TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
risk of trypanosoma cruzi i (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) transmission by panstrongylus geniculatus (hemiptera: reduviidae) in caracas (metropolitan district) and neighboring states, venezuela.the collection of panstrongylus geniculatus bugs by inhabitants of dwellings in caracas city (metropolitan district) and in the neighboring miranda and vargas sates, venezuela, allowed for the gathering of data on the potential role of this sylvatic triatomine bug as a vector of chagas disease in this area. the natural infection by trypanosoma cruzi was recorded by examining fresh and stained faeces of the bugs. additionally, a random amplification of polymorphic dna technique for parasite ident ...200516019006
anti-fasciola antibodies among rodents and sheep in jeddah, saudi arabia.a total of 20 imported sheep were examined for fascioliasis natural infection by kato thick smear and by fasciola-indirect haemagglutination test (ihat). stool examination revealed infection in 13/20 (65%), but ihat identified 11/20 (55%). so, the sensitivity was 84.5%. also, five species of rodents trapped within or nearby the infected sheep farm by ihat showed positive reactions of in rattus rattus (22.4%), r. norvegicus (16.7%), meriones crassus (11.8%), juculus jaculus (zero%), acomys c. dim ...200516083078
island colonization and founder effects: the invasion of the guadeloupe islands by ship rats (rattus rattus).the stepwise colonization of islands within an archipelago is typically punctuated by successive founder effects, with each newly founded population being a subsample of the gene pool of the source island. thus, the genetic signature of successive bottlenecks should be detected when analysing the genetic structure between islands of an archipelago. to test this prediction, we investigated introduced ship rat populations, rattus rattus (linnaeus, 1758), in the guadeloupe archipelago. three differ ...200516101763
serologic detection of toxoplasma gondii infection in rattus spp collected from three different sites in dasmariñas, cavite, philippines.acute and chronic cases of toxoplasmosis in rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus mindanensis caught in agricultural, commercial and residential sites in dasmariñas, cavite, philippines were determined serologically. fifty-eight percent of r. norvegicus and 42.0% of r. r. mindanensis were positive for anti-t. gondii antibodies (abs). infection was higher in male rats, and those caught in the commercial site had 100.0% seropositivity. thirty percent of the r. norvegicus and 51.0% r. rattus mindanen ...200516438179
prevalence of infection with francisella tularensis, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodents from an endemic focus of tularemia in bulgaria.the prevalence of francisella tularensis, borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodents is a determinant for their role in maintaining pathogens in the environment. a total of 169 rodents, trapped in an endemic focus of tularemia, were examined by pcr to asses the frequency of infection with the etiological agents of tularemia, lyme borreliosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. the overall prevalence of f. tularensis was 22 %. in 6 % of the black rats, f. tularensis was identi ...200516028881
serologic evidence of west nile virus infection in free-ranging mammals, slidell, louisiana, 2002.after an outbreak of west nile virus (wnv) infections in slidell, louisiana, in 2002, we detected neutralizing antibodies to wnv in 13 of 120 mammals, representing five of six species sampled. seroprevalence was measured in opossum, didelphis virginiana (75%, n = 8), raccoons, procyon lotor (60%, n = 5), black rats, rattus rattus (6%, n = 36), hispid cotton rats, sigmodon hispidus (4%, n = 24), and eastern gray squirrels, sciurus carolinensis (2%, n = 43).200516187899
preliminary genetic characterization of two lineages of black rats (rattus rattus sensu lato) in japan, with evidence for introgression at several localities.we conducted a pilot survey of genetic diversity among 37 karyotyped individuals of the black rat rattus rattus (sensu lato) from six localities on the japanese islands, using complete gene sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) and nuclear interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (irbp). our sampling included two previously documented karyotypic groups: 'oceanian' with 2n = 38 and 'asian' with 2n = 42. cyt b sequences for most individuals clustered according to their karyotypic grou ...200516394588
dispersal in a parasitic worm and its two hosts: consequence for local adaptation.characterizing host and parasite population genetic structure and estimating gene flow among populations is essential for understanding coevolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites. we examined the population genetic structure of the trematode schistosoma mansoni and its two host species (the definitive host rattus rattus and the intermediate host biomphalaria glabrata) using microsatellite markers. parasites were sampled from rats. the study was conducted in five sites of the guadelo ...200515807416
f-statistics under alternation of sexual and asexual reproduction: a model and data from schistosomes (platyhelminth parasites).accurate inferences on population genetics data require a sound underlying theoretical null model. nearly nothing is known about the gene dynamics of organisms with complex life cycles precluding any biological interpretation of population genetics parameters. in this article, we used an infinite island model to derive the expectations of those parameters for the life cycle of a dioecious organism obligatorily alternating sexual and asexual reproductions as it is the case for schistosomes (plath ...200515813776
yersinia enterocolitica serovar o:8 infection in breeding monkeys in the period from december 2002 to january 2003, 5 of 50 squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) housed at a zoological garden in the kanto region of japan died following a few days' history of diarrhea. after this outbreak had ended in the squirrel monkeys, 1 of 2 dark-handed gibbons (hylobates agilis) died in april of 2003, showing similar clinical signs. we examined the organs of 3 of the dead squirrel monkeys and of the dark-handed gibbon, and yersinia enterocolitica serovar o:8, which is the m ...200515665447
vertebrate phylogeny of hydrogen sulfide vasoactivity.hydrogen sulfide (h(2)s) is a recently identified endogenous vasodilator in mammals. in steelhead/rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, osteichthyes), h(2)s produces both dose-dependent dilation and a unique dose-dependent constriction. in this study, we examined h(2)s vasoactivity in all vertebrate classes to determine whether h(2)s is universally vasoactive and to identify phylogenetic and/or environmental trends. h(2)s was generated from nahs and examined in unstimulated and precontracted syste ...200515345473
the potential importance of nut removal by rodents from australian macadamia orchards.extensive crop damage due to rodents, predominantly the black rat (rattus rattus) is a major concern to both the hawaiian and australian macadamia industries. within australian systems, indicated the importance of adjacent non-crop habitats in the damage process with damage being directly related to the size and temporal stability of these habitats. it was also suggested that the current estimates of crop loss might be underestimates as r. rattus may remove nuts into adjacent non-crop habitats, ...200515950371
description of two new species of nippostrongylinae (nematoda, trichostrongyuna, heligmosomoidea) coparasites in arvicanthis ansorgei (muridae) from the small intestine of a single arvicanthis ansorgei from cameroon, two new species of nippostrongylinae were found: neoheligmonella zero n. sp. and heligmonina comerounensis n. sp. n. zero belongs to the neoheligmonella species in which the right dorsal ridge is poorly developed. among these species, n. bainae (durette-desset, 1970), a parasite of steatomys opinus from burkina fasso, is a closely related species. it is differentiated by the presence of vulvar alae, the ratio uterus length/bo ...200516402565
detection of helicobacter species in the gastrointestinal tract of wild rodents from brazil.since we have limited knowledge about the occurrence of helicobacter in wild animals, we searched for helicobacter species in the gastrointestinal tract of 75 rodents captured in forest remnants of minas gerais, brazil. fragments from the antrum and corpus of the stomach and from the colon were taken for pcr assays for helicobacter detection. although gastric mucosa was helicobacter-positive in only one animal, the bacterium was detected in the colonic mucosa of 23 rodents (30.7%). helicobacter ...200617019646
identification of sex-associated protein in the preputial gland of house rat (a new insight in rodent pest management).our recent findings revealed that the preputial gland of male house rat contains 20 kda protein, however, the role of androgen in the production of this protein is not known. hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the androgen dependency of 20 kda protein in the preputial gland of house rat (rattus rattus) and to compare its presence in female clitoral gland. further, on castration the amount of glandular protein in male was significantly decreased to a certain extent, while testos ...200617063626
population distribution and zoonotic potential of gastrointestinal helminths of wild rats rattus rattus and r. norvegicus from jamaica.the population distribution and zoonotic potential of gastrointestinal helminths in a naturally infected population of wild rats (rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus) in jamaica are described. one hundred and thirty (29.7%) of 437 rats captured in the study were infected: 104 (35%) of 297 r. rattus compared with 26 (18.6%) of 140 r. norvegicus. nine species of gastrointestinal helminths were recovered: raillietina sp. (0.2%), trichuris sp. (0.2%), rictularia sp. (0.7%), syphacia obvelata (1.1%), ...200617152943
chemo-paralysis for the removal of a live intraocular worm in ocular angiostrongyliasis.angiostrongylus cantonensis is also called the rodent lung worm. it was first discovered in 1935 by chen in rattus rattus, in canton, china. the rodent is the definitive host while infected mollusks, snails and crabs act as the intermediate hosts. humans are infected by the 3rd stage larvae, either by eating undercooked intermediate hosts or by consuming vegetables.(1) it is a delicate nematode reported in asia pacific region most commonly in south-east asia and has been reported from taiwan, th ...200616872350
host sex and parasite genetic the genetic diversity of parasites infecting male and female hosts equal or different? this is the question we address in this paper by studying the neutral genetic variability of the plathyhelminth trematode schistosoma mansoni within males and females of its natural murine host rattus rattus in the marshy forest focus of guadeloupe (french west indies). using seven microsatellite markers, we demonstrate that parasites from male hosts are genetically more diversified than parasites from fema ...200616872857
rickettsial agents in egyptian ticks collected from domestic assess the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from egypt, we collected ticks from domestic and peridomestic animals between june 2002 and july 2003. dna extracts from 1019 ticks were tested, using pcr and sequencing, for anaplasma spp., bartonella spp., coxiella burnetii, ehrlichia spp., and rickettsia spp. ticks included: 29 argas persicus, 10 hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, 55 hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, 174 hyalomma dromedarii, 2 hyalomma impeltatum, 3 hyalomma marginatum rufipe ...200617004028
first record of leptospira borgpetersenii isolation in the amami islands, 2003, a leptospira survey was performed on yoroshima island of the amami islands located in the southwestern part of japan. seven leptospira strains were isolated from the field rat rattus rattus, which were identified as l. borgpetersenii by flab sequencing, 16s rdna sequencing and gyrb sequencing, and serovar javanica was determined by a microscopic agglutination test. noti-long restriction fragment analysis indicated that these isolates were genetically indistinguishable from an isolate fr ...200616785714
gene expression profiling identifies regulatory pathways involved in the late stage of rat fetal lung development.fetal lung development is a complex biological process that involves temporal and spatial regulations of many genes. to understand the molecular mechanisms of this process, we investigated gene expression profiles of fetal lungs on gestational days 18, 19, 20, and 21, as well as newborn and adult rat lungs. for this analysis, we used an in-house rat dna microarray containing 6,000 known genes and 4,000 expressed sequence tags (ests). of these, 1,512 genes passed the statistical significance anal ...200616798779
tissues and hair residues and histopathology in wild rats (rattus rattus l.) and algerian mice (mus spretus lataste) from an abandoned mine area (southeast portugal).data gathered in this study suggested the exposure of rats and algerian mice, living in an abandoned mining area, to a mixture of heavy metals. although similar histopathological features were recorded in the liver and spleen of both species, the algerian mouse has proved to be the strongest bioaccumulator species. hair was considered to be a good biological material to monitor environmental contamination of cr in rats. significant positive associations were found between the levels of this elem ...200616099561
pathogenesis and vertical transmission of a transplacental rat cytomegalovirus.cytomegalovirus (cmv) congenital infection is the major viral cause of well-documented birth defects in human. because cmv is species-specific, the main obstacle to developing animal models for congenital infection is the difference in placental architecture, which preludes virus transmission across the placenta. the rat placenta, resembling histologically to that of human, could therefore facilitate the study of cmv congenital infection in human.200616737550
physiological responses of insular wild black rat (rattus rattus) to natural infection by the digenean trematode fasciola hepatica.wild black rat rattus rattus is regularly infected by the liver fluke fasciola hepatica on corsica. this report constitutes the only example of a murid rodent that plays an important epidemiological role for the fasciolosis. we investigated the influence of such unusual parasite infection on black rat physiology by measuring its oxygen consumption at different ambient temperatures. black rat energy requirements are influenced by body mass, temperature of the experiment and parasite infestation. ...200616470416
infection by trypanosomes in marsupials and rodents associated with human dwellings in ecuador.small mammals trapped in domestic and peridomestic environments of rural ecuador were screened for trypanosome infection by direct microscopy and hemoculture. identification of species of trypanosomes was then performed by morphological characteristics and by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays. of 194 animals collected, 15 were positive for infection (7.73%). eight (4.12%) were infected with trypanosoma cruzi (1 of 33 didelphis marsupialis; 7 of 61 rattus rattus). eleven r. rattus (18.03%) h ...200617304802
a comparison of statistical tests for detecting differential expression using affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays.signal quantification and detection of differential expression are critical steps in the analysis of affymetrix microarray data. many methods have been proposed in the literature for each of these steps. the goal of this paper is to evaluate several signal quantification methods (gcrma, rsvd, vsn, mas5, and resolver) and statistical methods for differential expression (t test, cyber-t, sam, lpe, rankproducts, resolver ratiobuild). our particular focus is on the ability to detect differential exp ...200617233564
[the mammals of guinea as reservoirs and carriers of arboviruses].a great body of data on the fauna and ecology of wild mammals and their participation in the circulation of arboviruses were collected when the ecology of the latter of the republic of guinea was studied in 1978 to 1989. a hundred and eighteen species belonging to 10 orders were identified. over 2,000 biological specimens were virologically and serologically examined. six arboviruses were isolated. these included dugbe virus (from the hussar monkey cercopithecus (erythrocebus patas) and 5 viruse ...200616562748
administration of xenobiotics with anti-estrogenic effects results in mrna induction of adult male-specific cytochrome p450 isozymes in the livers of adult female rats.cytochrome p450 (cyp) catalyzes the oxidation of many endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. the expression of cyp isozymes are modulated by endogenous hormones and xenobiotics. we found that, although cyp2c11 and cyp3a2 are adult male-specific isozymes, they are also expressed in prepubertal female sprague dawley (sd) rats. however, the mrna levels for these isozymes in prepubertal female sd rats decreased over time and became undetectable at 7 weeks of age. on the other hand, ovariectomy, admini ...200616837770
empiric physiology in epidemiologic doctrines of the 18th century, hungarian general norm of health in 1770.according to standard textbooks, the last episode of european new age plague pandemic died out by 1720 in marseilles. despite this allegation, the pandemic continued in well-documented new outbreaks, which attacked and devastated central and eastern europe throughout the first half of the 18th century. at the beginning, military campaigns spread the infection out of the ottoman empire. later on commercial goods took over this role via land or sea from asia or out of the eastern mediterranean reg ...200616830690
the tick ixodes granulatus infests rattus rattus populating a small island offshore of singapore.the ixodid tick ixodes granulosus supino 1897 was found infesting rattus rattus in semakau island, one of the small offshore islands fringing singapore to the south. none of the examined r. rattus from the other islands fringing singapore, or from singapore island were found infested. ixodes granulatus occurs, however, on singapore island on rattus annandalei, resident of undisturbed forested habitats. we speculate that invading black rats in semakau replaced autochthonous sylvatic rodent popula ...200616605073
virulence markers of lcr plasmid in indian isolates of yersinia pestis.presence of 10 important yop genes in yersinia pestis isolates (18 in number) of indian origin from 1994 plague outbreak regions of maharashtra (6 rattus rattus & tetera indica rodents) and gujarat (11 from human patients, 1 from r. rattus) and from plague endemic regions of the deccan plateau (8 from t. indica) was located by pcr and specific enzyme immunoassay. pcrs were standardized for six effector yops (yope, yoph, yopj, yopm, yopo and yopt), three translocator yops (yopb, yopd and yopk) an ...200616499656
space invaders? a search for patterns underlying the coexistence of alien black rats and galápagos rice rats.the introduction and spread of the black rat rattus rattus is believed to have caused the worst decline of any vertebrate taxon in galápagos. however, the "extinct" santiago rice rat nesoryzomys swarthi has recently been rediscovered in sympatry with r. rattus providing the first exception to this general pattern of displacement. we carried out an exploratory investigation of this novel system with the aim of identifying patterns that may facilitate the apparent coexistence of the two species. w ...200616761142
efficiency of three anti-coagulant rodenticides on commensal rodents.susceptibiliy level to bromadilone, difencoum and coumtertraly anticoagulants were studied in different species of norway rat rattus norvegicus and roof rat rattus rattus trapped from el-qualyobia governorate in which the anticoagulant rodenticides were used to control rodents for long periods in some rural regions at qualyobia. complete mortality was showed for both species and sex within a standard feeding period (6 days) indicated to be susceptible to the three anticoagulant rodenticides. the ...200717926811
effect of warfarin anticoagulant rodenticide on the blood cell counts of rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus.the effect of the warfarin ld50 on the counts of the blood cells of norway rat, rattus norvegicus and roof rat, rattus rattus from giza and qualyobia governorates was investigated in the laboratory. warfarin toxication caused significantly different blood cell counts in treated rats compared to control ones. warfarin significantly decreased the total erythrocytic count and increased the total leucocytic count of treated rats. but, it caused significant de-crease in neutrophrils, eosinophils, bas ...200718383788
elevated warfarin metabolism in warfarin-resistant roof rats (rattus rattus) in tokyo.wild roof rats (rattus rattus) live in proximity to human habitats, and they may carry numerous pathogens of infectious diseases. pest control is important for public health, and warfarin is a commonly used rodenticide worldwide. however, continual use of warfarin may cause drug resistance in rodents and lead to failure of their control, especially in urbanized areas. in warfarin-resistant rats, the warfarin level in plasma was significantly lower after oral administration than that in the contr ...200717012541
interference competition between introduced black rats and endemic galápagos rice rats.replicated field experiments were used to quantify and to describe the mechanism of competition between the introduced black rat rattus rattus and the endemic santiago rice rat nesoryzomys swarthi on santiago island, galápagos islands, ecuador. the removal of r. rattus significantly slowed the rate of seasonal population decline in n. swarthi. this effect was particularly evident for female, relative to male, n. swarthi and appeared to be driven solely by enhanced immigration; no other fitness o ...200717918410
successful artificial insemination in the corn snake, elaphe gutatta, using fresh and cooled semen.the design and implementation of assisted reproductive technology to improve genetic diversity and augment captive populations is an important but rarely applied research field in reptiles. using the corn snake (elaphe gutatta) as a model, the henry doorly zoo recently produced offspring born as a result of artificial insemination using both fresh, diluted semen, and diluted semen stored at refrigeration for 3 days. semen was collected noninvasively from sexually mature male corn snakes using a ...200719360586
[johannes jacobus van loghem, editor-in-chief of the dutch journal of medicine 1947-1949 and 1954].johannes jacobus van loghem (1878-1968) had a multifaceted career in which he combined microbiology, immunology, genetics, epidemiology and hygiene. he first became a professor of tropical hygiene and later a professor of hygiene and medical enforcement. he discovered the role of house rats in the dissemination of the plague, which contributed to the fight against an epidemic on java, then the netherlands' east indies, in 1911. he was rector of the university of amsterdam at the outbreak of the ...200718225796
serologic evidence of a rickettsia akari-like infection among wild-caught rodents in orange county and humans in los angeles county, california.we detected antibodies reactive with rickettsia akari, the etiologic agent of rickettsialpox in humans and in 83 of 359 (23%) rodents belonging to several species, collected in orange county, ca. reciprocal antibody titers >1:16 to r. akari were detected in native mice and rats (peromyscus maniculatus, p. eremicus, and neotoma fuscipes) and in old world mice and rats (mus musculus, rattus rattus, and r. norvegicus), representing the first time that antibodies reactive with this agent have been d ...200718260508
habitat associations of small mammals in southern brazil and use of regurgitated pellets of birds of prey for inventorying a local fauna.we inventoried terrestrial small mammals in an agricultural area in southern brazil by using trapping and prey consumed by barn owls (tyto alba) and white-tailed kites (elanus leucurus). small mammals were trapped in three habitat types: corn fields, uncultivated fields ("capoeiras"), and native forest fragments. a total of 1,975 small mammal specimens were trapped, another 2,062 identified from the diet of barn owls, and 2,066 from the diet of white-tailed kites. both trapping and prey in the p ...200718278312
the dependence of interspecific differences in the histoenzymatic parameters of skin glands between norway (rattus norvegicus) and black (rattus rattus) rats on their social behavior. 200718047020
genotoxic effects in wild rodents (rattus rattus and mus musculus) in an open coal mining area.coal is a mixture of a variety of compounds containing mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. exposure to coal is considered as an important non-cellular and cellular source of reactive oxygen species that can induce dna damage. in addition, spontaneous combustion can occur in coal mining areas, further releasing compounds with detrimental effects on the environment. in this study the comet assay was used to investigate potential genotoxic effects of coal mining activities ...200717419090
establishing causes of eradication failure based on genetics: case study of ship rat eradication in ste. anne archipelago.determining the causes of a failed eradication of a pest species is important because it enables an argued adjustment of the methodologies used and the improvement of the protocols for future attempts. we examined how molecular monitoring can help distinguish between the two main reasons for an eradication failure (i.e., survival of some individuals vs. recolonization after eradication). we investigated genetic variation in seven microsatellite loci in ship rat (rattus rattus) populations from f ...200717531050
the epidemiology of animal trichinellosis in china.the epidemiology of animal trichinellosis in china based mainly upon original chinese literature published between 1937 and 2004 is reviewed. the seroprevalence of trichinella infection in herbivores was 0.7% (2/300) in cattle and 0.8% (4/500) in sheep. the prevalence of trichinellosis in naturally infected cattle was 1.2% (2/163). trichinella larvae were detected in 1.4% (3/215) of sheep and in 2.1% (1/47) of beef cattle sold at markets. canine trichinellosis was recorded in 13 provinces, auton ...200716162414
prevalence and genetic properties of salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium definitive phage type 104 isolated from rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus house rats in yokohama city, japan.salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium was isolated from the intestinal contents of rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus house rats captured at two buildings, designated buildings j and ys, in yokohama city, japan. from october 1997 to september 1998, 52 of 339 (15.3%) house rats were found to carry salmonella serovar typhimurium definitive phage type 104 (dt104). in building j, 26 of 161 (16.1%) house rats carried dt104 over the 1-year study period, compared to 26 of 178 (14.6%) rats in buildin ...200717308195
ectoparasite diversity and exposure to vector-borne disease agents in wild rodents in central coastal california.a survey of wild rodents was performed in the morro bay area of central coastal california to determine serological and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum dumler, barbet, bekker, dasch, palmer, ray, rikihisa, and rurangirwa, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner, francisella tularensis mccoy, and yersinia pestis yersin; to describe the ectoparasitic fauna on important vector-borne disease hosts; and to determine whether pathoge ...200717427705
hosts of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum koch, on southern yorke peninsula, south australia.amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum is assumed to be endemic to south-western western australia (including barrow island), queensland (excluding cape york peninsula), and new south wales, south to dubbo and barham. the species has been recorded on a range of mammalian hosts including macropods and domestic animals. in queensland, a. triguttatum triguttatum is implicated in the epidemiology of q fever. in 2000, the species was detected on southern yorke peninsula in south australia. we aimed to ide ...200717611781
seroepidemiological survey of rodents collected at a u.s. military installation, yongsan garrison, seoul, republic of korea.a seroepidemiological study of selected rodent-borne diseases (hantavirus [seoul [seo] virus], scrub typhus [orientia tsutsugamushi], murine typhus [rickettsia typhi], and leptospirosis [leptospira interrogans]), as part of the u.s. military rodent surveillance and control program, was conducted from 2001 through 2005 at yongsan garrison, seoul, republic of korea. rodents were collected to determine the prevalence of rodent-borne diseases at a u.s. military installation in an urban environment. ...200717691691
diet variability of mediterranean insular populations of rattus rattus studied by stable isotope analysis.the black rat rattus rattus is a successful colonizer that threatens native species on numerous islands. stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to quantify the rat diet on islands off the southern french coast. samples of rat hair and faeces and their potential food were collected on each island. the nitrogen isotopic values of invertebrates and vegetation on riou (near marseille) differed from the other two islands (hyères archipelago). this was attributed to a large colony of gulls o ...200717786666
bartonella strains in small mammals from dhaka, bangladesh, related to bartonella in america and europe.ecological and bacteriologic observations of small mammals captured in dhaka, bangladesh, indicated that bartonella infections occurred in high prevalence among lesser bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis), black rats (rattus rattus), and house shrews (suncus murinus). sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene of bartonella isolates showed that small mammals in bangladesh harbored a diverse assemblage of strains. some cultures were genetically related to bartonella elizabethae, a species i ...200717827381
the role of roof rats ( rattus rattus) in the spread of salmonella enteritidis and s. infantis contamination in layer farms in eastern japan.the prevalence of salmonella in four layer farms in eastern japan was investigated between 2004 and 2006 to determine the role of roof rats (rattus rattus) in the epizootology of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis (s. enteritidis). persistent s. enteritidis and s. infantis contamination of the environment and pooled egg samples were detected in three out of four layer farms. a total of 113 (13.3%) and 158 (18.6%) out of 851 rats examined were positive for s. enteritidis and ...200817988423
severity of the effects of invasive rats on seabirds: a global review.invasive rats are some of the largest contributors to seabird extinction and endangerment worldwide. we conducted a meta-analysis of studies on seabird-rat interactions to examine which seabird phylogenetic, morphological, behavioral, and life history characteristics affect their susceptibility to invasive rats and to identify which rat species have had the largest impact on seabird mortality. we examined 94 manuscripts that demonstrated rat effects on seabirds. all studies combined resulted in ...200818254849
using ninhydrin to detect gravesoil.some death scene investigations commence without knowledge of the location of the body and/or decomposition site. in these cases, it is necessary to locate the remains or the site where the body decomposed prior to movement. we hypothesized that the burial of a mammalian cadaver will result in the release of ninhydrin reactive nitrogen (nrn) into associated soil and that this reaction might have potential as a tool for the identification of clandestine graves. juvenile rat (rattus rattus) cadave ...200818366573
topographical anatomy and measurements of selected parameters of the rat temporal bone.on the basis of dissection of 24 bones of 12 black rats a systematic anatomical description was made and measurements of selected size parameters of the temporal bone were taken. besides the main air space in the middle ear, the tympanic bulla, there are also additional air cells, namely the anterior and posterior epitympanic recesses, containing the head of the malleus and the body of the incus. on the side of the epitympanic recesses the following are easily accessible: the malleus head and th ...200818521809
factors explaining the abundance of rodents in the city of luang prabang, lao pdr, as revealed by field and household surveys.a field and a household survey, the latter of which included inspections and interviews with the residents of a total of 1370 properties, were conducted in 2004 in 30 villages of the city of luang prabang, lao pdr, in order to assess the degree of rodent infestation and to identify potential factors influencing infestations. roof rats, rattus rattus, and the polynesian rat, rattus exulans, were the only rodents found in the city, and trapping results showed a clear dominance of roof rats (80-90% ...200821396046
rodents as reservoirs of parasites in india.we monitored the prevalence of endoparasitic infections of rodents in punjab state, india, between january 2004 and december 2005. three species of wild rodents, namely the house rat, rattus rattus (n= 42), the lesser bandicoot rat, bandicota bengalensis (n= 34) and the indian gerbil, tatera indica (n= 15), were live-captured from houses and crop fields. examination of various organs revealed that the highest rates of endoparasitic infection occurred in r. rattus (40.5%), followed by b. bengalen ...200821396047
historical mammal extinction on christmas island (indian ocean) correlates with introduced infectious is now widely accepted that novel infectious disease can be a leading cause of serious population decline and even outright extinction in some invertebrate and vertebrate groups (e.g., amphibians). in the case of mammals, however, there are still no well-corroborated instances of such diseases having caused or significantly contributed to the complete collapse of species. a case in point is the extinction of the endemic christmas island rat (rattus macleari): although it has been argued that ...200818985148
isolation and characterization of microsatellites in rattus rattus.we isolated and characterized 10 microsatellite loci in the black rat rattus rattus (muridae, rodentia), a widespread invasive species largely known to cause serious problems in agriculture and human health. polymorphism was studied in two populations, one from madagascar and one from senegal. it ranged from three to 12 alleles in madagascar, and from two to five alleles in senegal. together with the loci previously adapted from rattus norvegicus, this set of markers should allow the conduct of ...200821585929
surveys of rodent-borne disease in thailand with a focus on scrub typhus assessment.the epidemiology of many rodent-borne diseases in south-east asia remains ill-defined. scrub typhus and lep-tospirosis are common and medically significant, while other zoonotic diseases, such as spotted fever group rickettsiae have been identified, but their overall medical significance is unknown. rodent surveillance was conducted from june 2002 to july 2004 in 18 provinces from thailand. traps were set up for one to three nights. blood and serum samples and animal tissue samples (liver, splee ...200821396076
helminthes of synanthropic rodents (rodentia: muridae) from dakahlia and menoufia, egypt.a cross-sectional survey was conducted to monitor and compare the prevalence of helminthes in rodents from dakahlia and menoufia governorates. the domestic rodents (271) were rattus norvegicus, rattus rattus frugivorous, rattus r. alexandrinus, & mus musculus. the overall prevalence of helminthes was 52.8%. in dakahlia, 72/145 rats (49.6%) were infected. the highest prevalence of infection was in r. r. frugivorous 43 (60.4%), then r. r. alexandrinus 44 (47.7%), r. norvegicus 38 (44.7%), and the ...200819209758
prevalence of hantavirus infection in wild rattus norvegicus and r. rattus populations of buenos aires city, determine the prevalence of infection with hantaviruses in wild rattus norvegicus and r. rattus populations in areas of buenos aires city.200818291001
[carbohydrate metabolism in the liver of rats in food deprivation and experimental diabetes].in experiments with starving rats (rattus rattus l.) and rats with alloxan-induced diabetes, the activity of enzymes and the contents of metabolites of the main metabolic pathways have been studied. it has been shown that adaptation of carbohydrate metabolism to these stress conditions has common trends: intensification of gluconeogenetic processes and glyoxylate cycle induction are observed against the background of decrease in the activities of glycolytic enzymes and the pentose phosphate path ...200818491569
murine typhus: an unrecognized suburban vectorborne disease.murine typhus, an acute febrile illness caused by rickettsia typhi, is distributed worldwide. mainly transmitted by the fleas of rodents, it is associated with cities and ports where urban rats (rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus) are abundant. in the united states, cases are concentrated in suburban areas of texas and california. contrary to the classic rat-flea-rat cycle, the most important reservoirs of infection in these areas are opossums and cats. the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis, has ...200818260783
pigs are the most important animal reservoir for tunga penetrans (jigger flea) in rural nigeria.we examined the domestic animals and rodents in a community in rural nigeria. of the 133 animals examined, 29 (21.8%) were infested, the highest prevalence of infestation and highest parasite load was found in the pigs (prevalence 54.8%, median = nine embedded parasites), followed by dogs (45.5%; median = 4), rattus rattus (29.4%; median = 2) and mus minutoides (15.4%; median = 1.5). of all the tungiasis lesions identified 83% were found in pigs. our data confirm that tungiasis is a zoonotic dis ...200818820191
early-phase transmission of yersinia pestis by cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) and their potential role as vectors in a plague-endemic region of recent decades, the majority of human plague cases (caused by yersinia pestis) have been reported from africa. in northwest uganda, which has had recent plague outbreaks, cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) have been reported as the most common fleas in the home environment, which is suspected to be a major exposure site for human plague in this country. in the past, c. felis has been viewed as only a nuisance-biting insect because limited laboratory studies suggested it is incapable of transmi ...200818541775
seroprevalence of antibodies to encephalitozoon cuniculi in domestic rabbits in nigeria.serum samples from 237 randomized rabbits from the five ecological zones of nigeria, i.e. northwest (nw), northeast (ne), southeast (se), southwest (sw) and northcentral (nc), were evaluated for the presence of antibodies to encephalitozoon cuniculi by the indirect immunofluorescent antibodies test. a titre of 10 or more was taken as positive. thirty-nine (16.5%) of the 237 samples were positive with 11, 10, 8, 6 and 4 seropositive rabbits occurring in the nw, ne, se, sw and nc zones of nigeria, ...200818575061
prevalence and genetic diversity of bartonella species isolated from wild rodents in, we describe for the first time the prevalence and genetic properties of bartonella organisms in wild rodents in japan. we captured 685 wild rodents throughout japan (in 12 prefectures) and successfully isolated bartonella organisms from 176 of the 685 rodents (isolation rate, 25.7%). those bartonella isolates were all obtained from the rodents captured in suburban areas (rate, 51.8%), but no organism was isolated from the animals captured in city areas. sequence analysis of rpob and glta r ...200818606803
effects of housing density on long evans and fischer 344 many breeding facilities, rats are housed at relatively high densities until they are 5 weeks old, at which point they are either shipped for research or rehoused at standard cage densities according to weight. the authors carried out a pilot study in long evans and in fischer 344 rats to investigate whether continuing to house rats at high densities (24 in(2) floor space per rat) past the age of 5 weeks, through puberty and into adulthood would alter behavioral or physiological parameters co ...200818719695
dietary shift of an invasive predator: rats, seabirds and sea turtles.rats have reached about 80% of the world's islands and are among the most successful invasive mammals. rats are opportunistic predators that are notorious for their impact on a variety of animal and plant species. however, little documented evidence on the complexities of these interactions is our study, we assessed the impact of black rats rattus rattus introduced on a small uninhabited island with a relatively simple ecosystem, surprise island, new caledonia. we also compared the ...200818784794
ccr5 polymorphism and plague resistance in natural populations of the black rat in madagascar.madagascar remains one of the world's largest plague foci. the black rat, rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague in rural areas. this species is highly susceptible to plague in plague-free areas (low-altitude regions), whereas rats from the plague focus areas (central highlands) have evolved a disease-resistance polymorphism. we used the candidate gene ccr5 to investigate the genetic basis of plague resistance in r. rattus. we found a unique non-synonymous substitution (h184r) in a funct ...200818703167
dating of divergences within the rattus genus phylogeny using whole mitochondrial genomes.the timing and order of divergences within the genus rattus have, to date, been quite speculative. in order to address these important issues we sequenced six new whole mitochondrial genomes from wild-caught specimens from four species, rattus exulans, rattus praetor, rattus rattus and rattus tanezumi. the only rat whole mitochondrial genomes available previously were all from rattus norvegicus specimens. our phylogenetic and dating analyses place the deepest divergence within rattus at approxim ...200818725306
surveys for ectoparasites on wildlife associated with amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae)-infested livestock in st. croix, u.s. virgin islands.surveys in 2001, 2005, and 2006 attempted to determine the role of wildlife in maintenance and dissemination of the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum (f.) (acari: ixodidae), in st. croix, u.s. virgin islands. small mammals; birds; white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmermann); and feral cattle, bos taurus l., were examined at nine premises, in mountainous rain forest, and in surrounding areas in western st. croix, an area including and central to all known bont tick-infested prem ...200919960701
seasonal variation of infestation rate with lice, tick and mite among rodents in certain egyptian regions.four species of mites (ornithonyssus bacoti, haemolaelaps glusgowi, echinolaelaps echinolelaps & dermanyssus gallinae), two species of ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus & hyalomma dromedarrii) and one species of lice (polyplax spinulose) were identified on rodents during 4 successive seasons (2005) trapped in five governorates (suez, menoufia, giza, damietta and beni-sewaf). the rodents were rattus norvegicus, rattus rattus alexandrinus, rattus rattus frugivourus, acomys cahirinus and mus musculus ...200919795768
rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health.rodents are the most abundant and diversified order of living mammals in the world. already since the middle ages we know that they can contribute to human disease, as black rats were associated with distribution of plague. however, also in modern times rodents form a threat for public health. in this review article a large number of pathogens that are directly or indirectly transmitted by rodents are described. moreover, a simplified rodent disease model is discussed.200919548807
isolation and genetic characterization of a bartonella strain closely related to bartonella tribocorum and bartonella elizabethae in israeli commensal rats.ten bartonella isolates were cultured from blood drawn from black rats (rattus rattus) captured in the tel aviv area. genetic characterization included amplification and sequencing of five gene fragments including the ribc, rpob, 16s, groel, and glta and the 16s-23s intergenic spacer region. sequence comparisons showed that all 10 isolates were identical in all genes studied comprising a total of 3,873 bp analyzed. the sequences of each of the partial genes analyzed indicated a high sequence sim ...200919556567
detection of bartonella spp. in wild rodents in israel using hrm real-time pcr.the prevalence of bartonella spp. in wild rodents was studied in 19 geographical locations in israel. one hundred and twelve rodents belonging to five species (mus musculus, rattus rattus, microtus socialis, acomys cahirinus and apodemus sylvaticus) were included in the survey. in addition, 156 ectoparasites were collected from the rodents. spleen sample from each rodent and the ectoparasites were examined for the presence of bartonella dna using high resolution melt (hrm) real-time pcr. the met ...200919595521
transmission, reservoir hosts and control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (zvl) caused by leishmania infantum is an important disease of humans and dogs. here we review aspects of the transmission and control of zvl. whilst there is clear evidence that zvl is maintained by sandfly transmission, transmission may also occur by non-sandfly routes, such as congenital and sexual transmission. dogs are the only confirmed primary reservoir of infection. meta-analysis of dog studies confirms that infectiousness is higher in symptomatic infectio ...200919835643
identification of alpha2u-globulin and bound volatiles in the indian common house rat (rattus rattus).the alpha2u-globulin (alpha2u) is a pheromone carrier urinary protein believed to be relevant for sexual communication among rats and is characterized in laboratory rats. in the present study 17 kda protein and the bound pheromones were characterized in a population of wild-type indian common house rat (rattus rattus). the protein was purified by two runs of sephadex g-50 chromatography and analyzed with sds-page with maldi-tof/ms. the results of mascot search identified the protein as an alpha2 ...200919788064
flea diversity and infestation prevalence on rodents in a plague-endemic region of uganda, the west nile region is the primary epidemiologic focus for plague. the aims of this study were to 1) describe flea-host associations within a plague-endemic region of uganda, 2) compare flea loads between villages with or without a history of reported human plague cases and between sampling periods, and 3) determine vector loads on small mammal hosts in domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic settings. we report that the roof rat, rattus rattus, is the most common rodent collected in hu ...200919815894
isolation and characterization of a new fungal species, chrysosporium ophiodiicola, from a mycotic granuloma of a black rat snake (elaphe obsoleta obsoleta).isolation and characterization of the new species chrysosporium ophiodiicola from a mycotic granuloma of a black rat snake (elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) are reported. analysis of the sequences of different fragments of the ribosomal genes demonstrated that this species belongs to the onygenales and that this species is genetically different from other morphologically similar species of chrysosporium. this new species is unique in having both narrow and cylindrical-to-slightly clavate conidia and a ...200919109465
mammalian hair as an accumulative bioindicator of metal bioavailability in australian terrestrial environments.the current study represents the first investigation of the suitability of marsupial and eutherian mammalian hair as indicator tissue for metal exposure and accumulation within contaminated australian terrestrial ecosystems. a soil metal contamination gradient was established across 22 sites at increasing distances from a decommissioned lead/zinc smelter in nsw, australia. within each site, soil and small mammal populations were sampled. an australian native marsupial, the insectivorous brown an ...200919232676
[study on the prevalence and genotypes of bartonella species in rodent hosts from fujian coastal regions].to investigate bartonella infection in rodent hosts from different environments and types of climate in fujian coastal regions. genetypes of the bartonella strains was also studied to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of the correlated diseases.200920193373
ectoparasite fauna of rodents and shrews from four habitats in kuala lumpur and the states of selangor and negeri sembilan, malaysia and its public health significance.a total of 204 rodents comprising 14 host species from four different habitats were examined. nine rodent species were trapped from the forest and another five species were trapped from the coastal, rice field and urban habitats. rattus rattus diardii (67%) was the predominant rodent species examined. fifty six (47.3%) rodents and shrews were found to be infested with at least one of the 20 species of ectoparasite recovered. mites belonging to the family trombiculidae were the predominant ectopa ...200920237444
encephalomyocarditis virus infection in wildlife species in greece.the objective of this work was to search for potential wildlife reservoir hosts of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) in wildlife species. from 1994 to 2006, 317 blood and tissue samples were collected from 17 wildlife species in greece. encephalomyocarditis virus was isolated only from two rattus rattus. in addition, antibody to emcv were detected in sera from 39 rattus rattus, one apodemus sylvaticus, one microtus arvalis, and 13 sus scrofa.200919395765
identification of flea blood meals using multiplexed real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting mitochondrial gene fragments.human plague is found in the west nile region of uganda and democratic republic of the congo where flea vectors are often found inhabiting homes. we have developed a multiplexed, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting mitochondrial genes that is capable of detecting blood meal sources in fleas collected off-host in east africa. laboratory tests showed that the assay is specific for the intended targets and has a detection limit below one picogram of dna. testing of wild-caught fleas ...200919478265
occurrence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in rats living on pig the netherlands, mrsa st398 has emerged in hospitals and human carriers have been associated with exposure to pigs and cattle. high prevalences of mrsa st398 in pigs and pig farmers have been determined and the transmission routes of mrsa on pig farms need to be elucidated. in the south of the netherlands, in recent years, the black rat (rattus rattus) has emerged as a prominent rodent on livestock farms. from march till may 2008, a survey on mrsa in rats living on livestock farms in the sout ...200919523703
detection of antibodies against anaplasma phagocytophilum in algerian mice (mus spretus), portugal.the recent detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum in portugal stimulated further research on the agent's enzootic cycle, which usually involves rodents. thus a total 322 rodents belonging to five species, including 30 apodemus sylvaticus (wood mouse), 65 mus musculus (house mouse), 194 m. spretus (algerian mouse), 5 rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and 28 r. rattus (black rat), were studied by indirect immunofluorescent assay (ifa) and/or polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for a. phagocytophilum expos ...200918973448
surveillance of endoparasitic infections and the first report of physaloptera sp. and sarcocystis spp. in farm rodents and shrews in central taiwan.a total of 95 rodents and shrews including 82 rattus norvegicus, 7 rattus rattus, and 6 suncus murinus were trapped from different localities of taichung, taiwan. the overall prevalence of parasites was 93.7%. the infection rates for r. norvegicus, r. rattus, and s. murinus were 93.9%, 85.7%, and 100%, respectively. the rats were infected with four cestodes, taenia taeniaeformis (48.4%), hymenolepis diminuta (38.9%), hymenolepis nana (5.3%), and raillietina celebensis (45.3%); ten nematodes, ang ...200919194075
prickly coexistence or blunt competition? opuntia refugia in an invaded rodent community.endemic nesoryzomys swarthi and invasive rattus rattus exist in unlikely sympatry in galápagos as female n. swarthi suffer from competition with r. rattus. this study evaluates the role of feeding habits in facilitating their co-occurrence. spool-and-line tracking of 85 n. swarthi and 33 r. rattus was used to quantify their selected diets, foods of which were used in captive trials of 46 n. swarthi and 34 r. rattus to quantify their preferred diets. selected diets were compared between species a ...200918998171
a newly recognized hantavirus in the asian house rat (rattus tanezumi) in indonesia.hantaviral sequences were recovered from the lung tissue of an asian house rat (rattus tanezumi) captured in serang, indonesia. phylogenetic analysis of partial l, m and s segment sequences showed that they belonged to a novel hantavirus provisionally named serang virus (serv). notably, serv is distinct from the hantaviruses associated with rodents of the species rattus: seoul virus associated with rattus norvegicus worldwide and gou virus isolated from rattus rattus in china. instead serv appea ...200919088290
parasites of the nile rat in rural and urban regions of this investigation on endoparasites (helminths) and ectoparasites of the nile rat (arvicanthis niloticus desmarest, 1822), a total of 220 nile rats were trapped from different regions of sudan during the period january 2003-january 2006. examination of different tissues, identification of parasites, effect of these parasites on the organs, the prevalence and intensity of infestation of the parasites and their relation to the habitat of the host, and sex-related infestations were considered. r ...200921392288
reproductive performance in east greenland polar bears (ursus maritimus) may be affected by organohalogen contaminants as shown by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (pbpk) modelling.polar bears (ursus maritimus) feed mainly on ringed seal (phoca hispida) and consume large quantities of blubber and consequently have one of the highest tissue concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (ohcs) worldwide. in east greenland, studies of ohc time trends and organ system health effects, including reproductive, were conducted during 1990-2006. however, it has been difficult to determine the nature of the effects induced by ohc exposures on wild caught polar bears using body burden ...200919863991
predominance of trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in two reservoirs infected by sylvatic triatoma infestans of an endemic area of chile.we report results of trypanosoma cruzi infection and parasite genotypes in the wild octodon degus and synantropic reservoir rattus rattus from an endemic area with sylvatic triatoma infestans as the only detected vector. the infection status was determined by hemi-nested pcr directed to minicircles dna and genotyping by hybridization tests with a panel of five specific probes, including two probes for tci subgroups (clones 19 and 20). o. degus was found infected with 13.3% and mainly with sublin ...200919426670
serological and genetic evidence for the presence of seoul hantavirus in rattus norvegicus in flanders, belgium.seoul hantavirus (seov), carried by rattus rattus (black rat) and r. norvegicus (norway, brown rat), was reported to circulate as well as cause hfrs cases in asia. as rattus sp. are present worldwide, seov has the potential to cause human disease worldwide. in europe however, only seov prevalence in rats from france was reported and no confirmed cases of seov infection were published. we here report genetic and serological evidence for the presence of seov virus in brown rat populations in belgi ...200918821445
invasive non-native species' provision of refugia for endangered native species.the influence of non-native species on native ecosystems is not predicted easily when interspecific interactions are complex. species removal can result in unexpected and undesired changes to other ecosystem components. i examined whether invasive non-native species may both harm and provide refugia for endangered native species. the invasive non-native plant casuarina stricta has damaged the native flora and caused decline of the snail fauna on the ogasawara islands, japan. on anijima in 2006 a ...201020184648
molecular survey of rodent-borne trypanosoma in niger with special emphasis on t. lewisi imported by invasive black rats.invading rodent species can harbor parasites with potential transmission to native rodents and/or humans. to investigate trypanosomes prevalence in rodents, the spleen of 76 rodents from niger identified by their karyotype was used as a dna source for trypanosoma detection using a newly developed qpcr assay. of the invasive black rat, rattus rattus, 71% (10/14) were pcr positive as well as 6% (4/62) of native african rodents. sequences of ~400bp of the ssu rdna gene identified phylogenetically c ...201021126503
infestation rate of tick, mite and lice among rodent species in menoufia governorate, egypt.a preliminary survey of domestic rodent species and their ectoparasites tick, mite and lice was carried out in ten centers of menoufia (quesna, shebeen el-kom, berka el-saabe, el-bagour, el-shohada, tala, menoff, searth el-lian, ashmon and el-sadat) governorate. frequency of rodent species and ectoparasites indices (tick, mite and lice) were recorded in spring (2009). the main species of rodent was norway rat, rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellied rat, rattus rattus alexandrinus, the white-bellied ...201021246950
isoenzyme electrophetic characterization of leishmania major, the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in north and west saudi arabia.several expeditions were carried out to four localities (al-madinah almona-warah, tabouk region, al-jouf and northern frontiers regions) in northern and western saudi arabia for sampling zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (zcl) cases from patients and rodents. biopsy samples were collected from 51 patients complaining of skin lesions, most of which (40 or 78.4%) proved to be zcl. amastigotes were detected in 33 patients (64.7%), but only 30 (58.9%) gave successful growth of promastigotes in the cu ...201021246954
susceptibility of bromadiolone anticoagulant rodenticide in two rodent species and its haematologic effect.susceptibility levels of the norway rat, rattus norvegicus and the roof rat, rattus rattus to bromadiolone anticoagulant rodenticide by bioassay and biochemical methods were studied. animals were trapped from giza and qualyobia governorates in which the anticoagulant rodenticides were used to control rodents for long periods. complete mortality was obtained for both species and sexes within standard no-choice feeding test period (4 days) indicating bromadiolone susceptibility. treatment of rats ...201020503584
the case of an insular molarless black rat: effects on lifestyle and mandible morphology.we report a specimen of an insular black rat (rattus rattus) from illa den colom (menorca, western mediterranean) displaying a singular dental characteristic. it has no molar teeth but displays regular incisors. its mere occurrence as a regular adult rat is puzzling and we attempted to evaluate what diet and morphological changes in jaw shape were promoted by the total lack of molars, and allowed the successful survival of this specimen. two approaches were performed: first, bone tissue was anal ...201020538260
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