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role of small mammals in the ecology of borrelia burgdorferi in a peri-urban park in north coastal california.the role of small mammals other than woodrats in the enzootiology of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgorferi, was assessed in the peri-urban park. mammals were collected monthly from september through to april. following tick removal, the animals were tested for b. burgdorferi by culture of ear-punch biopsies. larvae and nymphs that were intermediate in morphology between ixodes spinipalpis and ixodes neotomae occurred on several species of rodents (peromyscus truei, peromyscus californ ...19979291589
[research on three parasitic infestations in rats captured in marseille: evaluation of the zoonotic risk].a cross sectional survey was carried out on a population of 82 rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus alexandrinus) trapped in marseille. the main histopathological finding was the presence of adults or eggs of capillaria hepatica in 44% of the animals. 21% were found with fleas (xenopsylla cheopis). there was no evidence of trichinosis in any of the rats examined. hepatic capillariasis is a zoonosis seldom described in human beings. about 30 human cases have been reported in the world. human ...19979312363
natural schistosoma mansoni infection in wild rats from guadeloupe: parasitological and immunological aspects.rattus rattus is the predominant rodent in the mangrove area of guadeloupe. between 1990 and 1991 we found 73 r. rattus and five r. norvegicus. among the infected rats with schistosoma mansoni, 59% for r. rattus and 80% for r. norvegicus, the comparison of the median of the worm load was not statistically different. both species of infected rats showed adult worms and eggs in the lungs and 20% of them showed, at the same time, two and even three generations of worms. neither adults nor eggs were ...19979351999
new record of nosopsyllus (nosopsyllus) barbarus (jordan and rothschild, 1912) (aphaniptera: dolichopsyllidae) from sicily. morphology at scanning electron microscopy of n. (n.) barbarus and n. (n.) fasciatus (bosc d'antic, 1800).nosopsyllus (n.) fasciatus, species or complex cosmopolitan and very polymorphic, is established in most of italian regions, in association with murine rodents, especially domestic species. n. (n.) barbarus, similar to n. fasciatus in modified segments of the male and perhaps in ecology, is presently known from north africa regions and a few mediterranean islands; in italy it is reported from sardinia and egadi islands. in this note the n. barbarus presence in sicily (palermo) and the contempora ...19979419843
vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. i. the effect of leishmania parasites on rate of digestion of blood proteins from various vertebrate hosts by the sand fly phlebotomus langeroni (diptera: psychodidae).protein digestion in the gut of phlebotomus langeroni (nitzulescu) was studied at four subsequent 24 hour intervals post feeding on human, dog (canis familiaris), rat (rattus rattus) and turkey (melagris gallopava) bloods with and without leishmania infantum or l. major promastigotes. most of the proteins of the studied blood meals were digested within 96 hours. the percent of blood proteins digested in the first 48 hours was higher than in the second 48 hours in all cases of the studied blood m ...19979425809
vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. ii. influence of blood meal from natural vertebrate hosts with and without leishmania infantum and l. major on the proteolytic activity in the gut of phlebotomus langeroni (diptera: psychodidae).proteolytic activity in the gut of phlebotomus langeroni (nitzulescu) was studied at four subsequent 24 hours intervals post feeding on human, dog (canis familiaris), rat (rattus rattus) and turkey (melagris gallopava) bloods with and without leishmania infantum or l. major promastigotes. the gut proteolytic activity increased gradually after feeding to reach a maximum at 48 hours post feeding on any of the 12 studied blood meals. in all cases, the activity declined after 48 hours and almost ter ...19979425810
vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. iii. impact of blood meal from natural vertebrate hosts on the survival and the development of leishmania infantum and l. major in phlebotomus langeroni (diptera: psychodidae).phlebotomus langeroni collected from a leishmaniasis endemic focus at et agamy, alexandria, egypt, were found to have fed on blood from man, dogs (canis familiaris) and rats (rattus rattus). the effect of the kind of blood meal on the development and the life-cycle of l. infantum and l. major in laboratory reared p. langeroni was therefore investigated. a membrane feeding technique was used to infect sand flies. gut smears of infected females were examined immediately after feeding and daily for ...19979425822
vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. iv. electrophoretic studies on proteins of four vertebrate bloods with and without leishmania infantum or l. major.fifty five protein bands with relative mobilities of 8,954 to 245,471 kilo daltons (kd) were electrophoretically separated from 12 feeding media of blood from 4 natural vertebrate hosts of phlebotomus langeroni. the feeding media included human, dog (canis familiaris), rat (rattus rattus) and turkey (melagris gallopava) bloods without or with leishmania infantum or l. major promastigotes. protein bands were identical among the feeding media of one host's blood but varied in number (24-28 bands) ...19979425823
studies on animal schistosomes in peninsular malaysia: record of naturally infected animals and additional hosts of schistosoma spindale.surveillance studies on cercarial dermatitis were carried out in paddy growing areas in peninsular malaysia. it was observed that dermatitis in paddy planters occurred in paddy fields which were cultivated using animals such as bafflos or fields where domestic animals were allowed to graze during the off planting season as these animals harbored the parasite. the causative agent of cercarial dermatitis was schistosoma spindale. a total of 215 small mammals trapped from alor setar and 126 trapped ...19979444010
plague, a reemerging disease in madagascar.human cases of plague, which had virtually disappeared in madagascar after the 1930s, reappeared in 1990 with more than 200 confirmed or presumptive cases reported each year since. in the port of mahajanga, plague has been reintroduced, and epidemics occur every year. in antananarivo, the capital, the number of new cases has increased, and many rodents are infected with yersinia pestis. despite surveillance for the sensitivity of y. pestis and fleas to drugs and insecticides and control measures ...19989452403
isolation, characterization and geographic distribution of caño delgadito virus, a newly discovered south american hantavirus (family bunyaviridae).rodents collected from the venezuelan llanos (plains) during field studies of viral hemorrhagic fever were tested for evidence of hantavirus infection. hantavirus antibody was found in one (7.7%) of 13 oryzomys bicolor, one (3.4%) of 29 rattus rattus, 10 (6.0%) of 166 sigmodon alstoni and one (2.2%) of 45 zygodontomys brevicauda. hantavirus-specific rna was detected in lung tissues from four antibody-positive rodents: two s. alstoni from portuguesa state and one s. alstoni each from cojedes and ...19979498614
fasciola hepatica development in the experimentally infected black rat rattus rattus.the finding of natural infection of rattus rattus by fasciola hepatica on corsica has stimulated further research into the role of the black rat in the epidemiology of fascioliasis. corsican black rats were experimentally individually infected with 20 metacercariae from cattle and murine isolates obtained from naturally infected bovines and black rats. the following results were obtained: (a) in r. rattus infected with the cattle isolate, normal adult fluke development took place and infection p ...19989521007
schistosome-induced portacaval haemodynamic changes in rattus rattus are associated with translocation of adult worms to the lungs.the presence of naturally portacaval shunts has been investigated in the vasculature of normal and schistosoma mansoni-infected rattus rattus. using the technique of injecting polystyrene microspheres in the superior mesenteric vein, we demonstrated that the presence of adult schistosomes in the lungs of r. rattus was not due to an innate anomaly of the rat vasculature but resulted from the formation of portacaval shunts during infection. in rats harbouring a bisexual infection, microspheres wer ...19989550217
entomological and rodent surveillance in plague-suspected areas during september 1994 and thereafter.studies carried out in the states of maharashtra, gujarat, uttar pradesh and union territory of delhi after the bubonic plague outbreak during 1994 revealed the presence of seven species of rodents, viz. rattus rattus, r. norvegicus, mus. musculus, tatera indica, suncus murinus, bandicoota bengalensis and b. indica. the flea species encountered were xenopsylla cheopis and x. astia. the x. cheopis and x. astia index recorded in different areas of beed district of maharashtra; surat, vadodra and b ...19979556751
atropine and testosterone propionate induced atretic changes in granulosa cells of house rat (rattus rattus) ovary.degenerative changes in membrana granulosa of ovaries in r. rattus have been studied using scanning electron microscopy. ovaries from rats treated with atropine (300 mg/kg body weight) and testosterone propionate (10 iu) were used to study sequential course of atresia in granulosa cells. granulosa cells undergoing atresia showed degenerative changes in following order i) loosening of intercellular matrix, ii) changed morphology and texture of secretory granules, iii) destabilization of granulosa ...19979567743
solid phase synthesis and biological activity of rat relaxin.the peptide hormone relaxin was isolated in good yield from the ovaries of the pregnant rodent rattus rattus using a simplified purification schedule. it was subjected to comprehensive chemical characterization to confirm both its purity and predicted composition. the peptide was also chemically synthesized by the solid phase procedure. the two chains comprising the hormone were each assembled by the boc-polystyrene method and, following conventional purification, combined in solution to form th ...19969575346
[control of intestinal schistosomiasis in martinique island].the presence of schistosomiasis mansoni is known in martinique since the beginning of the xxth century. a general survey of the distribution of the disease was carried out in 1977 and showed a mean prevalence of 12% (coprology and serology taken together) in the whole of the island. following this survey, an integrated control programme associating sanitary education, detection and treatment of patients and improved sanitation, was developed. in addition, a biological control programme against t ...19979587606
detection of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis complex in wild mammals from colombian coffee plantations by pcr and dna hybridization.the small mammal fauna of coffee plantations in sw colombia was surveyed to determine which of the species present were infected with parasites of the leishmania (viannia) braziliensis complex and might therefore act as reservoirs of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. fifty animals of seven different species were captured. tissue samples were taken from the ears of specimens from each of the seven species. thirty three samples were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using oligonucleotide pr ...19989588240
surveillance of leptospiral carriage by feral rats in barbados.rodents, particularly rats, are widely held to be the source of most human cases of leptospirosis. feral rats were trapped at sites throughout barbados during two six month surveys: from october to march 1986/87 and from october to march 1994/95. during the first survey, 63 rats were trapped, of which 26 (41%) were identified as rattus rattus and 37 (59%) as rattus norvegicus. in the second study, 100 rats were trapped, of which r. rattus comprised 24% (24) and r. norvegicus 76% (76). cultures o ...19989619090
a survey of helminth infection in rats (rattus spp) from chiang mai moat.an investigation of helminths in the norway (brown) rat, rattus norvegicus, and roof rat, rattus rattus, from chiang mai moat during may to august 1995, was done. thirty-three out of thirty-eight trapped rats were infected (86.84%); 16 r. norvegicus (100%) and 17/22 r. rattus (77.27%). the rat was infected with 10 helminth species: 4 trematodes, centrocestus sp (2.63%), echinostoma ilocanum (10.52%), echinostoma malayanum (10.52%) and quinqueseralis quinqueseralis (39.47%); 2 cestodes, raillieti ...19979656373
synanthropic rodent reservoirs of trypanosoma (schizotrypanum) cruzi in the valley of caracas, venezuela.direct blood examination and xenodiagnosis of 47 synanthropic rodents (rattus rattus, r. norvegicus, mus musculus) captured in the valley of caracas, venezuela, revealed trypanosomal infections in 12 r. rattus, 10 with t. lewisi and 2 with t. cruzi. of the latter the course of parasitemia, the pleomorphism of the bloodstream trypomastigotes, tissue in naturally and experimentally infected rats and mice, host mortality, morphology of fecal parasites in rhodnius prolixus used for xenodiagnosis, an ...19979661306
a new ecology for scrub typhus associated with a focus of antibiotic resistance in rice farmers in thailand.following the documentation of chloramphenicol-resistant and doxycycline-resistant strains of orientia tsutsugamushi (hyashi) in northern thailand, we conducted ecological and epidemiological studies near the houses of patients hospitalized with antibiotic-resistant infections. new associations between chiggers, rodents, and o. tsutsugamushi in active rice agriculture areas, an ecological habitat not described previously, are reported. rattus rattus (l.) was the most common species (representing ...19989701943
gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the black rat (rattus rattus) in abeokuta, southwest nigeria.a survey of 612 black rats, rattus rattus (282 mates and 330 females), for infections with helminth parasites was carried out in abeokuta, in southwest nigeria. three hundred and ninety six (64.7%) were infected with one or more of seven species of helminths comprising three cestodes (hymenolepis diminuta, taenia taeniaeformis (cyst) and raillietina sp.) three nematodes (mastophorus muris, trichuris muris and syphacia sp.) and one acanthocephalan (moniliformis moniliformis). although the prevale ...19979705679
skin electroporation causes molecular transport across the stratum corneum through localized transport regions.high voltage pulsing of human skin (approximately 100 v across the skin, 1 ms pulses) has been hypothesized to cause electroporation of the stratum corneum, and to cause large fluxes of drugs and other molecules across the skin, through newly created aqueous pathways. in contrast, iontophoresis (<0.5 ma per cm2, <1 v across the skin) has long been used in transdermal drug delivery, and is believed to involve pre-existing pathways associated with hair follicles and sweat ducts. either high voltag ...19989734832
ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of vampirolepis microstoma (cestoda, hymenolepididae), intestinal parasite of rattus rattus.spermiogenesis in vampirolepis microstoma begins with the formation of a nuclear cone and a differentiation zone. this is delimited at the front by arched membranes, bordered by cortical microtubules, and contains two parallel centrioles linked together at their bases by electron-dense, amorphous material. the nuclear cone elongates, becomes filiform, and migrates into the spermatid body. later, one of the centrioles gives rise to a flagellum that grows at the same pace as the cortical microtubu ...19989764922
seasonal colonization and decomposition of rat carrion in water and on land in an open field in south carolina.decomposition and insect colonization of rat, rattus rattus l., carrion on land and in water were compared during summer and winter in a plowed field in northwestern south carolina. during winter, carcasses on land reached the dried-remains stage of decomposition, whereas carcasses in water reached the early-floating stage. during summer, carcasses in both habitats entered the final-remains stage of decomposition in 1-2 wk. fewer than 30 species of carrion insects were recorded from the carcasse ...19989775597
black creek canal virus infection in sigmodon hispidus in southern florida.a total of 1,500 small mammals were collected and tested for antibodies cross-reactive to sin nombre virus (hantavirus: bunyaviridae) at 89 sites in a 1,600 km2 study area of southern florida. more than 95% of the 123 seropositive animals were cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus), suggesting infection by black creek canal virus, although seroreactive rattus rattus (5 of 294) and peromyscus gossypinus (1 of 39) also were captured. crude seroprevalence in s. hispidus was 11%. seroprevalence increased w ...19989840584
characterisation of leishmania isolates from laikipia district, kenya.using cloned kdna sequences from the reference strain of leishmania tropica ic-067, we have screened leishmanial isolates from laikipia district of kenya and identified these isolates as l. tropica. one isolate, ic-331, from a rat (rattus rattus) was typed as l. tropica. this is the first time that l. tropica has been isolated from a wild rodent in kenya and thus the first indication that the disease caused by l. tropica might be a zoonosis. the leishmanial isolates, especially those of sandflie ...19989879738
age-dependent immunolocalization of fibronectin and histological changes in the thymus of rats.age-dependent variations in the immunolocalization of fibronectin (fn) in the thymus were investigated in 1-, 6-, 12- and 20-month-old male and female swiss albino rats (rattus rattus) at the light-microscopic level and the changes with ageing in the histological structure of the thymus were also studied. there were no significant differences in the age-dependent variations in the immunolocalization of fibronectin or in the histological structure of the thymus between male and female rats of the ...199810066126
redescription of leptotrombidium (leptotrombidium) imphalum (acari: trombiculidae), with observations on bionomics and medical importance in northern thailand.leptotrombidium (leptotrombidium) imphalum vercammen-grandjean & langston is redescribed and illustrated. specimens were collected from the rodents rattus rattus, rattus losea, and bandicota indica in chiangrai province, northern thailand. the species was found on hosts collected on dikes at the margins of rice fields and in adjacent fruit plantations and along irrigation canals, especially in areas covered with the grasses imperata cylindrica (lalang grass) and saccharum arudinaceum. the etiolo ...199910071498
telomere shortening, telomerase expression, and chromosome instability in rat hepatic epithelial stem-like cells.telomeres, which are specialized structures consisting of t2ag3 repeats and proteins at the ends of chromosomes, may be essential for genomic stability. to test whether telomere length maintenance preserves genomic stability in rats (rattus rattus and fischer 344), we assayed telomerase activity and telomere length in the rat hepatic epithelial stem-like cell line wb-f344 during aging in vitro and in tumor-derived lines. telomerase activity in the parental wb-f344 line was repressed at low and i ...199910204805
rats of the genus rattus are reservoir hosts for pathogenic bartonella species: an old world origin for a new world disease?bartonella species were isolated from the blood of 63 of 325 rattus norvegicus and 11 of 92 rattus rattus from 13 sites in the united states and portugal. infection in both rattus species ranged from 0% (e.g., 0/87) to approximately 60% (e.g., 35/62). a 337-bp fragment of the citrate synthase (glta) gene amplified by polymerase chain reaction was sequenced from all 74 isolates. isolates from r. norvegicus were most similar to bartonella elizabethae, isolated previously from a patient with endoca ...199910353885
population biology of schistosoma mansoni in the black rat: host regulation and basic transmission rate.a simple mathematical model was built to investigate the population biology of schistosoma mansoni in its natural definitive host, the black rat (rattus rattus). prevalence and parasite abundance over 13 years from field studies and data from laboratory experiments were used to set up the model. sensitivity analysis showed that the abundance of parasites is strongly influenced by variation in the values of infection parameters. the model shows that the parasite is able to control populations of ...199910404261
electron microscopic study of the parathyroid gland of rattus rattus.the ultrastructure of the parathyroid glands of rattus rattus was investigated. in the chief cells, the nucleus showed deep indentations, and lysosomal inclusions and rod-shaped crystalloids were present. their ultrastructure is described, and the role of the lysosomal inclusions is discussed.199910409848
occurrence of orientia tsutsugamushi in chiggers (acari: trombiculidae) and small animals in an orchard near bangkok, thailand.the ecology of orientia tsutsugamushi (hayashi) was studied in chiggers and small animals in an orchard near bangkok, thailand. small animals were trapped monthly between july and november 1992 and examined for the presence of o. tsutsugamushi and ectoparasitic chiggers. a total of 40 rattus rattus (l.) and 16 tupaia glis (diard) was trapped. o. tsutsugamushi was isolated from liver and spleen samples of 30.8% of r. rattus and 18.6% of t. glis. antibodies to o. tsutsugamushi were detected in 95% ...199910467771
mast cell dynamics in the house rat (rattus rattus) ovary during estrus cycle, pregnancy and lactation.the distribution of mast cells in various ovarian compartments was studied during different stages of the reproductive cycles in rattus rattus. two types of mast cell populations were recognized with light microscopy i.e., light purple and deep purple, the latter also includes deeply stained cells with extruded granules. mast cells identified by electron microscopy showed the ultrastructural features during granule formation and release of their content. significantly higher numbers of mast cell ...200010550797
seasonal occurrence of leptotrombidium deliense (acari: trombiculidae) attached to sentinel rodents in an orchard near bangkok, thailand.leptotrombidium deliense walch that attached to sentinel laboratory mice and the roof rat, rattus rattus (l.), placed in an orchard habitat near bangkok, thailand, were studied between april 1993 and april 1995. a single l. deliense larva was attached to only 1 of 51 laboratory mice placed in the study area between april and september 1993. overall, 89/202 (44.1%) r. rattus had 1 or more l. deliense larvae attached, and orientia tsutsugamushi (hayashi), the etiologic agent for scrub typhus, was ...199910593093
phospholipids and their fatty acids in mitochondria, synaptosomes and myelin from the liver and brain of trout and rat: a new view on the role of fatty acids in membranes.the content of different phospholipids (pl) and their fatty acid (fa) composition in subcellular fractions from the liver and brain of rat (rattus rattus) and trout (salmo irideus) were estimated. it was shown that despite higher content of unsaturated fatty acids in myelin compared to synaptosomes, the unsaturation index of the latter is equal or higher than that of myelin. the total content of pl polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufa) was shown to be higher in membrane structures with more active ...199910644159
epidemiologic aspects of american visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic focus in eastern venezuela.an endemic focus of american visceral leishmaniasis (avl) in eastern venezuela has been evaluated in terms of patients (n = 48), immunologic reactivity to leishmania in household contacts (n = 187) and neighborhood controls (n = 170), detection of leishmania (l. donovani complex) in dogs and wild animals by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and characteristics of the sandfly population. the male:female ratio of patients was 1.18:1; 89.6% were < or =12 years old. serologic reactivity was signif ...199910674675
cystogenesis of antral follicles induced by dehydroepiandrosterone (dhea) stimulates mast cell proliferation and maturation in the house rat (rattus rattus) ovary.mast cell dynamics has been studied in relation to cystogenesis of ovarian follicles in the house rat. immature rats were injected (s.c.) daily with dhea (6.0 mg/100 g body weight) and were sacrificed on the day 8, 16 and 24 of the start of treatment. ovarian sections of the treated rats had majority of the antral follicles undergoing atresia or in early stages of cystogenesis. completely developed cysts were evident from the ovarian surface after 24 days of daily treatment. treatment for 8 days ...199910687290
schistosoma japonicum in the black rat, rattus rattus mindanensis, from leyte, philippines in relation to oncomelania snail colonies with reference to other endoparasites.this study examined the prevalence of schistosoma japonicum infections in field rats, rattus rattus mindanensis, according to different trapping locations. between october 1995 and january 1996, traps were set in the municipality of palo, leyte, philippines to determine the correlation of rats infected with schistosomiasis to the proximity of the intermediate snail host, oncomelania hupensis quadrasi, colonies. of the 22 rats that were caught within a snail colony, 21 (95.5%) were positive for s ...199910774707
the potential role of rodents in the enzootic cycle of rift valley fever virus in senegal.wild rodents (214) of fourteen species were trapped at seven sites in senegal. arvicanthis niloticus and mastomys erythroleucus were among the most frequently collected species (77.2% of total capture). all rodents were examined for the presence of anti-rift valley fever virus (rvfv) antibody; the prevalence over all sampled species was 3.8%, varying widely with respect to species and location. four of 14 species of rodents were found to have anti-rvfv antibodies: rattus rattus (one positive of ...200010817634
small mammal trapping in tropical montane forests of the upper nilgiris, southern india: an evaluation of capture-recapture models in estimating abundance.capture-mark-recapture was used to study small mammal populations in tropical montane forests in southern india. eleven plots in six montane forest patches were sampled from february-october, 1994. six species were captured, including four rodents and two shrews. program capture was used to derive estimates of density of the most abundant species in the study area, rattus rattus linnaeus. the coefficient of variation of the density estimate was used as an index of precision. the coefficient of v ...200010824204
inactive ribosomal cistrons are spread throughout the b chromosomes of rattus rattus (rodentia, muridae). implications for their origin and evolution.in-situ hybridization with a rdna probe has demonstrated the presence of non-transcribed ribosomal genes in the b chromosomes of the black rat rattus rattus. to test whether methylation of ribosomal dna present in the b chromosomes could account for their inactivation, we performed in-situ digestions and southern analyses of dna digested with the isoschizomers mspi and hpaii. our results suggest that the accessory chromosomes of this species have originated from one of the smaller nor-carrying c ...200010919721
[fatal rat bites].we present a rare case of infant death due to blood loss resulting from multiple rat bites. domestic dogs and cats cause most animal bites. bites of a house rat usually cause bacterial infection, successfully treated with antibiotics. there is little information about death due to house rat bites. since the wounds they cause tend to occur post-mortem, they are usually wedged, clean and without subcutaneous bleeding. an 11-week-old, malnourished infant girl was bitten to death while sleeping in h ...199910955069
action of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether on male reproductive organs of indian wild rat.adult male indian house rats (rattus rattus) were administered ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (egme) (500 mg/kg) perorally daily for 1, 6 and 11 days and were examined after 1, 6, and 11 days, respectively. also a recovery study was conducted for 4 and 8 weeks after the animals received 11 successive doses of egme. egme caused testicular lesions resulting in a severe impairment of spermatogenic elements. however, no histopathological changes of the leydig cells or alterations in testicular ste ...199610979046
leptospira autumnalis isolated from a human case from avadi, india, and the serovar's predominance in local rat and bandicoot populations.leptospira were successfully isolated from the urine of an indian patient who had been clinically diagnosed as having leptospirosis. in an attempt to determine the source of this infection, 28 rats (rattus rattus) and 58 bandicoots (bandicota bengalensis) living in the vicinity of the patient's home in avadi, a suburban area of the city of chennai (madras), india, were then investigated. each animal was checked for infection by microscopical examination of fresh and stained urine, serological an ...200010983563
the occurrence of cryptosporidium parvum and c. muris in wild rodents and insectivores in spain.five rodent and two insectivore species were investigated for cryptosporidium at seven sites in north-eastern spain. of the 442 animals studied, 82 apodemus sylvaticus, 1 a. flavicollis, 5 mus spretus, 1 rattus rattus, 8 clethrionomys glareolus and 13 crocidura russula were infected with only c. parvum. eleven a. sylvaticus and 2 c. glareolus were infected with only c. muris and 16 a. sylvaticus, 1 m. spretus and 2 c. glareolus showed mixed infections. both cryptosporidial species were found in ...200010996736
[rodents and the plague in iran and brazil. new data].rats of the meriones species (gerbil rodents), involved in the epidemiology of plague in iran, have an abdominal cutaneous gland which leaves secretions on the floor of the galleries in which they live. its odorous marking is specific to the species having dug the burrow and is repulsive for all other species. this fact must be accounted for: locally, the eradication of the most sensitive species would probably help in limiting or perhaps even doing away altogether with the plague focus. in nort ...199911000951
[the black rat (rattus rattus) and the plague in ancient and medieval western europe].the first time plague affected western europe was in the early middle ages: rom 541 to 767, there were no fewer than 15 outbreaks in southern parts of the continent. plague then disappeared from europe for some seven centuries but came back with a vengeance in 1347, this time by way of the mediterranean, and ravaged the entire continent for five years, resulting in a serious demographic depression. from then on until 1722 (and 1771 in moscow), the disease remained endemic to europe, periodically ...199911000955
pharmacological properties of the repellent secretion of zonocerus variegatus (orthoptera: prygomorphidae).the odours of the whole body and the secretion of zonocerus variegatus were easily recognised and perceived by human volunteers. however, the secretion odour is not related to the odour of the food plant consumed by the grasshopper. the repellency of z. variegatus becomes more pronounced in the 6th. and adult instars whose gland lumens contain an appreciable volume of secretion. the secretion odour is so strong that even dilution does not affect its repulsiveness to humans. the secretion had pha ...199911021312
fine structure of the development of sarcocystis singaporensis in python reticulatus from macrogamont to sporulated oocyst stage.three, 4-month old reticulated pythons (python reticulatus) hatched from eggs laid by a newly caught female from singapore island, were fed on muscles of sarcocystis singaporensis-infected rattus rattus caught in singapore. snakes were sacrificed five, six and eight days later. the infected tissues were studied by transmission electron microscope. the present communication summarizes findings on macrogamont and oocyst stages. in the premature stages, rough endoplasmic reticulum consolidate into ...200011031755
reservoir hosts of leptospira inadai in india.isolation of leptospira from the kidneys of rattus rattus wroughtoni hinton, rattus rattus rufescens, bandicota bengalensis and bandicota indica was attempted in bangalore in southern india. in total, 296 spirochaetes were isolated from 1,348 kidney cultures (an isolation rate of 22%). a batch of fifty-six isolates from india was identified, based on serological and polymerase chain reaction analysis, of which twenty-three isolates were identified as l. inadai by the world health organization/fo ...200011107622
development and persistence of antibodies to orientia tsutsugamushi in the roof rat, rattus rattus and laboratory mice following attachment of naturally infected leptotrombidium deliense.the development and persistence of antibodies to orientia tsutsugamushi in rattus rattus and laboratory mice following infection from the bite of naturally infected leptotrombidium deliense is reported. antibodies in r. rattus were first detected using an indirect immunoperoxidase method 2 weeks after attachment of an infected mite. the igm antibody response was mild, and was detected 2, 4 and 6 weeks after infection, while the igg response was stronger and was detected from 2 to 19 weeks after ...200011114390
genetic diversity of hantaviruses isolated in china and characterization of novel hantaviruses isolated from niviventer confucianus and rattus rattus.the antigenic and genetic properties of 46 hantaviruses from china, 13 from patients, 23 from rodents, and 10 from unknown hosts, were compared with those of other hantaviruses. the viruses were classified as either hantaan (htn) or seoul (seo) viruses. a phylogenetic analysis of the partial m (300 bp) and s (around 485 bp) genomes of htn viruses identified nine distinct genetic subtypes, one consisting of isolates from korea. the seo viruses were divided into five genetic subtypes, although the ...200011118357
fine structural development of microgamonts of sarcocystis singaporensis in python reticulatus.three 4-month-old reticulated pythons (python reticulatus), hatched from eggs laid by a newly caught female from singapore island, were fed on muscles of sarcocystis singaporensis-infected rattus rattus caught in singapore. snakes were sacrificed 5, 6 and 8 days later, the infected tissues were studied by transmission electron microscopy. the present communication summarizes findings on microgamont stages. both premature and mature microgamonts were already present in the snake sacrificed 5 days ...200011133107
rodent ectoparasites from two locations in northwestern florida.from feb.-apr. 1999, 19 species of ectoparasitic arthropods (2 sucking lice, 4 fleas, 4 ticks, 2 mesostigmatid mites, 5 chiggers, 2 fur mites) were recovered from 106 rodents belonging to 5 species (cotton mouse, peromyscus gossypinus, n = 64; cotton rat, sigmodon hispidus, n = 23; eastern woodrat, neotoma floridana, n = 9; golden mouse, ochrotomys nuttalli, n = 9; eastern gray squirrel, sciurus carolinensis, n = 1) at tall timbers research station, leon county, florida. during the same period, ...200011217221
comparison of salmonella isolation rates in different types of egg-layer hen houses in chiba, japan.this study investigated the differences in salmonella isolation rates in environmental samples taken from several types of hen houses in chiba, japan. in addition, for the detailed epidemiologic survey, environmental samples, hens, and rodents were collected from salmonella-contaminated windowless houses on three farms. as a result, salmonella was isolated from four (80%) of five farms with windowless hen houses; salmonella enteritidis was isolated from a single windowless house. in contrast, on ...200111332483
trace metal concentrations in squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) and black rat (rattus muridae) inhabiting roadside ecosystem. 200111353372
parasite (schistosoma mansoni) and host (biomphalaria glabrata) genetic diversity: population structure in a fragmented landscape.random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers were used to quantify genetic diversity within and between 5 populations of schistosoma mansoni within its definitive host (rattus rattus) and the 5 corresponding populations of the snail intermediate host (biomphalaria glabrata) from a limited endemic area of murine schistosomiasis on the island of guadeloupe. analysis of molecular variance (amova) and canonical correspondence analysis (cca) were used to test the significance of genetic differenti ...200111393828
histophysiological changes of the testicular tissue due to busulphan administration in the wild indian house rat (rattus rattus).the results of the present study indicate the antispermatogenic activity of busulphan or myleran (1,4-dimethane-sulphonoxy butane) on the testicular tissue of adult male indian house rat, rattus rattus. single oral dose of busulphan (10 mg/kg body weight) was administered and its activity was noticed at 10, 40, 70 and 100 days of posttreated animals. histological observation and quantitative histological study indicates no major alteration in the relative percentages of primary spermatocytes, sp ...200111396830
seasonal studies on commensal rats and their ectoparasites in a rural area of egypt: the relationship of ectoparasites to the species, locality, and relative abundance of the host.the present study was carried out in 3 villages, namely kafr ayoub soliman, kafr ibrahim el-aidi, and el-sa'adat, sharqiya governorate, egypt. a total of 519 rats was collected from the 3 study sites: 46.6% rattus rattus, and 53.4% rattus norvegicus. a total of 20,643 ectoparasites was recovered from r. rattus: 33.3% mites, 33.8% fleas, and 32.9% lice. from r. norvegicus a total of 40,997 ectoparasites was recovered: 28.9% mites, 31% fleas, and 40.1% lice. three common mite species were recovere ...200111426717
laboratory and field evaluation of predator odors as repellents for kiore (rattus exulans) and ship rats (r. rattus).predator odors may serve to stop rats from entering conservation areas or to decrease predation, food consumption, and other damage by rats in areas tainted with predator odor. we compared the efficacy of real predator odors and synthetic odors (derived from the urine and feces of carnivores) as rat repellents with real herbivore odors as controls in a y maze. we tested six predator odors: cat (felis catus) urine and feces, mongoose (herpestes auropunctatus) feces, n-propylthietane, s-methyl, me ...200111471938
[resurgence of the plague in the ikongo district of madagascar in 1998. 2. reservoirs and vectors implicated].our survey of mammals and fleas arose as a result of an outbreak of bubonic plague at an usually low altitude in the ikongo district (madagascar), while a previous study had found anti-f1 antibodies in an endemic hedgehog. animals were sampled with live traps in two hamlets (antanambao-vohidrotra, 540 m alt. and ambalagoavy, 265 m alt.) and with pitfall traps in a neighbouring forest (750 m alt.). rat fleas were collected by brushing the fur and free-living fleas by use of light traps. the intro ...200111475029
rodents and leptospira transmission risk in terceira island (azores).the role of rodents as leptospira renal carriers in terceira island was evaluated (1993-1995) through kidney culture and serology [microscopic aglutination test (mat)] of 94 mice and rats. fifty-nine animals were positive (n = 41 by serology + culturing; n = 11 serology; n = 7 culturing), presenting a wide distribution in man-made and natural areas. house mice had the highest bacteriological (82.9%) and serological (90.9%) rates, being strictly related to serovar arborea. black rats were involve ...200011484805
experimental transmission of trypanosoma cruzi through the genitalia of albino mice.trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. we investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized nmri albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain co57), rattus rattus (rat, strain co22) and human (strain ep). some animals were a ...200111500777
suppression of cyp3a2 mrna expression in the warfarin-resistant roof rat, rattus rattus: possible involvement of cytochrome p450 in the warfarin resistance mechanism.1. the continual use of warfarin as a rodenticide has caused the development of populations of warfarin-resistant roof rat. to study the biochemical mechanism of warfarin resistance, the mrna expression levels of the major p450 forms in the warfarin-resistant and -susceptible roof rat liver following exposure to warfarin were quantified by competitive rt-pcr. 2. the constitutive levels of cyp2c11 and cyp3a2 mrnas in the warfarin-resistant and -susceptible roof rat were extremely low compared wit ...200111531004
palatability and toxicity of fipronil as a systemic insecticide in a bromadiolone rodenticide bait for rat and flea control.vector control in plague-infested areas requires a simultaneous killing of rodents and their fleas. we investigated the efficacy of a combination of a systemic insecticide, fipronil, in a rodenticide bait formulation under laboratory conditions. four different concentrations of fipronil (0.05%, 0.005%, 0.0005% with acetone as a solvent, and 0.05% with propylene glycol as a solvent) and two controls (solvents only) were combined with the rodenticide bait (crushed organically grown wheat with 0.00 ...200111583448
rattus rattus: the introduction of the black rat into britain. 197911620121
[a contribution to the history of understanding the epidemiology of plague in madagascar].plague appeared in madagascar in 1898, the pandemic coinciding with the french conquest. until 1921, harbor epidemics occurred in tamatave, majunga, diégo-suarez, fort-dauphin, vatomandry. in 1921, probably favored by the building of roads and railways, plague takes root on the high lands where it becomes endemic above 800 meters. the vaccine achievement by girard and robic with the ev strain, and its mass application from 1935 by estrade, milliau, brault, seyberlich and jan keguistel, allowed t ...199511625936
[the plague in finland in 1710].in the autumn of 1710 helsinki was struck by the so-called oriental plague during four months. the infection was transferred by black rats which harboured fleas. the flea-bites caused boils. it was believed that the plague was air-borne, and the air was very humid that autumn. big fires were lit in order to reduce the humidity, the purpose being to make it easier for the infected to breathe. attempts were also made to dissect the boils. the carriers of the contamination came as refugees from e ...199411640321
helminths from introduced small mammals on kerguelen, crozet, and amsterdam islands (southern indian ocean).four monoxenous nematodes and 1 heteroxenous cestode were found in 4 species of introduced small mammals on isolated sub-antarctic islands of the indian ocean. in the kerguelen archipelago, syphacia obvelata, passalurus ambiguus (nematoda: oxyuridae), and rodentolepis straminea (cestoda: cyclophyllidae) were respectively found in the house mouse mus musculus, the rabbit oryctolagus cuniculus, and the black rat rattus rattus. one accidental nematode, trichostrongylus sp. (nematoda: trichostrongyl ...200111695402
short report: thai tick typhus, rickettsia honei, and a unique rickettsia detected in ixodes granulatus (ixodidae: acari) from thailand.a unique rickettsia species (rickettsia thailandii sp. nov.) was identified in an ixodes granulatus by use of polymerase chain reaction heteroduplex mobility assay by use of segments of the citrate synthase gene. this tick was collected from rattus rattus from nakhon ratchasima province in 1970. another i. granulatus was infected with thai tick typhus strain tt-118, rickettsia honei sp. nov. stenos, roux, walker & raoult; this tick was removed from a r. rattus collected 4 years later from the sa ...200111716110
schistosoma ovuncatum n. sp. (digenea: schistosomatidae) from northwest thailand and the historical biogeography of southeast asian schistosoma weinland, 1858.schistosoma sinensium bao, 1958 was first isolated from an unidentified snail in sichuan province, pr china. this species was apparently rediscovered in chiang mai province, northwest thailand (baidikul et al., 1984); the definitive host was the rat rattus rattus and the intermediate host was the snail tricula bollingi. in this paper s. sinensium is rediscovered in sichuan province and compared with worms recovered from experimentally infected mice, which had been exposed to cercariae shed by t. ...200211721191
genetic diversity of schistosoma mansoni within and among individual hosts (rattus rattus): infrapopulation differentiation at microspatial scale.the distribution of genetic diversity in a local population of the trematode schistosoma mansoni was determined within and between individual wild rats at a microspatial geographic scale of a standing water transmission site. using rapd markers, molecular variance and canonical correspondence analysis were performed to test the significance of genetic differentiation between infrapopulations. of total gene diversity, 8 and 11% was partitioned between hosts trapped at few metres distance from eac ...200111730788
rodents and their ectoparasites in wadi hanifah, riyadh city, saudi arabia.a survey was conducted on commercial and wild rodents from different locations in wadi hanifah in riyadh. six species of rodents were collected with wire net traps baited with fresh cucumber or fatty cheese. the trapped rodents in descending order of numbers were rattus rattus rattus, acomys dimidiatus, meriones libycus, r. r. frugivorus, r. r. alexandrinus and mus musculus. the ectoparasites were a flea, xenopsyllus sp. on r. r. frugivorus and a tick, rhipicephalus turanicus on each of a. dimid ...200111775100
effect of sex, size, and age of commensal rat hosts on the infestation parameters of their ectoparasites in a rural area of egypt.the present study was carried out in the bilbeis area, sharqiya governorate, egypt. a total of 127 male and 115 female black rats rattus rattus and 124 male and 153 female norway rats r. norvegicus was collected during the study period. a total of 20,643 and 40,997 ectoparasites was recovered from r. rattus and r. norvegicus, respectively. three common mite species were recovered from both rat hosts: ornithonyssus bacoti, radfordia ensifera, and laelaps nuttalli. three common flea species were a ...200111780814
host associations of ticks parasitizing rodents at borrelia burgdorferi enzootic sites in south carolina.a total of 237 rodents was collected in 4 regions of south carolina from july 1994 through december 1995. eight species were collected, including cotton mouse, hispid cotton rat, eastern woodrat, marsh rice rat, white-footed mouse, eastern harvest mouse, golden mouse, and black rat. of the 1,514 ticks recovered from these hosts, ixodes minor neumann, including larvae, nymphs, and adults, was the most abundant species, representing 54% of the total. only immature stages of other tick species were ...200111780825
evaluation of cysticercus fasciolaris antigen for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.cysticercus cellulosae antigen has been frequently used to detect antibodies for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. we have, for the first time, used membrane extract of cysticercus fasciolaris, the larval stage of taenia taeniaeformis, in elisa, with successful results. igm and igg antibodies against cysticercus were measured in serum from cases of neurocysticercosis (217), normal and diseased controls (89). 203 sera from cases of neurocysticercosis were positive for either or both igg and ...200111799411
microevolution in island rodents.we perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (< approximately/= 100 years). data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (mus musculus) on one welsh and one scottish island, black rats (rattus rattus) on two galapagos islands, and deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) on three california channel islands. we report extremely high rates of microevolution for many traits; 60% ...200111838768
black rat ( rattus rattus) genomic variability characterized by chromosome painting.black rats are of outstanding interest in parasitology and infective disease analysis. we used chromosome paints from both the mouse ( mus musculus) and the norway rat ( rattus norvegicus) to characterize the genome of two black rat subspecies from italy. both subspecies have two large metacentrics (n. 1, 4) not present in the norway rat (2n = 42). rattus rattus rattus has a diploid number of 2n = 38, while rattus rattus frugivorous has two small metacentric "supernumerary" or b chromosomes for ...200211919687
carbendazim-induced haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes to the liver and kidney of male rats.carbendazim is a systemic broad-spectrum fungicide controlling a wide range of pathogens. it is also used as a preservative in paint, textile, papermaking and leather industry, as well as a preservative of fruits. in the present study, carbendazim was administered at 0, 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg per day doses orally to male rats (rattus rattus) for 15 weeks. at the end of the experiment, blood samples, liver and kidney tissues of each animal were taken. serum enzyme activities, and haematological a ...200111936576
[surveillance of plague in the state of ceará: 1990-1999].serological surveillance activities regarding the foci of plague in ceará state have detected a rising number of sentinel animals with antiplague antibodies in 1995, with a peak in 1997 demonstrating an increase in the plague bacteria activities throughout all the foci investigated. from a total of 110,725 serum samples collected from rodents (7,873) and domestic carnivores (102,852) analyzed by the hemaglutination technique (ha) for antibodies against f1 antigen of yersinia pestis 905 samples t ...200212011922
cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus) and black rats (rattus rattus) as possible reservoirs of leishmania spp. in lara state, venezuela.a total of 519 wild animals belonging to eleven species were collected during a two year study in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in venezuela (la matica, lara state). the animals were captured in home-made tomahawk-like traps baited with maize, bananas or other available local fruits, and parasites were isolated from 27 specimens. two different species were found naturally infected with flagellates, i.e., cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus) and black rats (rattus rattus). characterization of ...200212016437
patterns in size and shedding of fasciola hepatica eggs by naturally and experimentally infected murid rodents.using samples collected on the island of corsica, a comparative study was done of the morphometry of fasciola hepatica eggs shed by cattle and by naturally and experimentally infected murid rodents (wild mus musculus and rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus wistar laboratory strain). eggs shed by murids are smaller in size than those shed by naturally infected cattle. a second study analyzed the number of f. hepatica eggs shed in murid feces at different time intervals, i.e., months, days, and 6- ...200212054003
sex-specific genetic structure in schistosoma mansoni: evolutionary and epidemiological implications.we studied the population genetic structure of 360 and 1247 adult schistosoma mansoni using seven microsatellite and seven random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers, respectively. parasites were collected from their natural definitive host rattus rattus in guadeloupe (west indies). we found a sex-specific genetic structure, a pattern never before reported in a parasitic organism. male genotypes were more randomly distributed among rats than female genotypes. this interpretation was consist ...200212074730
composite cellular defence stratagem in the avian respiratory system: functional morphology of the free (surface) macrophages and specialized pulmonary epithelia.qualitative and quantitative attributes of the free respiratory macrophages (frms) of the lung--air sac systems of the domestic fowl (gallus gallus variant domesticus) and the muscovy duck (cairina moschata) were compared with those of the alveolar macrophages of the lung of the black rat (rattus rattus). the birds had significantly fewer frms compared to the rat. in the birds, the frms were found both in the lungs and in the air sacs. under similar experimental conditions, the most robust frms ...200212090396
independent integration of rodent identifier (id) elements into orthologous sites of some rt6 alleles of rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus.the two alleles of the rat t-cell differentiation alloantigen rt6 are highly divergent and their expression is distinctively regulated. while the majority of t cells of rt6a/rt6b heterozygous laboratory rats (rattus norvegicus) expresses both alleles, a subpopulation expresses only rt6b. to identify cis-regulatory elements that potentially control monoallelic expression, we compared the sequences of both alleles. a striking difference is the presence or absence of a rodent identifier (id) sequen ...200212187378
pcr identification of trypanosoma lewisi, a common parasite of laboratory rats.trypanosoma (herpetosoma) lewisi is a trypanosome of the sub-genus herpetosoma (stercoraria section), parasite of rats (rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus) transmitted by fleas. t. lewisi has a stringent species specificity and cannot grow in other rodents such as mice. rats are infected principally by oral route, through contamination by flea faeces or ingestion of fleas. trypanosoma lewisi infections in rat colonies can interfere with research protocols and fleas of wild rats are often the so ...200212234387
hematology and serum biochemistry values of dusky-footed wood rat (neotoma fuscipes).serum chemistry values and complete blood counts were determined for 36 wild dusky-footed wood rats (neotoma fuscipes) from sonoma and western yolo county, california (usa) in summer 1999 and spring 2001. all wood rats had adequate body condition and were hydrated. many hematologic and biochemical values were comparable to those for house rat (rattus rattus). there were differences between wood rats tested immediately after capture (those from yolo county) and after a week of habituation in the ...200212238375
host location, survival and fecundity of the oriental rat flea xenopsylla cheopis (siphonaptera: pulicidae) in relation to black rat rattus rattus (rodentia: muridae) host age and sex.host choice and fecundity are two factors that may contribute to the variation in flea counts observed when assessing the potential risk of flea-borne transmission of pathogens from rodents to humans. using the black rat, rattus rattus linnaeus, as host the effects of age and sex on host choice and fecundity of the oriental rat flea, xenopsylla cheopis rothschild, were examined experimentally at 25 degrees c and 80% rh. during the first two days of emergence from cocoons, female fleas dominated ...200212241563
comparison of the endogenous ileal and faecal amino acid excretion in the dog (canis familiaris) and the rat (rattus rattus) determined under protein-free feeding and peptide alimentation.the aim of the study was to determine and compare the endogenous ileal excretions of nitrogen and amino acids under protein-free and peptide alimentation by the dog and rat. two diets were prepared, one that was devoid of protein and the other containing 23% enzyme hydrolysed casein. chromic oxide was included in the diets as an indigestible marker. a total of 10 mixed breed dogs were fed hourly either a protein-free or enzymatically hydrolysed casein diet for a total of 10 days. a faecal sample ...200212452975
evidence that rodents are a reservoir of hepatitis e virus for humans in nepal.hepatitis e virus (hev) is an important cause of enterically transmitted hepatitis in developing countries. sporadic autochthonous cases of hepatitis e have been reported recently in the united states and other industrialized countries. the source of hev infection in these cases is unknown; zoonotic transmission has been suggested. antibodies to hev have been detected in many animals in areas where hev is endemic and in domestic swine and rats in the united states. there is evidence supporting h ...200212454141
antifertility effects of methylmethane sulphonate on male reproductive organs of wild indian house rat: histological and histochemical characteristics.to study the effects of methylmethane sulphonate (ch3oso2ch3), on the testicular tissue of the adult wild indian house rat (rattus rattus).200212463968
volumetric and ionic responses of goldfish hepatocytes to anisotonic exposure and energetic limitation.the relationship between cell volume and k(+) transmembrane fluxes of goldfish (carassius auratus) hepatocytes exposed to anisotonic conditions or energetic limitation was studied and compared with the response of hepatocytes from trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and rat (rattus rattus). cell volume was studied by video- and fluorescence microscopy, while k(+) fluxes were assessed by measuring unidirectional (86)rb(+) fluxes. in trout and rat hepatocytes, hyposmotic (180 mosmoll(-1)) exposure at ph 7 ...200312502772
some field and laboratory studies on rattus rattus subspecies and rattus norvegicus in two egyptian governorates of different ecological characters.both damietta and qualyobia governorates were examined for the seasonal activities of rattus species and subspecies and their natural infection with trypanosoma lewisi. the common domestic rodents identified were rattus r. alexandrinus, r. r. frugivorus and rattus norvegicus. they were common all the year round except in winter for r. norvegicus in damietta. gravid females of the three rodent species, were identified in damietta in summer, in addition to autumn for r. norvegicus only. in qualyob ...200212512813
short report: distribution and feeding preference of the sand flies phlebotomus sergenti and p. papatasi in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in sanliurfa, turkey.sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) and rodents were collected in the endemic focus of urban cutaneous leishmaniasis in sanliurfa, turkey. phlebotomus sergenti and p. papatasi represented 99% of the sand fly population. these flies were trapped in highest numbers in animal sheds, followed by cellars. however, p. sergenti was relatively more abundant in rooms. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the gut contents from blood-fed females detected immunoglobulins specific to birds and mammals, sugg ...200312556140
rodenticidal activity of two natural coumarines from ether extract of citrus bergamia.the rodenticidal activity, expressed by ld50 values of ether and petroleum ether extracts of citrus bergamina pulp against two rat species, rattus norvegicus (norway rat) and rattus rattus (roof rat) was evaluated. based on ld50 values, ether extract was nearly 1.6 and 1.3 times more toxic to norway rat and roof rat than ethanol respectively, while pet. ether extract was non toxic to the two rat species. from ether extract, two natural coumarines, bergapten and coumurrayin were isolated and trie ...199912561885
bioassay of three sulphur containing compounds as rat attractant admixed in cereal-based bait against rattus rattus linn.three sulphur containing compounds, carbon disulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl sulphide were bioassayed for preference after admixing them in cereal base as ready bait block for use against commensal rat, r. rattus (wild type) in four way choice chamber system. rat preference for different baits was also studied with automatic recording animal activity meter. rats exhibited attractancy to the baits at 0.005% concentration of all the three compounds while at 0.01% concentration they have ...200212597027
prevalence of antibodies to leptospira serovars in rodents and shrews trapped in low and high endemic areas in thailand.to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to leptospira serovars in rodents and shrews trapped in urban and rural areas in low and high endemic areas in thailand.200312678151
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