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[intestinal perforation by angiostrongylus costaricensis. a report of 2 cases].two cases of abdominal angiostronylosis with terminal ileum perforation are reported. the first two cases diagnosed in panama of a well established eosinophilic granulomatous process which affects mostly children in costa rica. the parasite angiostrongylus costaricensis has been demonstrated in cases with a geographic range, from mexico down to brazil. the parasite has been found in rodents in panama (sigmodon hispidus and rattus rattus) with an still pending further epidemiological and serologi ...19921620898
leishmaniasis in the caribbean islands. a review.a review is presented of the current knowledge relating to leishmaniasis in the west indies. the only country where an autochthonous focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis has been discovered within the last 20 years is the dominican republic. most of the cases are of the diffuse clinical type, which tend to be anergic to the montenegro skin test, but subclinical or mild cases are apparently common. the responsible agent is a new species of leishmania and the suspected vector is lutzomyia cristophei, ...19921626864
prevalence of listeria (spp.) in wild rats captured in the kanto area of japan.in the kanto area a total of 245 wild rats were captured. all rats captured in ikebukuro (110 rats) and 9 out of 41 rats in yokohama were rattus rattus, and all other 126 rats were rattus norvegicus. in kashima and ikebukuro, listeria was isolated from 28 rats (77.8%) and 27 rats (24.5%), respectively, but in the other 4 areas listeria was isolated from 0-7% rats. listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 12 rats (10.9%) captured in ikebukuro and 2 rats in kashima and numazu. the frequent isolati ...19921643170
giardia intestinalis in north island possums, house mice and ship rats.giardia intestinalis cysts were detected in faeces from 12.9% of 124 brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) trapped in auckland, hawke's bay, the wairarapa and wellington; in faecal material from 61.0% of 77 ship rats (rattus rattus) from areas of auckland, hawke's bay and wellington; and in faecal material from 25.3% of 182 house mice (mus musculus) from the north island. possums and rodents in forested areas of auckland and wellington city water catchments were infected. the role of wild an ...199216031653
[serotyping of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever (ehf) and serotyping and antigen typing of main hosts of ehf in shandong province].serotyping with hemagglutination-inhibition test (hi) on 458 patients with ehf showed that 419 (91.48%) of them belonged to the house-rat type, 33 (7.21%) belonged to the wild-rat type, and 6 (1.31%) were undetermined. the majority (80-100%) of the patients in various regions belonged to the house-rat type. the type of the virus antigen and the type of the antibody of rats were in conformity with the species of rats. these indicate that the epidemic areas of ehf in shandong province are mixed-ty ...19938099309
adaptation of the small intestine in desert-dwelling animals: morphology, ultrastructure and electrolyte transport in the jejunum of rabbits, rats, gerbils and sand rats.1. the aim of this study was to characterize adaptive alterations of the small intestine in desert-dwelling animals by comparing jejunal morphology, ultrastructure and function in mammalian species with or without desert habitat origins. 2. crypt-villus architecture, brush border surface area, and electrolyte transport were measured and compared in the jejunum of rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus), rats (rattus rattus), gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) and sand rats (psammomys obesus). 3. in additio ...19938099869
mechanism of bicarbonate secretion in rat (rattus rattus) colon.1. colonic hco3 secretion was measured as the residual flux in male sprague-dawley rats (rattus rattus). 2. basal hco3 secretion was increased by 1 mm dibutyryl cyclic amp (dbcamp) and was reduced to baseline by 0.1 mm methazolamide (mtz) but not by sits (1 mm), dids (1 mm) or amiloride (1 mm). 3. in vivo, intravenous vasoactive intestinal peptide increased hco3 secretion and prior perfusion with 1 mm mtz prevented this increase. 4. these results suggest that the source of basal and camp-stimula ...19938099872
histamine: its metabolism and localization in mammary gland.1. mammary gland of mouse (mus musculus), rat (rattus rattus), guinea pig (cavia porcellus), cow (bos taurus) and pig (sus scrofa) contains different but always high concentrations of histamine. 2. generally, the tissue histamine is localized in mast cells, although non-mast cell histamine immunoreactivity is also present in mammary glands of the mouse, cow and pig. no histamine immunoreactive nerves could be detected. 3. mammary glands are able to synthesize and inactivate histamine; the activi ...19938103732
[natural murine infestation by angiostrongylus costaricensis morera and cespedes, 1971 in guadeloupe].in 1992, two cases of abdominal angiostrongylosis were reported in young guadeloupean children. with a view to determine the natural infestation rate of guadeloupe rodents (rattus rattus, r. norvegicus) by angiostrongylus costaricensis, 656 rats caught in the country have been examined. both murine species are naturally infested (6.2% in r. rattus and 14.9% in r. norvegicus), which gives a total prevalence of 7.5%. this total prevalence is higher in the tourist area. a complementary investigatio ...19937819811
follicular growth patterns in the house rat (rattus rattus).a histomorphometrical study has been made of the ovarian follicles in the house rat (rattus rattus) during estrous cycle, pregnancy and after treatment with fsh, lh and estrogen. the relationships between oocyte and follicle, oocyte nucleus and follicle, oocyte nucleus and oocyte have been analysed statistically. the logarithmic transformation of data on these components of the ovary yielded as regression: log y = a+b log x parabolic form in the control,. pregnant, fsh and estrogen treated group ...19938172756
feeding behavior and an oropharyngeal component of satiety in a two-headed snake.we studied the feeding behavior of a dicephalous black rat snake (elaphe o. obsoleta) whose heads attack and ingest prey independently. both heads were given satiation feedings with mouse prey at either 5-day intervals (1989, n = 16 feedings) or 9-11 day intervals (1990, n = 4 feedings). in 1989, a meal pattern was manifested as a negative correlation between total (left + right) meal size (g) and total size of the last meal. meal sizes of the heads were consistently different (l > r) despite th ...19938248341
leptospirosis serology in korean wild animals.a study was undertaken on wild animals to determine the seroprevalence of animal leptospirosis in korea. using the serum microagglutination test for 19 serogroups, it was shown that two of 26 rats (rattus rattus) had antibodies to leptospira canicola. when data for domestic animals were included, the most prevalent (nearly 50%) serogroup was leptospira canicola.19938258863
studies on the interrelation between rodents and their ectoparasitic acarines in riyadh region, saudi arabia.the ectoparasitic acarines of commensal and wild rodents collected from various areas in riyadh region were four species of mites (laelaps nutalli, ornythonyssus bacoti, cheyletus eruditus and articholaelaps glasgowi), and two species of ticks. (immature stages) rhipicephalus spp. and hyalomma spp. in urban areas the highest infestation rate by mites was 49.9% on rattus rattus followed by 18.5% on rattus norvegicus. the highest rat-mite index was 2.3 on r. rattus followed by 1.3 on r. norvegicus ...19938308342
studies on the ectoparasites (fleas and lice) on rodents in riyadh and its surroundings, saudi arabia.a survey was conducted on rodents from the riyadh city and surroundings. two species of fleas, xenopsylla cheopis and ctenocephalides felis felis together with polyplax spinulosa were collected. the highest infestation rate by both fleas occurred on rattus rattus followed by rattus norvegicus and mus musculus. females of r. rattus and r. norvegicus were more infested by fleas than males. on the other hand, meriones spp., gerbillus spp., jaculus jaculus and acomys dimidiatus were infested with x. ...19938308348
calcium-binding protein-containing neuronal populations in mammalian visual cortex: a comparative study in whales, insectivores, bats, rodents, and primates.this study is focused on comparative analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid-positive (gabaergic) neuronal populations in primary visual cortex of totally aquatic toothed whales and select terrestrial mammals with different evolutionary histories and various ecological adaptations. the distribution of neuronal populations containing the calcium-binding proteins calbindin and parvalbumin, which are recognized markers for the gabaergic neurons in cerebral cortex, is compared in five species of toothed ...19938324371
natural babesia infection sought in black and norway rats trapped in five egyptian governorates.babesiosis is a protozoal disease caused by members of the genus babesia transmitted by the ixodid ticks. it is a parasite of various mammalian hosts as bovine (b. bovis), equine (b. equi), rodent (b. microti), canine (b. canis) and others. human cases of babesiosis have been reported from several countries including egypt. it is now well established that man may become infected (fulminating or subclinical) with several species of babesia without prior splenectomy. in this paper, a total of 398 ...19938376851
larval occurrence of hydatigera taeniaeformis batsch (1786) (cestoda: taeniidae) in the liver of wild rodents in egypt.hydatigera taeniaeformis batsch (1786) was found in the liver of six species of egyptian wild rodents. wanas et al., (1990) found the total incidence of this larval stage to be 20.0% among cestode infection. it was found in (40.9%) rattus norvegicus; (33.3%) gerbillus gerbillus; (26.8%) rattus rattus; (25.0%) mus musculus; (16.6%) acomys cahirinus; and (7.2%) arvicanthis niloticus. the cysts of hydatigera taenioformis was always occupying the marginal surfaces of both right and left lobes and so ...19938376855
studies on commensal rodents in riyadh city, saudi arabia.a trapping survey in riyadh revealed that the abundant commensal rodent species were rattus rattus frugivorous (43%), r.r. alexandrinus (18%), r.r. rattus (14%), r.r. flaviventris (12%), rattus norvegicus (9%), mus musculus praetetus (3%) and mus m. gentilulus (1%). r.r. frugivorous was the predominant species in all the nine selected areas. the male: female ratio was 0.4: 0.6 for both r. norvegicus and r. rattus. in both r. norvegicus and r. rattus, the mature rats outnumbered the immature ones ...19938376873
experimental host-induced selection in schistosoma mansoni strains from guadeloupe and comparison with natural observations.allelic frequency variation at the malate dehydrogenase (e.c.1.1.1.37) polymorphic locus (mdh-1) was analysed during several successive generations in four strains of schistosoma mansoni from guadeloupe, maintained experimentally on mice. a rapid evolution of the frequency of the mdh-1a allele is interpreted as being the result of an interaction between experimental drift and selection induced by the murine laboratory host. these experimental results are compared to the genetic structures observ ...19938432659
isolation and identification of mycoplasma strains from various species of wild rodents.attempts were made to isolate mycoplasmas from respiratory and urogenital tracts of 35 apparently healthy wild rodents comprising 7 species under 4 genera. mycoplasmas were isolated from nasal and oral cavities, tracheas, vaginas and penises of the wild rats: ricefield rats (rattus argentiventer), roof rats (r. rattus) and polynesian rats (r. exulans), but none was isolated from brown rats (r. norvegicus), house mice (mus musculus), smithi's voles (eothenomys smithi) and soft-furred field rats ( ...19938513017
apical cochlear nerve exposed to perilymph in the gerbil and rat.there is considerable controversy regarding the origin and composition of perilymph in the scala vestibuli and scala tympani and the barriers and transport mechanisms between them. to elucidate the anatomical separation between perilymph and the extracellular fluid which surrounds the cochlear nerve in mongolian gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) and sprague dawley rats (rattus rattus) we examined the modiolus, osseous spiral lamina and the bone of the perilymphatic scalae using light and electron ...19948188549
didelphis marsupialis, an important reservoir of trypanosoma (schizotrypanum) cruzi and leishmania (leishmania) chagasi in colombia.the role of didelphis marsupialis as a reservoir of zoonotic hemoflagellates was examined in two ecologically distinct settings in colombia. while 72% (12 of 18) of the opossums collected in the tropical rain forest harbored trypanosoma cruzi, other mammals in the area had lower infection rates: 1.3% (proechymis semispinosus [spiny rat]; 13% tylomys mirae [climbing rat]; and 6% rattus rattus). trypanosoma cruzi isolates from d. marsupialis were similar to zymodeme 1 (z1), and two of four phenoty ...19948203703
the identity of leishmania isolated from sand flies and vertebrate hosts in a major focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in baturite, northeastern brazil.during a field investigation carried out in baturite, brazil from 1989 to 1991, sand flies, sympatric rodents, domestic dogs and humans were surveyed for leishmaniasis. twenty strains of leishmania were isolated by in vitro culture from lutzomyia whitmani, three strains were obtained from rattus rattus, two strains from dogs, and five strains from humans. the isolates were characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis by hybridization with kinetoplast dna-specific probes. all the samples were ident ...19948116807
babesia infection in rodents trapped in riyadh region, saudi arabia, with a general discussion.species of babesia are intraerythrocytic protozoal parasites of many species of mammalians in all parts of the world where the tick-vectors are found. babesiosis or piroplasmosis causes considerable damage to the livestock and other animals. human babesiosis has been documented in many countries. consequently, babesiosis is a zoonotic disease of medical, veterinary and economic importance. in this study, a total of 310 rodents of different species were trapped from different areas in riyadh regi ...19948169440
[plague in zaire].two endemic foci of plague have been discovered in zaïre, the first in the ituri in 1928, the other in north-kivu in 1938. they are situated in the region of the great east-african rift and are adjacent to the ugandan focus, identified in 1877. a strict surveillance of these endemic foci makes it possible to state that, between 1928 and 1959, 632 cases of plague have been diagnosed in the ituri, or 20 a year, and 190 in the n-kivu, or 8 a year. since then several flare ups have been notified. th ...19947801703
experimental infection of elaphid snakes with cryptosporidium serpentis (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae).the shedding pattern of fecal cryptosporidium serpentis oocysts, histopathologic changes in the gastric region, and the effect of spiramycin treatment were investigated in 6 experimentally infected, captive black rat (elaphe obsoleta obsoleta), 4 yellow rat (elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata), and 2 corn snakes (elaphe guttata guttata). feces were monitored for up to 2 years postinfection (pi). no significant (p > 0.07) differences were observed between expected and observed numbers of pi oocyst-pos ...19947931919
pathology of rickettsia tsutsugamushi infection in bandicota savilei, a natural host in thailand.following rodent surveys in a rice-growing area of central thailand where we found bandicota savilei, b. indica, and rattus rattus infected with rickettsia tsutsugamushi, we performed a study of pathogenesis of r. tsutsugamushi in laboratory-reared b. savilei. eight animals were injected with saline and 19 animals were injected with 4.0 x 10(6) mouse 50% lethal dose units of a strain of r. tsutsugamushi isolated from a human in central thailand. animals were evaluated at intervals for igg and ig ...19947943567
some ectoparasites of commensal rodents from huambo, angola.eight species of ectoparasites were collected from 166 commensal rodents, including rattus rattus (l.), rattus norvegicus (berkenhout), and mus musculus (l.), from january to december 1986, in huambo, angola. the oriental rat flea, xenopsylla cheopis (rothschild), was the predominant species with respect to mean intensity and prevalence. other fleas collected were ctenophthalmus (ethioctenophthalmus) machadoi ribeiro, dinopsyllus (dinopsyllus) smiti ribeiro, and echidnophaga gallinacea (westwood ...19947966180
transmission of the agent of lyme disease on a subtropical island.to determine whether the agent of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) perpetuates on a subtropical island, we recorded prevalence of spirochetal infection in ixodes ricinus ticks collected on madeira island and identified local reservoir hosts of both pathogen and vector tick. spirochetes infect at least 1.3% of the nymphal ticks collected in a particular site. subadult ticks frequently parasitized norway as well as black rats on the island, and lyme disease spirochetes were found in these hosts ...19948066380
effects of dietary selenium on differentiation, morphology and functions of spermatozoa of the house rat, rattus rattus l.ingestion of 2 ppm and 4 ppm selenium in the diet by the house rat, rattus rattus, for 5 weeks caused a dose-dependent reduction in its body weight, testicular and cauda epididymidis weights, concentration, motility and percentage of live spermatozoa with a simultaneous increase in the percentage of their abnormal forms. compared to 1.39% abnormal spermatozoa in cauda epididymidis in untreated control rats, 3.89% and 24.64% abnormal spermatozoa were observed in rats with 2 ppm and 4 ppm dietary ...19947519730
a comparative study of three methods of detection of borrelia crocidurae in wild rodents in senegal.in a rural area in sénégal with a high incidence of tick-borne relapsing fever in humans, borrelia crocidurae was studied in the blood and brain of wild rodents (mastomys erythroleucus, arvicanthis niloticus and rattus rattus) using 3 methods: (i) direct examination of thick blood films; (ii) intraperitoneal inoculation of blood into white mice; (iii) intraperitoneal inoculation of homogenized cerebral tissue into white mice. of the 82 rodents examined, the proportion of infected animals was res ...19947570827
[the plague in finland in 1710].in the autumn of 1710 helsinki was struck by the so-called oriental plague during four months. the infection was transferred by black rats which harboured fleas. the flea-bites caused boils. it was believed that the plague was air-borne, and the air was very humid that autumn. big fires were lit in order to reduce the humidity, the purpose being to make it easier for the infected to breathe. attempts were also made to dissect the boils. the carriers of the contamination came as refugees from e ...199411640321
[a contribution to the history of understanding the epidemiology of plague in madagascar].plague appeared in madagascar in 1898, the pandemic coinciding with the french conquest. until 1921, harbor epidemics occurred in tamatave, majunga, diégo-suarez, fort-dauphin, vatomandry. in 1921, probably favored by the building of roads and railways, plague takes root on the high lands where it becomes endemic above 800 meters. the vaccine achievement by girard and robic with the ev strain, and its mass application from 1935 by estrade, milliau, brault, seyberlich and jan keguistel, allowed t ...199511625936
giardia survey in live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals in four regions in the southwest region of the state of são paulo, brazil.for the first time, a survey on giardia in live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals was performed in four regions of state of the são paulo, brazil, with special attention to the parasitism of rattus rattus rattus by giardia. this species was found infected in all studied sites: botucatu (15.4%), conchas (28.5%), itaporanga (38.7%) and são roque (100%). two new hosts and their frequency of infection were described for giardia in nectomys squamipes, an aquatic rodent and in bolomys lasiurus, ...19958731362
[prevalence of protozoa infections in synanthropic rodents in valdivia city, chile].in order to determine the prevalence of infection by blood and intestinal protozoa in 57 synanthropic rodents from valdivia city, a study was carried out in the period march-september 1986. the group of rodents studied was constituted by 31 mus musculus, 19 rattus rattus and 7 oryzomys longicaudattus, being 42 males and 15 females. diagnostic forms of protozoa were found in 70.2% of the investigated animals. the presence of five species of enteroprotozoa and one species of hemoflagelate was dete ...19958762669
[clinical, electrocardiographic and angiographic evaluation of natural reservoirs of chagas' disease in the republic of panama].the authors studied two groups of natural animal reservoirs for trypanosoma cruzi: a wild one, the common rat rattus rattus and the house dog, canis canis. thirty one naturally infected rats were evaluated with a technique developed by the authors which allows the recording of the ecg and the performance of a ventricular angiogram without altering the functional capacity of the animal. forty four dogs were followed clinically for a period of twenty years to study the development of the cardiac l ...19958668820
studies on zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis among a group of temporary workers in north sinai governorate, egypt.leishmaniasis (cutaneous, cl. and visceral, vl.) is an increasing public health problem in the mediterranean region. from a practical point of view, zcl is the most important and distributed form in egypt. consequently, it was aimed to study the status of zcl among a group of temporary workers in north sinai governorate. the results showed that (i) rodent populations are more or less common in al arish city (rattus rattus and r. norvegicus), bir lehfan (gerbillus pyramidum) and abo oegela (g. py ...19957602176
interaction between acari ectoparasites and rodents in suez governorate, egypt.from the medical point of view, the relation between man and rodents comes in the priority. some rodent populations are wild but others are commensal and live in close association with man. they steal his food and conveying many zoonotic diseases. their arthropod ectoparasites play an important role in conveying or transmitting these zoonotic diseases. several disorders and diseases of man are tick borne relapsing fever, rocky mountain spotted fever, lyme disease, and many others. besides numero ...19957665934
mastomys natalensis and tatera gambiana as probable reservoirs of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in nigeria.leishmania sp. was isolated from the livers and spleens of 4 of 56 mastomys natalensis and one of 21 tatera gambiana in keana district, nigeria; none of the rodents had cutaneous lesions. parasites were not found in 42 rattus rattus. experimentally infected mice developed cutaneous lesions characteristic of l. major infection. the organisms could not be cultivated in vitro.19957747299
recent evolution of genes encoding the prohormone-like protein smr1 in the rat submandibular gland.the variable coding sequence (vcs) multigene family of rattus norvegicus, is composed of at least 10 members, and shows extensive evolutionary divergence in the protein-coding region. three members of the vcsa subclass, have been characterized: one of them, the vcsa1 gene mainly expressed in the submandibular gland (smg) encodes the prohormone-like protein, smr1-va1. as vcsa-related genes have not been detected in mus musculus, the vcsa genes subclass is presumed to have recently emerged. to stu ...19957865131
yersinia pseudotuberculosis in china.thirty strains of yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated from rabbits (17 strains), wild rats (9 strains) and house rats (4 strains) in china between 1990 and 1993. the biochemical properties of these isolates were identical with those of y. pseudotuberculosis and no special characteristics were found in these strains. serologically, serogroups 4b and 5b were identical to isolates found in japan, and a new serogroup 1c and unclassified strains have also been detected. the existence of virulen ...19958577274
[comparison of 4 microscopy techniques for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in wild rodents in a rural area of valdivia, chile].kidneys of six different species of 93 wild rodents captured in the rural area of valdivia (chile) were simultaneously examined for leptospira infection by means of levaditi silver stain, dark ground microscopy in wet smears, and immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques using pooled antiserum against hardjo and pomona serovars. leptospira was shown to be present in 40 (43.0%) rodents. they were detected in five of the six species: akodon olivaceus, akodon longipilis, rattus rattus, ory ...19958850345
distribution of schistosome genetic diversity within naturally infected rattus rattus detected by rapd markers.random amplified polymorphic dna markers (rapd) were used to visualize the genetic diversity within and between infrapopulations of schistosoma mansoni recovered from the natural vertebrate host, rattus rattus, trapped at an insular guadeloupean focus. phenotypes were characterized by the sex of the parasites and by 8 polymorphic markers generated by 3 primers. among the 212 parasite individuals recovered from 10 infected rats, 78 genotypes were characterized. all the hosts naturally infected ha ...19968939047
seroepidemiology of hantaan virus infection in taiwan.in order to investigate the infection rate of hantaan virus in taiwan, a total of 6,536 human serum samples were collected from residents, selected by stratified random sampling, from 19 townships covering four different ethnic groups: aborigines, fukien taiwanese, hakka taiwanese, and mainland chinese. serum samples were screened for hantaan virus antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. the prototype hantaan virus (76/118)-infected vero e6 cells were used as the viral antigen for the antibod ...19968950687
an investigation of leptospirosis in a laboratory animal house.a study was undertaken to investigate the possible involvement of leptospires in causing infection and persistent deaths among albino mice and wistar rats of a laboratory animal house. the serological study revealed that 79.2% of mice, 90% of wistar rats, 71.4% of guinea pigs and 81.8% of rabbits had leptospiral antibodies to one or more of serogroups. autumnalis predominated in guinea pigs and mice, while javanica predominated in wistar rats. rabbits exhibited equal seroprevalence of autumnalis ...19968973012
quantitative assessment of changes and maturation of mast cells in the ovary of postnatal and adult rats, rattus rattus.numerical changes in the distribution of immature mast cells in the different ovarian compartments of the immature and adult ovary of rats rattus rattus have been studied using alcian blue-safranine staining method. maturational changes of mast cells from the first day of birth to maturity of animal and during the oestrous cycle have also been determined. immature animals were divided into five groups on the basis of their increasing body weights. all the mast cells in the ovary group of i and i ...19968979508
note on the occurrence of trypanosoma (herpetosoma) sp. in rattus rattus in beed district, maharashtra. 19969057455
infection by trypanosoma cruzi in mammals in yucatan, mexico: a serological and parasitological study.in order to determine trypanosoma cruzi infection among mammals in yucatan, mexico, 372 animals, both wild and synanthropic including carnivores, marsupials and rodents were studied. serological studies by indirect haemagglutination (iha) were carried out to detect antibodies to t. cruzi and a parasitological study was also performed (blood smear and histopathology). of all the animals tested 18.54% were serologically positive, with a significantly higher frequency among the wild ones (33.33%) c ...19969216111
sarcocystis singaporensis: studies on host specificity, pathogenicity, and potential use as a biocontrol agent of wild rats.host specificity and pathogenicity of sarcocystis singaporensis were investigated as a prerequisite to a subsequent application of the parasite as a biocontrol agent of wild rats in egypt. after inoculation of 7 snake species comprising the families elapidae, viperidae, colubridae, and boidae with sarcocysts, sporocyst development was only observed in a reticulated python. among amphibians, reptiles, and rodents that orally received various sporocyst doses in the laboratory, 2 x 10(4) sporocysts ...19968604097
effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue, environmental temperature and prazosin injection on the rat.effects of an alpha 1 antagonist, prazosin, injection on the rat (rattus rattus) exposed to warm vs normal environments and fed endophyte-infected (e+) or -free (e-) tall fescue seed were studied. rats were injected ip daily with placebo or prazosin (1 mg/kg bw). daily skin and rectal temperatures and food intake measurements were recorded. selected brain tissues were dissected to determine treatment effects on monoamine receptor density. rats fed e+ and injected with placebo had reduced (p < 0. ...19968689528
flea ectoparasites of commensal rodents in shebin el kom, menoufia governorate, egypt.rodents population are widely distributed in some egyptian governorates, particularly those in the nile delta. generally speaking, rodents particularly those living in close association with man, play a major role in human health, welfare and economy. besides, their arthropod ectoparasites are important vectors of pathogenic agents as well as they themselves are causative agents of many allergic disorders. no doubt, the increase in rodent population is followed by an increase in many zoonotic di ...19968721227
prevalence of rat fleas in and around delhi (india) area and their susceptibility status to insecticides.a rapid survey in delhi and surrounding areas was undertaken in september 1994, during plague outbreak in district beed (maharashtra) and surat (gujarat) to monitor rodent/flea population and to determine susceptibility status of fleas to insecticides. the five rodent species in order of their prevalence were rattus rattus (86.06%), mus musculus (15.33%), suncus murinus (2.47%), bandicoota indica (0.48%) and b. bengalensis (0.48%). two flea species, xenopsylla cheopis and x. astia, were captured ...19968806038
g alpha 9/g alpha 11: immunolocalization in the olfactory epithelium of the rat (rattus rattus) and the channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus).the immunohistochemical localization of g alpha 9/g alpha 11 was studied in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium of two representative vertebrates, the rat and the channel catfish. localization in the rat was found at the apical surface of cells in the epithelium and within nerve tracts in the lamina propria. immunostaining of neuronal cilia and supporting cell microvilli was confirmed by electron microscopy. immunoreactivity on the ipsilateral neuroepithelium was abolished five weeks follow ...19968843091
solid phase synthesis and biological activity of rat relaxin.the peptide hormone relaxin was isolated in good yield from the ovaries of the pregnant rodent rattus rattus using a simplified purification schedule. it was subjected to comprehensive chemical characterization to confirm both its purity and predicted composition. the peptide was also chemically synthesized by the solid phase procedure. the two chains comprising the hormone were each assembled by the boc-polystyrene method and, following conventional purification, combined in solution to form th ...19969575346
action of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether on male reproductive organs of indian wild rat.adult male indian house rats (rattus rattus) were administered ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (egme) (500 mg/kg) perorally daily for 1, 6 and 11 days and were examined after 1, 6, and 11 days, respectively. also a recovery study was conducted for 4 and 8 weeks after the animals received 11 successive doses of egme. egme caused testicular lesions resulting in a severe impairment of spermatogenic elements. however, no histopathological changes of the leydig cells or alterations in testicular ste ...199610979046
[control of intestinal schistosomiasis in martinique island].the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni is known in martinique since the beginning of the xxth century. a general survey of the distribution of the disease was carried out in 1977 and showed a mean prevalence of 12% (coprology and serology taken together) in the whole of the island. following this survey, an integrated control programme associating sanitary education, detection and treatment of patients and improved sanitation, was developed. in addition, a biological control programme against t ...19979587606
entomological and rodent surveillance in plague-suspected areas during september 1994 and thereafter.studies carried out in the states of maharashtra, gujarat, uttar pradesh and union territory of delhi after the bubonic plague outbreak during 1994 revealed the presence of seven species of rodents, viz. rattus rattus, r. norvegicus, mus. musculus, tatera indica, suncus murinus, bandicoota bengalensis and b. indica. the flea species encountered were xenopsylla cheopis and x. astia. the x. cheopis and x. astia index recorded in different areas of beed district of maharashtra; surat, vadodra and b ...19979556751
atropine and testosterone propionate induced atretic changes in granulosa cells of house rat (rattus rattus) ovary.degenerative changes in membrana granulosa of ovaries in r. rattus have been studied using scanning electron microscopy. ovaries from rats treated with atropine (300 mg/kg body weight) and testosterone propionate (10 iu) were used to study sequential course of atresia in granulosa cells. granulosa cells undergoing atresia showed degenerative changes in following order i) loosening of intercellular matrix, ii) changed morphology and texture of secretory granules, iii) destabilization of granulosa ...19979567743
a survey of helminth infection in rats (rattus spp) from chiang mai moat.an investigation of helminths in the norway (brown) rat, rattus norvegicus, and roof rat, rattus rattus, from chiang mai moat during may to august 1995, was done. thirty-three out of thirty-eight trapped rats were infected (86.84%); 16 r. norvegicus (100%) and 17/22 r. rattus (77.27%). the rat was infected with 10 helminth species: 4 trematodes, centrocestus sp (2.63%), echinostoma ilocanum (10.52%), echinostoma malayanum (10.52%) and quinqueseralis quinqueseralis (39.47%); 2 cestodes, raillieti ...19979656373
synanthropic rodent reservoirs of trypanosoma (schizotrypanum) cruzi in the valley of caracas, venezuela.direct blood examination and xenodiagnosis of 47 synanthropic rodents (rattus rattus, r. norvegicus, mus musculus) captured in the valley of caracas, venezuela, revealed trypanosomal infections in 12 r. rattus, 10 with t. lewisi and 2 with t. cruzi. of the latter the course of parasitemia, the pleomorphism of the bloodstream trypomastigotes, tissue in naturally and experimentally infected rats and mice, host mortality, morphology of fecal parasites in rhodnius prolixus used for xenodiagnosis, an ...19979661306
isolation, characterization and geographic distribution of caño delgadito virus, a newly discovered south american hantavirus (family bunyaviridae).rodents collected from the venezuelan llanos (plains) during field studies of viral hemorrhagic fever were tested for evidence of hantavirus infection. hantavirus antibody was found in one (7.7%) of 13 oryzomys bicolor, one (3.4%) of 29 rattus rattus, 10 (6.0%) of 166 sigmodon alstoni and one (2.2%) of 45 zygodontomys brevicauda. hantavirus-specific rna was detected in lung tissues from four antibody-positive rodents: two s. alstoni from portuguesa state and one s. alstoni each from cojedes and ...19979498614
gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the black rat (rattus rattus) in abeokuta, southwest nigeria.a survey of 612 black rats, rattus rattus (282 mates and 330 females), for infections with helminth parasites was carried out in abeokuta, in southwest nigeria. three hundred and ninety six (64.7%) were infected with one or more of seven species of helminths comprising three cestodes (hymenolepis diminuta, taenia taeniaeformis (cyst) and raillietina sp.) three nematodes (mastophorus muris, trichuris muris and syphacia sp.) and one acanthocephalan (moniliformis moniliformis). although the prevale ...19979705679
competence of urban rats as reservoir hosts for lyme disease spirochetes.to determine whether urban rats serve efficiently as reservoir hosts for the agent of lyme disease, we recorded the frequency of infection in nymphal ixodes ricinus (l.) ticks that had fed as larvae on experimentally infected norway rats, rattus norvegicus (berkenhout), or on black rats, r. rattus (l.), and evaluated the nidicolous venue of transmission. subadult vector ticks attached readily to norway rats as well as black rats and virtually all became infected in the course of feeding. larval ...19979220684
first epidemiological data on pathogenic leptospires isolated on the azorean islands.insectivores (erinaceus europaeus) and rodents (rattus rattus, r. norvegicus and mus musculus) from different islands of the azores archipelago were found to carry three distinct leptospira interrogans s.l. serovars (copenhageni, icterohaemorrhagiae and ballum) which have never been previously investigated there. the house mouse and the black rat were the major leptospira reservoirs showing isolation rates ranging from 0% for both species (in graciosa) to 88% and 33%, respectively (in sãao migue ...19979258550
role of small mammals in the ecology of borrelia burgdorferi in a peri-urban park in north coastal california.the role of small mammals other than woodrats in the enzootiology of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgorferi, was assessed in the peri-urban park. mammals were collected monthly from september through to april. following tick removal, the animals were tested for b. burgdorferi by culture of ear-punch biopsies. larvae and nymphs that were intermediate in morphology between ixodes spinipalpis and ixodes neotomae occurred on several species of rodents (peromyscus truei, peromyscus californ ...19979291589
[research on three parasitic infestations in rats captured in marseille: evaluation of the zoonotic risk].a cross sectional survey was carried out on a population of 82 rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus alexandrinus) trapped in marseille. the main histopathological finding was the presence of adults or eggs of capillaria hepatica in 44% of the animals. 21% were found with fleas (xenopsylla cheopis). there was no evidence of trichinosis in any of the rats examined. hepatic capillariasis is a zoonosis seldom described in human beings. about 30 human cases have been reported in the world. human ...19979312363
natural schistosoma mansoni infection in wild rats from guadeloupe: parasitological and immunological aspects.rattus rattus is the predominant rodent in the mangrove area of guadeloupe. between 1990 and 1991 we found 73 r. rattus and five r. norvegicus. among the infected rats with schistosoma mansoni, 59% for r. rattus and 80% for r. norvegicus, the comparison of the median of the worm load was not statistically different. both species of infected rats showed adult worms and eggs in the lungs and 20% of them showed, at the same time, two and even three generations of worms. neither adults nor eggs were ...19979351999
new record of nosopsyllus (nosopsyllus) barbarus (jordan and rothschild, 1912) (aphaniptera: dolichopsyllidae) from sicily. morphology at scanning electron microscopy of n. (n.) barbarus and n. (n.) fasciatus (bosc d'antic, 1800).nosopsyllus (n.) fasciatus, species or complex cosmopolitan and very polymorphic, is established in most of italian regions, in association with murine rodents, especially domestic species. n. (n.) barbarus, similar to n. fasciatus in modified segments of the male and perhaps in ecology, is presently known from north africa regions and a few mediterranean islands; in italy it is reported from sardinia and egadi islands. in this note the n. barbarus presence in sicily (palermo) and the contempora ...19979419843
vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. i. the effect of leishmania parasites on rate of digestion of blood proteins from various vertebrate hosts by the sand fly phlebotomus langeroni (diptera: psychodidae).protein digestion in the gut of phlebotomus langeroni (nitzulescu) was studied at four subsequent 24 hour intervals post feeding on human, dog (canis familiaris), rat (rattus rattus) and turkey (melagris gallopava) bloods with and without leishmania infantum or l. major promastigotes. most of the proteins of the studied blood meals were digested within 96 hours. the percent of blood proteins digested in the first 48 hours was higher than in the second 48 hours in all cases of the studied blood m ...19979425809
vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. ii. influence of blood meal from natural vertebrate hosts with and without leishmania infantum and l. major on the proteolytic activity in the gut of phlebotomus langeroni (diptera: psychodidae).proteolytic activity in the gut of phlebotomus langeroni (nitzulescu) was studied at four subsequent 24 hours intervals post feeding on human, dog (canis familiaris), rat (rattus rattus) and turkey (melagris gallopava) bloods with and without leishmania infantum or l. major promastigotes. the gut proteolytic activity increased gradually after feeding to reach a maximum at 48 hours post feeding on any of the 12 studied blood meals. in all cases, the activity declined after 48 hours and almost ter ...19979425810
vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. iii. impact of blood meal from natural vertebrate hosts on the survival and the development of leishmania infantum and l. major in phlebotomus langeroni (diptera: psychodidae).phlebotomus langeroni collected from a leishmaniasis endemic focus at et agamy, alexandria, egypt, were found to have fed on blood from man, dogs (canis familiaris) and rats (rattus rattus). the effect of the kind of blood meal on the development and the life-cycle of l. infantum and l. major in laboratory reared p. langeroni was therefore investigated. a membrane feeding technique was used to infect sand flies. gut smears of infected females were examined immediately after feeding and daily for ...19979425822
vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. iv. electrophoretic studies on proteins of four vertebrate bloods with and without leishmania infantum or l. major.fifty five protein bands with relative mobilities of 8,954 to 245,471 kilo daltons (kd) were electrophoretically separated from 12 feeding media of blood from 4 natural vertebrate hosts of phlebotomus langeroni. the feeding media included human, dog (canis familiaris), rat (rattus rattus) and turkey (melagris gallopava) bloods without or with leishmania infantum or l. major promastigotes. protein bands were identical among the feeding media of one host's blood but varied in number (24-28 bands) ...19979425823
studies on animal schistosomes in peninsular malaysia: record of naturally infected animals and additional hosts of schistosoma spindale.surveillance studies on cercarial dermatitis were carried out in paddy growing areas in peninsular malaysia. it was observed that dermatitis in paddy planters occurred in paddy fields which were cultivated using animals such as bafflos or fields where domestic animals were allowed to graze during the off planting season as these animals harbored the parasite. the causative agent of cercarial dermatitis was schistosoma spindale. a total of 215 small mammals trapped from alor setar and 126 trapped ...19979444010
physical mapping and structural analysis of new gene families rt1.s and rps2r in the grc region of the rat major histocompatibility complex.five new genes were identified in the growth and reproduction complex (grc) region: rt1.s1, rt1.s2, rps2r1, rps2r2, and rps2r3. the class ib rt1.s1 and rt1.s2 genes have five distinct exons (1, 4, 5, 6, 7) similar to other class i major histocompatibility complex genes but the conventional exons 2 and 3 are absent. the genes are 97% similar, have caat and tata boxes much upstream of the conventional position, obey the gt/ag rule in their exon-intron boundaries, and are transcribed at a low level ...19979089092
levels of chromosomal damage in hepatocytes of wild rats living within the area of a waste disposal plant.genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation or chemical mutagens/carcinogens has been shown to persist over periods of months in rat hepatocytes, implying that continual exposure to low levels of mutagens will cause an accumulation of damage. thus, it was assumed that hepatocytes of wild rats could be useful as 'biological indicators' for the exposure to mutagens/carcinogens in the environment. to test for this hypothesis house rats (rattus rattus) were trapped at a waste disposal site and the ...19979129332
expression profiles of rt6 and other t lymphocyte surface markers in the black rat (rattus rattus). 19979142236
a new species of leptotrombidium (acari:trombiculidae) collected in active rice fields in northern thailand.leptotrombidium (leptotrombidium) chiangraiensis tanskul & linthicum is described and illustrated as new from specimens collected from the rodents rattus rattus (l., 1758), rattus argentiventer (robinson & kloss, 1916), rattus losea (swinhoe, 1870), and bandicota indica (bechstein, 1800) in chiangrai province northern thailand. the new species was collected in active rice fields and adjacent fruit plantation areas. the etiological agent of scrub typhus, orientia (formerly rickettsia) tsutsugamus ...19979151504
plague, a reemerging disease in madagascar.human cases of plague, which had virtually disappeared in madagascar after the 1930s, reappeared in 1990 with more than 200 confirmed or presumptive cases reported each year since. in the port of mahajanga, plague has been reintroduced, and epidemics occur every year. in antananarivo, the capital, the number of new cases has increased, and many rodents are infected with yersinia pestis. despite surveillance for the sensitivity of y. pestis and fleas to drugs and insecticides and control measures ...19989452403
skin electroporation causes molecular transport across the stratum corneum through localized transport regions.high voltage pulsing of human skin (approximately 100 v across the skin, 1 ms pulses) has been hypothesized to cause electroporation of the stratum corneum, and to cause large fluxes of drugs and other molecules across the skin, through newly created aqueous pathways. in contrast, iontophoresis (<0.5 ma per cm2, <1 v across the skin) has long been used in transdermal drug delivery, and is believed to involve pre-existing pathways associated with hair follicles and sweat ducts. either high voltag ...19989734832
ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of vampirolepis microstoma (cestoda, hymenolepididae), intestinal parasite of rattus rattus.spermiogenesis in vampirolepis microstoma begins with the formation of a nuclear cone and a differentiation zone. this is delimited at the front by arched membranes, bordered by cortical microtubules, and contains two parallel centrioles linked together at their bases by electron-dense, amorphous material. the nuclear cone elongates, becomes filiform, and migrates into the spermatid body. later, one of the centrioles gives rise to a flagellum that grows at the same pace as the cortical microtubu ...19989764922
seasonal colonization and decomposition of rat carrion in water and on land in an open field in south carolina.decomposition and insect colonization of rat, rattus rattus l., carrion on land and in water were compared during summer and winter in a plowed field in northwestern south carolina. during winter, carcasses on land reached the dried-remains stage of decomposition, whereas carcasses in water reached the early-floating stage. during summer, carcasses in both habitats entered the final-remains stage of decomposition in 1-2 wk. fewer than 30 species of carrion insects were recorded from the carcasse ...19989775597
black creek canal virus infection in sigmodon hispidus in southern florida.a total of 1,500 small mammals were collected and tested for antibodies cross-reactive to sin nombre virus (hantavirus: bunyaviridae) at 89 sites in a 1,600 km2 study area of southern florida. more than 95% of the 123 seropositive animals were cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus), suggesting infection by black creek canal virus, although seroreactive rattus rattus (5 of 294) and peromyscus gossypinus (1 of 39) also were captured. crude seroprevalence in s. hispidus was 11%. seroprevalence increased w ...19989840584
characterisation of leishmania isolates from laikipia district, kenya.using cloned kdna sequences from the reference strain of leishmania tropica ic-067, we have screened leishmanial isolates from laikipia district of kenya and identified these isolates as l. tropica. one isolate, ic-331, from a rat (rattus rattus) was typed as l. tropica. this is the first time that l. tropica has been isolated from a wild rodent in kenya and thus the first indication that the disease caused by l. tropica might be a zoonosis. the leishmanial isolates, especially those of sandflie ...19989879738
age-dependent immunolocalization of fibronectin and histological changes in the thymus of rats.age-dependent variations in the immunolocalization of fibronectin (fn) in the thymus were investigated in 1-, 6-, 12- and 20-month-old male and female swiss albino rats (rattus rattus) at the light-microscopic level and the changes with ageing in the histological structure of the thymus were also studied. there were no significant differences in the age-dependent variations in the immunolocalization of fibronectin or in the histological structure of the thymus between male and female rats of the ...199810066126
fasciola hepatica development in the experimentally infected black rat rattus rattus.the finding of natural infection of rattus rattus by fasciola hepatica on corsica has stimulated further research into the role of the black rat in the epidemiology of fascioliasis. corsican black rats were experimentally individually infected with 20 metacercariae from cattle and murine isolates obtained from naturally infected bovines and black rats. the following results were obtained: (a) in r. rattus infected with the cattle isolate, normal adult fluke development took place and infection p ...19989521007
schistosome-induced portacaval haemodynamic changes in rattus rattus are associated with translocation of adult worms to the lungs.the presence of naturally portacaval shunts has been investigated in the vasculature of normal and schistosoma mansoni-infected rattus rattus. using the technique of injecting polystyrene microspheres in the superior mesenteric vein, we demonstrated that the presence of adult schistosomes in the lungs of r. rattus was not due to an innate anomaly of the rat vasculature but resulted from the formation of portacaval shunts during infection. in rats harbouring a bisexual infection, microspheres wer ...19989550217
a new ecology for scrub typhus associated with a focus of antibiotic resistance in rice farmers in thailand.following the documentation of chloramphenicol-resistant and doxycycline-resistant strains of orientia tsutsugamushi (hyashi) in northern thailand, we conducted ecological and epidemiological studies near the houses of patients hospitalized with antibiotic-resistant infections. new associations between chiggers, rodents, and o. tsutsugamushi in active rice agriculture areas, an ecological habitat not described previously, are reported. rattus rattus (l.) was the most common species (representing ...19989701943
detection of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis complex in wild mammals from colombian coffee plantations by pcr and dna hybridization.the small mammal fauna of coffee plantations in sw colombia was surveyed to determine which of the species present were infected with parasites of the leishmania (viannia) braziliensis complex and might therefore act as reservoirs of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. fifty animals of seven different species were captured. tissue samples were taken from the ears of specimens from each of the seven species. thirty three samples were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using oligonucleotide pr ...19989588240
surveillance of leptospiral carriage by feral rats in barbados.rodents, particularly rats, are widely held to be the source of most human cases of leptospirosis. feral rats were trapped at sites throughout barbados during two six month surveys: from october to march 1986/87 and from october to march 1994/95. during the first survey, 63 rats were trapped, of which 26 (41%) were identified as rattus rattus and 37 (59%) as rattus norvegicus. in the second study, 100 rats were trapped, of which r. rattus comprised 24% (24) and r. norvegicus 76% (76). cultures o ...19989619090
community structure and demography of small-mammal populations in insular montane forests in southern india.small mammals were studied in insular montane forest patches in the upper nilgiris in southern india from february 1994 to september 1996. nine patches were selected at two sites, one with a single large 600-ha patch, the other with several small patches ranging in size from 0.2 to 60 ha. the population characteristics and community structure of small mammals were studied in relation to patch size and habitat structure within the patches. the two most abundant species were rattus rattus (2-36 in ...199828308532
hierarchical patterns of genetic population structure in black rat snakes (elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) as revealed by microsatellite dna analysis.we investigated the distribution of variation at six microsatellite loci in the black rat snake (elaphe obsoleta obsoleta). sampling occurred at three hierarchical scales ranging from communal hibernacula to regional populations, with most locales situated within the frontenac axis region of eastern ontario. we detected no statistically significant pairwise differentiation (fst and rst ) between hibernacula within the same subpopulations (interhibernaculum distance <6 km). however, isolation-by- ...199928565468
redescription of leptotrombidium (leptotrombidium) imphalum (acari: trombiculidae), with observations on bionomics and medical importance in northern thailand.leptotrombidium (leptotrombidium) imphalum vercammen-grandjean & langston is redescribed and illustrated. specimens were collected from the rodents rattus rattus, rattus losea, and bandicota indica in chiangrai province, northern thailand. the species was found on hosts collected on dikes at the margins of rice fields and in adjacent fruit plantations and along irrigation canals, especially in areas covered with the grasses imperata cylindrica (lalang grass) and saccharum arudinaceum. the etiolo ...199910071498
telomere shortening, telomerase expression, and chromosome instability in rat hepatic epithelial stem-like cells.telomeres, which are specialized structures consisting of t2ag3 repeats and proteins at the ends of chromosomes, may be essential for genomic stability. to test whether telomere length maintenance preserves genomic stability in rats (rattus rattus and fischer 344), we assayed telomerase activity and telomere length in the rat hepatic epithelial stem-like cell line wb-f344 during aging in vitro and in tumor-derived lines. telomerase activity in the parental wb-f344 line was repressed at low and i ...199910204805
rats of the genus rattus are reservoir hosts for pathogenic bartonella species: an old world origin for a new world disease?bartonella species were isolated from the blood of 63 of 325 rattus norvegicus and 11 of 92 rattus rattus from 13 sites in the united states and portugal. infection in both rattus species ranged from 0% (e.g., 0/87) to approximately 60% (e.g., 35/62). a 337-bp fragment of the citrate synthase (glta) gene amplified by polymerase chain reaction was sequenced from all 74 isolates. isolates from r. norvegicus were most similar to bartonella elizabethae, isolated previously from a patient with endoca ...199910353885
population biology of schistosoma mansoni in the black rat: host regulation and basic transmission rate.a simple mathematical model was built to investigate the population biology of schistosoma mansoni in its natural definitive host, the black rat (rattus rattus). prevalence and parasite abundance over 13 years from field studies and data from laboratory experiments were used to set up the model. sensitivity analysis showed that the abundance of parasites is strongly influenced by variation in the values of infection parameters. the model shows that the parasite is able to control populations of ...199910404261
electron microscopic study of the parathyroid gland of rattus rattus.the ultrastructure of the parathyroid glands of rattus rattus was investigated. in the chief cells, the nucleus showed deep indentations, and lysosomal inclusions and rod-shaped crystalloids were present. their ultrastructure is described, and the role of the lysosomal inclusions is discussed.199910409848
occurrence of orientia tsutsugamushi in chiggers (acari: trombiculidae) and small animals in an orchard near bangkok, thailand.the ecology of orientia tsutsugamushi (hayashi) was studied in chiggers and small animals in an orchard near bangkok, thailand. small animals were trapped monthly between july and november 1992 and examined for the presence of o. tsutsugamushi and ectoparasitic chiggers. a total of 40 rattus rattus (l.) and 16 tupaia glis (diard) was trapped. o. tsutsugamushi was isolated from liver and spleen samples of 30.8% of r. rattus and 18.6% of t. glis. antibodies to o. tsutsugamushi were detected in 95% ...199910467771
seasonal occurrence of leptotrombidium deliense (acari: trombiculidae) attached to sentinel rodents in an orchard near bangkok, thailand.leptotrombidium deliense walch that attached to sentinel laboratory mice and the roof rat, rattus rattus (l.), placed in an orchard habitat near bangkok, thailand, were studied between april 1993 and april 1995. a single l. deliense larva was attached to only 1 of 51 laboratory mice placed in the study area between april and september 1993. overall, 89/202 (44.1%) r. rattus had 1 or more l. deliense larvae attached, and orientia tsutsugamushi (hayashi), the etiologic agent for scrub typhus, was ...199910593093
phospholipids and their fatty acids in mitochondria, synaptosomes and myelin from the liver and brain of trout and rat: a new view on the role of fatty acids in membranes.the content of different phospholipids (pl) and their fatty acid (fa) composition in subcellular fractions from the liver and brain of rat (rattus rattus) and trout (salmo irideus) were estimated. it was shown that despite higher content of unsaturated fatty acids in myelin compared to synaptosomes, the unsaturation index of the latter is equal or higher than that of myelin. the total content of pl polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufa) was shown to be higher in membrane structures with more active ...199910644159
epidemiologic aspects of american visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic focus in eastern venezuela.an endemic focus of american visceral leishmaniasis (avl) in eastern venezuela has been evaluated in terms of patients (n = 48), immunologic reactivity to leishmania in household contacts (n = 187) and neighborhood controls (n = 170), detection of leishmania (l. donovani complex) in dogs and wild animals by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and characteristics of the sandfly population. the male:female ratio of patients was 1.18:1; 89.6% were < or =12 years old. serologic reactivity was signif ...199910674675
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