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effects of pulmonary metabolites of prostaglandins e2 and f2alpha on guinea-pig respiratory tract.the effects of three pulmonary metabolites of prostaglandins e2 and f2alpha on the guinea-pig tracheal muscle in vitro and on lung resistance in vivo were investigated. prostaglandin f2alpha, 13,14-dihydro pgf2alpha and 13,14-dihydro 15-oxo pgf2alpha produced contractions on the tracheal muscle in vitro. 15-oxo pgf2alpha relaxed some tracheal preparations but stimulated others, the stimulant action having a threshold dose range some 10-25 times lower than the relaxant doses. prostaglandin f2alph ...197722623
action of toxins isolated from scorpion and sea anemone venoms on ileum isolated from reserpine-treated guinea pigs.we have shown that the ileum isolated from a reserpinized guinea pig does respond to toxin ii obtained from scorpion venom but does not react to anemonia sulcata toxin. we conclude that if acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter inducing pharmacological activity of scorpion toxin it is serotonin which triggers activity of anemonia sulcata toxin in ileum of a normal guinea pig.197721755
the effect of various topical antibiotic and antibacterial agents on the middle and inner ear of the guinea-pig.the topical application of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents is used to reduce inflammation of the middle ear mucosa and irradicate infection. many of the antibiotic and anti-inflammatory preparations so used contain compounds known to be or are potentially ototoxic. eighteen antibiotic, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory compounds and four commonly used solvents were screened for the absence of ototoxicity and inflammation to the middle ear mucosa. all compounds were injecte ...197824712
isolation and enzymatic characterization of guinea pig cardiac sarcolemma.sarcolemma was isolated by fractionation of salt-extracted particles on two consecutive sucrose density gradients. salt extraction of homogenates, rather than of washed particles, was found to preserve the activities of adenylate cyclase and ouabain-sensitive (na+,-k+)-atpase in the isolated sarcolemmal membranes. purified sarcolemma contained substantial adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase activities that were stimulable by beta-adrenergic and muscarinic agonists, respectively. significant ...197622901
choline acetyltransferase, glutamate decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase in the cochlea and cochlear nucleus of the guinea pig.activities of choline acetyltransferase (chac), glutamate decarboxylase (gad) and tyrosine hydroxylase (th), enzymes catalyzing the synthesis of acetylcholine (ach), gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) and catecholamines, respectively, were measured in the cochlea and cochlear nucleus of the guinea pig. chac activity in the organ of corti, third turn, was 1270 pmole ach formed/min/mg protein (chac, 1270) and was higher than in turn 4 (chac, 543). chac activity was higher when the preparation included ...19766125
reduced tyrosine hydroxylase activity in guinea-pig uterus during pregnancy. 197724979
a comparative study of the distribution of free choline in the plasma, liver, lung and kidney of the toad, tortoise, chicken and guinea-pig. 197723239
inactivation of tyrosine aminotransferase in tissue extracts from guinea pig liver. 197723804
beta-adrenoceptor blockade with diphenylhydantoin (dph).diphenylhydantoin (dph) (20 x 10(-6) to 80 x 10(-6) m/kg) blocked the depressor responses to isoproterenol in spinal, bilaterally vagotomized and atropine pretreated cats; depressor responses to histamine were unaffected; dph shifted the isoproterenol concentration-response curve to the right in isolated guinea pig tracheal chain preparation, isolated rabbit ileum and isolated perfused heart of frog. the results suggest that dph has a specific beta-adrenoceptor blocking action and the blockade a ...197723797
elucidation of the mechanism of nicotinic acid flush in the animal experiment (author's transl).the reddening of the ears of guinea pigs following the administration of nicotinic acid and its derivatives is regarded as an animal experiment for the human flush-reaction. in agreement with the observations in humans we found that the reddening effects decreased after repeated administration of xantinol nicotinate (complamin). the results demonstrate that the reddening of the ears of guinea pigs--and presumably flushing in humans as well--is a complex event. the liberation of prostaglandins, h ...197723799
inactivation of cytosoluble enzymes in guinea pig liver homogenates. 197723803
an in vitro comparison of beta-adrenoceptor stimulants on potassium-depolarized uterine preparations from guinea-pigs.1 a comparison of six beta-adrenoceptor stimulants has been carried out on in vitro preparations of guinea-pig uterus which were depolarized in k(+)-krebs solution. results have also been obtained on uterine preparations in which contractions to acetylcholine were inhibited. the establishment of the conditions for the k(+)-depolarized preparations are described.2 there was no significant difference between potency values (mean neg log ec(50) values) for any of the drugs on the two types of uteri ...197823882
synthesis and biological activity of ovine beta-lipotropin-(41--91)-henkaipentekontapeptide.the 51-residue peptide ovine beta-lipotropin-(41--91) has been synthesized by the solid-phase method in about 5% overall yield. the synthetic product was characterized by partition chromatography on agarose gel, thin-layer chromatography in two solvent systems, paper electrophoresis at two ph values, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid analyses of acid and enzymic hydrolysates, and bioassay for lipolytic and melanotropic activities. the synthetic peptide is about 5.4 times as active o ...197825245
evidence that the efficacy (intrinsic activity) of fenoterol is higher than that of salbutamol on beta-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig trachea.the functional antagonism of carbachol by fenoterol and salbutamol (beta-adrenoceptor agonists) has been used to demonstrate that the efficacy (intrinsic activity) of fenoterol was about twice that of salbutamol on guinea-pig trachea. the mean maximum shifts of the carbachol concentration--response lines by fenoterol and salbutamol were (log units) 1.07 +/- 0.07 (n = 5) and 0.64 +/- 0.07 (n = 5) respectively. this difference in their efficacies could be demonstrated as differences in maximum rel ...197824543
the interaction of 1-(2(diarylmethoxy)ethyl)aziridines with histamine receptors in the longitudinal muscle strip of the guinea pig ileum.the time course of the onset and decline of histamine antagonism by 1-(2-(diarylmethoxy)ethyl)aziridines, compounds which could be expected to have h1-receptor alkylating properties, was investigated on the longitudinal muscle strip of the guinea pig ileum. experiments were performed with normal preparations and with muscle strips pretreated with a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor in order to prevent spontaneous rise of muscle tone. in contrast to the previously reported observation that antihi ...197720314
long-term experiments on toleration of the ganglionic blockader hygronium.in tests set up on albino rats, guinea pigs and rabbits the chronic toxicity of hygronium--a new original ganglion blocking agent of a short-term action was studied. with its daily intraperitoneal administration for 14 days in doses of 10 and 40 mg/kg (1/10 and 1/3 dl50) the drug produces in some of the animals, chiefly in rabbits and guinea pigs receiving 40 mg/kg, readily reversible histological changes in some of their internal organs. hygronium does not cause any local irritating effect197720328
neuronal aspects of opiate dependence and tolerance in comparison to central depressants.some acute and chronic effects of opiates and of central depressants have been reviewed, in order that a comparison can be made between the actions of these drugs. special emphasis has been given to opiate-induced changes at the neuronal level, which have been studied either by the direct microelectrophoretic application of drugs to single neurones or by application of drugs to the myenteric plexus/longitudinal muscle preparation of the guinea pig ileum. available evidence suggests that chronic ...197722993
cytochemical demonstration of esterases in peripheral blood leukocytes.cytochemical methods for alpha naphthyl acetate esterase and chloroacetate esterase have been used to identify human monocytes and granulocytes. in this study, a standard procedure for staining alpha naphthyl acetate and chloroacetate esterase activities was modified by extending the range of ph of the incubation mixture and the duration of staining and was applied to cat, dog, goat, guinea pig, hamster, human, pig, rabbit, rat, and sheep leukocytes. the results for both enzymes showed (1) incub ...197825603
the presence of inhibitory histamine h-2-receptors in guinea-pig tracheobronchial muscle. 197824693
the action of physalaemin on the peristaltic reflex of guinea-pig isolated ileum. 197824694
the enterohepatic circulation of oxazepam-o-glucuronide in guinea-pigs. 197824695
a quantitative cytochemical method for measuring carbonic anhydrase activity.components of a histochemical method for demonstrating carbonic anhydrase activity have been investigated quantitatively. it was found that it is not necessary to use free-floating sections provided the reaction is done in a reaction medium of controlled depth. this permits the use of normal cryostat sections on glass slides, so making this technique applicable to the cytochemical bioassay of gastrin. the better control of the ph of the reaction, and changes in the concentration of phosphate and ...197825856
synthesis and beta-adrenergic blocking activity of a novel class of aromatic oxime ethers.a new series of beta-adrenergic blocking amines containing an oximino-propanolic chain linked to an aromatic nucleus was synthesized. most of the derivatives are characterized by beta2-selectivity. the structure-activity relationship are discussed. one of the compounds, selected for further studies, was more active on the trachea than on the atria of guinea pig, 155 times in vitro and 26 times in vivo. in comparison, butoxamine's beta2-selectivity is 13 in vitro and only 2 in vivo. with a series ...197722751
nycthemeral plasma and testicular androgen contents in guinea pigs at puberty.a study based upon transversal sampling involving 13 series of 7 animals each does not show a significant circadian rhythm of testosterone and delta4 androstenedione concentrations in the plasma and testis of the guinea-pig at the age of puberty.197726455
the cellular hypersensitivity in guinea pigs immunized with bacteroides melaninogenicus through gingiva. 197626475
analysis of the beta-receptor mediated effect on fast-contracting skeletal muscle in vitro.subtetanic contractions of the isolated extensor digitorum longus (edl) of the guinea-pig, a fast-contracting muscle, were evoked by transmural field stimulation. isoprenaline, adrenaline, terbutaline, and noradrenaline each caused a dose-dependent increase in the force of contraction, their potencies decreasing in that order. tyramine was without effect in this respect. curare depressed the contractions of edl by about 20% but did not appreciably change the response to the beta-adrenoceptor ago ...197723500
neutral proteases in the guinea-pig lymphocytes.partial purification of neutral proteolytic enzymes in guinea-pig lymphocytes yielded 2 enzymes. both enzymes were heat-labile and inhibited by thiol reagents. the molecular weights were more than 200,000 and 150,000-200,000, and optimal ph around 9 and 8, respectively.197825195
acylation of lysophosphatidylcholine by subcellular fractions of guinea-pig cerebral cortex: subcellular distributions of acyl-coenzyme a synthetase and acyl-coenzyme a hydrolase proceedings. 197825208
serum polyphenol oxidase activity (ceruloplasmin) in conventional laboratory animals and man.the optimum ph for ceruloplasmin as polyphenol oxidase (ec 1.10.3.2) activity was determined in human serum (ph 5.4) and the serum of conventional laboratory animals--the rat (ph 5.2), mouse (ph 5.2), hamster (ph 5.3), guinea pig (ph 5.4), multimammate mouse (ph 5.2) and rabbit (ph 5.4). determined at the optimum ph in 0.1m acetate buffer polyphenol oxidase activity fell in the sequence: rat--man--rabbit--mouse--multimammate mouse--hamster--guinea pig. ceruloplasmin polyphenol oxidase activity w ...197826613
superoxide generation by digitonin-stimulated guinea pig granulocytes. a basis for a continuous assay for monitoring superoxide production and for the study of the activation of the generating system.stimulation of guinea pig granolocytes by digitonin results in superoxide (o-2) generation. a continuous assay shows that there is a lag between the addition of digitonin and the onset of o-2 production. the rate of activation of the o-2 generating system is dependent upon the concentration of digitonin and the temperature. the final linear rate of o-2 production is affected by the concentration of digitonin, temperature, ph, and the presence of exogenous reduced pyridine nucleotides. thus, fact ...197826695
identification of phosphates on the membranes of guinea pig sperm.guinea pig epididymal sperm, incubated for atpases at ph 7.0 or ph 9.0, localize reaction product on both the periacrosomal segment of the plasmalemma and the outer acrosome membrane. in other species, e.g., rabbit, ca++-atpase is identified with the outer acrosome membrane. it may transport ca++ into the acrosome for activation of enzymes released during the acrosome reaction. the neutral atpase is demonstrable on the periacrosomal plasmalemma and possibly modifies ca++ concentration in the fl ...197825598
morphological evaluation of oxatomide--a new anti-allergic drug in guinea pig anaphylaxis. 197824593
reversible inactivation of tyrosine aminotransferase from guinea pig liver by thiol and disulfide compounds. 197827175
prostaglandin release by slow reacting substance from guinea pig and human lung tissue.slow reacting substance (srs) injected into the pulmonary artery released prostaglandins e (pge) and f2alpha (pgf2alpha) and the 15-keto-13, 14-dihydro pg metabolites from non-sensitized and ovalbumin sensitized, isolated, perfused guinea pig lungs. pgs were also released from lungs incubated with srs. sensitized lungs released more pgs in both types of preparations. indomethacin inhibited the effect of srs. passively sensitized human lung fragments, in parallel to guinea pig lung, released pge, ...197723566
oxidative-reductive modulation of guinea pig splenic cell guanylate cyclase activity. 197825280
a smooth muscle active factor isolated from renal cortex of the rabbit.homogenates of rabbit renal cortex contained a water-soluble material with striking activity on smooth muscle derived from the rabbit aorta, rat stomach, and guinea pig ileum--but not rat colon or chick rectum. evidence derived from the spectrum of its pharmacologic activity, the influence of specific competitive antagonists on the smooth muscle responses to the factor, the influence of proteolytic enzymes and its elution position during molecular sieve filtration on sephadex g-10 made it unlike ...197714508
regulation of intracellular ph in lungs and other tissues during hypercapnia.using a 14c-labeled dmo, 36cl and 3h method, we have determined the in vivo buffering capacity of lung, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, and extracellular fluid (ecf) of guinea pigs during hypercapnia (fico2 = 0.15). after 1 days' exposureto 15% co2, both the relative co2 buffer values (delta hco3/deltaph) and the "%ph regulation" were lung greater than kidney greater than heart greater than ecf greater than skeletal muscle. for lung tissue the intracellular ph was significantly decreased only du ...197827485
specific desensitization (tachyphylaxis) of the guinea pig ileum to angiotensin ii.tachyphylaxis to ile5angiotensin ii (angiotensin) in the isolated guinea pig ileum was found to be more severe when the ca2+ concentration or the temperature of the medium were lowered, or when glucose was absent. incubation with indomethacin or prostaglandin e2 did not affect the onset of tachyphylaxis or recovery from the tachyphylactic state. the angiotensin dose-response curves of tachyphylactic organs were shifted to the right, and the maximum responses were depressed in proportion to the c ...197714509
rat jugular vein relaxes to norepinephrine, phenylephrine and histamine.circular muscle of the rat external jugular vein contracted to serotonin, angiotensin and potassium chloride but not to norepinephrine, phenylephrine, histamine or carbamylcholine. in contrast, rabbit and guinea-pig jugular veins contracted to norepinephrine, phenylephrine and histamine, although contractions to norepinephrine were small in guinea-pig jugular veins. norepinephrine, phenylephrine and histamine produced a concentration-dependent sustained relaxation of serotonin-induced contractio ...197825337
changes in muscarinic ligand binding to intestinal muscle strips produced by pre-exposure to hypotonic conditions.the extent of the binding of 3hpropylbenzilylcholine mustard (3h-prbcm) to muscarinic receptors in longitudinal muscle strips from guinea-pig small intestine is increased by nearly 50% when the strips are preexposed to distilled water before measurement of 3h-prbcm binding in krebs-henseleit solution. the apparent rate constant for 3h-prbcm-receptor complex formation is more than double that of intact strips. the curves for the inhibition of 3h-prbcm binding by methylatropinium bromide in normal ...197822721
inhibition of experimental immediate hypersensitivity reactions by a novel xanthone, ru 31156.ru 31156, the tris-(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane salt of 7-(s-methylsulphonimidoyl)-5-(n-hexyl)-xanthen-9-one-2-carboxylic acid has been found to be a potent inhibitor of experimental immediate hypersensitivity reactions in vivo. in the ige-mediated rat pca test, ru 31156 had an ed50 of 0.0046 (00037--0.0057) mg/kg which compared to a figure of 1.21 (1.04--1.42) mg/kg for disocium cromoglycate (dscg), both compounds being administered intravenously. ru 31156 was also active when administered oral ...197825634
restorative effect of histamine on the transmembrane action potentials in potassium-depolarized guinea-pig auricle. 197827771
cell- and antibody-mediated responses to measles and mumps viruses in experimental animals.monkeys and guinea pigs were immunized with various doses of measles and mumps viruses. a cell-mediated response measured by leukocyte migration inhibition occured during the first two weeks after immunization. in case of measles virus, marked migration inhibition occurred already on the 7th day in monkeys and guinea pigs immunized with high virus doses. the response declined as early as 14 days after immunization in contrast to the group of guinea pigs inoculated with a lower virus dose. in the ...197827968
beta-adrenergic receptor binding in guinea pig cerebral cortex. 197828171
relaxation of depolarized guinea pig taenia caecum induced by some antispasmodics.taenia isolated from the guinea pig caecum were used for the experiments. no inhibitory response of the depolarized taenia to isoprenaline was observed during the significant increase of cyclic amp level. these observations suggest that the total tissue level of cyclic amp is not an important determinant of relaxation in the depolarized taenia. antispasmodics, such as papaverine, benactyzine and aspaminol (1,1-diphenyl-3-piperidino-butanol hydrochloride) relaxed the depolarized taenia, while the ...197828237
purinergic innervation of the guinea-pig urinary bladder.1 a number of criteria for considering adenosine 5'-triphosphate (atp) as a neurotransmitter in the guinea-pig urinary bladder have been examined. in addition, the effect of tachyphylaxis to atp on the response to non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve stimulation has been re-examined.2 quinacrine fluorescence histochemistry revealed a population of nerve fibres, ganglion cells, and nerve bundles in the bladder which were not seen in either the iris or vas deferens, where adrenergic and cholinerg ...197825686
narcotic antagonistic action of cimetidine on the guinea-pig ileum. 197828406
an analysis of the inhibitory effects and of possible prostaglandin antagonism of steroid sex hormones in the guinea-pig ileum. 197828410
cardiotoxicity of bromethylbutyramide (carbromide) (author's transl).bromethylbutyramide (carbromide), a quantitatively important metabolite of carbromal, diminished the contractility of electrically driven and the frequency of spontaneously beating guinea-pig atria. the negative inotropic action of bromethylbutyramide occurred at concentrations which are reached in human carbromal poisoning. the cardiodepressive actions of bromethylbutyramide and carbromal may be important for the course and the ending of severe carbromal intoxications.197826320
in vitro measurement of the beta-adrenergic blocking properties of orf 12592, the 5-hydroxy analog of propranolol.orf 12592 caused concentration-dependent inhibition of isoproterenol stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in sarcolemma-enriched membrane preparations of guinea-pig myocardium. its potency was slightly less than that of d,l-propranolol. orf 12592 did not stimulate basal enzyme activity, suggesting it to be devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. it produced no marked inhibition of basal activity, nor did it inhibit sodium fluoride stimulated enzyme activity, indicating that the compound a ...197828704
fate of 14cwarfarin in guinea-pigs: effect of a concomitant single dose of salicylate.when a single dose of sodium salicylate (177.8 mg kg-1, by mouth) was given with 14c warfarin (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) to guinea-pigs, the salicylate depressed the blood concentrations of 14c for 6 h. at 1 h, salicylate increased the distribution of 14c in the liver and brain, but at 1 and 6 h it was decreased in the blood and kidney. a significant portion of the 14c was excreted into the bile, but was subject to enterohepatic circulation and then excreted by the kidney. there was an enhancement of the ...197824713
transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-linking through diamines and polyamines.transglutaminases were found to catalyze the formation of cross-links between peptide chains by means of a transfer reaction between the carboxamide group of a glutamine residue in each chain and both primary amino groups of a diamine or a polyamine. production of this heretofore undescribed linkage by guinea pig liver transglutaminase was demonstrated by the use of high performance liquid chromatography in a model system using glutamine peptide derivatives and a variety of diamines and polyamin ...197827507
hemolytic assay of complement and its components from syrian hamster (mesocricetus auratus) and mongolian gerbil (mariones unguiculatus).syrian hamster sera may be assayed for hemolytic complement (c) activity by standard procedures with sensitized sheep erythrocytes as used for human sera, but mongolian gerbil sera had higher complement titers when tested with sensitized guinea pig erythrocytes as target cells. the optimal conditions for in vitro testing of hamster c were ph 7.3, ionic strength 0.15, and presence of 1 micrometer of mg2+ and 0.3 micrometer ca2+. for gerbil c the optimum ph was 8, ionic strength 0.074, and the sam ...197828965
morphology and functional anatomy of the maculae staticae in the guinea pig labyrinth. 197828993
an in vivo assay for the analysis of the biological potency and structure-activity relationships of narcotics: serum testosterone depletion in the male rat.an in vivo method for the assessment of the agonistic-antagonistic activities and structure-activity relationships of the narcotics is described. the method, which is based on the depletion of serum testosterone levels by the narcotics in the male, satisfies all of the criteria necessary for a valid narcotic assay: 1) the ability of the narcotics to deplete serum testosterone levels is stereospecific; 2) naloxone competitively inhibits their effects; 3) and the relative potencies of the drugs in ...197719620
species, sex, and developmental differences in the o- and n-dealkylation of ethylmorphine by hepatic microsomes.3-o-1'-14cethylmorphine and ethylmorphine, respectively, were used to measure o- and n-dealkylase activities of hepatic microsomes. the well-known sex difference in the rate of n-delakylation in mature rats was not observed with o-dealkylation, nor did o-dealkylase activity increase as male rats reached maturity, as is the case with n-dealkylase activity. accordingly, o-dealkylation represents only about 20% of the total dealkylase activity (o- + n-) in mature male rats, but about 50% in mature ...197826530
the inhibitory effect of papaverine on respiration-dependent contracture of guinea pig taenia coli in high-k medium. i. the relationship between contracture and respiration.papaverine (pap) inhibited a tonic tension development in guinea pig taenia coli induced by an elevation of the potassium concentration of the medium to 40 mm (40-k). the id50 of pap was 4.5 x 10(-6) m. inhibition of the 40-k induced tonic tension by pap was dependent on the calculated concentration of non-ionized form, but not the ionized form. inhibition of the tonic tension by pap and various metabolic inhibitors was not antagonized by raising the ca++ concentration in the medium. results obt ...197724778
effect of the allergic rearrangement of the body of guinea pigs on the streptomycin concentration in the blood and tissues. 197829407
pharmacological classification of adrenergic alpha receptors in the guinea pig. 197825390
immunological properties of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex of coxiella burnetii.purified lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (lps-pc) extracted by trichloroacetic acid from phase i coxiella burnetii organisms induced in mice and rabbits fair levels of antibodies directed to antigen 1 and antigen 2, as detected by complement-fixation (cf), microagglutination (ma), opsonization-phagocytosis (op) and serum protection (sp) tests. in guinea pigs only very low levels of ma antibodies against antigen 2 were demonstrated. in rabbit serum, ma antibodies directed to antigen 2 were fou ...197829470
tissue sterility in uneviscerated carcasses.sheep muscle tissue removed aseptically from control carcasses, from uneviscerated carcasses held at 20 degrees c for 24 h, and from carcasses of sheep subjected to stress before slaughter was examined for the presence of bacteria. all samples from a total of 68 carcasses were sterile. whole-body autoradiography of mouse carcasses showed that 14c-labeled fixed bacteria injected after death remained in the lumen of the intestine. live bacteria did not penetrate the mucosal surface until the tissu ...197829564
the alpha adrenergic receptor mediated increase in guinea-pig liver glycogenolysis. 197829649
metabolism of tetrachloroethylene in guinea pigs (author's transl).tetrachloroethylene oxide was chemically prepared from tetrachloroethylene, and the metabolites of the oxide in guinea pigs were analyzed by gaschromatography and fujiwara reaction. the results obtained are as follows: 1) trichloroacetic acid appeared in gaschromatogram after injection of tetrachloroethylene oxide, but trichloroethanol did not. 2) the metabolites analyzed by fujiwara reaction after injection of tetrachloroethylene oxide were composed of large proportion of trichloroacetic acid a ...197615147
lipid metabolism by the gall-bladder. ii. the in vitro conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylcholine.lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase, which catalyzes the acylation of lysophosphatidylcholine with fatty acid coenzyme a to form phosphatidylcholine, was assayed in gall-bladder mucosa. in guinea pig gall-bladder the activity parallels that of the microsomal enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase with 3--4-fold enrichment of the activity in the microsomes. studies with saturated and unsaturated substrates demonstrated highest activity when oleoyl coenzyme a and palmitoyl lysophosphatidylcholine were ...197827225
distribution of intrinsic nerve cell bodies and axons which take up aromatic amines and their precursors in the small intestine of the guinea-pig. 197825716
release of slow-reacting substance from guinea-pig and human lung by calcium ionophore a23187 proceedings. 197827275
calcium-dependent discharge of secretory proteins in guinea pig pancreatic lobules. 197830382
elimination of radioactivity following administration of 15,16-3hnaltrexone to rats and guinea pigs.the elimination of radioactivity after 15,16-3hnaltrexone administration was studied in rats and guinea pigs. an average of 42% of the dose was eliminated in urine and 55% in feces following administration of 1 mg/kg iv to each of three rats. analysis of radioactivity in the excreta of one rat that received the same dose im yielded similar results. on the other hand, four guinea pigs that received 1 mg/kg iv excreted only 14% of the dose in feces and 84% in urine. similar results were obtained f ...197826554
a mammalian muscle with the pharmacological characteristics of slow tonic muscle.the guinea-pig isolated cremaster muscle gave tetrodotoxin-resistant dose-related contractures with acetylcholine, carbachol and the depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. the dose-response curve to suxamethonium in tetrodotoxin 2 x 10(-7)m could be shifted to the right with tubocurarine 10(-6)m. kcl, 0.1m, produced slow sustained contractures of the muscle. with the cremaster nerve-muscle preparation tetanic contractions at 20 hz were maintained over several minutes. tetrodotoxin eliminate ...197826743
evidence for the participation of beta1-adrenoceptors in isoprenaline-induced renin release from rat kidny slices in vitro.1. the inhibitory effects were studied of 4 beta-adrenoceptor antagonists against renin release induced by isoprenaline (0.5 mumol/1) in rat kidney slices. additionally the pa2 values of these 4 drugs were measured against isoprenaline in guinea-pig isolated atria and trachea (against beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptors respectively). 2 when employed at a concentration of 2 mumol/1 propranolol and atenolol significantly inhibited renin release (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.01) whereas practolo ...197827279
further characterization of mycobacterium ulcerans toxin.mycobacterium ulcerans produces an exotoxin in culture which, when inoculated into guinea pig skin, causes inflammation, necrosis, edema, and other histopathological changes resembling those in infections of humans. the toxin was resistant to heat and to alkalies and was moderately acid labile. toxic activity was destroyed by pronase, phospholipase, lipase, amylase, and glucosidase but not by trypsin, collagenase, cellulase, lysozyme, hyaluronidase, or neuraminidase. toxic activity was resistant ...197830694
physico-chemical properties of mouse hepatitis virus (mhv-2) grown on dbt cell culture.some properties of a strain of mouse hepatitis virus, mhv-2, grown on dbt cells were determined using a plaque assay on the cells. viral growth was not inhibited by the presence of actinomycin d or 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine. mhv-2 was completely inactivated by ether, chloroform, sodium deoxycholate or beta-propiolactone, but showed a moderate resistance to trypsin. heating at 56 c for 30 min did not completely abolish the virus infectivity. the virus was stable after heating at 50 c for 15 min in 1m ...197830881
defining the histamine h2-receptor in brain: the interaction with lsd.two aspects of the complexities of the mode of action of drugs are described. one is the criteria and pitfalls of defining the interaction with specific receptors. the other is the need to consider each of the pharmacological effects of a drug as a concatenation of receptor events, because it has become clear that each drug may have substantial affinity for many specific receptors. illustrating these ideas is a characterization of the histamine receptor linked to adenylate cyclase in brain. the ...197830911
detection of an auditory nerve--activating substance.a substance or substances capable of increasing the firing rate of primary auditory fibers is detectable in the perilymph of frogs and guinea pigs subjected to sound stimulation. the increase in firing rate occurs in single units of the frog auditory nerve after perilymph obtained from frogs or guinea pigs during sound stimulation is infused into the frog perilymphatic sac. perilymph collected from animals maintained in silence failed to cause an increase in firing rate of primary auditory fiber ...197830998
effects of 2-mercaptoethanol and aging in vitro on 17beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase of guinea pig liver microsomes.when microsomes were prepared in 2-mercaptoethanol vmax for 17beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (17beta-hsd) was greater, the km for nad+ was greater and the km for testosterone lower than in its absence. during storage at 4 degrees vmax increased in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol and decreased in its absence; km values for testosterone and nad+ increased during storage in both cases. the presence or absence of 2-mercaptoethanol did not affect the extent or time-course of inactivation of 17b ...197831019
differential effect on the sympathetic transmitter level in uterus and other organs of guinea-pig by drugs interfering with adrenergic nerve functions.5 types of adrenergic blocking agents with different modes of action were administered and the rate of transmitter depletion was studied in different uterine regions of guinea-pig, and compared with that in the heart and submandibular gland by a combination of fluorescence histochemical and spectrofluorimetric methods. the tyrosine-hydroxylase inhibitor, h 44/68, as well as reserpine and guanethidine, produced a more efficient reduction in neuronal noradrenaline in the heart and submandibular gl ...197831060
anti-inflammatory drug actions on allergic responses in guinea-pig skin.five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin, naproxen, meclofenamic acid, feprazone and phenylbutazone: nsaids) and three glucocorticosteroids (dexamethasone, hydrocortisone and prednisolone) have been tested as local inhibitors of increased vascular permeability in guinea-pig skin. lesions were induced by histamine or by antigen to evoke type i (passive cutaneous anaphylaxis), type iii (reverse passive arthus) and type iv (delayed hypersensitivity) allergic reactions. nsaids and gl ...197831078
blockade by n-methylhydroxylamine of activation of guanylate cyclase and elevations of guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels in nervous tissues.hydroxylamine and n-methylhydroxylamine prevented the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by the endogenous activator as well as by nitroso compounds such as n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine or nitroprusside, while other derivaties of hydroxylamine were ineffective. hydroxylamine and n-methylhydroxylamine did not alter the basal guanylate cyclase activity of purified enzyme preparations. kinetics analysis indicated that n-methylhydroxylamine competes with n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguani ...197831192
the effects of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor agonists on inflammatory exudation in rabbit and guinea-pig skin [proceedings]. 197831224
studies on metabolism of bromazepam. vi. reduction of 2-(2-amino-5-bromobenzoyl)pyridine, a metabolite of bromazepam, in the rabbit, rat, and guinea pig.three urinary metabolites that were formed by cleavage of the benzodiazepine ring of bromazepam, 2-(2-amino-5-bromobenzoyl)pyridine (abbp), 2-(2-amino-5-bromo-3-hydroxybenzoyl)pyridine (3-oh-abbp), and 2-amino-5-bromo-2'-azabenzhydrol (abab), were measured in urine of rabbits, rats, and guinea pigs. the major metabolite was 3-oh-abbp in all animals given bromazepam orally. abab was also excreted in major amounts in the guinea pig, but was excreted in minor amounts in the rabbit and rat. moreover ...197826538
a new method for extraction of extravasated dye in the skin and the influence of fasting stress on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in guinea pigs and rats.a method for quantitative extraction of extravasated dye from the skin was studied in guinea pigs and rats. a simple method with a low cost and good recovery was established as follows; a piece of the skin containing extravasated dye was soaked overnight in a stoppered glass tube containing 1 ml of 1 n koh at 37 c. then, 9 ml of mixed solution of 0.6 n h3po4 and acetone (5:13) was added to the tube. the tube was shaken vigorously for a few seconds and centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 15 min. absorba ...197827704
oxidative activation of guinea pig splenic cell guanylate cyclase activity by dehydroascorbate, ascorbate, fatty acid hydroperoxides and prostaglandin endoperoxides. 197729453
gastric hco3--secretion in the guinea pig.measurement of gastric intraluminal pco2 and ph in the anesthetized guinea pig enabled simultaneous determination of total h+ and hco3- gastric secretions. there was quantitative agreement between the release of co2 and decrease in hco3- after intragastric instillation of hcl. the basal rate of hco3- secretion (approximately 40 mueq-h-1) was, in most cases, smaller than spontaneous h+ secretion, but gastric net secretory output was alkaline (hco3- greater than h+) after inhibition of acid secret ...197827099
adrenergic and 'non-adrenergic' components in the contractile response of the vas deferens to a single indirect stimulus.1. the mechanical response of the longitudinal smooth muscle of the rat vas deferens to stimulation of its motor nerves by a single pulse has been examined. the motor nerves were stimulated in vivo via the spinal outflows in the pithed rat or in vitro by field stimulation. 2. the contraction in the whole vas consisted of two components, an initial, rapid, brief contraction reaching a maximum at 300 msec and a second, slower and more prolonged contraction reaching its maximum at 600 msec. when th ...197831466
ionic interactions between bovine chymotrypsinogen a and chondroitin sulfate a.b.c.. a possible model for molecular aggregation in zymogen granules.the formation of large aggregates by ionic interactions between acidic glucosaminoglycans and cationic secretory proteins has been proposed as one of the critical steps in the concentration process in the condensing vacuoles of secretory cells. in this paper, this hypothesis was tested by studies on the interactions between bovine chymotrypsinogen a and chondroitin sulfate as a simplified model. small amounts of chondroitin sulfate were found able to induce chymotrypsinogen precipitation. like z ...197829905
the site of action of capsaicin on the guinea-pig isolated ileum. 197831571
factors influencing the release of acetylcholine from the myenteric plexus of the ileum of the guinea-pig and rabbit.1 the effects of electrical stimulation, changes in external ion concentrations and various drugs on acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus were measured by bioassay in the presence of physostigmine and by recording the responses of the longitudinal muscle. in preparations from the guinea-pig, the acetylcholine output per pulse increased with decreasing frequency of stimulation and reached its maximum at a frequency of 0.017 hz (1/min) and thus ensured that the output per unit of time w ...197831960
intestinal neuraminidase activity of suckling rats and other mammals. relationship to the sialic acid content of milk.1. the neuraminidase activity of homogenates of the mucosa of the middle and distal thirds of the small intestine of rats increased about 5-fold between birth and 4 to 8 days of age, and then gradually declined to the much lower adult activity by 24 days. no comparable changes occurred in the proximal third. 2. in 8-day-old rats, the neuraminidase activity of the middle and distal thirds of the small intestine was about 10 times greater than that of the proximal third, 20 times greater than that ...197825066
a protease-like permeability factor in the guinea pig skin. 1. partial purification and characterization.a permeability factor was extracted in a latent form from guinea pig skin and separated by ammonium sulfate fractionation into the pseudoglobulin fraction (30--50% saturation). the activation of the latent form of the permeability factor seemed to be caused in the desalting step by gel filtration with sephadex g-50. the factor was partially purified by streptomycin treatment and column chromatography using hydroxyapatite, diethylaminoethyl cellulose and sephadex g-75, in this order. gel filtrati ...197825092
measurement of tyrosine hydroxylase in the guinea pig brain proceedings. 197825104
effect of inderal on heart rate changes in rabbit and guinea pig foetuses during hypoxia (author's transl). 197825126
species differences in the in vitro metabolic reduction of the amphetamine metabolite, 1-phenyl-2-propanone.marked differences were observed, in the ability of fortified 9000 g liver homogenate supernatants from three species to reduce 1-phenyl-2-propanone to the corresponding alcohol. this metabolic keto-reduction was negligible in homogenates from the rat and extensive in the rabbit; guinea-pig liver homogenates had intermediate ability. metabolic oxidation of 1-phenyl-2-propanol was negligible in all three species. the amount of deamination of amphetamine and of n-n-propylamphetamine was approximat ...197827606
effectiveness of pyridostigmine in reversing neuromuscular blockade produced by soman.the effects of pyridostigmine pretreatment on the neuromuscular blockade produced by soman in anaesthetized, atropinized animals have been studied on the soleus and anterior tibialis muscle (rhesus monkeys, cats and rabbits) and the gastrocnemius muscle (guinea-pigs and rats). pyridostigmine pretreatment produced a complete recovery of neuromuscular function following blockade by soman; the rate of recovery was similar in all the species, suggesting a common mechanism of action. in the absence o ...197827607
the character of the antagonism by polyphloretin phosphate of contractions to prostaglandins e1 and f 2alpha in guinea-pig ileum.polyphloretin phosphate (ppp) produced a dose-dependent decrease in the tone and reduction of the spontaneous phasic contactions of the longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig isolated ileum. ppp (100 microgram ml-1) after a 2 min contact with the ileum decreased the contractile effects of pge1 0.1 micron by 40.6 +/- 7.4%, of pge1 0.01 micron by 86.7 +/- 3.3% and of pge2alpha 0.1 micron by 62.2 +/- 8.6%. after 10 min contact of ppp the contractile effect of pge1 0.1 micron was decreased by 47.7 +/- 4. ...197828396
the effect of chronic administration of digitoxin on the activity of the myocardial (na + k)-atpase in guinea-pigs.when guinea-pigs were treated for 24 days with digitoxin 0.3 mg/kg s.c., the activity of the (na + k)-atpase of the heart muscle increased by about 30% compared to controls, whereas the enzymes prepared from kidney and brain showed no significant alteration in their activity. in animal species treated with digitoxin for 1 to 5 days, no increase of enzyme activity was observed. only after 10 to 15 days of treatment, a significant increase of the (na + k)-atpase activity was noted which increased ...197828701
a protease-like permeability factor in the guinea pig skin. 2. in vitro activation of the latent form permeability factor by weakly acidic phosphate buffer.conditions for the in vitro activation of the latent form of a protease-like permeability factor in the pseudoglobulin fraction from guinea pig skin were examined. (1) the factor was activated by dialysis against 67 mm phosphate buffer at ph 5.8--6.4, not at ph 7.0--8.0. (2) high salt concentration (200 mm or greater phosphate buffer or 67 mm phosphate buffer containing 200 mm or greater kcl or nacl) prevented the activation at ph 6.2. (3) high osmotic pressure (sucrose at 1 m) did not affect ac ...197828784
comparative metabolism of hydrocodone in man, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, and dog.the metabolism of hydrocodone was studied in man, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, and dog. routes of metabolism included o-demethylation, n-dealkylation, and 6-keto-reduction to the corresponding 6-alpha- and 6-beta-hydroxy metabolites, where each metabolic pathway produces an active metabolite. mean total recovery of drug and metabolites as percentage of administered dose ranged from a low of 10.6% for the rabbit to a high of 46.8% for the guinea pig; man was intermediate at 25.7%. for man, approximat ...197828931
hemagglutination with simian papovavirus sa12.simian papovavirus sa12 agglutinated human, guinea pig, and chicken erythrocytes. sa12 hemagglutinin was most effectively released from debris of infected tissue culture cells at an alkaline ph.197829051
the effects of some analgesic and neuroleptic drugs on the spasmogenic actions of substance p on guinea-pig ileum. 197829099
effects of morphine on non-adrenergic inhibitory responses of the guinea-pig taenia coli. 197829108
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