leishmania tropica in the black rat (rattus rattus): persistence and transmission from asymptomatic host to sand fly vector phlebotomus rats (rattus rattus) receiving leishmania tropica injected intradermally into the ear were studied for the persistence of parasites and infectivity to natural sand fly vector. the mammalian host, the parasite, and the vector all originated from the endemic focus of urfa, turkey. rats did not develop lesions or any apparent signs of disease, although at the site of inoculation they harboured live parasites capable of infecting sand flies. the number of l. tropica amastigotes detected in the ...200312737990
rickettsia typhi infection in wild rodents from central spain.when sera from 218 rodents captured in two provinces of central spain were tested, by indirect immunofluorescence, for antibodies to rickettsia typhi, 46 (21.1%) were found to be positive, at titres between 1:20 and 1:320. the seropositives included rodents of each of the five species collected: mus musculus, mus spretus, apodemus sylvaticus, rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus. rickettsia typhi infection appears to be common and widespread among the rodents of central spain.200312831526
evidence of the presence of seoul virus in cambodia.a study was conducted in agricultural and urban areas in cambodia to assess the presence of hantaviruses in rodent populations. in 1998, rodents were trapped in two villages and in phnom penh city around market places and a rubbish dump. igg antibodies to hantaan virus were detected in 54 (8.2%) rodents among 660 tested: 6.4% (13/203) among roof rats (rattus rattus), 20.9% (39/187) among norway rats (r. norvegicus), 16.7% (2/12) among unidentified rattus species and none in 183 polynesian rats ( ...200312850202
scrub typhus: vector competence of leptotrombidium chiangraiensis chiggers and transmission efficacy and isolation of orientia tsutsugamushi.a total of 4,281 rodents, belonging to 20 species, was collected from three villages in chiangrai province, northern thailand, from january 1994 to december 2001. the predominant species were rattus rattus, r. losea and bandicota indica, accounting for 96% of the total. more than 135,000 chigger mites were removed from wild rodents of which 1% were identified as leptotrombidium chiangraiensis, a new species vector of scrub typhus. five orientia tsutsugamushi-infected l. chiangraiensis colonies e ...200312860596
rickettsia honei: a spotted fever group rickettsia on three continents.rickettsia honei (also known as strain tt-118) has been detected on three continents. originally isolated in thailand in 1962 (and confirmed in 2001), it has also been detected on flinders island (australia) in 1993 and in texas (usa) in 1998. on each continent it has been associated with a different species of tick. the original isolate (thai tick typhus strain tt-118) was from a pool of larval ixodes and rhipicephalus ticks. later it was detected in i. granulatus from rattus rattus. its pathog ...200312860601
[experimental and epidemiological studies on the life cycle of echinostoma hortense asada, 1926 (trematoda: echinostomatidae)]recently there have been some reports on human infections of echinostoma hortense in korea. it was found that a few species of freshwater fishes were playing the role of the second intermediate host of e. hortense. however, molluscan intermediate host has not been identified yet in korea. the present study aimed to establish the life cycle of e. hortense in laboratory. experimental studies such as egg production from the rat, development of the eggs in vitro, exposure of miracidia to freshwater ...198612886089
associations between leptospiral infection and seropositivity in rodents and environmental characteristics in argentina.our objective was to look for associations between leptospiral infection in rodents and selected environmental and rodent characteristics in santa fe, argentina. rodents (n = 214) were trapped alive from january 1998 to december 1999 in three environmental settings. kidneys from 118 rodents were cultured and serum samples from 201 were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). logistic regression was performed with elisa seropositivity as the dependent variable and rodent character ...200312900160
studies on parasitic helminths of korea 5.survey on intestinal trematodes of house rats.a study was carried out to evaluate the house rats in southern korea as reservoir host of intestinal trematodes, in 13 different areas: 7 in inland and 6 in brackish-water zones, during the period from august 1980 to august 1981. a total of 170 house rats was captured; 101 rats from inland and 69 from brackish-water zones. they consisted of 129 rattus norvegicus, 22 r. rattus rufescens, and 19 unidentified. the infection status of the rats were as follows: 1. total 29 rats (17.1%) were infected ...198112902707
[prevalence of capillaria hepatica among house rat in seoul]during may-july, 1978 a survey on the prevalence of c. hepatica among house rat(rattus norvegicus erxl.) and wild mice (mus musailus molossinus and microtus mandarinus) in two districts in seoul was carried out. approximately 38% of 1,000 house rats examined were infected. rat population as an established group in ahyundong, neighbouring the city, revealed 39.2% of infection among 660 house rats, and that as newly formed group in shinrimdong, a developing residential quarter on the southern outs ...197912902748
[studies on the incidence of the intestinal protopozoa in the mountainous area of chollapuk-do]this study was undertaken in order to elucidate the prevalences of the intestinal protozoan infection according to localities and the mode of the infestation in the mountainous area of chollapuk-do, korea during the year 1970-1971. 8,508 of fecal samples were collected among the inhabitants of the mountainous area, which covered 18 myens(=township) from 6 guns(=county) in the eastern part of chollapuk-do. most of the inhabitants of this area were engaged in farming and living under lower economi ...197212913506
studies on the parasitic helminths of korea: ii. parasites of the rat, rattus norvegicus erxl. in seoul, with the description of capillaria hepatica(bancroft, 1893) travassos, (1915).an investigation of the helminth parasites of house rat r. norvegicus erxl. in seoul has been carried on four years. a total of 325 rat was examined. ten species of helminths were considered, of which 4 species were recored for the first time from korea. the adult worm of capillaria hepatica, the most common parasite of house rats in seoul, was observed experimentally, and provided a more complete description of this worm.196412913610
[the experimental studies on capillaria hepatica]capillaria hepatica is an extremely common parasite of rats. several human cases have also been reported from various parts of the world and recently these aroused the clinical interests. the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological observations of c. hepatica and the changes occurring in blood picture and serum protein in the experimentally infected hosts. the source of c. hepatica obtained from the deposit of non-embryonated eggs encapsulated in the liver of house rats(rattus ...196412913611
seroprevalence of rickettsial infection in commensal rodents and shrews trapped in the bangkok metropolitan area.murine typhus and scrub typhus are important human rickettsial diseases in thailand. small mammals, including many species of rodents and shrews, serve as the reservoir host of rickettsial diseases. rickettsia typhi can be transmitted to humans by fleas causing murine typhus, while infection with orientia tsutsugamushi causing scrub typhus in humans is transmitted by chiggers. the prevalence of rickettsial infection depends on the geographic area. the seroprevalence of antibody to r. typhi and o ...200312924799
gene arrays and temporal patterns of drug response: corticosteroid effects on rat was hypothesized that expression profiling using gene arrays can be used to distinguish temporal patterns of changes in gene expression in response to a drug in vivo, and that these patterns can be used to identify groups of genes regulated by common mechanisms. a corticosteroid, methylprednisolone (mpl), was administered intravenously to a group of 47 rats ( rattus rattus) that were sacrificed at 17 timepoints over 72 h after mpl administration. plasma drug concentrations and hepatic glucoco ...200312928814
possible role of an animal vector in the sars outbreak at amoy gardens.a mass outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) in the amoy gardens housing complex in hong kong at the end of march, 2003, affected more than 300 residents in less than a month, and has epidemiologists all over the world puzzled about the mode of transmission of this new disease, which until then was thought to be transmitted solely by respiratory droplets. the source of the outbreak was later traced to an individual with sars who spent two nights at amoy gardens. official explanati ...200312932393
evidence for widespread infection of hepatitis e virus among wild rats in japan.sporadic cases of hepatitis e have been reported in industrialized countries, including japan. the source of hepatitis e virus (hev) in these patients is unknown, although zoonotic transmission has been suggested. to investigate whether or not rodents might be a reservoir of hev, we conducted an epidemiological survey for the antibody to a recombinant capsid protein of hev using serum samples from wild rodents in japan. one hundred and fourteen of 362 (31.5%) norway rats (rattus norvegicus) and ...200312957199
rabies in mongooses and domestic rats in the southern province of sri determine the prevalence of rabies in free roaming mongooses and domestic rats in the southern province of sri lanka, and determine the different species of mongooses and domestic rats that could be reservoirs of rabies infection.200312971207
western blotting using strongyloides ratti antigen for the detection of igg antibodies as confirmatory test in human strongyloidiasis.the present study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of antigenic components recognized by serum igg antibodies in western blotting (wb) using a strongyloides ratti larval extract for the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. in addition, the wb results were compared to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat) results. serum samples of 180 individuals were analyzed (80 with strongyloidiasis, 60 with other intestinal parasitoses, a ...200312973538
plague in africa from 1935 to 1949; a survey of wild rodents in african territories.the history of plague in africa during the period 1935-49 is reviewed. much of the information derives from a questionnaire sent to all african territories in 1950. the annual incidence of plague in africa declined, particularly from 1946 onwards. in 1949, under 400 cases were reported, as compared with over 6,000 in 1935. by the end of 1949, plague was still active in the belgian congo, kenya and tanganyika, madagascar, and southern africa. no cases were reported from egypt, tunisia, algeria, m ...195313115987
note on natural parasitic infections found in rattus rattus of delhi municipal area. 195413210946
some cestodes of the rat, rattus rattus linnaeus, of ceylon and their epidemiological significance for man. 195413214908
analysis of populations of the roof rat in southwest georgia. 195513254982
wild-rodent-flea control in rural areas of an enzootic plague region in hawaii; a preliminary investigation of methods.preliminary field tests were carried out to develop methods for controlling fleas on wild rodents in the enzootic plague region of the island of hawaii. among several designs, a metal hood-type ddt bait-box was developed which was simple in design, low in cost, easy to transport to and maintain in the field, protected the insecticide from the elements, and attracted all species of field rats inhabiting a gulch in the hamakua district. these rats-rattus rattus (and its subspecies), r. norvegicus, ...195513260882
a new bursate nematode hepatojarakus malayae gen. et sp. nov. from the liver of rattus rattus jarak (bonhote) on pulau jarak, straits of malacca. 195513263558
[inhibition of the estrogenic action of vitamin k by an antimitotic; determination by vaginal smears in rattus rattus]. 195613328499
[experimental infection of the house rat (rattus rattus) by various schistosoma. ii]. 195513329717
role of wild rats and domestic rats (rattus rattus) in schistosomiasis of man. 195613337913
[trichinellosis in rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus]. 195713472753
on a new bursate nematode, longistriata kenyae sp. nov. from the house rat, rattus rattus kijabius in kenya and the erection of a new genus longistrioides. 195813575809
[studies on parasitic fauna in rat rattus (rattus) norvegicus erx. with special reference to carriage of hymenolepis nana and girdia intestinalis]. 195813604241
[spontaneous tumors of the cranial cavity and genital organs in sprague-dawley and bethesda-black rats]. 196013748926
paracrystalline haemoglobin as a species difference between rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus. 196113781942
plague infection in rattus rattus in san francisco. 196313962617
[studies on the distribution of melanoblasts in all-black rats and hooded rats]. 196114006116
plague infection in rattus rattus in san francisco. 196314031022
[comparative cardiac electrical activity in the black rat (rattus rattus) and in the white rat (rattus norvegicus)]. 196314092103
[reticular formation of the medulla oblongata in rats (rattus rattus albus)]. 196314167160
[reticular formation of the pons in rats (rattus rattus albus)]. 196314167161
[reticular formation of the mesencephalon in rats (rattus rattus albus)]. 196414224741
chromosomal polymorphism in rattus rattus (l.) collected in kusudomari and misima. 196514282198
[: (comparative stop-flow studies on the kidney with decreased and marked concentration capacity and an underdeveloped and well-developed henle's loop system--experiments on turkeys (meleagris pavo l.) and white rats (rattus rattus))]. 196514303704
[electron microscopic studies on synaptic formations in the cerebellar cortex of rattus rattus norvegicus, berkenhoot]. 196414317263
roof rats in southwest georgia. 195514371932
is the rat (rattus rattus) ever a permanent reservoir of plague? 195914400771
[strain of b, pseudotuberculosis rodentium pfeiffer isolated from the black rat (rattus rattus l.)]. 195914433935
contribution of collagen stable isotope biogeochemistry to the paleobiology of extinct endemic vertebrates from tenerife (canary islands, spain).the paleodiet and paleoenvironmental context of two extinct species from tenerife island, one giant rat canariomys bravoi and one giant lizard gallotia goliath, have been investigated using carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of fossil bone collagen. preliminary to this study, a calibration of the isotopic variations of bone collagen from modern rat rattus rattus, rabbit oryctolagus cuniculus and lizard gallotia galotti relative to environmental conditions on tenerife islands has been atte ...200314521281
leptospiral carrier state and seroprevalence among animal population--a cross-sectional sample survey in andaman and nicobar islands.a study was conducted with the objective of assessing the leptospiral carrier state and seroprevalence among animal population of andaman and nicobar islands. a total of 494 sera samples from different domestic animals and 85 samples from rats (rattus rattus) were tested by microscopic agglutination test using nine serogroups prevalent in these islands. antibodies to leptospires were detected in 164 samples giving an overall seroprevalence of (33.11%). the seroprevalence was highest among cows ( ...200314596541
short report: serodiagnosis of plague in humans and rats using a rapid test.serodiagnosis of plague is very useful for its retrospective confirmation and for epidemiologic studies in humans and in rodents, since rats constitute the main natural reservoir of yersinia pestis. we have developed a rapid test for the detection of igg antibodies to fraction 1 (f1) based on immunochromatography and protein a to detect both human and rat igg. when tested with reference human sera (35 positive and 37 negative), this assay showed a sensitivity of 94.3% and a specificity of 89.2%. ...200314640508
characterization of a novel rat cytomegalovirus (rcmv) infecting placenta-uterus of rattus rattus diardii.a new rat cytomegalovirus (rcmv) isolated from the placenta/uterus of a house rat (rattus rattus diardii) was found to productively infect rat embryo fibroblast (ref) cells. the virus produced typical herpesvirus-like cytopathic effects characterized by a lytic infection. the well-known herpesvirus morphology was confirmed by electron microscopy. its slow growth in cell culture indicated that the virus is belonging to subfamily betaherpesvirinae. electron microscopy techniques and immunohistoche ...200314648291
surveillance of commensal rat and shrew populations in the bangkok area with references to flea index as the risk indicator of plague.commensal rats and shrews were trapped from 47 fresh food markets in bangkok during the two study periods in the same markets: 21st june to 28th december 1999 and 1st march to 31st may 2000. trapping was performed using wire live traps on three consecutive nights in each period. the trapped animals were identified for taxonomic species and flea infestation. fleas were collected, identified and counted. four species of rodents: rattus norvegicus, rattus rattus, rattus exulans and mus musculus, an ...200314649963
occurrence of orientia tsutsugamushi in small mammals from thailand.extensive sampling of small mammals was conducted in eight provinces of thailand between september 9, 1992 and april 29, 2001. a total of 3,498 specimens representing 22 species were collected. eighty-eight percent (3,089 of 3,498) of the animals were collected from a region in chiangrai province, which is commonly recognized as endemic for human scrub typhus. blood and tissue samples from each animal were tested for the presence of orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiologic agent of scrub typhus. th ...200314695089
prevalence of rabies virus and hantaan virus infections in commensal rodents and shrews trapped in bangkok.five hundred rodents and shrews (rattus norvegicus: 458, rattus rattus: 28, rattus exulans: 5, mus musculus: 4 and suncus murine: 5) trapped from the fresh food markets around bangkok area were investigated for rabies virus and hantaan virus infections. no rabies viral antigens in the animals' brains were detected by direct immunofluorescence. on the other hand, antibodies to hantaan virus were demonstrated in the sera of 7 (1.53%) r. norvegicus caught in various markets using a particle aggluti ...200314696782
observations of breinlia booliati in a new host, rattus rattus jalorensis, from kuantan, state of pahang, malaysia.breinlia booliati singh and ho, 1973 is described from the malaysian wood rat, rattus rattus jalorensis bonhote. the parasites presented here were originally discovered in 1955 in kuantan, malaysia, but were not classified until now. on the basis of morphological observations of anatomical structures and comparisons with other species of breinlia, it was determined that the parasites were b. booliati. the parasites discussed here show slight deviation from b. booliati, but they do not warrant a ...200314740913
transmission of murine typhus in roof rats in the absence of ectoparasites. 195114829742
attempted transmission of murine typhus to roof rats by the ingestion of food heavily contaminated with infected flea feces. 195114829744
effect of hypophysectomy on pigmentation and ascorbic acid excretion in black rats. 195214912070
[behavioral and physiological characteristics of nonagouti mutation in gray rats during selection for aggressiveness].the goal of this work was to find out to which degree the black coat color mutation nonagouti that appears in wild norway rat in the course of breeding for the maintenance and enhancement of aggressiveness towards a human affects selected and other behavioral traits as well as stress reactivity and brain neurochemistry. nonagouti rats displayed increased emotionality in the open-field and forced-swimming tests as compared to agouti animals, whereas there were no differences in anxiety estimated ...200314959487
rattus rattus: a new host for fascioliasis. 200314964674
isoenzymatic polymorphism of leishmania infantum in southern spain.over a period of more than 10 years we have isolated and classified 161 leishmania strains from cases of human visceral, cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in immunocompetent subjects, from cases of visceral leishmaniasis in immunocompromised individuals with hiv, from dogs with leishmaniasis (visceral and cutaneous), from rattus rattus and from sandflies. the strains were all l. infantum, the only species endemic in spain, and corresponded to 20 different zymodemes. we describe the life cycle ...200415049461
leptopsyllines from madagascar (insecta: siphonaptera: ceratophyllidae): description of five new species of paractenopsyllus wagner, 1938.five new species of the malagasy endemic genus paractenopsyllus wagner, 1938, are described. paractenopsyllus rouxi, p. ratovonjatoi, p. duplantieri, p. juliamarinus and p. gemelli have been collected on endemic small mammals and the black rat. biotopes are mid-elevation rain-forests of the central highlands or the northern mountains of madagascar. morphological affinities between these new species and those already known provide taxonomic links within the genus. differences in the spatial and a ...200415071828
isolates of cytomegalovirus (cmv) from the black rat rattus rattus form a distinct group of rat cmv.two different betaherpesviruses, the english and maastricht species of rat cytomegalovirus (cmv), have previously been isolated from rattus norvegicus. cmvs were isolated from both the brown rat, r. norvegicus, and the black rat, r. rattus, within australia. the viruses isolated from r. norvegicus appeared to be genetically related to the english species of rat cmv by pcr, rflp, and sequencing, but the viruses isolated from r. rattus were distinct from both prototype virus species, although more ...200415105548
concentrations of copper, iron, and zinc in the major organs of the wistar albino and wild black rats: a comparative study.the concentrations of copper, iron, and zinc in the major organs of wistar albino (rattus norvegicus) and wild black rats (rattus rattus) were measured by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy. the copper levels in the kidneys and liver of the wistar albino rats (wars) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the wild black rats (wbrs). there were no significant differences in the concentrations of zinc in the liver, lungs, kidneys, and brain between the two study groups, but zinc was signif ...200415131322
wild and synanthropic hosts of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis in the endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis locality of amaraji, pernambuco state, brazil.evidence of leishmania infection was found in small mammals captured between 1996 and 2000 in the amaraji region, pernambuco state, brazil. the kdna polymerase chain reaction (pcr), using primers specific for subgenus l. (viannia), was positive for 43/153 water rats (nectomys squamipes), 13/81 black rats (rattus rattus), 15/103 grass mice (bolomys lasiurus), 1/14 marsh mice (holochilus scieurus), 2/50 field mice (akodon arviculoides), 2/12 woolly opossums (marmosa sp.), and 5/37 common opossums ...200315228244
prevention of homocysteine thiolactone induced atherogenesis in rats.thioretinamide was conjugated to coenzyme b12 to produce thioretinaco. thioretinamide, thioretinaco, and coenzyme b12 were injected weekly into rattus rattus that were also given atherogenic doses of homocysteine thiolactone. the presence or absence of lesions in aorta-intercostal artery junctions was examined. control rats injected with homocysteine thiolactone (con-hcy) had 56.6 +/- 5.8% lesions when compared to 34.8 +/- 3.4% in control rats injected with saline (con-sal). rats that received h ...200215244035
transmission analysis of b chromosomes in rattus rattus from northern africa.traditionally, b chromosomes have been classified as parasitic or heterotic, depending of whether or not they show selfish behaviour. nevertheless, experimental evidence has been found supporting the idea that supernumerary chromosomes may evolve from parasitism to neutrality. in this work, b chromosome transmission in rattus rattus has been analysed by performing several crosses between individuals carrying different numbers of supernumerary chromosomes. our results demonstrated a mendelian tra ...200415292614
predicting mammalian sine subfamily activity from a-tail length.based on previous observations that newly inserted lines and sines have particularly long 3' a-tails, which shorten rapidly during evolutionary time, we have analyzed the rat and mouse genomes for evidence of recently inserted sines and lines. we find that the youngest predicted subfamilies of rodent identifier (id) elements, a rodent-specific sine derived from trna(ala), are preferentially associated with a-tails over 50 bases in the rat genome, as predicted. furthermore, these studies detected ...200415297600
seoul hantavirus in europe: first demonstration of the virus genome in wild rattus norvegicus captured in france.although rats (rattus rattus or rattus norvegicus) worldwide have been found to carry seoul hantavirus, there are at present only a very few reports of confirmed human seoul hantavirus infections outside asia, where the virus, in certain areas, is responsible for approximately 25% of the human hantavirus infections. in europe, no confirmed human infections outside laboratories have been described, and although rats occasionally have been found to be antibody positive, the viral genome has not be ...200415322934
vertebrate phylogeny of hydrogen sulfide vasoactivity.hydrogen sulfide (h(2)s) is a recently identified endogenous vasodilator in mammals. in steelhead/rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, osteichthyes), h(2)s produces both dose-dependent dilation and a unique dose-dependent constriction. in this study, we examined h(2)s vasoactivity in all vertebrate classes to determine whether h(2)s is universally vasoactive and to identify phylogenetic and/or environmental trends. h(2)s was generated from nahs and examined in unstimulated and precontracted syste ...200515345473
[description of three new species of paractenopsyllus genus (siphonaptera: leptopsyllinae) from madagascar].the males of three new and rare species of the malagasy endemic genus paractenopsyllus wagner, 1938 are described. paractenopsyllus beaucournui, p. oconnori and p. raxworthyi have been collected on endemic small mammals and the black rat. as for others species of the genus, biotopes are rain-forests of the central highlands or the northern mountains of madagascar. two of the described species were collected at elevations lower than typical for the genus and below the limits of the highland biocl ...200415490748
identification of glandular (preputial and clitoral) proteins in house rat (rattus rattus) involved in pheromonal communication.proteins (18-20 kda) belonging to lipocalin family have been reported to act as carriers for ligands binding to pheromones in mouse urine, pig saliva, hamster vaginal fluid and human sweat, that are involved in pheromonal communication. as the preputial gland is a major pheromonal source, the present study was aimed to detect the specific protein bands (around 18-20 kda) in the preputial and clitoral glands of the house rat, r. rattus. the amount of protein was higher in preputial gland of the m ...200415511012
molecular ecology of schistosoma mansoni transmission inferred from the genetic composition of larval and adult infrapopulations within intermediate and definitive hosts.we investigated the genotypic composition of the digenetic parasite schistosoma mansoni for its adult stages within the definitive host (the wild rat, rattus rattus) and for the larval stages within the intermediate host (the snail, biomphalaria glabrata) both collected at the same transmission site. our analyses are based upon the recognition and distribution of 200 different multilocus genotypes generated by rapd markers. while intramolluscan larval infrapopulations are characterized by a low ...200415552402
the animal reservoir of tunga penetrans in severely affected communities of north-east brazil.tungiasis is a zoonotic ectoparasitosis caused by the sand flea tunga penetrans l. (siphonaptera: tungidae). this disease is hyperendemic in poor communities of north-east brazil, causing considerable morbidity in affected human populations, but the animal reservoirs have not been investigated previously in brazil. to assess the prevalence and intensity of t. penetrans infection in domestic and peri-domestic animals, as well as in the human population, we surveyed two typical communities of nort ...200415641998
yersinia enterocolitica serovar o:8 infection in breeding monkeys in the period from december 2002 to january 2003, 5 of 50 squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) housed at a zoological garden in the kanto region of japan died following a few days' history of diarrhea. after this outbreak had ended in the squirrel monkeys, 1 of 2 dark-handed gibbons (hylobates agilis) died in april of 2003, showing similar clinical signs. we examined the organs of 3 of the dead squirrel monkeys and of the dark-handed gibbon, and yersinia enterocolitica serovar o:8, which is the m ...200515665447
striped mice, rhabdomys pumilio, and other murid rodents as hosts for immature ixodid ticks as in the eastern cape province.striped mice, rhabdomys pumilio, were trapped over a period of 17 months in the thomas baines nature reserve, and placed in cages, over water, until all the ticks they harboured had detached. the mice were then returned to the reserve. four ixodid tick species were recovered from the mice of which the larvae and nymphs of rhipicephalus follis and rhipicephalus simus were the most numerous. most larvae of r. follis detached from mice trapped from march to july, and most nymphs in march and from j ...200415732458
absence of detectable salmonella cloacal shedding in free-living reptiles on admission to the wildlife center of virginia.salmonellosis is an important reptile-associated zoonotic infection in the united states. cloacal swabs were collected from reptiles admitted to the wildlife center of virginia, waynesboro, virginia, cultured for salmonella using hektoen and xylose lysine deoxycholate agars, and inoculated in selenite broth. all three were incubated at 37 degrees c for 18-24 hr. seventy-five animals were included in the study, representing eight species, 34 eastern box turtles (terrapene carolina carolina), 14 e ...200415732603
dispersal in a parasitic worm and its two hosts: consequence for local adaptation.characterizing host and parasite population genetic structure and estimating gene flow among populations is essential for understanding coevolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites. we examined the population genetic structure of the trematode schistosoma mansoni and its two host species (the definitive host rattus rattus and the intermediate host biomphalaria glabrata) using microsatellite markers. parasites were sampled from rats. the study was conducted in five sites of the guadelo ...200515807416
f-statistics under alternation of sexual and asexual reproduction: a model and data from schistosomes (platyhelminth parasites).accurate inferences on population genetics data require a sound underlying theoretical null model. nearly nothing is known about the gene dynamics of organisms with complex life cycles precluding any biological interpretation of population genetics parameters. in this article, we used an infinite island model to derive the expectations of those parameters for the life cycle of a dioecious organism obligatorily alternating sexual and asexual reproductions as it is the case for schistosomes (plath ...200515813776
[rats and dogs: important vectors of leptospirosis in agricultural areas in cuidad guzmán, jalisco].a study was conducted to determine how important rats and dogs are in the dissemination of leptospirosis in farms and stales located in ciudad guzmán, jalisco. thirteen of leptospira interrograns serovarieties were used in microagglutination test of serogroups (mat). three hundred and fifty four rats (rattus rattus and rattus norvergicus) trapped in agricultural areas of the place were studied; 22 were positive (6,2%) and 34 suspected of leptospirosis (9,6%). also four hundred and nineteen dogs ...200215846935
the potential importance of nut removal by rodents from australian macadamia orchards.extensive crop damage due to rodents, predominantly the black rat (rattus rattus) is a major concern to both the hawaiian and australian macadamia industries. within australian systems, indicated the importance of adjacent non-crop habitats in the damage process with damage being directly related to the size and temporal stability of these habitats. it was also suggested that the current estimates of crop loss might be underestimates as r. rattus may remove nuts into adjacent non-crop habitats, ...200515950371
risk of trypanosoma cruzi i (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) transmission by panstrongylus geniculatus (hemiptera: reduviidae) in caracas (metropolitan district) and neighboring states, venezuela.the collection of panstrongylus geniculatus bugs by inhabitants of dwellings in caracas city (metropolitan district) and in the neighboring miranda and vargas sates, venezuela, allowed for the gathering of data on the potential role of this sylvatic triatomine bug as a vector of chagas disease in this area. the natural infection by trypanosoma cruzi was recorded by examining fresh and stained faeces of the bugs. additionally, a random amplification of polymorphic dna technique for parasite ident ...200516019006
prevalence of infection with francisella tularensis, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodents from an endemic focus of tularemia in bulgaria.the prevalence of francisella tularensis, borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodents is a determinant for their role in maintaining pathogens in the environment. a total of 169 rodents, trapped in an endemic focus of tularemia, were examined by pcr to asses the frequency of infection with the etiological agents of tularemia, lyme borreliosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. the overall prevalence of f. tularensis was 22 %. in 6 % of the black rats, f. tularensis was identi ...200516028881
leptospira interrogans infection in domestic and wild animals in fiji.clinical and serological evidence has indicated that human leptospirosis in fiji is an important disease, and the prevalence of antibody is exceptionally high. a serological survey of the rural population showed that only 12% of the people studied did not have complement fixing (cf) leptospiral antibody. as the origin of this infection could not be explained by the known distribution of leptospiral infection in domestic and wild animals, a serological survey using the complement fixation test (c ...198416031033
giardia intestinalis in north island possums, house mice and ship rats.giardia intestinalis cysts were detected in faeces from 12.9% of 124 brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) trapped in auckland, hawke's bay, the wairarapa and wellington; in faecal material from 61.0% of 77 ship rats (rattus rattus) from areas of auckland, hawke's bay and wellington; and in faecal material from 25.3% of 182 house mice (mus musculus) from the north island. possums and rodents in forested areas of auckland and wellington city water catchments were infected. the role of wild an ...199216031653
anti-fasciola antibodies among rodents and sheep in jeddah, saudi arabia.a total of 20 imported sheep were examined for fascioliasis natural infection by kato thick smear and by fasciola-indirect haemagglutination test (ihat). stool examination revealed infection in 13/20 (65%), but ihat identified 11/20 (55%). so, the sensitivity was 84.5%. also, five species of rodents trapped within or nearby the infected sheep farm by ihat showed positive reactions of in rattus rattus (22.4%), r. norvegicus (16.7%), meriones crassus (11.8%), juculus jaculus (zero%), acomys c. dim ...200516083078
tissues and hair residues and histopathology in wild rats (rattus rattus l.) and algerian mice (mus spretus lataste) from an abandoned mine area (southeast portugal).data gathered in this study suggested the exposure of rats and algerian mice, living in an abandoned mining area, to a mixture of heavy metals. although similar histopathological features were recorded in the liver and spleen of both species, the algerian mouse has proved to be the strongest bioaccumulator species. hair was considered to be a good biological material to monitor environmental contamination of cr in rats. significant positive associations were found between the levels of this elem ...200616099561
island colonization and founder effects: the invasion of the guadeloupe islands by ship rats (rattus rattus).the stepwise colonization of islands within an archipelago is typically punctuated by successive founder effects, with each newly founded population being a subsample of the gene pool of the source island. thus, the genetic signature of successive bottlenecks should be detected when analysing the genetic structure between islands of an archipelago. to test this prediction, we investigated introduced ship rat populations, rattus rattus (linnaeus, 1758), in the guadeloupe archipelago. three differ ...200516101763
the epidemiology of animal trichinellosis in china.the epidemiology of animal trichinellosis in china based mainly upon original chinese literature published between 1937 and 2004 is reviewed. the seroprevalence of trichinella infection in herbivores was 0.7% (2/300) in cattle and 0.8% (4/500) in sheep. the prevalence of trichinellosis in naturally infected cattle was 1.2% (2/163). trichinella larvae were detected in 1.4% (3/215) of sheep and in 2.1% (1/47) of beef cattle sold at markets. canine trichinellosis was recorded in 13 provinces, auton ...200716162414
serologic evidence of west nile virus infection in free-ranging mammals, slidell, louisiana, 2002.after an outbreak of west nile virus (wnv) infections in slidell, louisiana, in 2002, we detected neutralizing antibodies to wnv in 13 of 120 mammals, representing five of six species sampled. seroprevalence was measured in opossum, didelphis virginiana (75%, n = 8), raccoons, procyon lotor (60%, n = 5), black rats, rattus rattus (6%, n = 36), hispid cotton rats, sigmodon hispidus (4%, n = 24), and eastern gray squirrels, sciurus carolinensis (2%, n = 43).200516187899
preliminary genetic characterization of two lineages of black rats (rattus rattus sensu lato) in japan, with evidence for introgression at several localities.we conducted a pilot survey of genetic diversity among 37 karyotyped individuals of the black rat rattus rattus (sensu lato) from six localities on the japanese islands, using complete gene sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) and nuclear interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (irbp). our sampling included two previously documented karyotypic groups: 'oceanian' with 2n = 38 and 'asian' with 2n = 42. cyt b sequences for most individuals clustered according to their karyotypic grou ...200516394588
description of two new species of nippostrongylinae (nematoda, trichostrongyuna, heligmosomoidea) coparasites in arvicanthis ansorgei (muridae) from the small intestine of a single arvicanthis ansorgei from cameroon, two new species of nippostrongylinae were found: neoheligmonella zero n. sp. and heligmonina comerounensis n. sp. n. zero belongs to the neoheligmonella species in which the right dorsal ridge is poorly developed. among these species, n. bainae (durette-desset, 1970), a parasite of steatomys opinus from burkina fasso, is a closely related species. it is differentiated by the presence of vulvar alae, the ratio uterus length/bo ...200516402565
serologic detection of toxoplasma gondii infection in rattus spp collected from three different sites in dasmariñas, cavite, philippines.acute and chronic cases of toxoplasmosis in rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus mindanensis caught in agricultural, commercial and residential sites in dasmariñas, cavite, philippines were determined serologically. fifty-eight percent of r. norvegicus and 42.0% of r. r. mindanensis were positive for anti-t. gondii antibodies (abs). infection was higher in male rats, and those caught in the commercial site had 100.0% seropositivity. thirty percent of the r. norvegicus and 51.0% r. rattus mindanen ...200516438179
physiological responses of insular wild black rat (rattus rattus) to natural infection by the digenean trematode fasciola hepatica.wild black rat rattus rattus is regularly infected by the liver fluke fasciola hepatica on corsica. this report constitutes the only example of a murid rodent that plays an important epidemiological role for the fasciolosis. we investigated the influence of such unusual parasite infection on black rat physiology by measuring its oxygen consumption at different ambient temperatures. black rat energy requirements are influenced by body mass, temperature of the experiment and parasite infestation. ...200616470416
virulence markers of lcr plasmid in indian isolates of yersinia pestis.presence of 10 important yop genes in yersinia pestis isolates (18 in number) of indian origin from 1994 plague outbreak regions of maharashtra (6 rattus rattus & tetera indica rodents) and gujarat (11 from human patients, 1 from r. rattus) and from plague endemic regions of the deccan plateau (8 from t. indica) was located by pcr and specific enzyme immunoassay. pcrs were standardized for six effector yops (yope, yoph, yopj, yopm, yopo and yopt), three translocator yops (yopb, yopd and yopk) an ...200616499656
quick control of bubonic plague outbreak in uttar kashi, india.a localized outbreak of bubonic plague occurred in village dangud (population 332), district uttar kashi, uttaranchal, india in the second week of october 2004. 8 cases were considered outbreak associated based on their clinical and epidemiological characteristics; 3 (27.3%) of them died within 48 hours of developing illness. all the 3 fatal cases and five surviving cases had enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes. none of them had pneumonia. the age of the cases ranged from 23-70 years and both se ...200416506545
outbreak investigation of scrub typhus in himachal pradesh (india).scrub typhus outbreak investigation was undertaken during september 2003 in the three worst affected districts shimla, solan and sirmaur in himachal pradesh (india). a total of 113 cases and 19 deaths (17.27 percent case fatality rate) were reported from the eight districts, which were reporting cases. cases were prevalent in all age groups and in both the sexes among the persons frequenting forest for occupational work. 35.7 percent of the patients serum samples showed a titer of > 1: 80 agains ...200416506551
[the mammals of guinea as reservoirs and carriers of arboviruses].a great body of data on the fauna and ecology of wild mammals and their participation in the circulation of arboviruses were collected when the ecology of the latter of the republic of guinea was studied in 1978 to 1989. a hundred and eighteen species belonging to 10 orders were identified. over 2,000 biological specimens were virologically and serologically examined. six arboviruses were isolated. these included dugbe virus (from the hussar monkey cercopithecus (erythrocebus patas) and 5 viruse ...200616562748
speciation by monobrachial centric fusions.fixation of centric fusions in natural populations often encounters minimal meiotic problems due to the ability of trivalents to segregate normally; therefore, little sterility barrier is achieved between a founder population and the parental stock. however, a strong sterility barrier can develop between different founder populations fixed for centric fusions that are monobrachially homologous in the resulting biarmed chromosomes (one arm is homologous but the other is nonhomologous). hybridizat ...198616593777
the tick ixodes granulatus infests rattus rattus populating a small island offshore of singapore.the ixodid tick ixodes granulosus supino 1897 was found infesting rattus rattus in semakau island, one of the small offshore islands fringing singapore to the south. none of the examined r. rattus from the other islands fringing singapore, or from singapore island were found infested. ixodes granulatus occurs, however, on singapore island on rattus annandalei, resident of undisturbed forested habitats. we speculate that invading black rats in semakau replaced autochthonous sylvatic rodent popula ...200616605073
pathogenesis and vertical transmission of a transplacental rat cytomegalovirus.cytomegalovirus (cmv) congenital infection is the major viral cause of well-documented birth defects in human. because cmv is species-specific, the main obstacle to developing animal models for congenital infection is the difference in placental architecture, which preludes virus transmission across the placenta. the rat placenta, resembling histologically to that of human, could therefore facilitate the study of cmv congenital infection in human.200616737550
space invaders? a search for patterns underlying the coexistence of alien black rats and galápagos rice rats.the introduction and spread of the black rat rattus rattus is believed to have caused the worst decline of any vertebrate taxon in galápagos. however, the "extinct" santiago rice rat nesoryzomys swarthi has recently been rediscovered in sympatry with r. rattus providing the first exception to this general pattern of displacement. we carried out an exploratory investigation of this novel system with the aim of identifying patterns that may facilitate the apparent coexistence of the two species. w ...200616761142
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