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biodiversity and macroparasitic distribution of the wild rat population of carey island, klang.a study to determine the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites and endoparasites infesting wild rat population of carey island was carried out from june to december 2010. a total of 81 rats were captured from various locations on carey island. four rat species were identified namely, rattus tiomanicus (45.7%), rattus rattus diardii (25.9%), rattus argentiventer (16%) and rattus norvegicus (12.3%). low diversity of ecto and endoparasites were observed infecting the rodent population with 8 ...201323959485
isolation and molecular characterization of leptospira interrogans and leptospira borgpetersenii isolates from the urban rat populations of kuala lumpur, malaysia.rats are considered the principal maintenance hosts of leptospira. the objectives of this study were isolation and identification of leptospira serovars circulating among urban rat populations in kuala lumpur. three hundred urban rats (73% rattus rattus and 27% r. norvegicus) from three different sites were trapped. twenty cultures were positive for leptospira using dark-field microscopy. r. rattus was the dominant carrier (70%). polymerase chain reaction (pcr) confirmed that all isolates were p ...201323358635
leptospirosis risk increases with changes in species composition of rat populations.rats are major reservoirs of leptospirosis and considered as a main threat to biodiversity. a recent introduction of rattus rattus to the island of futuna (western polynesia) provided the opportunity to test if a possible change in species composition of rat populations would increase the risk of leptospirosis to humans. we trapped rodents on wallis and futuna and assessed leptospira carriage in 357 rodents (rattus norvegicus, r. rattus, rattus exulans, and mus domesticus) from 2008 to 2012. whi ...201323535996
cross-sectional study of leptospira seroprevalence in humans, rats, mice, and dogs in a main tropical sea-port city.samples were collected from 128 symptomatic humans, 83 dogs, 49 mice, and 20 rats (rattus rattus: 16; rattus norvegicus: 4) in neighborhoods where human leptospirosis have been reported within the principal sea-port city of colombia. seroprevalences were assessed against 19 pathogenic, 1 intermediate pathogenic, and 1 saprophytic leptospira serogroups. pathogenic leptospira were confirmed using conventional leptospira-specific polymerase chain-reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analys ...201323149584
prevalence of schistosoma japonicum in wild rodents in five islands of the west dongting lake, china.to estimate the prevalence of schistosoma japonicum in field rodents, we conducted surveys of s. japonicum infection on 5 islands in the west dongting lake, china: julinyuan, jiangjiazui, longwangmiao, goutouzhou, and niujiaojian. thirty-five rattus flavipectus, 43 rattus norvegicus, 42 rattus rattus , and 48 microtus fortis were captured and examined from july to august 2011. schistosoma japonicum was found in the 3 rat species but not in the vole m. fortis . no statistically significant differ ...201323259921
serologic evidence for circulating orthopoxviruses in peridomestic rodents from rural uganda.the prevalence of orthopoxviruses (opxv) among wildlife, including monkeypox virus (mpxv), remains largely unknown. outbreaks of human monkeypox in central africa have been associated with hunting, butchering, and consuming infected forest animals, primarily rodents and primates. monkeypox cases have not been reported in east africa, where human contact with wildlife is more limited. whether this lack of human disease is due to the absence of mpxv in rodents is unknown. however, testing of wildl ...201323307378
verification of natural infection of peridomestic rodents by pcv2 on commercial swine farms.the porcine circovirus-2 (pcv2) is the main agent responsible for porcine circovirus associated diseases (pcvad). few studies have been done regarding pcv2 infection in other species. the purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of pcv2 infection in the peridomestic rodent species mus musculus and rattus rattus on commercial pig farms in brazil. immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated pcv2 in the spleen, lung and kidney. viral dna was detected in tissues by nested pcr assay. parti ...201323141170
toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in urban rodents: a survey in niamey, niger.a serological survey of toxoplasma gondii was conducted on 766 domestic and peridomestic rodents from 46 trapping sites throughout the city of niamey, niger. a low seroprevalence was found over the whole town with only 1.96% of the rodents found seropositive. however, differences between species were important, ranging from less than 2% in truly commensal mastomys natalensis, rattus rattus and mus musculus, while garden-associated arvicanthis niloticus displayed 9.1% of seropositive individuals. ...201323828008
validation of a poisson-distributed limiting dilution assay (lda) for a rapid and accurate resolution of multiclonal infections in natural trypanosoma cruzi populations.trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of american trypanosomiasis, a complex zoonotic disease that affects more than 10million people in the americas. strains of this parasite possess a significant amount of genetic variability and hence can be divided into at least six discrete typing units (dtus). the life cycle of this protist suggests that multiclonal infections may emerge due to the likelihood of contact of triatomine insects with more than 100 mammal species. to date, there have been a ...201323159798
southern plains woodrats (neotoma micropus) from southern texas are important reservoirs of two genotypes of trypanosoma cruzi and host of a putative novel trypanosoma species.trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of chagas' disease, is an important public health and veterinary pathogen. although human cases are rare in the united states, infections in wildlife, and in some areas domestic dogs, are common. in 2008 and 2010, we investigated t. cruzi prevalence in possible vertebrate reservoirs in southern texas, with an emphasis on southern plains woodrats (neotoma micropus). infection status was determined using a combination of culture isolation, polymerase chain re ...201323127189
understanding the persistence of plague foci in madagascar.plague, a zoonosis caused by yersinia pestis, is still found in africa, asia, and the americas. madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. the black rat rattus rattus, the m ...201324244760
factors associated with flea infestation among the different rodent species in mbulu and karatu districts, northern tanzania.flea infection with the bacterium, yersinia pestis is acquired from reservoirs which include several rodents and other small mammals. in areas that are endemic of plague, reservoirs of y. pestis and various flea vectors are responsible for perpetuating existence of the disease. the objective of this cross sectional study was to investigate the magnitude and factors associated with flea infestation among different rodent species of northern tanzania, where outbreaks of plague have been recently r ...201326591705
plague circulation and population genetics of the reservoir rattus rattus: the influence of topographic relief on the distribution of the disease within the madagascan focus.landscape may affect the distribution of infectious diseases by influencing the population density and dispersal of hosts and vectors. plague (yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent, re-emerging disease, the ecology of which has been scarcely studied in africa. human seroprevalence data for the major plague focus of madagascar suggest that plague spreads heterogeneously across the landscape as a function of the relief. plague is primarily a disease of rodents. we therefore investigated ...201323755317
beyond an aflp genome scan towards the identification of immune genes involved in plague resistance in rattus rattus from madagascar.genome scans using amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) markers became popular in nonmodel species within the last 10 years, but few studies have tried to characterize the anonymous outliers identified. this study follows on from an aflp genome scan in the black rat (rattus rattus), the reservoir of plague (yersinia pestis infection) in madagascar. we successfully sequenced 17 of the 22 markers previously shown to be potentially affected by plague-mediated selection and associated with ...201323237097
calodium hepaticum (nematoda: capillariidae) in synanthropic rodents (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) in eastern amazonia.calodium hepaticum (syn. capillaria hepatica) is a trichurid nematode that parasitizes the hepatic parenchyma of rodents and other mammals. infections in humans are rare, although they have been reported worldwide. a number of factors contribute to the distribution of this zoonosis, particularly the presence of dense populations of rodents associated with relatively poor urban environments, such as those found in parts of the northern brazilian city of belém in the eastern amazon basin. this stu ...201323856730
prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in rodents of tarai region of uttarakhand.the present work was aimed to investigate helminth biodiversity among rodents in order to evaluate the threat for helminth transmission to humans since they act as a potential source of parasitic zoonoses. in this study, faeces of 43 black rats (rattus rattus) and 35 house mice (mus musculus) were collected from various habitats viz. domestic places and agricultural fields of different parts of tarai region of uttarakhand. these faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasitic eggs, ad ...201324431566
a survey on helminthic infection in mice (mus musculus) and rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) in kermanshah, iran.parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of iran. the current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of kermanshah county, iran. mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from january to october 2011 and euthanized. rodents included 110 mus musculus (79.00%), 23 rattus norveg ...201325653780
high prevalence of rat hepatitis e virus in wild rats in china.serum samples from a total of 713 wild rats captured in zhanjiang city in china from december 2011 to september 2012 were investigated for the prevalence of rat hepatitis e virus (hev) by exploring rat hev-specific antibodies and rna. by an elisa based on recombinant rat hev-like particles (hev-lps), 23.3% (166/713) of the rats were positive for anti-hev igg, and 8.3% (59/713) were positive for anti-hev igm. the igg-positive rates in rattus norvegicus, bandicota indica, rattus flavipectus, rattu ...201323623690
frequent detection and characterization of hepatitis e virus variants in wild rats (rattus rattus) in indonesia.one hundred sixteen rats (rattus rattus) captured in indonesia from 2011 to 2012 were investigated for the prevalence of hepatitis e virus (hev)-specific antibodies and hev rna. using an elisa based on hev genotype 4 with an ad hoc cutoff value of 0.500, 18.1 % of the rats tested positive for anti-hev igg. by nested rt-pcr, 14.7 % of the rats had rat hev rna, and none were positive for hev genotype 1-4. a high hev prevalence among rats was associated with lower sanitary conditions in areas with ...201322983110
gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites biodiversity of rattus rattus trapped from khan younis and jabalia in gaza strip, palestine.this study identified the zoonotic endo-parasites and ecto-parasites of rattus rattus. a total of 41 rats of house (black) rat and norway (brown) rat were trapped from two regions of gaza strip. after dissection, isolated protozoa, nematodes and cestodes were identified respectively according standard keys. the results showed that prevalence of intestinal parasites among rats was 24/41 (58.5%) and males were infected more than females. a high prevalence of protozoa was in autumn compared to othe ...201323697031
hantavirus infection among wild small mammals in vellore, south india.wild indigenous small mammals including 83 rodents (bandicoot and black rats, and house mice) and a shrew captured from multiple sites in vellore, south india, were tested for serological and molecular evidence of hantavirus infection. indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) using hantaan virus (htnv) antigen indicated hantavirus-reactive antibodies in 16 (19.3%) of 83 rodents (bandicoot and black rats). western blot (wb) using thailand virus (thaiv) antigen confirmed hantavirus-reactive antibod ...201322856552
small mammals as hosts of leishmania spp. in a highly endemic area for zoonotic leishmaniasis in north-eastern brazil.leishmania parasites cause leishmaniasis in humans and animals worldwide. these parasites are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, which become infected upon feeding on an infected mammalian host. we assessed the occurrence of leishmania infection in small mammals in an area of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis endemicity.201323868744
molecular characterization of leishmania spp. in reservoir hosts in endemic foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in iran.zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (zcl) is an expanding disease and a public health issue in iran. in the present study, rate of natural infection of rodent populations with leishmania was investigated in six endemic foci including 28 villages in golestan, esfahan, yazd, fars, khuzestan and ilam provinces. a total of 593 rodents were captured and identified as rhombomys opimus (n = 325), meriones libycus (n = 171), meriones persicus (n = 27), tatera indica (n = 37), nesokia indica (n = 12), rattu ...201323951928
[study of the therapeutic activity of nocodazole on experimental models of larval alveococcosis].the therapeutic activity of parenteral nocodazole was studied on four larval alveococcosis models: golden hamsters (mesocricetus auratus), djungarian hamsters (phodopus sungorus campbelli thomas), albino rats (rattus rattus albus), and cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus) at the late stage of e. multilocularis invasion. the agent (aqueous suspension) was intraperitoneally, intramuscularly, and subcutaneously injected in daily doses of 0.125-0.5 g/kg as 1-8 injections. mebendazole was the drug of comp ...201324003517
development of eimeria nieschulzi (coccidia, apicomplexa) gamonts and oocysts in primary fetal rat cells.the in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some eimeria species. for several mammalian eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. this study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the bla ...201323862053
plague in tanzania: an overview.human plague remains a public health concern in tanzania despite its quiescence in most foci for years, considering the recurrence nature of the disease. despite the long-standing history of this problem, there have not been recent reviews of the current knowledge on plague in tanzania. this work aimed at providing a current overview of plague in tanzania in terms of its introduction, potential reservoirs, possible causes of plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in the country. plague is bel ...201326591701
body composition and amino acid concentrations of select birds and mammals consumed by cats in northern and central california.the diet of the feral domestic cat consists of primarily birds and small mammals, but the nutritional composition is relatively unknown. because of the increasing popularity of natural diets for cats and other wild captive carnivores, the purpose of this study was to describe the body composition and aa concentrations of select birds and small mammals in northern and central california: wild-caught mice (n = 7), norway rats (n = 2), roof rats (n = 2), voles (n = 4), moles (n = 2), gophers (n = 3 ...201323348686
on the biology of spiruroidea parasites of murine rodents on el hierro (canary islands, spain) with molecular characterization of streptopharagus greenbergi wertheim, 1993.this paper reports the role of darkling beetles pimelia laevigata costipennis and hegeter amaroides (tenebrionidae) as intermediate hosts of spiruroid nematodes parasites of the black rat and house mouse of el hierro (canary islands). larvae of spiruroid species were found in the two tenebrionids (18.1% in p. l. costipennis, 7.8% in h. amaroides), streptopharagus greenbergi being predominant in both (16.1% and 7.1%, respectively), ahead of mastophorus muris and gongylonema type larva. the larval ...201324161241
a new set of primers directed to 18s rrna gene for molecular identification of cryptosporidium spp. and their performance in the detection and differentiation of oocysts shed by synanthropic rodents.cryptosporidium spp. are cosmopolitan protozoa that infect fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. more than 20 species are recognized within this genus. rodents are a group of abundant and ubiquitous organisms that have been considered reservoirs of cryptosporidium for humans and livestock. the aim of this study was to design specific primers for the gene encoding 18s rrna, potentially capable of amplifying any species or genotype of cryptosporidium spp. and evaluate the diagnostic att ...201324036321
metal contaminated soil from mining area caused metal accumulation and biological responses in rats.in order to assess the effects of metal contamination on wildlife, we collected wild black rats (rattus sp.) from mining areas (kabwe and chingola) and a control area (lusaka) in zambia and compared metal and metallothionein (mt) levels in their tissues. furthermore, we exposed metal-contaminated soil from kabwe to laboratory wistar rats (rattus norvegicus) for one year in order to determine the accumulation factors and effects of metals caused by soil exposure. results of both the field and lab ...201323631162
spotted fever group rickettsia in small rodents from areas of low endemicity for brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of minas gerais state, brazil.we investigated the humoral immune response against different species of rickettsia in serum samples from small rodents collected in two areas of a silent focus for brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of minas gerais state, brazil. sera samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antigens from rickettsia species of the spotted fever, ancestral, and transition groups. titers ≥ 1:64 were considered positive. in santa cruz do escalvado, 94% (30 of 32) of the samples c ...201323509125
[association of the morphophysiology and the ectoparasite load found in two rat populations (rattus sp.) in la habana province].some physioecological responses from rodents may be registered through the study of morphological indexes, which is an important factor for the control of rodents.201323424799
morphometrical and genetic comparison of two nematode species: h. spumosa and h. dahomensis (nematoda, heterakidae).heterakis is a genus of parasitic nematodes, the majority of which are found in ground-feeding birds and only rarely in mammals. the best-known species is heterakis spumosa, a parasite associated with the cosmopolitan invasive rodent rattus rattus of asiatic origin. heterakis dahomensis was described in 1911 as a parasite of the gambian giant rat (cricetomys gambianus) from benin (africa), subsequently synonymized to h. spumosa by hall (1916). the study of helminths in african rodents is scarce ...201323990438
monthly abundance of rodent and their ectoparasites in newly settled areas, east of lakes, ismailia governorate, egypt.rodents and their ectoparasites were studied inside and outside houses in the newly settled areas, east of lakes, ismailia governorate, egypt. forty traps per month in each of the two sides were used for collecting rodent during 2009. from 221 rodent were collected from inside houses; mus musculus n=115 (52.04%), rattus rattus. frugivorous n=54 (24.43%), r. r. alexandrinus n=40 (18.10%) and r. norvegicus n=12 (5.43%). from 177 rodent were collected from outside houses; m musculus n=4 (2.3%), r. ...201324260816
comparative hepatic in vitro depletion and metabolite formation of major perfluorooctane sulfonate precursors in arctic polar bear, beluga whale, and ringed seal.perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos) has been reported to be among the most concentrated persistent organic pollutants in arctic marine wildlife. the present study examined the in vitro depletion of major pfos precursors, n-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide (n-etfosa) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (fosa), as well as metabolite formation using an assay based on enzymatically viable liver microsomes for three top arctic marine mammalian predators, polar bear (ursus maritimus), beluga whale (delphina ...201425048910
occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with rodents in hail region northern saudi arabia.ectoparasitic arthropods are a diverse element of the saudi fauna. due to this, a survey of ectoparasites associated with rodents was conducted as a preliminary study in five districts of hail region of northern saudi arabia for the first time. ectoparasites extracted from 750 rodents were sampled and identified by recording their frequency of appearance. results revealed that 1,287 ectoparasites infested 316 of the captured rodent hosts. these ectoparasites parasitized on four species of rodent ...201424838257
fragmented mitochondrial genomes of the rat lice, polyplax asiatica and polyplax spinulosa: intra-genus variation in fragmentation pattern and a possible link between the extent of fragmentation and the length of life cycle.blood-sucking lice (suborder anoplura) parasitize eutherian mammals with 67% of the 540 described species found on rodents. the five species of blood-sucking lice that infest humans and pigs have fragmented mitochondrial genomes and differ substantially in the extent of fragmentation. to understand whether, or not, any life-history factors are linked to such variation, we sequenced the mt genomes of polyplax asiatica and polyplax spinulosa, collected from the greater bandicoot rat, bandicota ind ...201424438034
distinct genetic characteristics of sri lankan rattus and bandicota (murinae, rodentia) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers.we examined genetic variation in black rats (the rattus rattus complex) from kandy district, sri lanka using mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb, 1140 bp) and nuclear melanocortin 1 receptor (mc1r, 954 bp) gene sequences together with database sequences. we confirmed the existence of two divergent mitochondrial lineages in sri lankan black rats, with genetic distance of 2.2% and estimated divergence time of 0.3 million years ago. because one lineage is unique to the island and the other is closely ...201425224973
a quantitative ethnozoological assessment of traditionally used animal-based therapies in the tropical island of mauritius.there is currently a dearth of documentation on the use of animal-based therapies (abt) in mauritius. this study was therefore designed to gather primary folk knowledge on the different abt used by mauritians. failure to document such knowledge can results in losses in both the use of such remedies and in the scientific documentation of the cultural traditions of animals used in the treatment and/or management of human diseases. the aim of the study is to collect, analyze, document and dissemina ...201424824877
how important are seabirds in the diet of black rats on islands with a superpredator?this study assessed the impact of introduced black rats (rattus rattus) on cory's shearwater (calonectris diomedea borealis) in a multi-invaded insular ecosystem where rats are mesopredators. we hypothesized that black rats should have little impact on cory's shearwaters in the presence of cats as superpredators. stomach contents and stable isotope analysis (sia) in tissues of black rats were analyzed to assess the trophic ecology and the importance of cory's shearwater in their diet. we also st ...201424726532
[cockroaches and co. the role of health pests as allergen source].in most of the cases health pests are carriers of pathogens or parasites which have a negative impact on human health or affect the health of other mammals. what is lesser known is that they can also act as allergens. most of the health pests in this sense belong to the arthropods, such as cockroaches (blattaria), mosquitos (culiciformia), lice (pediculus humanus corporis), fleas (siphonaptera) and ticks (argasidae). in the group of vertebrates rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus), house m ...201424781916
modifying the victor® easy set® rat trap to improve the animal welfare of stoats and ship rats trapped in new zealand.stoats (mustela erminea) and ship rats (rattus rattus) in new zealand are targeted by trapping to mitigate their predation on native wildlife. internationally recognized guidelines for assessing the effectiveness and welfare performance of kill traps are supported by new zealand legislation under the animal welfare act 1999. the victor® easy set® rat trap was tested and passed a similar standard for killing short-tailed weasels in canada but failed for stoats when tested in new zealand in 2002 ( ...201424505264
role of wildlife in the epidemiology of leishmania infantum infection in europe.although dogs are considered the main reservoir of leishmania infantum infection in endemic areas in europe, the existence of other wild vertebrate reservoirs has been proposed as a possible cause of the lack of success of control measures. evidence of l. infantum infection in european wildlife has been reported in carnivores, lagomorphs, and rodents. the red fox (vulpes vulpes) received most attention, probably due to its taxonomic relationship with the dog and because it is the most abundant w ...201424804923
epidemiology of leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum in rattus rattus in absence of domestic reservoir and definitive hosts.isolated environments are privileged settings to study transmission of infection. montecristo is a small island where no wild or domestic carnivores are present. invasive black rats rattus rattus (n=78) were captured and tested by pcr for leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. we wanted to test, for these parasites, the existence of a sylvatic cycle independent of reservoir or definitive hosts. none of the rats tested positive by pcr for either t. gondii or n. caninum. we r ...201424295953
molecular survey on detection of leishmania infection in rodent reservoirs in jahrom district, southern iran.zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (zcl) is endemic in many parts of iran. recently its incidence is considerable in different parts of jahrom district, in fars province, southern iran. the aims of our study were to investigate the prevalence of leishmania infection, and identify and characterize the leishmania species present, among the rodents by molecular methods in a new endemic focus of zcl, in an urban and rural area of the jahrom district, fars province, southern iran.201426114127
rat hepatitis e virus derived from wild rats (rattus rattus) propagates efficiently in human hepatoma cell lines.although rat hepatitis e virus (hev) has been identified in wild rats, no cell culture systems for this virus have been established. a recent report suggesting the presence of antibodies against rat hev in human sera encouraged us to cultivate rat hev in human cells. when liver homogenates obtained from wild rats (rattus rattus) in indonesia were inoculated onto human hepatocarcinoma cells, the rat hev replicated efficiently in plc/prf/5, huh-7 and hepg2 cells, irrespective of its genetic group ...201424631787
marked genomic heterogeneity of rat hepatitis e virus strains in indonesia demonstrated on a full-length genome analysis.rat hepatitis e virus (hev) strains have recently been isolated in several areas of germany, vietnam, the united states, indonesia and china. however, genetic information regarding these rat hev strains is limited. a total of 369 wild rats (rattus rattus) captured in central java (solo) and on lombok island, indonesia were tested for the presence of rat hev-specific antibodies and rna. overall, 137 rats (37.1%) tested positive for rat anti-hev antibodies, while 97 (26.3%) had rat hev rna detecta ...201424231359
identification of risk factors for plague in the west nile region of uganda.plague is an often fatal, primarily flea-borne rodent-associated zoonosis caused by yersinia pestis. we sought to identify risk factors for plague by comparing villages with and without a history of human plague cases within a model-defined plague focus in the west nile region of uganda. although rat (rattus rattus) abundance was similar inside huts within case and control villages, contact rates between rats and humans (as measured by reported rat bites) and host-seeking flea loads were higher ...201424686743
comparison between quantitative buffy coat (qbc) and giemsa-stained thin film (gtf) technique for blood protozoan infections in wild rats.the quantitative buffy coat (qbc) technique and conventional giemsa thin blood smear was compared to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the technique in detecting blood parasitic infection of the rodent populations from four urban cities in peninsular malaysia. a total of 432 blood samples from four rat species (rattus norvegicus, rattus rattus diardii, rattus exulans and rattus argentiventer) were screened using both techniques and successfully detected two blood protozoan species (tr ...201425382468
epidemiology of blood parasitic infections in the urban rat population in peninsular malaysia.a total of 719 wild rats were captured from four localities representing the west (kuala lumpur), east (kuantan), north (georgetown) and south (malacca) to determine the diversity of blood protozoan from the urban wild rat population in peninsular malaysia. five rat species were recovered with rattus rattus diardii being the most dominant species, followed by rattus norvegicus, rattus exulans, rattus annandalei and rattus argentiventer. two blood protozoan species were found infecting the rodent ...201425134892
ecological, social and biological risk factors for continued trypanosoma cruzi transmission by triatoma dimidiata in guatemala.chagas disease transmission by triatoma dimidiata persists in guatemala and elsewhere in central america under undefined ecological, biological and social (eco-bio-social) conditions.201425170955
genotyping of toxoplasma gondii from rats (rattus rattus) in riyadh, saudi arabia.toxoplasma 3 main clonal lineages are designated as type i, ii, and iii; however, atypical and mixed genotypes were also reported. this study was conducted for detection of toxoplasma gondii genotypes in rats (rattus rattus) in riyadh region, saudi arabia. pcr test on t. gondii b1 gene was conducted on elisa igm positive samples for confirmation of the infection. however, genetic analysis of the sag2 locus was performed to determine t. gondii genotypes using pcr-rflp technique. pcr test on t. go ...201425031465
detection of toxoplasma gondii by pcr and mouse bioassay in rodents of ahvaz district, southwestern iran.toxoplasma gondii is obligate coccidian zoonotic parasite. felidae family is definitive and wide ranges of warm-blooded vertebrates are intermediate hosts for the parasite. rodents are measured as an important source of t. gondii infection for the definitive host. thus, this study aimed to investigate toxoplasm infection in rodents of ahvaz district, southwest of iran. a total of 100 rodents (73 rattus norvegicus, 21 rattus rattus, and 6 mus musculus) were collected and studied by gra6pcr and mo ...201424605327
anjozorobe hantavirus, a new genetic variant of thailand virus detected in rodents from madagascar.until now, there was only serological evidence that hantaviruses were circulating in rodents and infecting humans from madagascar. to assess the presence of a hantavirus on the island, between october, 2008, and march, 2010, we sampled 585 rodents belonging to seven species in the anjozorobe-angavo forest corridor, 70 km north from the capital city antananarivo. a hantavirus was detected from organs of the ubiquist roof rat (rattus rattus) and of the endemic major's tufted-tailed rat (eliurus ma ...201424575755
leptospirosis in vellore: a clinical and serological study.leptospirosis is a severe spirochetal zoonosis in the world. it is considered an occupational disease of persons engaged in agriculture, sewage works, forestry, and animal slaughtering. a study was conducted with an objective of assessing the seroprevalence of leptospirosis in and around vellore district, tamil nadu. the study was based on the signs and symptoms of the patients reporting fever in vellore municipal clinic (urban malarial scheme). blood samples were collected from 129 patients. an ...201425050124
the characteristics of wild rat (rattus spp.) populations from an inner-city neighborhood with a focus on factors critical to the understanding of rat-associated zoonoses.norway and black rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) are among the most ubiquitous urban wildlife species and are the source of a number of zoonotic diseases responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. rodent ecology is a primary determinant of the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in rodent populations and the risk of pathogen transmission to people, yet many studies of rat-associated zoonoses do not account for the ecological characteristics of urb ...201424646877
bacteria isolated from conspecific bite wounds in norway and black rats: implications for rat bite-associated infections in people.bites associated with wild and domestic norway and black rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) may have a variety of health consequences in people. bite-related infections are among the most significant of these consequences; however, there is little data on the infectious agents that can be transmitted from rats to people through biting. this is problematic because without an accurate understanding of bite-related infection risks, it is difficult for health professionals to evaluate the ad ...201424528094
carriage of clostridium difficile by wild urban norway rats (rattus norvegicus) and black rats (rattus rattus).clostridium difficile is an important cause of enteric infections in humans. recently, concerns have been raised regarding whether animals could be a source of c. difficile spores. although colonization has been identified in a number of domestic species, the ability of commensal pests to serve as a reservoir for c. difficile has not been well investigated. the objective of this study was to determine whether urban rats (rattus spp.) from vancouver, canada, carry c. difficile. clostridium diffic ...201424317079
chagas' disease: an emergent urban zoonosis. the caracas valley (venezuela) as an epidemiological model.the unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. i characterized chagas' disease as an emergent zoonosis in the caracas valley (venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (didelphis marsupialis, rattus rattus) and vectors (panstrongylus geniculatus, panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; th ...201425520950
chikungunya antibodies detected in non-human primates and rats in three indian ocean islands after the 2006 chikv outbreak.the role of terrestrial vertebrates in the epidemiology of chikungunya disease is poorly understood. we evaluated their exposure and amplification role during the 2006 chikungunya outbreak in the indian ocean. blood samples were collected from 18 mammalian and reptile species from reunion island, mauritius and mayotte. among the 1051 samples serologically tested for chikungunya virus (chikv), two crab-eating macaques (macaca fascicularis) and two ship rats (rattus rattus) proved to be exposed to ...201424885529
potential of eucalyptus oil as repellent against house rat, rattus rattus.rodent repellents are chemicals which by taste or odour or possibly by both will prevent animal from feeding or gnawing. such substances may be used in protecting an area from rodent infestation or in protecting packaged food, packing materials, electric cables, and other important vulnerable materials. mature and healthy house rat, rattus rattus of both sexes, was exposed to 5, 10, and 20% eucalyptus oil applied as spray in laboratory pens in bichoice tests. each concentration was applied throu ...201424523633
ecology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in sinai: linking parasites, vectors and hosts.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) is a neglected clinical form of public health importance that is quite prevalent in the northern and eastern parts of egypt. a comprehensive study over seven years (january 2005-december 2011) was conducted to track cl transmission with respect to both sandfly vectors and animal reservoirs. the study identified six sandfly species collected from different districts in north sinai: phlebotomus papatasi, phlebotomus kazeruni, phlebotomus sergenti, phlebotomus alexandri ...201424821060
bartonella species in fleas from palestinian territories: prevalence and genetic diversity.bartonellosis is an infectious bacterial disease. the prevalence and genetic characteristics of bartonella spp. in fleas of wild and domestic animals from palestinian territories are described. flea samples (n=289) were collected from 121 cats, 135 dogs, 26 hyraxes and seven rats from northern (n=165), central (n=113), and southern palestinian territories (n=11). the prevalent flea species were: ctenocephalides felis (n=119/289; 41.2%), ctenocephalides canis (n=159/289; 55%), and xenopsylla sp. ...201425424254
bartonella species in invasive rats and indigenous rodents from uganda.the presence of bartonellae in invasive rats (rattus rattus) and indigenous rodents (arvicanthis niloticus and cricetomys gambianus) from two districts in uganda, arua and zombo, was examined by pcr detection and culture. blood from a total of 228 r. rattus, 31 a. niloticus, and 5 c. gambianus was screened using genus-specific primers targeting the 16s-23s intergenic spacer region. furthermore, rodent blood was plated on brain heart infusion blood agar, and isolates were verified as bartonella s ...201424575846
high prevalence of rickettsia typhi and bartonella species in rats and fleas, kisangani, democratic republic of the congo.the prevalence and identity of rickettsia and bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in kisangani, democratic republic of the congo (drc) by molecular tools. an overall prevalence of 17% bartonella species and 13% rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of xenopsylla cheopis fleas. bartonella queenslandensis, bartonella elizabethae, and three bartonella genot ...201424445202
remarkable diversity of tick or mammalian-associated borreliae in the metropolitan san francisco bay area, california.the diversity of lyme disease (ld) and relapsing fever (rf)-group spirochetes in the metropolitan san francisco bay area in northern california is poorly understood. we tested ixodes pacificus, i. spinipalpis, and small mammals for presence of borreliae in alameda county in the eastern portion of san francisco bay between 2009 and 2012. analyses of 218 borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (bb sl) culture or dna isolates recovered from host-seeking i. pacificus ticks revealed that the human pathogen b ...201425129859
factors associated with the prevalence and pathology of calodium hepaticum and c. splenaecum in periurban micromammals.calodium hepaticum (syn. capillaria hepatica) and calodium splenaecum (syn. capillaria splenaecum) are nematodes that infect the liver and spleen, respectively, of mammals. while the host range, distribution, pathology and zoonotic potential of c. hepaticum are well known, very little is known about c. splenaecum. the observed prevalence of these two parasites, the factors associated with prevalence, and the lesions resulting in the different host species were studied in 408 micromammals capture ...201424879015
capillaria hepatica in wild norway rats (rattus norvegicus) from vancouver, canada.capillaria hepatica is a parasitic nematode that infects the liver of rats (rattus spp.), and occasionally other mammalian species, including humans. despite its broad geographic distribution and host range, the ecology of this parasite remains poorly understood. we characterized the ecology of c. hepatica in urban norway rats (rattus norvegicus) in vancouver, canada. the overall prevalence of c. hepatica among norway rats was 36% (241/671); however, there was significant variation in prevalence ...201424807174
prevalence of calodium hepaticum and cysticercus fasciolaris in urban rats and their histopathological reaction in the livers.humans can get infected with several zoonotic diseases from being in close contact with rats. this study was aimed at determining the prevalence and histopathological changes caused by calodium hepaticum and cysticercus fasciolaris in infected livers of wild caught urban rats. of the 98 urban rats (rattus rattus diardii and rattus norvegicus) autopsied, 64.3% were infected; 44.9% were infected with caladium hepatica, 39.3% were infected with cysticercus fasciolaris, and 20.4% were infected with ...201426464920
[liver capillariasis (calodium hepaticum) in rodents from ituri (drc) and dakar (senegal)].human hepatic capillariosis due to calodium hepaticum is rarely described in africa, probably because of the lack of diagnosis tools. however, it is known that the animal reservoir is made up of rodents. during a study performed on 24 black rats (rattus rattus) trapped in rethy (congodr) and 20 gambian pouched rats (cricetomys gambianus) in dakar (senegal), macroscopic and histological hepatic lesions of capillariosis were found in 8 of these rodents (3 in rethy and 5 in dakar). these results le ...201424363019
fleas of small mammals on reunion island: diversity, distribution and epidemiological consequences.the diversity and geographical distribution of fleas parasitizing small mammals have been poorly investigated on indian ocean islands with the exception of madagascar where endemic plague has stimulated extensive research on these arthropod vectors. in the context of an emerging flea-borne murine typhus outbreak that occurred recently in reunion island, we explored fleas' diversity, distribution and host specificity on reunion island. small mammal hosts belonging to five introduced species were ...201425188026
poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, rattus rattus.to compare the acceptance and efficacy of cereal bait containing different concentrations of poultry egg components in laboratory and poultry farms to control house rat, rattus rattus (r. rattus).201425183108
ear mange mites (notoedres muris) in black and norway rats (rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus) from inner-city vancouver, canada.the ear mange mite, notoedres muris (astigmata: sarcoptidae), is a parasitic burrowing mite of black and norway rats (rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus), which causes a proliferative dermatitis primarily affecting the ears. we characterize the ecology of n. muris in a group of black and norway rats trapped in an inner-city area of vancouver, canada. rats (n = 725) were trapped for 1 yr (september 2011-august 2012) in 43 city blocks (0.82 km(2)) and one property (0.03 km(2)) within an internati ...201424171578
rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (ixodidae) in synantropic rodents in rio grande do sul, brazil.rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, is responsible for maintaining and transmitting various pathogens, both in animals and human beings, and it is of great sanitary importance. this communication reports the first occurrence of rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato parasitizing rattus norvegicus in the state of rio grande do sul, brazil, and it is also the first record of this tick species parasitizing rattus rattus in brazil. the rodents were captured from the port area, located in the ...201425054514
[strategies for sustainable management of commensal rodents. definitions of control objectives at communal level].the german act on the prevention and control of infectious diseases in man (infektionsschutzgesetz, ifsg) provides a legal framework for activities and responsibilities concerning communal rodent control. however, actual governance of communal rodent control is relatively heterogeneous, as federal states (bundesländer) have different or even no regulations for prevention and management of commensal rodent infestations (e.g. brown rats, roof rats and house mice). control targets and control requi ...201424781906
competitive naïveté between a highly successful invader and a functionally similar native species.naïveté can occur within any novel antagonistic interaction, and competitive forces play a fundamental role in shaping community structure, yet competitive naïveté has received very little attention in the literature to date. naïveté towards a novel competitor is unlikely to result in immediate mortality, but could potentially affect access to resources and hence population growth and survival. in cases where only one species (either native or alien) remains naïve to the other, the species that ...201424390480
ectoparasites and endoparasites of peridomestic house-rats in ile-ife, nigeria and implication on human health.there has never been a single case report of any parasitic zoonosis in ile-ife while just a case of human acanthocephalan infection in nigeria is available.201425642271
discriminating the drivers of edge effects on nest predation: forest edges reduce capture rates of ship rats (rattus rattus), a globally invasive nest predator, by altering vegetation structure.forest edges can strongly affect avian nest success by altering nest predation rates, but this relationship is inconsistent and context dependent. there is a need for researchers to improve the predictability of edge effects on nest predation rates by examining the mechanisms driving their occurrence and variability. in this study, we examined how the capture rates of ship rats, an invasive nest predator responsible for avian declines globally, varied with distance from the forest edge within fo ...201425412340
reproductive toxicity of triptolide in male house rat, rattus rattus.the aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, rattus rattus. feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male r. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. pregnancy rates we ...201425374942
[influence of radiation on survivability, behavior and neurochemical correlates of rats].the aim of the work was to study the dependence of individual radiosensitivity of white and black rats on radiation. the rats under study were derived from a cross between black and white rats and called ratus ratus-georgia. comparative radiosensitivity of white (wistar) and black rats was studied at a total exposure with sublethal and lethal doses (5, 7 and 9 gy). cumulative survival functions of rats, a spectrum of changes in some ethological parameters and content of serotonin and catecholami ...201425020178
invasion genetics of a human commensal rodent: the black rat rattus rattus in madagascar.studies focusing on geographical genetic patterns of commensal species and on human history complement each other and provide proxies to trace common colonization events. on madagascar, the unintentional introduction and spread of the commensal species rattus rattus by people may have left a living clue of human colonization patterns and history. in this study, we addressed this question by characterizing the genetic structure of natural populations of r. rattus using both microsatellites and mi ...201424975563
animal reservoirs and potential vectors of leishmania siamensis in southern thailand.leishmania siamensis is newly described as the causative pathogen of autochthonous leishmaniasis in thailand. potential vectors and animal reservoirs of l. siamensis are not thoroughly studied. an environmental survey was carried out in the affected area in two provinces in southern thailand: songkhla and nakhon si thammarat. ninety-nine villagers, 378 sandflies, and potential animal reservoirs were examined. leishmania dna amplicon was identified in two species of female sandflies, sergentomyia ...201424964648
highly diverse morbillivirus-related paramyxoviruses in wild fauna of the southwestern indian ocean islands: evidence of exchange between introduced and endemic small mammals.the paramyxoviridae form an increasingly diverse viral family, infecting a wide variety of different hosts. in recent years, they have been linked to disease emergence in many different animal populations and in humans. bats and rodents have been identified as major animal populations capable of harboring paramyxoviruses, and host shifting between these animals is likely to be an important driving factor in the underlying evolutionary processes that eventually lead to disease emergence. here, we ...201424829336
effectiveness of rodenticides for managing invasive roof rats and native deer mice in orchards.roof rats (rattus rattus) and deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) are occasional pests of nut and tree fruit orchards throughout california and in many other parts of the usa and beyond. in general, the most practical and cost-effective control method for rodents in many agricultural environments is the use of rodenticides (toxic baits), but little or no information exists on the efficacy of current rodenticides in controlling roof rats and deer mice in orchards. therefore, our goals were to deve ...201424443051
spatial segregation between invasive and native commensal rodents in an urban environment: a case study in niamey, niger.invasive rodents have been responsible for the diffusion worldwide of many zoonotic agents, thus representing major threats for public health. cities are important hubs for people and goods exchange and are thus expected to play a pivotal role in invasive commensal rodent dissemination. yet, data about urban rodents' ecology, especially invasive vs. native species interactions, are dramatically scarce. here, we provide results of an extensive survey of urban rodents conducted in niamey, niger, d ...201425379785
camera trapping: a contemporary approach to monitoring invasive rodents in high conservation priority ecosystems.invasive rodent species have established on 80% of the world's islands causing significant damage to island environments. insular ecosystems support proportionally more biodiversity than comparative mainland areas, highlighting them as critical for global biodiversity conservation. few techniques currently exist to adequately detect, with high confidence, species that are trap-adverse such as the black rat, rattus rattus, in high conservation priority areas where multiple non-target species pers ...201424599307
positive co-occurrence of flea infestation at a low biological cost in two rodent hosts in the canary archipelago.non-random assemblages have been described as a common pattern of flea co-occurrence across mainland host species. however, to date, patterns of flea co-occurrence on islands are unknown. the present work investigates, on one hand, whether the decrease in the number of species on islands affects the pattern of flea co-occurrence, and on the other hand, how the cost of higher flea burdens affects host body mass. the study was carried out in the canary islands (spain) using null models to analyse ...201424476922
household characteristics associated with rodent presence and leptospira infection in rural and urban communities from southern chile.rodents are well-recognized reservoirs of leptospira, contributing to its maintenance in endemic areas and playing a role in the public health risk associated with the infection. this study sought to provide some insights into rodent populations from chile and their leptospira carriage. in total, 393 rodents were trapped in 177 households. higher rodent counts were associated with year 2 of the study, rainfall, and number of rodent signs. there was an inverse correlation with the number of cats. ...201424445209
recent evolution in rattus norvegicus is shaped by declining effective population size.the brown rat, rattus norvegicus, is both a notorious pest and a frequently used model in biomedical research. by analyzing genome sequences of 12 wild-caught brown rats from their presumed ancestral range in ne china, along with the sequence of a black rat, rattus rattus, we investigate the selective and demographic forces shaping variation in the genome. we estimate that the recent effective population size (ne) of this species = [formula: see text], based on silent site diversity. we compare ...201526037536
rapid morphological change in black rats (rattus rattus) after an island introduction.rapid morphological change has been shown in rodent populations on islands, including endemic deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus subspp.) on the california channel islands. surprisingly, most of these changes were towards a smaller size. black rats were introduced to anacapa island in the mid-1800s (probably in 1853) and eradicated in 2001-2002. to assess possible changes in these rats since their introduction, eleven cranial and four standard external measurements were taken from 59 rattus rattu ...201525780765
eradications as scientific experiments: progress in simultaneous eradications of two major invasive taxa from a mediterranean island.black rats, rattus rattus, and mat-forming iceplants, carpobrotus aff. acinaciformis and carpobrotus edulis, are pervasive pests on mediterranean islands. their cumulative impacts on native biotas alter the functioning of island ecosystems and threaten biodiversity. a report is given here of the first attempt to eradicate both taxa from a protected nature reserve in south-eastern france (bagaud island). in order to minimise unwanted hazardous outcomes and produce scientific knowledge, the operat ...201524687625
functional ultrastructure of the parenchymatic capsules of the cestode thysanotaenia congolensis (cyclophyllidea, anoplocephalidae, inermicapsiferinae).proglottids from adult thysanotaenia congolensis from naturally infected black rats rattus rattus from santiago island, cape verde, were examined by transmission electron microscopy (tem). the uterus in mature proglottids is composed of an ephemeral transverse tube or sac that breaks down, releasing eggs into the parenchyma where they are sequestered in groups and encapsulated by parenchymatous layers. in gravid proglottids, eggs accumulate in groups of 6-12 at the distal end of sac-like uterine ...201525344207
correlation of host specificity, environmental factors and oriental rat flea abundance.fleas are the vectors of many communicable diseases that are normally found in oriental rats. climate and environmental changes influence the habitat and migration patterns of vectors. in this study, the oriental rat flea abundance, represented as total flea index, was determined in correlation to host specificity and various environmental factors. the number of hosts and fleas calculated from 3 specific habitats (shipping area, decayed area, and market area) from july 2010 to june 2011. the res ...201526513922
what is your diagnosis? a soft tissue mass in a black rat snake. 201526427028
caloric restriction and formalin-induced inflammation: an experimental study in rat model.acute and chronic inflammations are difficult to control. using chemical anti-inflammatory medications along with their complications considerably limit their use. according to traditional iranian medicine (tim), there is an important relation between inflammation and imtila (food and blood accumulation in the body); food reduction or its more modern equivalent caloric restriction (cr) may act against both imtila and inflammation.201526421173
ameloblastoma in a wild black rat snake (pantherophis alleghaniensis).reports of neoplasia in captive reptiles are becoming more frequent; however, there is still scarce knowledge of the occurrence of neoplasia in wild reptiles. a wild black rat snake (pantherophis alleghaniensis) was presented to the zoological medicine service of the university of georgia's veterinary teaching hospital with a 3 cm in diameter solid mandibular mass that was partially ulcerated. radiographically, the mass was radiopaque with small bone spicules and partial osteolysis of the adjace ...201526077548
survey of cardiovascular pathology in wild urban rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus.norway (rattus norvegicus) and black rats (rattus rattus) are common commensal pests, yet little is known about the ecology of wild rats, including their natural diseases. we describe microscopic cardiovascular pathology in a subset of a sample of 725 wild urban rats. changes observed in the pulmonary blood vessels (n = 199) included arteriolar medial hypertrophy (20.1%, n = 40) and blood vessel mineralization (19.1%, n = 38). microscopic changes in the heart (n = 200) included myocarditis (33.5 ...201524686390
aboriginal and invasive rats of genus rattus as hosts of infectious agents.from the perspective of ecology of zoonotic pathogens, the role of the old world rats of the genus rattus is exceptional. the review analyzes specific characteristics of rats that contribute to their important role in hosting pathogens, such as host-pathogen relations and rates of rat-borne infections, taxonomy, ecology, and essential factors. specifically the review addresses recent taxonomic revisions within the genus rattus that resulted from applications of new genetic tools in understanding ...201525629775
bird-repellent effects on bait efficacy for control of invasive mammal pests.repellents to reduce crop damage from birds and mammals have been investigated extensively, but their efficacy in reducing risk to non-target birds in aerial poisoning operations for control of mammal pests is less known. we assessed the impact on bait acceptability, palatability and kill efficacy for captive wild rats (rattus rattus l.) and possums (trichosurus vulpecula kerr) of adding bird repellents (anthraquinone and d-pulegone) to baits used for their control in food choice trials.201525143303
an investigation of bartonella spp., rickettsia typhi, and seoul hantavirus in rats (rattus spp.) from an inner-city neighborhood of vancouver, canada: is pathogen presence a reflection of global and local rat population structure?urban norway and black rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) are reservoirs for variety of zoonotic pathogens. many of these pathogens, including rickettsia typhi, bartonella spp., and seoul hantavirus (seov), are thought to be endemic in rat populations worldwide; however, past field research has found these organisms to be absent in certain rat populations. rats (rattus spp.) from an inner city neighborhood of vancouver, canada, were tested for exposure to and/or infection with seov and r ...201525629777
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