-inhibition test. among 58 compounds examined, 5 showed medium activity and selectivity with vaccinia virus. the highest selective effect was found with 3-(2-ethylthio-6-benzothiazolylaminomethyl)-2-benzothiazolinethione. a much lower inhibitory effect was ob ...197941432
[participation of vaccinia virus in the pathogenesis of different clinical forms of postvaccinal complications. i. frequency of vaccinia virus detection in the vaccinted who have usual and complicated reactions to vaccination].the virological examination of 1365 samples taken from 469 children vaccinated against smallpox revealed considerable differences in the frequency and the time of vaccinia virus detection in different clinical forms of postvaccinal pathology as compared with uncomplicated vaccinal process. during the postvaccinal period taking its normal course vaccinia virus was isolated from 7.3% of children only from the pharynx till day 8 following vaccination. in generalized and creeping vaccinia the virus ...197942243
variola virus strains of 1960--1975: the range of intraspecies variability and relationship between properties and geographic origin.a comparative study of 61 variola virus strains recovered from patients in various geographic regions of the world revealed significant intraspecies variability in some biological properties, established the range of this variability and demonstrated the existence of strains with atypical properties. there was a certain correlation between some laboratory markers of variola virus and the degree of its pathogenicity for man. the prevalence of more virulent and thermoresistant strains in the hindu ...197942294
antiviral effect of 3-[bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-amino]-acetophenone-[4,5-diphenyl-oxyazolyl-(2)]hydrazone (imet 98/69) in mice.the potential in vivo antiviral activity of 3-[bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-amino]-acetophenone-[4,5-diphenyl-oxazolyl-(2)]-hydrazone (imet 98/69) was evaluated on model infections in mice. animals treated subcutaneously (s.c.) with 1 mmole of the drug per kg body weight once daily for five days were significantly protected against a lethal infection with cardioviruses, semliki forest virus and vaccinia virus. in influenza a and b virus models no antiviral activity was observed either after s.c. or oral ...197944666
[simple method of preparation of a semifluid coating medium with methylcellulose for the determination of the plaque-forming abilities of viruses]. 197545981
[cytogenetic characteristics of the vaccination process in children, primarily vaccinated against smallpox].an increased rate of chromosome aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes was observed in children between 1 and 21/2 years of age beginning at 4 days after vaccination. the number of aneuploid cells and chromosome aberrations increased for 1 month but were not found 6 months after vaccination. administration of measles gamma-globulin in a dose of 0.75 ml before vaccination did not influence significantly the frequency of chromosome aberrations. a direct correlation was observed between th ...197547668
treatment of primary melanoma by intralesional vaccinia before excision.the results of treatment of two groups of patients with primary melanoma are compared. 25 patients in group 1 were treated by wide local excision of the primary melanoma, and 23 in group 2 were treated by vaccination with live vaccinia virus 14 days before wide local excision. vaccination exerts a favourable effect on the course of melanoma both in terms of survival and prolongation of the interval between treatment of the primary lesion and subsequent development of metastases.197551409
[sensitization against the antigens of the brain after experimental vaccinia infection. i. evidence for cell-mediated immune response to brain-antigens (author's transl)].vaccinia virus infection was performed by scarification of the shaved skin (5 times 5 cm2) on the back of pirbright guinea pigs. the macrophage migration inhibition test was performed with peritonealexudate cells 7, 11, 14 and 21 days after infection. macrophage migration inhibition occurred after exposure of the cells to whole brain tissue antigen on the 7th, 11th, 14th day after infection (s. table 1). lymphocyte transformation responses were examined by 14c-2-thymidin uptake using blood cultu ...197551549
[sensitization against the antigens of the brain after experimental vaccinia infection. ii. humoral anti-brain antibodies and morphological changes in the cns (author's transl)].29 guinea pigs, strain pirbright, were infected with vaccinia virus, strain elstree, by the dermal route. the observation period was 14 days. thereafter, the animals were killed and their central nervous systems (cns) histologically and immunohistologically, the blood fluorescence-serologically examined. histological examination revealed meningitis, ependymitis or disseminated meningoencephalitis with slight perivascular cuffing in 72% of the animals. the viral antigen was found in 3 animals (10 ...197551552
altered serological and cellular reactivity to h-2 antigens after target cell infection with vaccinia virus. 197552122
effect of atp and other nucleotides on the bleomycin-induced degradation of vaccinia virus dna. 197656805
[cellular immunity in poxvirus infections. demonstration, significance and cellular cross reactivity with brain matter].its proof, significance, and the cellular cross reactivity to basic encephalitogenic protein of vaccinia-stimulated t-cells. vaccination against smallpox induces both, a cellular allergy and immunity, and the production of humoral antibodies. of greater importance for the defense of the organism against infections by orthopox viruses is the cellular immunity. new methods for the proof of cellular immunity and an in vitro-technique for its examination by challange with variola vera virus are desc ...197657915
cell-mediated cytotoxicity against sendai-virus-infected cells.after injection of sendai virus, a parainfluenza virus type i, mice generate cytotoxic lymphocytes which lyse specifically sendai-virus-infected target cells in vitro. their action is not inhibited by specific antibody in vitro. killer cell activity appears 4 days after infection, reaches a maximum on the 7th day and disappears on the 14th to 16th day. decrease of cytotoxic cell activity is correlated with an increase of haemagglutinating antibodies. the cytotoxic effector cell could be characte ...197660844
the vaccinia virus haemagglutinin: enzyme sensitivity and some physiocochemical properties.purified vaccina virus haemagglutinin (vha) was found to be sensitive to trypsin both with regard to haemagglutinating capacity and antigenic property. phospholipase c and lipase had no effect on the haemagglutination (ha). both the ha and the antigenic property thus depend on the integrity of the protein part. the loss of ha after treatment with trypsin may be due to breakdown of an essential protein or to secondary rearrangement of the whole structure, including the lipid part. cells infected ...197660873
early diagnosis of virus-caused vesicular rashes by immunofluorescence on skin biopsies. ii. poxvirus (vaccinia).immunofluorescence (if) was used to demonstrate vaccinia virus antigen in frozen sections of skin biopsies from the site of revaccination in 42 individuals. the immunoglobulin (ig) of a rabbit anti-vaccinia serum and the ig of the pre-immune serum conjugated with fluorescein-isothiocyanate (fitc) was employed. 11/13 biopsies taken 1 day after vaccination were positive in the if test as were 13/13 biopsies taken 2 days and 14/16 biopsies taken 3 days after vaccination. even minute quantities of v ...197661622
identification of antigens within the so-called vaccinia l-s complex by means of quantitative immunoelectrophoresis.the so-called l-s antigen complex of vaccinia virus antigens was studied using gel diffusion and various immunoelectrophoresis methods. the low resolution power of the gel diffusion method and the inconsistency of the results obtained rendered this method unsuitable for identification of individual antigens and for comparative studies. the sensitivity and simplicity of counter current electrophoresis showed the superiority of this method for rapid diagnosis of pox-virus infections. simple rocket ...197661705
a method for serological differentation of closely related poxviruses.a two-step gel precipitation reaction with antiserum to vaccinia virus, based on sequential addition of two test viruses was elaborated for differentiation of closely related orthopoxviruses. the appearance of an additional precipitation line indicated differences in the antigenic structure of the viruses compared. differences in the antigenic structure of vaccinia, variola and monkey pox viruses as well as the antigenic identity with cow pox virus of poxviruses isolated from carnivora, elephant ...197661718
the influence of negative staining on the infectivity of vaccinia virus. 197661749
h-2 restriction of virus-specific cytotoxicity across the h-2 barrier. separate effector t-cell specificities are associated with self-h-2 and with the tolerated allogeneic h-2 in chimeras.during infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis or vaccinia virus, f1 irradiation chimeras reconstituted with bone marrow cells from or both parents generate cytotoxic t cells which can lyse targets across the h-2 barrier. however, activity of chimera t cells is h-2 restricted as shown by cold target competition experiments and selective restimulation of a secondary response in vitro; t cells of h-2k specificity which lyse tolerated infected h-2d target cells do not lyse infected h-2k or unre ...197662016
inhibition of vaccinia virus replication in skin of tuberculin-sensitized animals challenged with ppd.induction of a celayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in tuberculin-sensitized animals by tuberculin purified protein derivative (ppd) at the site of dermal vaccinia virus (vv) infection markedly accelerated elimination of vv and led to clinical recovery. viral titers were depressed by over 99.9% in the skin of animals given ppd as compared to animals given phosphate-buffered saline or nonspecific irritants. low concentrations of acid labile interferon were found in the skin of uninfected tuberc ...197662789
shared determinants between virus-infected and trinitrophenyl-conjugated h-2-identical target cells detected in cell-mediated lympholysis.infection of h-2-identical mice with either lymphocytic choriomeningitis (lcm) virus, vaccinia virus, or paramyxo (sendai) virus resulted in the generation of specifically sensitized cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl). ctl generated in vitro against 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (tnp)-conjugated syngeneic stimulator cells were specifically cytotoxic for tnp-conjugated h-2k (d) region identical targets. both lcm and vaccinia-induced ctl, however, were found to be strongly cytotoxic towards tnp-conjugated, h-2k ...197663379
[possibilities for the treatment of varicella-herpes zoster infections in juvenile leukemia].chicken pox and herpes zoster represent afraid complications in patients with malignant diseases which may take a noxious course. during the sequence of two chicken pox epidemias in 1973 in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemias, the prevention and therapeutic possibilities were checked again. chicken pox or herpes zoster convalescent sera being compatible for blood groups and zoster-immunoglobulin were not available. at the time of the epidemia the first reports on the effect of cytarabin ...197664406
regulation of herpesvirus thymidine kinase activity in lm(tk) cells transformed by ultraviolet light-irradiated herpes simplex virus. 197765051
role of early viral surface antigens in cellular immune response to vaccinia virus.infection of mice with the vaccinia virus strain wr, elstree or dis, a coditional lethal mutant of vaccinia virus, resulted in the generation of vaccinia virus-specific sensitized cytolytic t lymphocytes (ctl). it could be shown by cross-reactivity between the three strains and by inhibition experiments with specific antisera that early vaccinia surface antigens are sufficient for the generation of specific ctl in vivo and for the lysis of infected target cells in vitro.197665141
[suppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis with vaccinia-virus-induced anti-brain antibodies (author's transl)]. 197768632
induction of virus-specific modifications recognized by cytotoxic t cells is not altered by prior substitution of target cells with trinitrophenol.cytotoxic thymus-derived lymphocytes generated after interaction with trinitrophenyl (tnp)-substituted or virus-infected cells only lyse h-2 compatible target cells modified with the component used to immunize (tnp or virus). prior saturation of tnp-reactive sites inhibits neither the infectivity of influenza a viruses, nor the capacity of infected cells to develop antigenic changes recognized by influenza-immune t cells. the two antigens are distinct entities on the cell membrane and do not obv ...197769008
in vitro immune responsiveness to vaccinea virus and hla.because several lines of evidence suggest that hla products might have an important function in the immune response to infectious agents, we studied the possible relation between immune response to vaccinia virus and hla phenotype in 79 soldiers who received a primary vaccination. a low in vitro response to vaccinia virus was associated with hla-cw3 both in 49 subjects tested three to four weeks after vaccination (p less than 0.001) and in the remaining 30 subjects tested five to 11 weeks after ...197770749
laboratory characteristics of poxviruses isolated from captive elephants in germany.proxviruses isolated from captive elephants in germany have been characterized. although related to vaccinia and even more closely to cowpox virus, the separate identity of elephantpox virus was established by both biological and serological methods. elephantpox virus produces a-type inclusions in infected cells, as did cowpox, but had a lower ceiling temperature, was more heat resistant and affected rabbits differently. cross neutralization tests on absorbed sera indicated that elephantpox, cow ...197772786
serological relatedness of monkeypox, variola, and vaccinia viruses.closely related human and monkey orthopoxviruses were differentiated by serologic techniques. antiviral sera were tested by immunodiffusion for reactivity against six different viral antigens prepared from either infected cell cultures or infected chorioallantoic membranes (cams) of embryonated eggs. portions of each antiserum were separately absorbed with heterologous antigens from infected cams to remove common reactivity. the absorbed sera formed immunodiffusion precipitates with both types o ...197775947
t-cell populations specifically depleted of alloreactive potential cannot be induced to lyse h-2-different virus-infected target cells.mouse lymphocyte populations of one parental h-2 type (a) were specificially depleted of alloreactive potential by filtration through irradiated a x b f1 recipients, and thoracic duct cells were then stimulated with virus in an a x b f1 environment. experiments using t cells that had previously been exposed to influenza virus in the context of a established that cross-priming for recognition of viral components expressed on h-2-different (b) target cells does not occur. furthermore, immunologica ...197878955
[a case of vaccinia translata]. 197879272
inductive requirements for the generation of virus-specific t lymphocytes. i. the nature of the host cell-virus interaction that triggers secondary poxvirus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocyte induction. 197879615
studies on cotia virus--an unclassified poxvirus.this paper is a report of studies on cotia virus; this had been first isolated in 1965 in brazil and was subsequently shown to be a poxvirus. cotia virus grew in a wide range of cell cultures and on the chick chorioallantois (cam), its growth characteristics are similar to those of other poxviruses. microscopy showed virus factories or type b inclusions appearing before infectious progeny virus could be demonstrated. type a inclusions appeared later, after development of progeny virus; these wer ...197880446
the effect of certain mannich n-bases, derivatives of isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone, on the replication of vaccinia virus in in vitro studies.twenty-three mannich mono- and bis-n-bases, derivatives of isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone (ibt), were synthetized. eighteen of these were tested for their inhibitory effect on the replication of vaccinia virus (ihd strain) in cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. all the compounds studied showed antiviral activity, demonstrated by the agar-diffusion method (screening). the concentrations that reduced the number of viral plaques to 50% (prd50) and the values of the therapeutic index (th.i.) of the ...197880923
involvement of h-2l gene products in virus-immune t-cell recognition. evidence for an h-2l-restricted t-cell response.the h-2l locus is closely linked to h-2d and codes for antigenic specificities present on a 45,000 mol wt glycoprotein that is distinct from the molecule which bears the d region private specificity. it was found that balb/c-h-2db mice, which lack detectable cell-surface h-2l gene products, were able to generate influenza- and vaccinia-immune cytotoxic t cells which lyse d region-compatible target cells, although they have been reported to be incapable of making a similar response to ectromelia ...197882606
cytotoxic macrophages induced in hamsters by vaccinia virus: selective cytotoxicity for virus-infected targets by macrophages collected late after immunization. 197987476
effect of double infection of cowpox virus-infected cells with paramyxovirus (sendai virus) on formation of cowpox virus-specific cell surface antigen.the formation of cowpox virus-specific cell surface antigen (cpv s-ag) was significantly enhanced by double infection with hvj (sendai virus). simultaneous double infection, superinfection with hvj and superinfection with cpv of cells persistently infected with hvj similarly enhanced the formation of cpv s-ag, while pre-infection with hvj was ineffective. to be effective, cells must be infected at a m.o.i. of greater than or equal to 1.0 and hvj gene functions had to be expressed. the hvj-infect ...197888002
two components specifically responsible for hemagglutination in vaccinia and cowpox viruses. 197988801
[studies on human immunoglobulin preparations: i. viral antibody profiles (author's transl)].a study was undertaken to assess the viral antibody spectrum in human immunoglobulin preparations from four different manufacturers for intravenous and/or intramuscular application. studies of the kind seem to be reasonable for calculating the expected therapeutic effect of the administered immunoglobulin. the investigated 16 gammaglobulin batches showed almost the same variety of viral antibodies and only slightly differring antibody titers. it is interesting to note, that antibodies to vaccini ...197989620
adenine arabinoside monophosphate in experimental vaccinia virus infections. 197993408
mechanisms in the pathogenesis of post-infectious vaccinia virus encephalomyelitis in the mouse.after intracranial replication of a neurotropic strain of vaccinia in mouse brain, analysis of the purified virus preparation reveals the presence of at least one host protein on the virus which was identified as the myelin basic protein. vaccinia virus elstree, a dermotropic virus may substitute for complete freund's adjuvant (cfa) in inducing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (eae). guinea pigs challenged with virus-myelin emulsions without cfa developed clinical and histological signs o ...197993731
therapeutic control of viral infections: chemotherapy, interferon and gamma globulin. 197994280
comparative studies on ls antigens induced by vaccinia and cowpox viruses.the constituents of ls antigen from cells infected with vaccinia virus and with cowpox virus were compared by immunoprecipitation and sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). antiserum to the ls antigen from cells infected with vaccinia virus reacted with at least five polypeptides in cells infected with either virus. four of these polypeptides were similar sizes in cells infected with the two viruses. however, one major polypeptide with a mol. wt. of about 100 000 (100 k) detected in ...197994351
cell-mediated cytotoxicity during vaccinia virus revaccination in man: influence of antibodies and healthy human adults were revaccinated with vaccinia virus. cell-mediated cytotoxicity to vaccinia virus-infected fibroblasts was investigated on the day of vaccination and on days with peak activity. three donors were studied until day 30 after vaccination. the addition of interferon to cytotoxicity reactions resulted in an increase in killing. this increase was not seen when antibodies were added. when a mixture of lymphocytes from a revaccinated and a non-revaccinated donor was used as ...197994462
studies on the mode of inhibition of vaccinial dermal lesions in rabbit. 197994591
fungal nucleic acids as interferon inducers.nucleic acids isolated from the fungi aspergillus niger x11, piptoporus betulinus and ganoderma applanatum reduced the number of vaccinia virus plaques in chick embryo fibroblast (cef) tissue culture and when administered intravenously to white mice protected them against lethal infection with tick borne encephalitis virus strain k5 (tbe). in cef tissue culture the nucleic acids of the studied fungi were found to induce small but detectable amounts of a substance with the character of interferon ...197994746
[a contribution to the stabilisation of the mva-vaccine (author's transl)].the titre of the mva-vaccine remains constant at -20 degrees c with human serum albumin, sorbitol, haemaccel, rheomacrodex and cysteine within 8 month. at -20 degrees c the stability of the mva-virus is equivalent to the vaccinia-virus, stabilized by peptone and sorbitol. storing the mva-virus at +4 degrees c, +20 degrees c for 8 month or at 27 degrees c for 4 weeks, 1% human serum albumin and 5% sorbitol preserves the virustitre best, but the stability of vaccinia-virus with 5% peptone and 5% s ...197994967
cytotoxic t-cell responses in mice infected with influenza and vaccinia viruses vary in magnitude with h-2 genotype.secondary effector t-cell populations generated by cross-priming with heterologous influenza a viruses operate only in h-2k or h-2d compatible situations, when assayed on sv40-transformed target cells infected with a range of influenza a viruses. the h2-kb allele is associated with a total failure in the generation of influenza-immune cytotoxic t cells, though this is not seen for the primary response to vaccinia virus. in both influenza and vaccinia development of effector t cells operating at ...1978100569
in irradiation chimeras, k or d regions of the chimeric host, not of the donor lymphocytes, determine immune responsiveness of antiviral cytotoxic t cells.the h-2 haplotype of the chimeric host determines the responder phenotype of maturing t cells. spleen cells of chimeric mice formed when (k(k) nonresponder to d(b) x k(b) responder to d(b) plus vaccinia)f(1) bone marrow cells were used to reconstitute k(b)d(b) (c57bl/6 d(b) responder) irradiated recipients generated high levels of d(b) plus vaccinia virus-specific cytotoxic t cells. the same stem cells used to reconstitute k(k)d(b) (b10.a (2r) d(b) nonresponder) irradiated recipients resulted in ...1978100570
different rules govern help for cytotoxic t cells and b cells. 1978103005
enhancement of resistance to murine osteogenic sarcoma in vivo by an extract of brucella abortus (bru-pel): association with activation of reticuloendothelial system macrophages.the administration of an aqueous-ether extracted residue of brucella abortus (bru-pel) inhibits development of transplanted osteogenic sarcomas in mice as evidenced by a decrease in mortality. at least one mechanism through which bru-pel modulates host resistance is activation of macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. peritoneal macrophages harvested from mice receiving bru-pel were cytotoxic for osteogenic sarcoma cells in vitro, limited the replication of vaccinia virus in cell culture ...1979106004
vaccinia virus replication. i. requirement for the host-cell nucleus.using cytochalasin b-induced enucleation techniques, we examined the ability of vaccinia virus to replicate in the absence of the host-cell nucleus in several mammalian cell lines. it was found that virus-infected enucleated cells (cytoplasts) prepared from bsc-40, cvc, and l cells were incapable of producing infectious progeny virus. the nature of this apparent nuclear involvement was studied in detail in bsc-40 cells. modulations designed to maximize cytoplast integrity and longevity, such as ...1979107327
antiviral effect of interferon in vivo may be mediated by the host. 1979107458
[possibility of regulating the reparative activity of the cells of higher organisms by using biological factors]. 1979113952
[the effect of various suture materials on wound healing. an experimental study in animals (author's transl)].the reactions of connective tissue and fibers to silk, catgut, chromic catgut and polyglucolic acid fibers buried in the subcutis and to which a solution of vaccinia (who elstree strain) or a control solution was added, were tested in 7 rabbits. of the fibers tested, the histological picture on the 9th postoperative day showed that polygluconic acid fibers were by far the best, catgut fibers were particularly poor.1979114802
reciprocal stimulation of negatively selected high-responder and low-responder t cells in virus-infected recipients.after depletion of alloreactive potential, immunologically naive t cells from c57bl/6j (kb-db) mice (b6) can be induced to respond to vaccinia virus in the context of both h-2kk and h-2db when stimulated in b10.a(4r) (kk-db) recipients. however, negatively selected b10.a(2r) (kk-db) t cells respond to h-2db-vaccinia virus but not to h-2kb-vaccinia virus when primed in an irradiated b6 environment. the b6 mouse strain is a high responder to vaccinia virus associated with h-2db, whereas the b10.a( ...1979115003
patterns of virus-immune t-cell responsiveness. comparison of (h-2k x h-2b) leads to h-2b radiation chimeras and negatively selected h-2b lymphocytes.negatively selected h-2k(b)d(b) tdl can be induced to respond strongly to vaccinia virus presented in the context of both h-2k(k) and h-2d(b) when stimulated in irradiated h-2k(k)d(b) recipients. addition of excess (h- 2k(k)d(b) x h-2k(b)d(b))f1 tdl, which are low responders to h-2d(b)-vaccinia virus, does not obviously suppress the reactivity pattern of the h-2k(b)d(b) t cells. however, lymphocytes from chimeras made by reconstituting h- 2k(b)d(b) mice with (h-2k(k)d(k) x h-2k(b)d(b))f(l) bone ...1979115959
[microbial emission, immission and changes in the germ count in the cooling water during operation of wet cooling towers i. communication: introduction to the problem posed (author's transl)]. 1979116444
immune globulins. 1979117551
[detection and localization of a ribonuclease activity associated with vaccinia virus].a ribonuclease associated with vaccinia virus can be detected when reduced concentrations of nucleotides are used for an in vitro rna synthesis assay. the non-viral origin of this ribonuclease may be inferred from its external location and from its variable activity on different purified virus stocks. the detection of this ribonuclease activity on purified virus grown without foetal calf serum may suggest that this enzyme is of cellular origin.1979120781
vaccinia virus infection of hela cells. i. synthesis of vaccinia dna in host cell nuclei.the replication of vaccinia virus is thought to take place exclusively in the cytoplasm of host cells. however, using dna-dna hybridization techniques, it can be shown that a significant fraction of the synthesis of vaccinia dna takes place in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm. the (3h) thymiding pulse-labeled vaccinia dna synthesized in the nucleus reaches a maximum at about 3 h after infection, corresponding to the time of maximal dna synthesis in infected cells. at this time host dna synth ...1975123010
ornithine decarboxylase activity in uninfected and vaccinia virus-infected hela cells. 1975123741
control of thymidine kinase synthesis in ihd vaccinia virus-infected thymidine kinase-deficient lm cells.the synthesis of vaccinia virus-induced thymidine kinase is normally arrested several hours after infection. in thymidine kinase-deficient lm cells infected with ihd strain of vaccinia virus, arrest occurs whether or not viral dna synthesis is inhibited. with virus inactivated by uv irradiation, enzyme synthesis takes place, but arrest is abolished. it is suggested that an early viral genetic function is responsible for the cessation of thymidine kinase synthesis.1975124355
viral-specific polypeptides associated with newly replicated vaccinia dna. 1975124498
plaque development by vaccinia-viruses on the chicken chorio-allantois under the influence of cyclophosphamide.the development of vaccinia-virus plaques on the chorioallantois of embryonated eggs was studied under the influence of active cyclophosphamide metabolites. the viruses were inoculated on the 9th or the 13th incubation day. cyclophosphamide was injected in doses of 62.5--500 mug in 0.2 ml nacl into the yolk sac either 7 hrs after the virus inoculation or 3, 6, or 9 hrs in advance. the plaque development was not influenced when cyclophosphamide was given after the virus inoculation. but in treati ...1975125958
[use and effectiveness of multiple vaccines of life viruses]. 1975126063
alteration of t cell function in healthy persons with a history of thymic x-irradiation.the possible late effects of x-irradiation to the infantile thymus were investigated by studying immune functions in 12 healthy persons with a history of thymic x-irradiation and healthy control subjects. no differences were found in serum immunoglobulin values, humoral antibody levels, lymphocyte counts, and lymphocyte reactivity to phytochemagglutinin, vaccinia virus, purified protein derivative (ppd), and allogeneic cells. the irradiation group exhibited cellular hyperresponsiveness to strept ...1975126252
the effect of ethyl alcohol and beta-propiolactone inactivated vaccinia virus on the development of skin immunity and the production of hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies in guinea pigs, rabbits and monkeys.the efficacy of hemagglutinin containing preparations of vaccinia virus in eliciting skin immunity and hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies has been studied in guinea pigs, rabbits and monkeys. the preparations, grown on chorioallantoic membranes from chick embryos, have been tested both in the form of live vaccine and after inactivation with ethyl alcohol and beta-propiolactone. statistical analysis of the results, comprising data from 200 guinea pigs, 80 rabbits and 100 monkeys, shows that t ...1975127456
[fluorescent antibody method in the study of an antiviral agent: 5-sulfamido--isatin-thiosemicarbazone].direct immunofluorescence supplied evidence of the antiviral action of a new synthetic derivative (5-sulfamido-itsc) against vaccina virus in hela cell cultures. the antiviral potential of the new derivative is expressed by a 10-18 delay in the appearance of the viral antigen and by the quantitative reduction of synthesis. administered in a single dose of 40 um/ml, after infection of the hela cells, 5-sulfamido-itsc does not arrest the infection and bring about elimination of the virus from the ...1975128095
the effect of canaline on some events in vaccinia virus replication.canaline, a pyridoxal phosphate antagonist, is shown to inhibit two distinct events in the replication of vaccinia virus in hela cells. initial events proceed in the presence of the inhibitor leading to the formation of dna-containing, cytoplasmic inclusions. however, further dna synthesis is required for the subsequent production of infectious progeny following the reversal of canaline inhibition by pyridoxal phosphate. inhibition of a separate, maturation event is shown by the delayed addition ...1976128617
[adsorption of lymphocytes by cells infected by vaccinia virus].the interaction of chicken lymphocytes with vaccinia-infected cells was examined hep-2 cells infected with the virus adsorbed chicken lymphocytes. the phenomenon was inhibited by anti-vaccinia serum. lymphocytes prepared from a chicken possessing red blood cells insensible to the hemagglutinin of vaccinia virus were also adsorbed. lymphocytes were adsorbed in similar degree at 37 degrees c and at room temperature.1975129247
[disinfection effect of benzylpenols on viruses (author'ss transl)]. 1975129295
[ultrastructural study of the adsorption of lymphocytes on cells infected by vacinnia virus].adsorption of chicken lymphocytes to hep-2 cells infected with vaccinia virus was found to occur by two processes. in one, the lymphocytes were attached to the microvilli of the hep-2 cells, and the lymphocyte and host cell were separated at a distance of up to 0.6 micron. in the other, there was direct and close binding of the lymphocytes to the infected hep-2 cell. the lymphocyte and hep-2 cell were separated by an apparent gap approximately 10 to 20 nm in width.1976139987
replication of vaccinia dna in mouse l cells. ii. in vitro dna synthesis in cytoplasmic extracts. 1977140514
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