TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
seasonal occurrence of leptotrombidium deliense (acari: trombiculidae) attached to sentinel rodents in an orchard near bangkok, thailand.leptotrombidium deliense walch that attached to sentinel laboratory mice and the roof rat, rattus rattus (l.), placed in an orchard habitat near bangkok, thailand, were studied between april 1993 and april 1995. a single l. deliense larva was attached to only 1 of 51 laboratory mice placed in the study area between april and september 1993. overall, 89/202 (44.1%) r. rattus had 1 or more l. deliense larvae attached, and orientia tsutsugamushi (hayashi), the etiologic agent for scrub typhus, was ...199910593093
phospholipids and their fatty acids in mitochondria, synaptosomes and myelin from the liver and brain of trout and rat: a new view on the role of fatty acids in membranes.the content of different phospholipids (pl) and their fatty acid (fa) composition in subcellular fractions from the liver and brain of rat (rattus rattus) and trout (salmo irideus) were estimated. it was shown that despite higher content of unsaturated fatty acids in myelin compared to synaptosomes, the unsaturation index of the latter is equal or higher than that of myelin. the total content of pl polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufa) was shown to be higher in membrane structures with more active ...199910644159
epidemiologic aspects of american visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic focus in eastern endemic focus of american visceral leishmaniasis (avl) in eastern venezuela has been evaluated in terms of patients (n = 48), immunologic reactivity to leishmania in household contacts (n = 187) and neighborhood controls (n = 170), detection of leishmania (l. donovani complex) in dogs and wild animals by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and characteristics of the sandfly population. the male:female ratio of patients was 1.18:1; 89.6% were < or =12 years old. serologic reactivity was signif ...199910674675
[fatal rat bites].we present a rare case of infant death due to blood loss resulting from multiple rat bites. domestic dogs and cats cause most animal bites. bites of a house rat usually cause bacterial infection, successfully treated with antibiotics. there is little information about death due to house rat bites. since the wounds they cause tend to occur post-mortem, they are usually wedged, clean and without subcutaneous bleeding. an 11-week-old, malnourished infant girl was bitten to death while sleeping in h ...199910955069
rats of the genus rattus are reservoir hosts for pathogenic bartonella species: an old world origin for a new world disease?bartonella species were isolated from the blood of 63 of 325 rattus norvegicus and 11 of 92 rattus rattus from 13 sites in the united states and portugal. infection in both rattus species ranged from 0% (e.g., 0/87) to approximately 60% (e.g., 35/62). a 337-bp fragment of the citrate synthase (glta) gene amplified by polymerase chain reaction was sequenced from all 74 isolates. isolates from r. norvegicus were most similar to bartonella elizabethae, isolated previously from a patient with endoca ...199910353885
population biology of schistosoma mansoni in the black rat: host regulation and basic transmission rate.a simple mathematical model was built to investigate the population biology of schistosoma mansoni in its natural definitive host, the black rat (rattus rattus). prevalence and parasite abundance over 13 years from field studies and data from laboratory experiments were used to set up the model. sensitivity analysis showed that the abundance of parasites is strongly influenced by variation in the values of infection parameters. the model shows that the parasite is able to control populations of ...199910404261
schistosoma japonicum in the black rat, rattus rattus mindanensis, from leyte, philippines in relation to oncomelania snail colonies with reference to other endoparasites.this study examined the prevalence of schistosoma japonicum infections in field rats, rattus rattus mindanensis, according to different trapping locations. between october 1995 and january 1996, traps were set in the municipality of palo, leyte, philippines to determine the correlation of rats infected with schistosomiasis to the proximity of the intermediate snail host, oncomelania hupensis quadrasi, colonies. of the 22 rats that were caught within a snail colony, 21 (95.5%) were positive for s ...199910774707
the potential role of rodents in the enzootic cycle of rift valley fever virus in senegal.wild rodents (214) of fourteen species were trapped at seven sites in senegal. arvicanthis niloticus and mastomys erythroleucus were among the most frequently collected species (77.2% of total capture). all rodents were examined for the presence of anti-rift valley fever virus (rvfv) antibody; the prevalence over all sampled species was 3.8%, varying widely with respect to species and location. four of 14 species of rodents were found to have anti-rvfv antibodies: rattus rattus (one positive of ...200010817634
inactive ribosomal cistrons are spread throughout the b chromosomes of rattus rattus (rodentia, muridae). implications for their origin and hybridization with a rdna probe has demonstrated the presence of non-transcribed ribosomal genes in the b chromosomes of the black rat rattus rattus. to test whether methylation of ribosomal dna present in the b chromosomes could account for their inactivation, we performed in-situ digestions and southern analyses of dna digested with the isoschizomers mspi and hpaii. our results suggest that the accessory chromosomes of this species have originated from one of the smaller nor-carrying c ...200010919721
genetic diversity of hantaviruses isolated in china and characterization of novel hantaviruses isolated from niviventer confucianus and rattus rattus.the antigenic and genetic properties of 46 hantaviruses from china, 13 from patients, 23 from rodents, and 10 from unknown hosts, were compared with those of other hantaviruses. the viruses were classified as either hantaan (htn) or seoul (seo) viruses. a phylogenetic analysis of the partial m (300 bp) and s (around 485 bp) genomes of htn viruses identified nine distinct genetic subtypes, one consisting of isolates from korea. the seo viruses were divided into five genetic subtypes, although the ...200011118357
fine structural development of microgamonts of sarcocystis singaporensis in python reticulatus.three 4-month-old reticulated pythons (python reticulatus), hatched from eggs laid by a newly caught female from singapore island, were fed on muscles of sarcocystis singaporensis-infected rattus rattus caught in singapore. snakes were sacrificed 5, 6 and 8 days later, the infected tissues were studied by transmission electron microscopy. the present communication summarizes findings on microgamont stages. both premature and mature microgamonts were already present in the snake sacrificed 5 days ...200011133107
rodent ectoparasites from two locations in northwestern florida.from feb.-apr. 1999, 19 species of ectoparasitic arthropods (2 sucking lice, 4 fleas, 4 ticks, 2 mesostigmatid mites, 5 chiggers, 2 fur mites) were recovered from 106 rodents belonging to 5 species (cotton mouse, peromyscus gossypinus, n = 64; cotton rat, sigmodon hispidus, n = 23; eastern woodrat, neotoma floridana, n = 9; golden mouse, ochrotomys nuttalli, n = 9; eastern gray squirrel, sciurus carolinensis, n = 1) at tall timbers research station, leon county, florida. during the same period, ...200011217221
reservoir hosts of leptospira inadai in india.isolation of leptospira from the kidneys of rattus rattus wroughtoni hinton, rattus rattus rufescens, bandicota bengalensis and bandicota indica was attempted in bangalore in southern india. in total, 296 spirochaetes were isolated from 1,348 kidney cultures (an isolation rate of 22%). a batch of fifty-six isolates from india was identified, based on serological and polymerase chain reaction analysis, of which twenty-three isolates were identified as l. inadai by the world health organization/fo ...200011107622
the occurrence of cryptosporidium parvum and c. muris in wild rodents and insectivores in spain.five rodent and two insectivore species were investigated for cryptosporidium at seven sites in north-eastern spain. of the 442 animals studied, 82 apodemus sylvaticus, 1 a. flavicollis, 5 mus spretus, 1 rattus rattus, 8 clethrionomys glareolus and 13 crocidura russula were infected with only c. parvum. eleven a. sylvaticus and 2 c. glareolus were infected with only c. muris and 16 a. sylvaticus, 1 m. spretus and 2 c. glareolus showed mixed infections. both cryptosporidial species were found in ...200010996736
leptospira autumnalis isolated from a human case from avadi, india, and the serovar's predominance in local rat and bandicoot populations.leptospira were successfully isolated from the urine of an indian patient who had been clinically diagnosed as having leptospirosis. in an attempt to determine the source of this infection, 28 rats (rattus rattus) and 58 bandicoots (bandicota bengalensis) living in the vicinity of the patient's home in avadi, a suburban area of the city of chennai (madras), india, were then investigated. each animal was checked for infection by microscopical examination of fresh and stained urine, serological an ...200010983563
small mammal trapping in tropical montane forests of the upper nilgiris, southern india: an evaluation of capture-recapture models in estimating abundance.capture-mark-recapture was used to study small mammal populations in tropical montane forests in southern india. eleven plots in six montane forest patches were sampled from february-october, 1994. six species were captured, including four rodents and two shrews. program capture was used to derive estimates of density of the most abundant species in the study area, rattus rattus linnaeus. the coefficient of variation of the density estimate was used as an index of precision. the coefficient of v ...200010824204
mast cell dynamics in the house rat (rattus rattus) ovary during estrus cycle, pregnancy and lactation.the distribution of mast cells in various ovarian compartments was studied during different stages of the reproductive cycles in rattus rattus. two types of mast cell populations were recognized with light microscopy i.e., light purple and deep purple, the latter also includes deeply stained cells with extruded granules. mast cells identified by electron microscopy showed the ultrastructural features during granule formation and release of their content. significantly higher numbers of mast cell ...200010550797
fine structure of the development of sarcocystis singaporensis in python reticulatus from macrogamont to sporulated oocyst stage.three, 4-month old reticulated pythons (python reticulatus) hatched from eggs laid by a newly caught female from singapore island, were fed on muscles of sarcocystis singaporensis-infected rattus rattus caught in singapore. snakes were sacrificed five, six and eight days later. the infected tissues were studied by transmission electron microscope. the present communication summarizes findings on macrogamont and oocyst stages. in the premature stages, rough endoplasmic reticulum consolidate into ...200011031755
development and persistence of antibodies to orientia tsutsugamushi in the roof rat, rattus rattus and laboratory mice following attachment of naturally infected leptotrombidium deliense.the development and persistence of antibodies to orientia tsutsugamushi in rattus rattus and laboratory mice following infection from the bite of naturally infected leptotrombidium deliense is reported. antibodies in r. rattus were first detected using an indirect immunoperoxidase method 2 weeks after attachment of an infected mite. the igm antibody response was mild, and was detected 2, 4 and 6 weeks after infection, while the igg response was stronger and was detected from 2 to 19 weeks after ...200011114390
rodents and leptospira transmission risk in terceira island (azores).the role of rodents as leptospira renal carriers in terceira island was evaluated (1993-1995) through kidney culture and serology [microscopic aglutination test (mat)] of 94 mice and rats. fifty-nine animals were positive (n = 41 by serology + culturing; n = 11 serology; n = 7 culturing), presenting a wide distribution in man-made and natural areas. house mice had the highest bacteriological (82.9%) and serological (90.9%) rates, being strictly related to serovar arborea. black rats were involve ...200011484805
seasonal studies on commensal rats and their ectoparasites in a rural area of egypt: the relationship of ectoparasites to the species, locality, and relative abundance of the host.the present study was carried out in 3 villages, namely kafr ayoub soliman, kafr ibrahim el-aidi, and el-sa'adat, sharqiya governorate, egypt. a total of 519 rats was collected from the 3 study sites: 46.6% rattus rattus, and 53.4% rattus norvegicus. a total of 20,643 ectoparasites was recovered from r. rattus: 33.3% mites, 33.8% fleas, and 32.9% lice. from r. norvegicus a total of 40,997 ectoparasites was recovered: 28.9% mites, 31% fleas, and 40.1% lice. three common mite species were recovere ...200111426717
evaluation of cysticercus fasciolaris antigen for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.cysticercus cellulosae antigen has been frequently used to detect antibodies for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. we have, for the first time, used membrane extract of cysticercus fasciolaris, the larval stage of taenia taeniaeformis, in elisa, with successful results. igm and igg antibodies against cysticercus were measured in serum from cases of neurocysticercosis (217), normal and diseased controls (89). 203 sera from cases of neurocysticercosis were positive for either or both igg and ...200111799411
palatability and toxicity of fipronil as a systemic insecticide in a bromadiolone rodenticide bait for rat and flea control.vector control in plague-infested areas requires a simultaneous killing of rodents and their fleas. we investigated the efficacy of a combination of a systemic insecticide, fipronil, in a rodenticide bait formulation under laboratory conditions. four different concentrations of fipronil (0.05%, 0.005%, 0.0005% with acetone as a solvent, and 0.05% with propylene glycol as a solvent) and two controls (solvents only) were combined with the rodenticide bait (crushed organically grown wheat with 0.00 ...200111583448
suppression of cyp3a2 mrna expression in the warfarin-resistant roof rat, rattus rattus: possible involvement of cytochrome p450 in the warfarin resistance mechanism.1. the continual use of warfarin as a rodenticide has caused the development of populations of warfarin-resistant roof rat. to study the biochemical mechanism of warfarin resistance, the mrna expression levels of the major p450 forms in the warfarin-resistant and -susceptible roof rat liver following exposure to warfarin were quantified by competitive rt-pcr. 2. the constitutive levels of cyp2c11 and cyp3a2 mrnas in the warfarin-resistant and -susceptible roof rat were extremely low compared wit ...200111531004
microevolution in island rodents.we perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (< approximately/= 100 years). data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (mus musculus) on one welsh and one scottish island, black rats (rattus rattus) on two galapagos islands, and deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) on three california channel islands. we report extremely high rates of microevolution for many traits; 60% ...200111838768
carbendazim-induced haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes to the liver and kidney of male rats.carbendazim is a systemic broad-spectrum fungicide controlling a wide range of pathogens. it is also used as a preservative in paint, textile, papermaking and leather industry, as well as a preservative of fruits. in the present study, carbendazim was administered at 0, 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg per day doses orally to male rats (rattus rattus) for 15 weeks. at the end of the experiment, blood samples, liver and kidney tissues of each animal were taken. serum enzyme activities, and haematological a ...200111936576
the potential role of rattus rattus in enzootic cycle of rift valley fever in egypt. 1-detection of rvf antibodies in r. rattus blood samples by both enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (elisa) and immuno-diffusion technique (id).three hundreds of rattus rattus (r. rattus) were trapped from 3 different governorates of egypt (one hundred each), blood samples were withdrawal and subjected for detection of anti-rvf antibodies by both elisa and id techniques. the prevalence rate of antibodies by elisa were 88 (29.33%) positive out of 300 tested blood samples, the highest rate was in behira governorate 36 (36%) and the lowest one was in alexandria governorate 22 (22%) while it was 30 (30%) in minia governorate. but when id te ...200117216936
trace metal concentrations in squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) and black rat (rattus muridae) inhabiting roadside ecosystem. 200111353372
parasite (schistosoma mansoni) and host (biomphalaria glabrata) genetic diversity: population structure in a fragmented landscape.random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers were used to quantify genetic diversity within and between 5 populations of schistosoma mansoni within its definitive host (rattus rattus) and the 5 corresponding populations of the snail intermediate host (biomphalaria glabrata) from a limited endemic area of murine schistosomiasis on the island of guadeloupe. analysis of molecular variance (amova) and canonical correspondence analysis (cca) were used to test the significance of genetic differenti ...200111393828
histophysiological changes of the testicular tissue due to busulphan administration in the wild indian house rat (rattus rattus).the results of the present study indicate the antispermatogenic activity of busulphan or myleran (1,4-dimethane-sulphonoxy butane) on the testicular tissue of adult male indian house rat, rattus rattus. single oral dose of busulphan (10 mg/kg body weight) was administered and its activity was noticed at 10, 40, 70 and 100 days of posttreated animals. histological observation and quantitative histological study indicates no major alteration in the relative percentages of primary spermatocytes, sp ...200111396830
experimental transmission of trypanosoma cruzi through the genitalia of albino mice.trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. we investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized nmri albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain co57), rattus rattus (rat, strain co22) and human (strain ep). some animals were a ...200111500777
laboratory and field evaluation of predator odors as repellents for kiore (rattus exulans) and ship rats (r. rattus).predator odors may serve to stop rats from entering conservation areas or to decrease predation, food consumption, and other damage by rats in areas tainted with predator odor. we compared the efficacy of real predator odors and synthetic odors (derived from the urine and feces of carnivores) as rat repellents with real herbivore odors as controls in a y maze. we tested six predator odors: cat (felis catus) urine and feces, mongoose (herpestes auropunctatus) feces, n-propylthietane, s-methyl, me ...200111471938
[resurgence of the plague in the ikongo district of madagascar in 1998. 2. reservoirs and vectors implicated].our survey of mammals and fleas arose as a result of an outbreak of bubonic plague at an usually low altitude in the ikongo district (madagascar), while a previous study had found anti-f1 antibodies in an endemic hedgehog. animals were sampled with live traps in two hamlets (antanambao-vohidrotra, 540 m alt. and ambalagoavy, 265 m alt.) and with pitfall traps in a neighbouring forest (750 m alt.). rat fleas were collected by brushing the fur and free-living fleas by use of light traps. the intro ...200111475029
genetic diversity of schistosoma mansoni within and among individual hosts (rattus rattus): infrapopulation differentiation at microspatial scale.the distribution of genetic diversity in a local population of the trematode schistosoma mansoni was determined within and between individual wild rats at a microspatial geographic scale of a standing water transmission site. using rapd markers, molecular variance and canonical correspondence analysis were performed to test the significance of genetic differentiation between infrapopulations. of total gene diversity, 8 and 11% was partitioned between hosts trapped at few metres distance from eac ...200111730788
rodents and their ectoparasites in wadi hanifah, riyadh city, saudi arabia.a survey was conducted on commercial and wild rodents from different locations in wadi hanifah in riyadh. six species of rodents were collected with wire net traps baited with fresh cucumber or fatty cheese. the trapped rodents in descending order of numbers were rattus rattus rattus, acomys dimidiatus, meriones libycus, r. r. frugivorus, r. r. alexandrinus and mus musculus. the ectoparasites were a flea, xenopsyllus sp. on r. r. frugivorus and a tick, rhipicephalus turanicus on each of a. dimid ...200111775100
effect of sex, size, and age of commensal rat hosts on the infestation parameters of their ectoparasites in a rural area of egypt.the present study was carried out in the bilbeis area, sharqiya governorate, egypt. a total of 127 male and 115 female black rats rattus rattus and 124 male and 153 female norway rats r. norvegicus was collected during the study period. a total of 20,643 and 40,997 ectoparasites was recovered from r. rattus and r. norvegicus, respectively. three common mite species were recovered from both rat hosts: ornithonyssus bacoti, radfordia ensifera, and laelaps nuttalli. three common flea species were a ...200111780814
host associations of ticks parasitizing rodents at borrelia burgdorferi enzootic sites in south carolina.a total of 237 rodents was collected in 4 regions of south carolina from july 1994 through december 1995. eight species were collected, including cotton mouse, hispid cotton rat, eastern woodrat, marsh rice rat, white-footed mouse, eastern harvest mouse, golden mouse, and black rat. of the 1,514 ticks recovered from these hosts, ixodes minor neumann, including larvae, nymphs, and adults, was the most abundant species, representing 54% of the total. only immature stages of other tick species were ...200111780825
helminths from introduced small mammals on kerguelen, crozet, and amsterdam islands (southern indian ocean).four monoxenous nematodes and 1 heteroxenous cestode were found in 4 species of introduced small mammals on isolated sub-antarctic islands of the indian ocean. in the kerguelen archipelago, syphacia obvelata, passalurus ambiguus (nematoda: oxyuridae), and rodentolepis straminea (cestoda: cyclophyllidae) were respectively found in the house mouse mus musculus, the rabbit oryctolagus cuniculus, and the black rat rattus rattus. one accidental nematode, trichostrongylus sp. (nematoda: trichostrongyl ...200111695402
short report: thai tick typhus, rickettsia honei, and a unique rickettsia detected in ixodes granulatus (ixodidae: acari) from thailand.a unique rickettsia species (rickettsia thailandii sp. nov.) was identified in an ixodes granulatus by use of polymerase chain reaction heteroduplex mobility assay by use of segments of the citrate synthase gene. this tick was collected from rattus rattus from nakhon ratchasima province in 1970. another i. granulatus was infected with thai tick typhus strain tt-118, rickettsia honei sp. nov. stenos, roux, walker & raoult; this tick was removed from a r. rattus collected 4 years later from the sa ...200111716110
comparison of salmonella isolation rates in different types of egg-layer hen houses in chiba, japan.this study investigated the differences in salmonella isolation rates in environmental samples taken from several types of hen houses in chiba, japan. in addition, for the detailed epidemiologic survey, environmental samples, hens, and rodents were collected from salmonella-contaminated windowless houses on three farms. as a result, salmonella was isolated from four (80%) of five farms with windowless hen houses; salmonella enteritidis was isolated from a single windowless house. in contrast, on ...200111332483
[surveillance of plague in the state of ceará: 1990-1999].serological surveillance activities regarding the foci of plague in ceará state have detected a rising number of sentinel animals with antiplague antibodies in 1995, with a peak in 1997 demonstrating an increase in the plague bacteria activities throughout all the foci investigated. from a total of 110,725 serum samples collected from rodents (7,873) and domestic carnivores (102,852) analyzed by the hemaglutination technique (ha) for antibodies against f1 antigen of yersinia pestis 905 samples t ...200212011922
cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus) and black rats (rattus rattus) as possible reservoirs of leishmania spp. in lara state, venezuela.a total of 519 wild animals belonging to eleven species were collected during a two year study in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in venezuela (la matica, lara state). the animals were captured in home-made tomahawk-like traps baited with maize, bananas or other available local fruits, and parasites were isolated from 27 specimens. two different species were found naturally infected with flagellates, i.e., cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus) and black rats (rattus rattus). characterization of ...200212016437
patterns in size and shedding of fasciola hepatica eggs by naturally and experimentally infected murid rodents.using samples collected on the island of corsica, a comparative study was done of the morphometry of fasciola hepatica eggs shed by cattle and by naturally and experimentally infected murid rodents (wild mus musculus and rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus wistar laboratory strain). eggs shed by murids are smaller in size than those shed by naturally infected cattle. a second study analyzed the number of f. hepatica eggs shed in murid feces at different time intervals, i.e., months, days, and 6- ...200212054003
sex-specific genetic structure in schistosoma mansoni: evolutionary and epidemiological implications.we studied the population genetic structure of 360 and 1247 adult schistosoma mansoni using seven microsatellite and seven random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers, respectively. parasites were collected from their natural definitive host rattus rattus in guadeloupe (west indies). we found a sex-specific genetic structure, a pattern never before reported in a parasitic organism. male genotypes were more randomly distributed among rats than female genotypes. this interpretation was consist ...200212074730
composite cellular defence stratagem in the avian respiratory system: functional morphology of the free (surface) macrophages and specialized pulmonary epithelia.qualitative and quantitative attributes of the free respiratory macrophages (frms) of the lung--air sac systems of the domestic fowl (gallus gallus variant domesticus) and the muscovy duck (cairina moschata) were compared with those of the alveolar macrophages of the lung of the black rat (rattus rattus). the birds had significantly fewer frms compared to the rat. in the birds, the frms were found both in the lungs and in the air sacs. under similar experimental conditions, the most robust frms ...200212090396
independent integration of rodent identifier (id) elements into orthologous sites of some rt6 alleles of rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus.the two alleles of the rat t-cell differentiation alloantigen rt6 are highly divergent and their expression is distinctively regulated. while the majority of t cells of rt6a/rt6b heterozygous laboratory rats (rattus norvegicus) expresses both alleles, a subpopulation expresses only rt6b. to identify cis-regulatory elements that potentially control monoallelic expression, we compared the sequences of both alleles. a striking difference is the presence or absence of a rodent identifier (id) sequen ...200212187378
pcr identification of trypanosoma lewisi, a common parasite of laboratory rats.trypanosoma (herpetosoma) lewisi is a trypanosome of the sub-genus herpetosoma (stercoraria section), parasite of rats (rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus) transmitted by fleas. t. lewisi has a stringent species specificity and cannot grow in other rodents such as mice. rats are infected principally by oral route, through contamination by flea faeces or ingestion of fleas. trypanosoma lewisi infections in rat colonies can interfere with research protocols and fleas of wild rats are often the so ...200212234387
comparison of the endogenous ileal and faecal amino acid excretion in the dog (canis familiaris) and the rat (rattus rattus) determined under protein-free feeding and peptide alimentation.the aim of the study was to determine and compare the endogenous ileal excretions of nitrogen and amino acids under protein-free and peptide alimentation by the dog and rat. two diets were prepared, one that was devoid of protein and the other containing 23% enzyme hydrolysed casein. chromic oxide was included in the diets as an indigestible marker. a total of 10 mixed breed dogs were fed hourly either a protein-free or enzymatically hydrolysed casein diet for a total of 10 days. a faecal sample ...200212452975
evidence that rodents are a reservoir of hepatitis e virus for humans in nepal.hepatitis e virus (hev) is an important cause of enterically transmitted hepatitis in developing countries. sporadic autochthonous cases of hepatitis e have been reported recently in the united states and other industrialized countries. the source of hev infection in these cases is unknown; zoonotic transmission has been suggested. antibodies to hev have been detected in many animals in areas where hev is endemic and in domestic swine and rats in the united states. there is evidence supporting h ...200212454141
antifertility effects of methylmethane sulphonate on male reproductive organs of wild indian house rat: histological and histochemical study the effects of methylmethane sulphonate (ch3oso2ch3), on the testicular tissue of the adult wild indian house rat (rattus rattus).200212463968
black rat ( rattus rattus) genomic variability characterized by chromosome rats are of outstanding interest in parasitology and infective disease analysis. we used chromosome paints from both the mouse ( mus musculus) and the norway rat ( rattus norvegicus) to characterize the genome of two black rat subspecies from italy. both subspecies have two large metacentrics (n. 1, 4) not present in the norway rat (2n = 42). rattus rattus rattus has a diploid number of 2n = 38, while rattus rattus frugivorous has two small metacentric "supernumerary" or b chromosomes for ...200211919687
prevention of homocysteine thiolactone induced atherogenesis in rats.thioretinamide was conjugated to coenzyme b12 to produce thioretinaco. thioretinamide, thioretinaco, and coenzyme b12 were injected weekly into rattus rattus that were also given atherogenic doses of homocysteine thiolactone. the presence or absence of lesions in aorta-intercostal artery junctions was examined. control rats injected with homocysteine thiolactone (con-hcy) had 56.6 +/- 5.8% lesions when compared to 34.8 +/- 3.4% in control rats injected with saline (con-sal). rats that received h ...200215244035
[rats and dogs: important vectors of leptospirosis in agricultural areas in cuidad guzmán, jalisco].a study was conducted to determine how important rats and dogs are in the dissemination of leptospirosis in farms and stales located in ciudad guzmán, jalisco. thirteen of leptospira interrograns serovarieties were used in microagglutination test of serogroups (mat). three hundred and fifty four rats (rattus rattus and rattus norvergicus) trapped in agricultural areas of the place were studied; 22 were positive (6,2%) and 34 suspected of leptospirosis (9,6%). also four hundred and nineteen dogs ...200215846935
bioassay of three sulphur containing compounds as rat attractant admixed in cereal-based bait against rattus rattus linn.three sulphur containing compounds, carbon disulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl sulphide were bioassayed for preference after admixing them in cereal base as ready bait block for use against commensal rat, r. rattus (wild type) in four way choice chamber system. rat preference for different baits was also studied with automatic recording animal activity meter. rats exhibited attractancy to the baits at 0.005% concentration of all the three compounds while at 0.01% concentration they have ...200212597027
hematology and serum biochemistry values of dusky-footed wood rat (neotoma fuscipes).serum chemistry values and complete blood counts were determined for 36 wild dusky-footed wood rats (neotoma fuscipes) from sonoma and western yolo county, california (usa) in summer 1999 and spring 2001. all wood rats had adequate body condition and were hydrated. many hematologic and biochemical values were comparable to those for house rat (rattus rattus). there were differences between wood rats tested immediately after capture (those from yolo county) and after a week of habituation in the ...200212238375
schistosoma ovuncatum n. sp. (digenea: schistosomatidae) from northwest thailand and the historical biogeography of southeast asian schistosoma weinland, 1858.schistosoma sinensium bao, 1958 was first isolated from an unidentified snail in sichuan province, pr china. this species was apparently rediscovered in chiang mai province, northwest thailand (baidikul et al., 1984); the definitive host was the rat rattus rattus and the intermediate host was the snail tricula bollingi. in this paper s. sinensium is rediscovered in sichuan province and compared with worms recovered from experimentally infected mice, which had been exposed to cercariae shed by t. ...200211721191
host location, survival and fecundity of the oriental rat flea xenopsylla cheopis (siphonaptera: pulicidae) in relation to black rat rattus rattus (rodentia: muridae) host age and choice and fecundity are two factors that may contribute to the variation in flea counts observed when assessing the potential risk of flea-borne transmission of pathogens from rodents to humans. using the black rat, rattus rattus linnaeus, as host the effects of age and sex on host choice and fecundity of the oriental rat flea, xenopsylla cheopis rothschild, were examined experimentally at 25 degrees c and 80% rh. during the first two days of emergence from cocoons, female fleas dominated ...200212241563
some field and laboratory studies on rattus rattus subspecies and rattus norvegicus in two egyptian governorates of different ecological characters.both damietta and qualyobia governorates were examined for the seasonal activities of rattus species and subspecies and their natural infection with trypanosoma lewisi. the common domestic rodents identified were rattus r. alexandrinus, r. r. frugivorus and rattus norvegicus. they were common all the year round except in winter for r. norvegicus in damietta. gravid females of the three rodent species, were identified in damietta in summer, in addition to autumn for r. norvegicus only. in qualyob ...200212512813
the potential role of rattus rattus in enzootic cycle of rift valley fever in egypt 2-application of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) in blood samples of rattus rattus.a reverse transcriptase -polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was applied to detect rift valley fever virus (rvf-v) in blood samples of rattus rattus (r. rattus) collected from 3 different governorates of egypt, alexandria, behira and minia governorates (one hundred each). out of 300 blood samples 29(9.67%) were positive for rvf-virus by rt-pcr with higher percent in behira governorate rural areas (16%), followed by minia governorate rural areas (13.85%) while the lowest percent was in alexandria ...200217219894
gene arrays and temporal patterns of drug response: corticosteroid effects on rat was hypothesized that expression profiling using gene arrays can be used to distinguish temporal patterns of changes in gene expression in response to a drug in vivo, and that these patterns can be used to identify groups of genes regulated by common mechanisms. a corticosteroid, methylprednisolone (mpl), was administered intravenously to a group of 47 rats ( rattus rattus) that were sacrificed at 17 timepoints over 72 h after mpl administration. plasma drug concentrations and hepatic glucoco ...200312928814
prevalence of antibodies to leptospira serovars in rodents and shrews trapped in low and high endemic areas in investigate the prevalence of antibodies to leptospira serovars in rodents and shrews trapped in urban and rural areas in low and high endemic areas in thailand.200312678151
leishmania tropica in the black rat (rattus rattus): persistence and transmission from asymptomatic host to sand fly vector phlebotomus rats (rattus rattus) receiving leishmania tropica injected intradermally into the ear were studied for the persistence of parasites and infectivity to natural sand fly vector. the mammalian host, the parasite, and the vector all originated from the endemic focus of urfa, turkey. rats did not develop lesions or any apparent signs of disease, although at the site of inoculation they harboured live parasites capable of infecting sand flies. the number of l. tropica amastigotes detected in the ...200312737990
wild and synanthropic hosts of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis in the endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis locality of amaraji, pernambuco state, brazil.evidence of leishmania infection was found in small mammals captured between 1996 and 2000 in the amaraji region, pernambuco state, brazil. the kdna polymerase chain reaction (pcr), using primers specific for subgenus l. (viannia), was positive for 43/153 water rats (nectomys squamipes), 13/81 black rats (rattus rattus), 15/103 grass mice (bolomys lasiurus), 1/14 marsh mice (holochilus scieurus), 2/50 field mice (akodon arviculoides), 2/12 woolly opossums (marmosa sp.), and 5/37 common opossums ...200315228244
volumetric and ionic responses of goldfish hepatocytes to anisotonic exposure and energetic limitation.the relationship between cell volume and k(+) transmembrane fluxes of goldfish (carassius auratus) hepatocytes exposed to anisotonic conditions or energetic limitation was studied and compared with the response of hepatocytes from trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and rat (rattus rattus). cell volume was studied by video- and fluorescence microscopy, while k(+) fluxes were assessed by measuring unidirectional (86)rb(+) fluxes. in trout and rat hepatocytes, hyposmotic (180 mosmoll(-1)) exposure at ph 7 ...200312502772
[behavioral and physiological characteristics of nonagouti mutation in gray rats during selection for aggressiveness].the goal of this work was to find out to which degree the black coat color mutation nonagouti that appears in wild norway rat in the course of breeding for the maintenance and enhancement of aggressiveness towards a human affects selected and other behavioral traits as well as stress reactivity and brain neurochemistry. nonagouti rats displayed increased emotionality in the open-field and forced-swimming tests as compared to agouti animals, whereas there were no differences in anxiety estimated ...200314959487
rattus rattus: a new host for fascioliasis. 200314964674
occurrence of orientia tsutsugamushi in small mammals from thailand.extensive sampling of small mammals was conducted in eight provinces of thailand between september 9, 1992 and april 29, 2001. a total of 3,498 specimens representing 22 species were collected. eighty-eight percent (3,089 of 3,498) of the animals were collected from a region in chiangrai province, which is commonly recognized as endemic for human scrub typhus. blood and tissue samples from each animal were tested for the presence of orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiologic agent of scrub typhus. th ...200314695089
prevalence of rabies virus and hantaan virus infections in commensal rodents and shrews trapped in bangkok.five hundred rodents and shrews (rattus norvegicus: 458, rattus rattus: 28, rattus exulans: 5, mus musculus: 4 and suncus murine: 5) trapped from the fresh food markets around bangkok area were investigated for rabies virus and hantaan virus infections. no rabies viral antigens in the animals' brains were detected by direct immunofluorescence. on the other hand, antibodies to hantaan virus were demonstrated in the sera of 7 (1.53%) r. norvegicus caught in various markets using a particle aggluti ...200314696782
contribution of collagen stable isotope biogeochemistry to the paleobiology of extinct endemic vertebrates from tenerife (canary islands, spain).the paleodiet and paleoenvironmental context of two extinct species from tenerife island, one giant rat canariomys bravoi and one giant lizard gallotia goliath, have been investigated using carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of fossil bone collagen. preliminary to this study, a calibration of the isotopic variations of bone collagen from modern rat rattus rattus, rabbit oryctolagus cuniculus and lizard gallotia galotti relative to environmental conditions on tenerife islands has been atte ...200314521281
leptospiral carrier state and seroprevalence among animal population--a cross-sectional sample survey in andaman and nicobar islands.a study was conducted with the objective of assessing the leptospiral carrier state and seroprevalence among animal population of andaman and nicobar islands. a total of 494 sera samples from different domestic animals and 85 samples from rats (rattus rattus) were tested by microscopic agglutination test using nine serogroups prevalent in these islands. antibodies to leptospires were detected in 164 samples giving an overall seroprevalence of (33.11%). the seroprevalence was highest among cows ( ...200314596541
short report: serodiagnosis of plague in humans and rats using a rapid test.serodiagnosis of plague is very useful for its retrospective confirmation and for epidemiologic studies in humans and in rodents, since rats constitute the main natural reservoir of yersinia pestis. we have developed a rapid test for the detection of igg antibodies to fraction 1 (f1) based on immunochromatography and protein a to detect both human and rat igg. when tested with reference human sera (35 positive and 37 negative), this assay showed a sensitivity of 94.3% and a specificity of 89.2%. ...200314640508
scrub typhus: vector competence of leptotrombidium chiangraiensis chiggers and transmission efficacy and isolation of orientia tsutsugamushi.a total of 4,281 rodents, belonging to 20 species, was collected from three villages in chiangrai province, northern thailand, from january 1994 to december 2001. the predominant species were rattus rattus, r. losea and bandicota indica, accounting for 96% of the total. more than 135,000 chigger mites were removed from wild rodents of which 1% were identified as leptotrombidium chiangraiensis, a new species vector of scrub typhus. five orientia tsutsugamushi-infected l. chiangraiensis colonies e ...200312860596
rickettsia honei: a spotted fever group rickettsia on three continents.rickettsia honei (also known as strain tt-118) has been detected on three continents. originally isolated in thailand in 1962 (and confirmed in 2001), it has also been detected on flinders island (australia) in 1993 and in texas (usa) in 1998. on each continent it has been associated with a different species of tick. the original isolate (thai tick typhus strain tt-118) was from a pool of larval ixodes and rhipicephalus ticks. later it was detected in i. granulatus from rattus rattus. its pathog ...200312860601
short report: distribution and feeding preference of the sand flies phlebotomus sergenti and p. papatasi in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in sanliurfa, turkey.sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) and rodents were collected in the endemic focus of urban cutaneous leishmaniasis in sanliurfa, turkey. phlebotomus sergenti and p. papatasi represented 99% of the sand fly population. these flies were trapped in highest numbers in animal sheds, followed by cellars. however, p. sergenti was relatively more abundant in rooms. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the gut contents from blood-fed females detected immunoglobulins specific to birds and mammals, sugg ...200312556140
western blotting using strongyloides ratti antigen for the detection of igg antibodies as confirmatory test in human strongyloidiasis.the present study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of antigenic components recognized by serum igg antibodies in western blotting (wb) using a strongyloides ratti larval extract for the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. in addition, the wb results were compared to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat) results. serum samples of 180 individuals were analyzed (80 with strongyloidiasis, 60 with other intestinal parasitoses, a ...200312973538
possible role of an animal vector in the sars outbreak at amoy gardens.a mass outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) in the amoy gardens housing complex in hong kong at the end of march, 2003, affected more than 300 residents in less than a month, and has epidemiologists all over the world puzzled about the mode of transmission of this new disease, which until then was thought to be transmitted solely by respiratory droplets. the source of the outbreak was later traced to an individual with sars who spent two nights at amoy gardens. official explanati ...200312932393
evidence for widespread infection of hepatitis e virus among wild rats in japan.sporadic cases of hepatitis e have been reported in industrialized countries, including japan. the source of hepatitis e virus (hev) in these patients is unknown, although zoonotic transmission has been suggested. to investigate whether or not rodents might be a reservoir of hev, we conducted an epidemiological survey for the antibody to a recombinant capsid protein of hev using serum samples from wild rodents in japan. one hundred and fourteen of 362 (31.5%) norway rats (rattus norvegicus) and ...200312957199
seroprevalence of rickettsial infection in commensal rodents and shrews trapped in the bangkok metropolitan area.murine typhus and scrub typhus are important human rickettsial diseases in thailand. small mammals, including many species of rodents and shrews, serve as the reservoir host of rickettsial diseases. rickettsia typhi can be transmitted to humans by fleas causing murine typhus, while infection with orientia tsutsugamushi causing scrub typhus in humans is transmitted by chiggers. the prevalence of rickettsial infection depends on the geographic area. the seroprevalence of antibody to r. typhi and o ...200312924799
observations of breinlia booliati in a new host, rattus rattus jalorensis, from kuantan, state of pahang, malaysia.breinlia booliati singh and ho, 1973 is described from the malaysian wood rat, rattus rattus jalorensis bonhote. the parasites presented here were originally discovered in 1955 in kuantan, malaysia, but were not classified until now. on the basis of morphological observations of anatomical structures and comparisons with other species of breinlia, it was determined that the parasites were b. booliati. the parasites discussed here show slight deviation from b. booliati, but they do not warrant a ...200314740913
rickettsia typhi infection in wild rodents from central spain.when sera from 218 rodents captured in two provinces of central spain were tested, by indirect immunofluorescence, for antibodies to rickettsia typhi, 46 (21.1%) were found to be positive, at titres between 1:20 and 1:320. the seropositives included rodents of each of the five species collected: mus musculus, mus spretus, apodemus sylvaticus, rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus. rickettsia typhi infection appears to be common and widespread among the rodents of central spain.200312831526
characterization of a novel rat cytomegalovirus (rcmv) infecting placenta-uterus of rattus rattus diardii.a new rat cytomegalovirus (rcmv) isolated from the placenta/uterus of a house rat (rattus rattus diardii) was found to productively infect rat embryo fibroblast (ref) cells. the virus produced typical herpesvirus-like cytopathic effects characterized by a lytic infection. the well-known herpesvirus morphology was confirmed by electron microscopy. its slow growth in cell culture indicated that the virus is belonging to subfamily betaherpesvirinae. electron microscopy techniques and immunohistoche ...200314648291
evidence of the presence of seoul virus in cambodia.a study was conducted in agricultural and urban areas in cambodia to assess the presence of hantaviruses in rodent populations. in 1998, rodents were trapped in two villages and in phnom penh city around market places and a rubbish dump. igg antibodies to hantaan virus were detected in 54 (8.2%) rodents among 660 tested: 6.4% (13/203) among roof rats (rattus rattus), 20.9% (39/187) among norway rats (r. norvegicus), 16.7% (2/12) among unidentified rattus species and none in 183 polynesian rats ( ...200312850202
rabies in mongooses and domestic rats in the southern province of sri determine the prevalence of rabies in free roaming mongooses and domestic rats in the southern province of sri lanka, and determine the different species of mongooses and domestic rats that could be reservoirs of rabies infection.200312971207
associations between leptospiral infection and seropositivity in rodents and environmental characteristics in argentina.our objective was to look for associations between leptospiral infection in rodents and selected environmental and rodent characteristics in santa fe, argentina. rodents (n = 214) were trapped alive from january 1998 to december 1999 in three environmental settings. kidneys from 118 rodents were cultured and serum samples from 201 were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). logistic regression was performed with elisa seropositivity as the dependent variable and rodent character ...200312900160
surveillance of commensal rat and shrew populations in the bangkok area with references to flea index as the risk indicator of plague.commensal rats and shrews were trapped from 47 fresh food markets in bangkok during the two study periods in the same markets: 21st june to 28th december 1999 and 1st march to 31st may 2000. trapping was performed using wire live traps on three consecutive nights in each period. the trapped animals were identified for taxonomic species and flea infestation. fleas were collected, identified and counted. four species of rodents: rattus norvegicus, rattus rattus, rattus exulans and mus musculus, an ...200314649963
molecular ecology of schistosoma mansoni transmission inferred from the genetic composition of larval and adult infrapopulations within intermediate and definitive hosts.we investigated the genotypic composition of the digenetic parasite schistosoma mansoni for its adult stages within the definitive host (the wild rat, rattus rattus) and for the larval stages within the intermediate host (the snail, biomphalaria glabrata) both collected at the same transmission site. our analyses are based upon the recognition and distribution of 200 different multilocus genotypes generated by rapd markers. while intramolluscan larval infrapopulations are characterized by a low ...200415552402
the animal reservoir of tunga penetrans in severely affected communities of north-east brazil.tungiasis is a zoonotic ectoparasitosis caused by the sand flea tunga penetrans l. (siphonaptera: tungidae). this disease is hyperendemic in poor communities of north-east brazil, causing considerable morbidity in affected human populations, but the animal reservoirs have not been investigated previously in brazil. to assess the prevalence and intensity of t. penetrans infection in domestic and peri-domestic animals, as well as in the human population, we surveyed two typical communities of nort ...200415641998
striped mice, rhabdomys pumilio, and other murid rodents as hosts for immature ixodid ticks as in the eastern cape province.striped mice, rhabdomys pumilio, were trapped over a period of 17 months in the thomas baines nature reserve, and placed in cages, over water, until all the ticks they harboured had detached. the mice were then returned to the reserve. four ixodid tick species were recovered from the mice of which the larvae and nymphs of rhipicephalus follis and rhipicephalus simus were the most numerous. most larvae of r. follis detached from mice trapped from march to july, and most nymphs in march and from j ...200415732458
absence of detectable salmonella cloacal shedding in free-living reptiles on admission to the wildlife center of virginia.salmonellosis is an important reptile-associated zoonotic infection in the united states. cloacal swabs were collected from reptiles admitted to the wildlife center of virginia, waynesboro, virginia, cultured for salmonella using hektoen and xylose lysine deoxycholate agars, and inoculated in selenite broth. all three were incubated at 37 degrees c for 18-24 hr. seventy-five animals were included in the study, representing eight species, 34 eastern box turtles (terrapene carolina carolina), 14 e ...200415732603
isoenzymatic polymorphism of leishmania infantum in southern spain.over a period of more than 10 years we have isolated and classified 161 leishmania strains from cases of human visceral, cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in immunocompetent subjects, from cases of visceral leishmaniasis in immunocompromised individuals with hiv, from dogs with leishmaniasis (visceral and cutaneous), from rattus rattus and from sandflies. the strains were all l. infantum, the only species endemic in spain, and corresponded to 20 different zymodemes. we describe the life cycle ...200415049461
concentrations of copper, iron, and zinc in the major organs of the wistar albino and wild black rats: a comparative study.the concentrations of copper, iron, and zinc in the major organs of wistar albino (rattus norvegicus) and wild black rats (rattus rattus) were measured by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy. the copper levels in the kidneys and liver of the wistar albino rats (wars) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the wild black rats (wbrs). there were no significant differences in the concentrations of zinc in the liver, lungs, kidneys, and brain between the two study groups, but zinc was signif ...200415131322
quick control of bubonic plague outbreak in uttar kashi, india.a localized outbreak of bubonic plague occurred in village dangud (population 332), district uttar kashi, uttaranchal, india in the second week of october 2004. 8 cases were considered outbreak associated based on their clinical and epidemiological characteristics; 3 (27.3%) of them died within 48 hours of developing illness. all the 3 fatal cases and five surviving cases had enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes. none of them had pneumonia. the age of the cases ranged from 23-70 years and both se ...200416506545
outbreak investigation of scrub typhus in himachal pradesh (india).scrub typhus outbreak investigation was undertaken during september 2003 in the three worst affected districts shimla, solan and sirmaur in himachal pradesh (india). a total of 113 cases and 19 deaths (17.27 percent case fatality rate) were reported from the eight districts, which were reporting cases. cases were prevalent in all age groups and in both the sexes among the persons frequenting forest for occupational work. 35.7 percent of the patients serum samples showed a titer of > 1: 80 agains ...200416506551
transmission analysis of b chromosomes in rattus rattus from northern africa.traditionally, b chromosomes have been classified as parasitic or heterotic, depending of whether or not they show selfish behaviour. nevertheless, experimental evidence has been found supporting the idea that supernumerary chromosomes may evolve from parasitism to neutrality. in this work, b chromosome transmission in rattus rattus has been analysed by performing several crosses between individuals carrying different numbers of supernumerary chromosomes. our results demonstrated a mendelian tra ...200415292614
predicting mammalian sine subfamily activity from a-tail length.based on previous observations that newly inserted lines and sines have particularly long 3' a-tails, which shorten rapidly during evolutionary time, we have analyzed the rat and mouse genomes for evidence of recently inserted sines and lines. we find that the youngest predicted subfamilies of rodent identifier (id) elements, a rodent-specific sine derived from trna(ala), are preferentially associated with a-tails over 50 bases in the rat genome, as predicted. furthermore, these studies detected ...200415297600
seoul hantavirus in europe: first demonstration of the virus genome in wild rattus norvegicus captured in france.although rats (rattus rattus or rattus norvegicus) worldwide have been found to carry seoul hantavirus, there are at present only a very few reports of confirmed human seoul hantavirus infections outside asia, where the virus, in certain areas, is responsible for approximately 25% of the human hantavirus infections. in europe, no confirmed human infections outside laboratories have been described, and although rats occasionally have been found to be antibody positive, the viral genome has not be ...200415322934
[description of three new species of paractenopsyllus genus (siphonaptera: leptopsyllinae) from madagascar].the males of three new and rare species of the malagasy endemic genus paractenopsyllus wagner, 1938 are described. paractenopsyllus beaucournui, p. oconnori and p. raxworthyi have been collected on endemic small mammals and the black rat. as for others species of the genus, biotopes are rain-forests of the central highlands or the northern mountains of madagascar. two of the described species were collected at elevations lower than typical for the genus and below the limits of the highland biocl ...200415490748
identification of glandular (preputial and clitoral) proteins in house rat (rattus rattus) involved in pheromonal communication.proteins (18-20 kda) belonging to lipocalin family have been reported to act as carriers for ligands binding to pheromones in mouse urine, pig saliva, hamster vaginal fluid and human sweat, that are involved in pheromonal communication. as the preputial gland is a major pheromonal source, the present study was aimed to detect the specific protein bands (around 18-20 kda) in the preputial and clitoral glands of the house rat, r. rattus. the amount of protein was higher in preputial gland of the m ...200415511012
isolates of cytomegalovirus (cmv) from the black rat rattus rattus form a distinct group of rat cmv.two different betaherpesviruses, the english and maastricht species of rat cytomegalovirus (cmv), have previously been isolated from rattus norvegicus. cmvs were isolated from both the brown rat, r. norvegicus, and the black rat, r. rattus, within australia. the viruses isolated from r. norvegicus appeared to be genetically related to the english species of rat cmv by pcr, rflp, and sequencing, but the viruses isolated from r. rattus were distinct from both prototype virus species, although more ...200415105548
leptopsyllines from madagascar (insecta: siphonaptera: ceratophyllidae): description of five new species of paractenopsyllus wagner, 1938.five new species of the malagasy endemic genus paractenopsyllus wagner, 1938, are described. paractenopsyllus rouxi, p. ratovonjatoi, p. duplantieri, p. juliamarinus and p. gemelli have been collected on endemic small mammals and the black rat. biotopes are mid-elevation rain-forests of the central highlands or the northern mountains of madagascar. morphological affinities between these new species and those already known provide taxonomic links within the genus. differences in the spatial and a ...200415071828
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