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genetic aspects of polymorphic c-bands in the chromosomes of the black rat (rattus rattus tanezumi) in japan. 1979535425
antiplague antibodies against yersinia pestis fraction-i antigen in serum from rodents either experimentally infected or captured in harbor areas of japan, 1971--1977.antiplague indirect hemagglutination tests were investigated with yersinia pestis fraction-i antigen and sera from experimentally infected rodents. the same tests with sera treated with acetone or acetone-2-mercaptoethanol were performed in parallel. technical conditions were determined to insure the specificity and reproducibility of the reactions. utilizing the methods studied, we carried out serological surveillance of plague with sera from wild rats (rattus rattus and r. norvegicus) captured ...1979537520
antispermatogenic activity of cyclohexanol in gerbil (meriones hurrianae jerdon) & house rat (rattus rattus rufescens). 1979540979
[prevalence of capillaria hepatica among house rat in seoul]during may-july, 1978 a survey on the prevalence of c. hepatica among house rat(rattus norvegicus erxl.) and wild mice (mus musailus molossinus and microtus mandarinus) in two districts in seoul was carried out. approximately 38% of 1,000 house rats examined were infected. rat population as an established group in ahyundong, neighbouring the city, revealed 39.2% of infection among 660 house rats, and that as newly formed group in shinrimdong, a developing residential quarter on the southern outs ...197912902748
rattus rattus: the introduction of the black rat into britain. 197911620121
prevalence of pneumocystis carinii delanoë & delanoë, 1912 in rodents in denmark.pneumocystis carinii has been found in 17 of 90 (19%) wild living trapped brown rats (rattus norvegicus). the positive brown rats originated from about 25% of the trapping localities examined. among brown rats of two breeding stocks, h and s, pneumocysts were found in 43.5% of the h rats, but in none of the s rats. by keeping brown h rats on a low protein diet for 8 weeks, it was possible to augment the prevalence to 53.8%. pneumocystis carinii has furthermore been found in one of eight (12.5%) ...19806965782
plague in central java, indonesia.plague in man occurred from 1968 to 1970 in mountain villages of the boyolali regency in central java. infected fleas, infected rats, and seropositive rats were collected in villages with human plague cases. subsequent isolations of yersinia pestis and seropositive rodents, detected during investigations of rodent plague undertaken by the government of indonesia and the who, attested to the persistence of plague in the region from 1972 to 1974.since 1968, the incidence of both rodent and human p ...19806968252
observations on the food habits of some african rodents.food habits of four common species of african rodents: the giant rat (cricetomys gambianus), the black house rat (rattus rattus), the multimammate rat (mastomys natalensis) and the pygmy mouse (mus minutoides) were studied on the basis of stomach content analysis, habitat sampling and experimental trials with caged animals. vegetable items (especially grass, grains and tubers) formed the bulk of the food of all the species. oil-palm nuts and kernels were also common in the guts of c. gambianus a ...19807323341
[comparative aspects of the white body of cephalopoda and the bone marrow of mammals].the compared observations carried out in the white body of the cephalopod todarodes sagittatus and in the bone marrow of the mammalian rattus rattus enabled us to note, especially on the electron microscope, some resemblances among the main cellular types, and namely between leucoblasts and promyeloblasts, between proleucocytes and promyelocytes and between leucocytes and granulocytes. these resemblances are due also to the presence, in both series, of indispensable conditions to the protein syn ...19807387788
acquisition and retention of classical conditioning in the newborn rat.the development of memory of a conditioned response was examined in london black rats between 0 and 4 days of age. for the conditioning, a vibrotactile stimulus paired with an electric shock was presented to the animal 80 times with an interval of 2000 msec between stimuli. the animals were retested at retention intervals of 3 min or 24 hr. the results showed that 0-, 2-, 3-, and 4-day-old rats possess a retention capacity of at least 24 hr and suggest that the emergence of memory may be task-sp ...19807409332
acetylthiocholinesterase staining in an interpedunculotegmental pathway in four species: procavia capensis (dassie), cavia procellus (guinea-pig), trichosurus vulpecula (brush-tail possum) and rattus rattus (hooded rat). 19807417850
on the ecology of yersinia enterocolitica o 3. yersinia in synanthropic animals.rats (rattus rattus) and sewer rats (r. norvegicus) trapped outside in piggeries, small mouse-like rodents trapped in human habitations and swine from piggeries and slaughterhouses were examined. in rats, sewer rats and mouse-like rodents other serotypes of y. enterocolitica than o3 were isolated. however, two out of five sewer rats caught at a slaughterhous yielded y. pseudotuberculosis i; this finding corresponded with some findings made in swine. swine positivity rates in piggeries correspond ...19807424237
leishmaniasis in tuscany (italy): (ii) leishmania form wild bodentia and carnivora in a human and canine leishmaniasis focus.from april 1977 to february 1978, wild mammals were trapped in a focus of low leishmanial endemicity (baccinello) in the province of grosseto (tuscany, italy). spleen homogenates of the trapped animals were injected i.p. into hamsters, from which spleen biopsies were taken after 60 days and impression smears carefully observed for the presence of leishmania. positive spleens were subinoculated into hamsters. 404 animals of 12 species were trapped: 31 insectivores, 317 rodents and 56 carnivores. ...19807434419
laboratory trials of seven rodenticides for use against the cotton rat (sigmodon hispidus).the efficacy of seven rodenticides for use against sigmodon hispidus was investigated in the laboratory. the poisons (warfarin, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, brodifacoum, bromadiolone, calciferol and zinc phosphide) were all toxic at the concentrations normally used against rattus rattus and r. norvegicus and all were palatable. trials are now needed to confirm the efficacy of these poisons in the field, but it seems likely that, if used in suitable bait formulations, they would all be useful for t ...19807462594
the discovery of besnoitia wallacei in australia and the identification of a free-living intermediate host.a cat fed free-living rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) passed coccidian oocysts 14 days after eating a r. norvegicus. these oocysts were morphologically similar to b. wallacei and rats and mice dosed orally and intraperitoneally with them developed besnoitia cysts in various body tissues. this organism was shown to have an obligatory two-host cycle and it is considered to be b. wallacei. this represents the first recorded detection of b. wallacei in australia and also the first record ...19806769262
[migration of schistosoma mansoni adults in rattus rattus from the mesenteric vein systems to the lungs].the possibility of a contribution of rattus rattus to the maintenance of intestinal schistosomiasis foci has recently been suggested. in this rodent, adult schistosoma mansoni carry out an internal migration. this begins at the 4th week and finishes at the 9th week after infection. the migration from the mesenteric veins to the liver, then from the liver to the lungs, takes place via blood vessels. schistosomes, some of which remain paired, pass successively along the portal vein, the hepatic ve ...19806771052
annual fluctuation of schistosoma japonicum infection in field rats, rattus rattus mindanensis, in dagami, leyte, philippines.the annual fluctuation of schistosoma japonicum infection in field rats, rattus rattus mindanensis, in leyte, the philippines was investigated. one hundrend live-traps were set for one week every month from february, 1978 to february, 1979, in and around central elementary school ii, diagami, leyte. out of 199 rats, 163 (81.9%) were infected. the prevalence rate of s. japonicum infecton in rats was high during the relatively dry season, april to july, 1978. meanwhile, the prevalence rate of schi ...19807206265
infectivity in rodents of schistosoma mansoni cercariae of human and murine origin.experimental infections of white laboratory mice and wild rats (rattus rattus) with cercariae of schistosoma mansoni of different descent, whether murine or human, demonstrate that there is no significant difference in the probability of maturation of these cercariae into adult schistosomes. these results enable us to hypothesize that the reverse would be true, i.e. that cercariae of murine or human descent would be capable of infecting man with the same success rate. circulation of the parasite ...19807217645
[experimental study of the permissivity of the wild rat (rattus rattus) of guadeloupe with regard to schistosoma mansoni. hypothesis on the role of this host in the dynamics of natural habitats (author's transl)].unlike the white laboratory rat, the wild rat (rattus rattus) of guadeloupe behaves as a permissive host with regard to schistosoma mansoni, at least during a certain number of successive passages. the study of the host-parasite relationship of this couple has enabled us to demonstrate a certain number of fundamental differences in relation to the data furnished by the white rat; the worm recovery rate tested in the 4th week is more than twice as high as in the white rat (32% vs 11%), the "self ...19806104424
inhibition of spermatogenesis in house rat (rattus rattus rufescens) following the administration of alpha- chlorohydrin.chronic administration of alpha-chlorohydrin (25 mg/kg body wt.) caused lesions in the testis of house rat. the changes in the germ cells were degenerative. the seminiferous tubules and leydig cell nuclear diameter were reduced. epididymal cell height was greatly reduced. the lumen was devoid of spermatozoa. alpha-chlorohydrin administration inhibited the synthesis of rna, protein, sialic acid in the testis and accessory sex organs. total cholesterol of the testis was increased. adrenal ascorbic ...19806162403
mesostigmatid mites associated with three rattus species collected in rangoon, burma.examination of 909 female mesostigmatid mites of 247 samples collected from rattus rattus, r. norvegicus and r. exulans in rangoon, burma found 8 species present: laelaps echidnina, l. nuttalli, l. myonyssognathus, laelaps sp. a and b of allred 1970, l. wittei, liponyssoides muris and ornithonyssus bacoti.19806449081
species distribution of trombiculid mites on murine rodents in rangoon, burma.ectoparasite collections from over 12,000 commensal rodents and shrews in rangoon were examined. rattus rattus, r. norvegicus, r. exulans and bandicota bengalensis were found to host 12 species of trombiculid mites. ascoschoengastia indica was the most abundant trombiculid found representing 84% of the total sample of 15,000 chiggers. this species (a. indica) may be of considerable significance as a vector of murine typhus.19806449738
male contraception properties of a new synthetic steroid derivative (danazol) in rattus rattus rufescens.chronic administration of danazol (25 mg/kg body wt) caused lesions in the testes of rattus rattus rufescens. depletion of spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa was conspicuous. impairment of leydig cell function was correlated with reduced cell size and depressed accessory sex organ weights. epididymal cell height was greatly reduced. the lumen was devoid of spermatozoa. danazol administration inhibited the synthesis of rna, protein, sialic acid in the testes and accessory sex organs. total ...19816164548
comparative effect of the three rodenticides warfarin, difenacoum and brodifacoum on eight rodent species in short feeding periods.short laboratory feeding tests were carried out with the anticoagulants warfarin, difenacoum, and brodifacoum on a number of european rodent species: clethrionomys glareolus, microtus agrestis, m. arvalis, apodemus flavicollis, a. sylvaticus, mus musculus, rattus rattus and r. norvegicus. it was found that the toxicity to all species was highest with brodifacoum and lowest with warfarin, and that only 0.005% brodifacoum would give a complete mortality in most species after one day's feeding. the ...19817019316
the parasites obtained and bacteria isolated from house rats (rattus rattus linnaeus, 1758) caught in human habitations in ibadan, nigeria.a total of 169 house rats were killed in different households distributed within five localities of ibadan. a wide range of parasites were encountered. the flea, ceratophylus fasciatus was the commonest ectoparasite found. trichostrongylus columbriformis eggs were the commonest nematode and hymenolepis diminuta the only cestode. escherichia coli was the commonest bacterium found. the incidence of helminthiasis, especially h. diminuta, was generally high among rats trapped in the villages and the ...19817037672
intra- and interspecific variation of the mitochondrial genome in rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus: restriction enzyme analysis of variant mitochondrial dna molecules and their evolutionary relationships.restriction endonuclease analysis has revealed extensive mtdna polymorphism in two species of rats, rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus. sequence divergence values for the eight detected r. norvegicus variants range from 0.2% to 1.8% and for the eight r. rattus variants, from 0.2% to 9.6%. three of the most closely related r. norvegicus mtdna's appear to differ by deletions/insertions of about 4 base pairs apiece. restriction sites for seven enzymes have been mapped for 11 of these variants. the ...19816266911
5-nucleotidase in liver injury induced by heavy metals. a histochemical study.the alterations in the distribution of 5-nucleotidase being the indicator of the functional state of liver parenchyma have been determined histochemically in the rat (rattus rattus albino) after experimental poisoning with a few heavy metals viz. lead, mercury, cadmium, molybdenum, copper, and zinc that possess considerable environmental and nutritional significance. present results show that all these metals affected the distribution and activity of 5-nucleotidase that has been explained on the ...19816277778
the response of the egyptian spiny mouse (acomys cahirinus) and two other species of commensal rodents to anticoagulant rodenticides.the response of acomys cahirinus to three anticoagulant rodenticides was investigated in the laboratory. in contrast to the other commensal rodents rattus rattus and r. norvegicus, this species appears to be naturally very resistant to warfarin, difenacoum and brodifacoum. it is considered unlikely that anticoagulant poisons would be effective in the field for the control of a. cahirinus.19817240734
the prevalence of anti-leptospiral agglutinins in sera of wildlife in southeastern australia.anti-leptospiral agglutinins were found in the serum from 18 (7 species) of 419 (25 species) animals sampled from various areas of southeastern australia. positive serologic reactions were observed in 5 of 25 (20%) brush-tailed possum (trichosurus vulpecula), 1 of 26 (3.8%) tammar wallaby (macropus eugenii), 2 of 12 (16.7%) swamp wallaby (wallabia bicolor), 1 of 3 (33.3%) koala (phascolarctos cinereus), 3 of 41 (7.3%) common wombat (vombatus ursinus), 2 of 100 (2%) bush rat (rattus fuscipes) and ...19817241704
luminal mucin in the large intestine of mice, rats and guinea pigs.the luminal and epithelial mucin was studied histochemically in the large intestine of mice (mus musculus), rats (rattus rattus) and guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) using freeze-substitution and vapor-fixation methods. neutral mucin decreased and acid mucin increased in the epithelium from the cecum to the distal colon. vacuolated cells contained more acid mucin than goblet cells. luminal mucin always contained neutral mucin, which formed the main constituents in the cecum and in the proximal colo ...19817273117
evaluation of brodifacoum against t. indica, m. hurrianae and r. rattus.brodifacoum was evaluated in the laboratory against the two gerbils, tatera indica and meriones hurrianae and the house rat, rattus rattus. the acute oral ld50 for these rodents was found to be 0.10 mg/kg, 0.083 mg/kg and 0.77 mg/kg respectively. feeding tests with 0.002% and 0.005% brodifacoum produced a 100% mortality after a 3-day feeding period in the gerbils and after a 4-day period in r. rattus. the anticoagulant is toxic at both the concentrations to all three species but is less palatabl ...19817288172
leishmaniasis in tuscany (italy) v. further isolation of leishmania from rattus rattus in the province of grosseto. 19817305507
responses of a free-living population of rattus rattus (linn.) towards poisoned baits & new food. 19817309154
movements of rattus rattus in an artificial environment. 19817309167
ecological aspects of the epidemiology of infection with leptospires of the ballum serogroup in the black rat (rattus rattus) and the brown rat (rattus norvegicus) in new zealand.epidemiological aspects of infection with leptospires of the ballum serogroup in black rats (rattus rattus) and brown rats (rattus norvegicus) are described. rats inhabiting a variety of habitats were investigated and isolates identifed as belonging to the ballum serogroup were obtained from 21 of 61 black rats (34%) and 63 of 243 brown rats (26%). the high level of endemic ballum serogroup infection in these species reported here has not been described in other countries. a statistical relation ...19817310125
postpartum copulation and induction of pregnancy in roof rats (rattus rattus). 19817323186
host feeding profiles of rhodnius pallescens (hemiptera: reduviidae) in rural villages of central panama.rhodnius pallescens, reported to be the principal vector of chagas' disease in central panama, has been shown to feed on opossums, anteaters, sloths, rodents, birds and, rarely, lizards in sylvatic habitats in this country; however, the extent of its anthropophagic affinities in rural areas has never been determined. the host selections of 1,340 r. pallescens from domestic and peridomestic habitats of three panamanian villages were determined by microcapillary precipitin tests. slightly more tha ...19816782901
scrub typhus in the eastern solomon islands and northern vanuatu (new hebrides).rickettsia tsutsugmushi has been isolated from rattus rattus from vanua lava island in northern vanuatu (new hebrides) and from r. exulans and leptotrombidium akamushi on ndende island in the eastern solomon islands. the well-known vector mite l. deliense was found on mota lava and vanua lava in vanuatu, but no isolation was made from pools of this mite. serology confirms that r. tsutsugamushi infects humans in the banks group of islands in northern vanuatu and that infection is much more widesp ...19816789693
a golgi-cox study of tanycytes in the hypothalamic region of the third ventricle in the wild rat, rattus rattus rattus (l.).in the third ventricle of the wild rat, golgi-cox-positive tanycytes of varied shape and size are arranged with their perikarya in the ependymal layer and basal processes extending into the core of the subependyma. the basal processes may be smooth and slender, or barbed and branching, and often take circuitous and overlapping courses. in some, the apical part of the perikaryon projects into the ventricle. in the arcuate region, groups of closely arranged tanycytes whose long basal processes end ...19817324858
[the "cercarial index" of schistosoma mansoni. epidemiological and experimental results (author's transl)].the cercarial index defined by bayssade-dufour (1977) differs according to the hosts in which schistosoma mansoni is cycled. this index is close to 1 in african human strains, 1.3 in carribbean human strains, and 1.6 in strains kept for a number of years in rodents. the first epidemiological and experimental results supported the argument that the transmission of intestinal bilharzia in the mountainous refuge of infection at grand-etang, guadeloup, is maintained exclusively by murine rodents. ne ...19817325525
studies on parasitic helminths of korea 5.survey on intestinal trematodes of house rats.a study was carried out to evaluate the house rats in southern korea as reservoir host of intestinal trematodes, in 13 different areas: 7 in inland and 6 in brackish-water zones, during the period from august 1980 to august 1981. a total of 170 house rats was captured; 101 rats from inland and 69 from brackish-water zones. they consisted of 129 rattus norvegicus, 22 r. rattus rufescens, and 19 unidentified. the infection status of the rats were as follows: 1. total 29 rats (17.1%) were infected ...198112902707
asian karyotype (2n = 42) in the black rat (rattus rattus) in mexico.a cytogenetic survey in 10 black rats (rattus rattus), captured in guadalajara, jalisco, mexico, revealed a 42 chromosomal complement (asian type) in all of them. polymorphism due to pericentric inversions of chromosomes 9, 11 and 13, as well as a homomorphic subtelocentric pair 1, permitted further karyotypic distinction. an asian origin of this rat with a subsequent isolated evolution in mexico is concluded.19826982658
a note on dysenzymia in the liver of rats fed on zinc, an essential metal.although zinc in traces is essential for the growth and well being of the animal, however a long-term treatment has been found equally toxic to the liver and kidney. present report describes its effects on few key enzymes viz. alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, 5-nucleotidase, lipase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and cholinesterase in the liver of rat, rattus rattus albino. histochemical observations have provided visual evidences on zn-induced dysenzymia. the results have further been interprete ...19826298052
isolation of hantaan virus, the etiologic agent of korean hemorrhagic fever, from wild urban rats.urban rats captured in seoul and four nearby korean cities were found to have immunofluorescent antibodies reactive with hantaan virus, the etiologic agent of korean hemorrhagic fever (khf). serum antibodies were detected in 13% from 477 rattus norvegicus and 11% of 47 rattus rattus. hantaan viral antigen was found in pulmonary tissues of 42 animals, and hantaan virus was recovered from 23 rats, all but two of which were r. norvegicus. wistar rats were qualitatively much more sensitive than apod ...19826127366
muroid virus nephropathies and muroid viruses of the hantaan virus group.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) came dramatically to the attention of western medicine in 1951 with the "new" disease becoming a major source of morbidity and mortality in american troops in korea. known there as epidemic hemorrhagic fever (ehf) or korean hemorrhagic fever (khf), it became apparent that it was the same disease as the endemic (epidemic) hemorrhagic nephroso-nephritis of the soviet far east and songo fever of the japanese army in manchuria. the conjecture that the mil ...19826134336
leptospirosis in rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus in israel.leptospires were isolated from 21.2% of rattus norvegicus (the brown rat) and 9.9% of rattus rattus trapped in a survey of urban and rural areas in israel. microagglutination antibodies were found in sera of 9.4 and 8.1% of these rats, respectively. the 191 strains isolated belonged to six serogroups: leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae (169), l. bataviae (3), l. semeranga (1), l andamana (1) and l. ballum (1) from r. norvegicus and l. ballum (13) and l. hebdomadis (3) from r. rattus. no significant ...19827068359
the stimulus-basis of a natural food aversion in norway rats.during a 30-min test, hungry adult male norway rats were permitted to feed on male rodents, freshly sacrificed by co2 asphyxiation. in experiment 1, the proportion of subjects feeding on the intact carcass of a dead conspecific decreased as a function of the dead conspecific's age. but the proportion of subjects feeding on the intact carcass of a dead house mouse remained high, regardless of the mouse's age. in experiment 2, norway rats were as likely to feed on tissue (heart, liver, and blood) ...19827079341
population indices of chiggers (leptotrombidium deliense) and incidence of scrub typhus in chinese military personnel, pescadores islands of taiwan, 1976-77.larval leptotrombidium deliense were recovered from live-trapped suncus murinus, rattus rattus and r. norvegicus captured in the pescadores islands of taiwan during 1976 and 1977. weekly and monthly indices of chigger infestation expressed as a percentage of hosts infested and the number of chiggers per host for s. murinus and rattus spp. were calculated. close correlations were observed between monthly indices of l. deliense measured for s. murinus and rattus spp. and the number of laboratory-c ...19827080163
experimental yersinia pestis infection in rodents after intragastric inoculation and ingestion of bacteria.to clarify the pathogenesis of oral plague infection, we studied the susceptibility of three species of rodents to intragastric inoculation of yersinia pestis, described the pathology and progression of infection, and measured antibody responses to fraction ia antigen of y. pestis. the 50% lethal doses of bacteria by intragastric inoculation for mus musculus, zygodontomys pixuna, and rattus rattus were log10 = 6.32, 5.46, and 9.62, respectively, which were at least 1,000-fold higher than the val ...19827095845
hematological changes in house rat after 32p internal irradiation. 19827100424
the first outbreak of human plague in lushoto district, north-east tanzania.a one-week investigation was performed at mkunki and mavumo (ward of shume, lushoto district, tanzania) at the time of outbreak (june, 1980). rodents, people, domestic dogs and fleas were examined, 36 rats, mostly rattus rattus, were caught and used in serological and bacteriological analysis for plague. 48 fleas, mostly xenopsylla brasiliensis, were collected from the captured rodents. 413 people and 11 dogs were examined. all rodent, carnivorous and human sera were tested for plague antibodies ...19827101402
a comparative assessment of efficacy of three anticoagulant rodenticides.results are presented of feeding tests carried out with three common anticoagulant rodenticides viz., coumatetralyl, fumarin and warfarin on three common species of commensal rodents i.e., rattus rattus, rattus norvegicus and bandicota bengalensis. all three species of rodents were susceptible to anticoagulant rodenticides. however, the action of these compounds in b. bengalensis was comparatively slow. coumatetralyl was found to be the most effective rodenticide followed by fumarin and warfarin ...19827119429
[evaluation of 10 years of research on s. mansoni schistosomiasis a in the french west indies].from 1971 until 1982, we studied the ecological factors which stead fast a perennial schistosomiasis in guadeloupe on an exhaustive mode. more recently, we start a similar investigation in martinique. in guadeloupe the single vector of schistosoma mansoni is the snail biomphalaria glabrata which is an ubiquist species. but the transmission to man is restricted to the "canal-sewers" where faeces are dropped and not in the rivers of basse-terre or the ponds of grande-terre. moreover, the infection ...19827126776
mitigation of poison aversion in the house rat rattus rattus rufescens (gray) through acclimatization. 19827129535
[experimental approach of the role of rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus in the focus of schistosoma mansoni of guadeloupe. comparative development of s. mansoni in 2 natural hosts (r. rattus and r. norvegicus) and 2 laboratory hosts (the white mouse and the white rat)].we have studied the development of schistosoma mansoni in two natural hosts, rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus, and in two laboratory hosts, the white mouse and the white rat. the study of survival shows that the percentage of cercariae recovered as adult worms four weeks after exposure is 31% in r. rattus, 27% in the white mouse, 14% in the laboratory rat and 12% in r. norvegicus. twenty weeks after exposure, 62% of the schistosomes which were present four weeks after exposure are still alive ...19827137802
[parasitic fauna of the german democratic republic. 6. incidence of helminths in the rat (rattus rattus)]. 19827149328
a survey of calmodulin-activated protein kinase activity in several tissues of rattus rattus.1. in each of five tissues (brain, heart, spleen, mammary acini and pancreatic acini) the prominent endogenous protein substrate possessed a molecular weight between 51,900 and 56,800 on sds gel electrophoresis. 2. evidence was obtained for two species of protein substrate, differing slightly in molecular weight, which appear to be distributed in a tissue-specific manner. 3. one species, with a molecular weight of 52,900, was found in spleen, mammary acini and brain; the other species, with a mo ...19827151401
[enzymatic typing of 11 strains of leishmania isolated in mainland italy from the visceral murine, canine and vulpine forms. demonstration of an enzymatic variant in the fox (vulpes vulpes) and the dog].enzyme typing by starch gel electrophoretic techniques was carried out on 11 leishmania isolates from italy in laboratories in montpellier and london. the enzymes studied in the former were me, g-6-pd, 6-pgd, pgm, pgi, got (= asat), mdh and idh. in london slightly different procedures were used to examine me, 6-pgd, pgm, pgi and asat. in addition, sod, alat, nh, and mpi were studied. the combined data revealed that four rattus rattus and four dogs were infected with classical l. infantum (zymodè ...19827168524
lipid accumulation in chromium poisoned rats.interference of chromium with the hepato-renal lipids in rat (rattus rattus albino) was investigated using histochemical and biochemical parameters. present results show that chromium stimulates the accumulation of triglycerides and phospholipids in both liver and kidney. biochemical data on total lipids show that chromium enhanced the rate of lipid accumulations. since lipids accumulate if the factors necessary for their utilization are missing, it is concluded that chromium manipulates an incr ...19827169300
discrimination between harmless & harmful stimuli by the house rat rattus rattus rufescens (gray). 19827183530
decrement in "social stress" among wild rattus rattus treated with antibiotic."black" rats, rattus rattus, were trapped and studied in colonies of 6 adult males and 6 adult females. eight colonies had antibiotic (neoterramycin) in their drinking water, and eight (controls) had not. twenty mated pairs were kept in small cages; of these, ten received neoterramycin. the only deaths of males were in the control colonies. in the antibiotic colonies there were also (1) a lower incidence of attack when behavior was directly observed, (2) less skin wounding, (3) less macroscopic ...19827200617
[activation of natural tularemia foci of the field-meadow and steppe types on the territory of tula province 1977-1978].natural tularemia foci of the meadow and steppe type are extremely stable and become active in those years when the most favourable living conditions for rodents appear. for the first time during the last 30 years a great increase in the number of common voles, accompanied by widely spread epizooty covering the whole territory of the tula region, was observed. house mice, common field mice, harvest mice and black rats were also involved in this epizooty and 235 tularemia patients with all clinic ...19826211008
differences in spleen suppressor cell content in rats with progressing and regressing tumors.young new zealand black rats (less than 35 wk old) developed progressively growing tumors when given injections of cells from a syngeneic 3-methylcholanthrene (mca)-induced fibrosarcoma. spontaneous tumor regression occurred in animals more than 10 months of age. compared to the responses of spleen cells from age-matched controls, spleen cells from rats in which tumor progression was present progressor rats) showed decreased proliferative responses to concanavalin (con a), phytohemagglutinin (ph ...19826212710
attack and defense in laboratory and wild norway and black rats.intra- and interspecific agonistic encounters in long-evans and field-trapped rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus showed a consistency in the form and character of attack and defensive behaviors. colony alpha males exhibited high levels of lateral attack, on-top, and chasing behaviors which resulted in a high percentage of bites on the intruder's back. bites directed to the back were countered by intruders through the utilization of boxing, on-back, and flight defense. these findings indicate th ...198224897650
genetic differentiation among karyotypic forms of the black rat, rattus rattus.the black rat, rattus rattus, consists of five karyotypic forms-2n = 42 (high c-banding); 2n = 42 (low c-banding); 2n = 40; 2n = 38; 2n = 42 mauritius. here, we use isozyme electrophoresis and microcomplement fixation to elucidate the genetic distance and phylogenetic relationship among each of the various karyotypic forms of r. rattus and r. norvegicus . the results show that (1) the 2n = 42 mauritius black rat (2n = 42mau) is genetically very similar to the 2n = 38 form, suggesting that this i ...198317246185
changes in spleen cell proliferative responses and resistance to syngeneic tumor challenge in aging nbr rats.new zealand black rats are shown to have a mean longevity of 102.9 weeks. the 90%, 50% and 10% survival age are 81 weeks, 108 weeks and 126 weeks, respectively. resistance to syngeneic tumor challenge is significantly lower in young rats (3-35 weeks) and very old rats (126-140 weeks) compared to middle-aged rats (36-85 weeks). the in vitro spleen cell proliferative response to syngeneic tumor cells is decreased in old rats. no decrease is observed in spleen cell proliferation induced by the mito ...19836226837
detection of antibody against hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) virus in sera of house rats captured in port areas of japan. 19836408289
the protective effects of edta against copper poisoning in rats with special reference to the kidney.this study reports on the protective effects of edta against copper poisoning with special reference to the kidney of the rat, rattus rattus (albino), observed by means of various parameters. the data obtained on the improvement in body weight and skeletal growth, and the reduction in the numbers of lesions and the amount of lipids, are evidence of the necrotropic and lipotropic behaviour of edta. the reversal of key enzymes reflects a repair in membranes. other pharmacotoxicological aspects of ...19836413446
comparative properties of purified cytochrome p-448 from beta-naphthoflavone treated rats and rainbow trout.1. cytochrome p-448 from beta-naphthoflavone treated rainbow trout (salmo gairdnerii) liver was purified and compared to purified p-448 from beta-naphthoflavone treated rats (rattus rattus) and purified p-450 from phenobarbital induced rats. 2. the two p-448 forms had similar spectral properties, substrate specificity, sensitivity to inhibitors and regioselectivity in the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and testosterone. 3. rat and trout p-448 differed in apparent monomeric mol. wt (mr) by at least ...19836191918
observations on the current status of plague endemicity in the western usambara mountains, north-east tanzania.epidemiological investigations were executed at 6 locations in the western usambara mountains in north-east tanzania from november 1980 to may 1982. rodent, human and dog sera were checked for agglutinating plague antibodies, using the passive haemagglutination test. fraction i plague antigen was similarly tested for in rodent organ macerates. bubo aspirates and rodent organ-smears were microscopically examined for plague bacilli. a total of 257 rodents and 191 fleas were collected. rattus rattu ...19836142635
the independent evolution of two closely related satellite dna elements in rats (rattus).we have identified and determined the sequence and organization of a new rat satellite dna in rattus rattus, the roof rat. this satellite dna, which we call r. rattus satellite i', consists of tandem arrays of a 185 base pair (bp) repeat unit that we call a'. a' is 86% homologous to a 185 bp portion of the 370 bp repeat unit of the previously described rat satellite [pech et al. (1979) nucleic acids res. 7, 417-432] present in the common laboratory rat species, r. norvegicus. we can thereby dist ...19836298719
rat mitochondrial dna polymorphism: sequence analysis of a hypervariable site for insertions/deletions.three closely related variants of rat (rattus norvegicus) mtdna have been shown to differ in the number of t residues found in a run of ts (light strand) which spans the junction between the trnacys and trnatyr genes. the number of ts in the repeat varies from 6 to 8 in these dnas. another, less closely related, r. norvegicus variant has a run of 5 ts at this site and in the related species, rattus rattus, a run of 4 ts is found. in r. norvegicus mtdna runs of 5 as and 5 gs are found just to the ...19836314254
[muscular changes caused by suction drainage. scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, light microscopy and morphometric studies of dorsal muscles of the rat (rattus rattus) using drainage].changes in the dorsal muscles of 22 rats (wistar), resulting from surgical drain, have been studied under different morphological aspects. the lumen of drains were obstructed after a short time. in the drains without using low pressure, erythrocytes and fibrin network were seen by scanning microscopical investigation. patent muscle fibres could be analyzed in the lumen of drain using negative pressure. they prevent the functional drain system. by the effect of surgical drains the fibres of dorsa ...19836623715
schistosoma incognitum and its zoonotic potential role in phitsanulok and phichit provinces, northern thailand.a study on schistosoma incognitum, a blood fluke of a variety of mammals, was conducted in different ecological conditions in phitsanulok and phichit, northern thailand. the intermediate host of s. incognitum in permanent water habitats studied, i.e; swamps and ditches is radix (lymnaea) auricularia rubiginosa. of 44,412 mollusks representing 13 different species collected from 24 water habitats studied, 7,186 were r. a. rubiginosa. s. incognitum infection rate in the snails was 2.1%. 483 rattus ...19836635754
leishmaniasis in tuscany (italy): vii. studies on the role of the black rat, rattus rattus, in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis.the recent finding that four leishmania isolates from rattus rattus are enzymologically identical to l. infantum, aetiological agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the mediterranean area, has stimulated further research on the role of r. rattus in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in tuscany, italy. the present work has led to the following results: (a) r. rattus experimentally infected with l. infantum displayed a general resistance to the parasite, even though it appear ...19836636269
[trial of a comparative analysis of methods for determining the population density of the black rat].studied was the link between the three most commonly applied methods of the deratization practice, aiming to determine the population density of rodents -- the visual method, the untoxic baits method, and the 24-hour/trap method. the three of them were practically tested and approbated in the conditions of an industrial swine-breeding complex, resp., in various productional sections. data processing was carried out statistically through the methods of the nonparametric and the correlation analys ...19836659355
a comparative study of tryptophan metabolism in skins and livers of black and albino rats.the skin of black rats contains less tryptophan than the skin of albino rats, possibly because the activity of tryptophan pyrrolase is higher. the opposite is found in liver, possibly because tryptophan pyrrolase activity is lower in the livers of black rats.19846714366
leptospira interrogans infection in domestic and wild animals in fiji.clinical and serological evidence has indicated that human leptospirosis in fiji is an important disease, and the prevalence of antibody is exceptionally high. a serological survey of the rural population showed that only 12% of the people studied did not have complement fixing (cf) leptospiral antibody. as the origin of this infection could not be explained by the known distribution of leptospiral infection in domestic and wild animals, a serological survey using the complement fixation test (c ...198416031033
enzymological effects of hexavalent chromium in the rat kidney.an attempt has been made to observe the effects of chromium on a few enzymes, viz. alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase and lipase, in the kidney of the rat (rattus rattus albino) by means of histochemical and biochemical criteria. administered as potassium chromate in the diet, it was found to inhibit the activity of these renal enzymes; moreover, characteristic differences were observed in their anatomic localization. the possible effects of chromium on the level of en ...19846329979
evidence for the extinction of plague in hawaii.plague (infection by yersinia pestis) was present in hawaii for the period 1899-1957 and caused at least 370 fatalities. the first infections came from immigrant commensal rats, probably rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus, on ships from the orient. both species were already established in hawaii and became the widespread local carriers of plague, supplemented by rattus exulans which had colonized the islands in ancient polynesian times. the flea xenopsylla vexabilis arrived with r. exulans, and ...19846364800
[effect of gluco- and mineralocorticoids on the structure and function of the insular apparatus of the pancreas in representatives of different classes of vertebrates].by means of histological, historadioautographical and biochemical methods the effect produced by disturbances in hormonal balance of the adrenal cortex (corticosteroids) on the islet apparatus of the pancreas in the lamprey (lampetra fluviatilis), the frog (rana temporaria), the tortoise (testudo horsfieldi), the pigeon (columbia livia), the white rat (rattus rattus) has been studied during autumn-winter period. chronic injections of hydrocortisone and desoxycorticosterone-acetate are used to ch ...19846385927
trypanosoma lewisi: in vitro oxygen uptake by parasites grown in albino and black rats.oxygen consumption of trypanosoma lewisi grown in albino and black rats was measured by the direct method of warburg. respiration rates in buffered ringer's solution, with and without glucose and in normal serum from the respective hosts, were determined for t lewisi grown in albino and black rats. significantly higher respiratory rates were obtained for trypanosomes grown in albino hosts: 31 percent higher in buffered ringer's solution with glucose and 26 percent higher in homologous serum.in t ...19846392572
the presence of angiostrongylus cantonensis in viti levu, fiji.wild rats and molluscs were examined for angiostrongylus cantonensis infection on viti levu, fiji. a. cantonensis were recovered from 29.6% (16/54) of rattus rattus and 59.5% (25/42) of r. exulans. a. cantonensis-like larval nematodes were found in all of four slugs, laevicaulis alte, and ten of 20 unidentified land snails. the larvae developed to adult a. cantonensis in the pulmonary arteries of laboratory rats 40 to 42 days after ingestion. this is the first record of a. cantonensis in fiji.19846501855
the occurrence of salmonellae in house shrews and rats in ipoh, malaysia.house shrews (suncus murinus) and rats (rattus rattus diardii), trapped during a survey period from july 1978 to december 1979 and thereafter on a random basis, from residences within and outside the veterinary research institute, ipoh, malaysia campus, were bacteriologically examined for the presence of salmonellae. of the 55 shrews and 8 rats examined, 39 (71%) shrews and 2 (25%) rats were found positive. there were 46 salmonella isolates which included 5 dual infections. these were serotyped ...19846523172
investigation of possible zoonotic reservoirs of indian kala-azar.possible animal reservoirs of indian kala-azar were investigated during a recent outbreak of the disease; dogs, rattus rattus and bandicoota bengalensis were examined. microscopical and serological examinations were carried out and antileishmanial antibodies found in five out of 226 b. bengalensis.19846524994
some aspects of the epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the al-kharaj area of saudi arabia.four hundred and thirteen patients with skin ulcers were clinically diagnosed as suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis; 82 (approximately 20%) of these cases were confirmed microscopically. ulceration occurred mainly on the exposed parts of the body. of the total cases 69% were egyptian labourers, 14% saudis and the remaining 17% syrian, pakistani, yemeni or filippino. most of the saudi patients were children aged up to ten years. two rattus rattus collected during the study had skin ulceration ...19846532330
chronic pulmonary cryptococcosis in a rattus rattus from rabaul, papua new guinea.a wild rattus rattus trapped in rabaul, east new britain province, papua new guinea, was noted to have chronic, cystic pulmonary cryptococcosis. r. rattus is common in settlements in papua new guinea whereas pigeons, which have been suspected as a possible source of human cryptococcosis, rarely nest in villages in this country. if r. rattus was susceptible to chronic pulmonary cryptococcosis, because of its habit of nesting in roofs, it could serve as a possible vector of human cryptococcosis in ...19846533856
study on schistosoma sinensium in fang district, chiangmai province, thailand.a survey on human infection and possible natural definitive host of schistosoma sinensium was carried out in fang district, chiangmai province, north thailand, where tricula bollingi snails which harbour cercariae of s. sinensium inhabits. stool examination of the people in the two villages along the stream, where t. bollingi were found, was by formalin-ether concentration technique and by stoll's method. the stools were found to be negative for s. sinensium eggs. field rats were also trapped an ...19846542252
ag-nor chromosomal association patterns in rattus rattus (rafinesque, 1814) and rattus norvegicus (berkenhout, 1796) from the southern iberian peninsula.a high frequency of satellite association phenomena in a number of specimens of rattus rattus and r. norvegicus, captured on the coastal fringe of málaga province (southern spain), was found. only ag-nor bearing chromosomes participated in associations in both species. r. rattus is characterized by 14/18 heterologous and r. norvegicus by 5/5 and 13/13 homologous association types.19852419043
[the genus leishmania in italy].seventy-four leishmania isolates collected in italy from six different regions where leishmaniases are endemic, have been typed. parasites have been isolated from: man (vl and cl), dog, black rat (rattus rattus), fox (vulpes vulpes) and geckoes (tarentola mauritanica and cyrtodactylus kotschyi). the isolates have been characterized by starch-gel electrophoresis for 9-16 enzymes whose mobility was compared with that of international reference strains for l. infantum, l. tropica, l. major, l. dono ...19853870639
fleas on roof rats in six areas of los angeles county, california: their potential role in the transmission of plague and murine typhus to humans.roof rats (rattus rattus) in southern california are rarely involved with plague epizootics and murine typhus. little evidence exists implicating these rodents as sources of human infection. this might be explained by the absence of fleas capable of transmitting these 2 diseases. from february 1981 through january 1982, roof rats were live-trapped and examined for fleas each month in 4 areas of los angeles county. two other areas were trapped for 9 and 3 months respectively. areas sampled were i ...19853985278
salmonella ochiogu: experimental infection of laboratory rats (rattus rattus).oral infection of experimental rats with 10(8) colony forming units of salmonella ochiogu resulted in clinical salmonellosis in 42 of 98 (43%) rats and a carrier state in 56 of 98 (57%). infection was characterized by septicaemia, pneumonia and loss of condition. organisms were shed in faeces on the first day after infection and cultures of most visceral organs revealed good systemic dissemination of the serotype, which was pathogenic to experimental rats.19853999688
evaluation of coumatetralyl against two predominant murid species.coumatetralyl was evaluated in the laboratory against bandicota bengalensis and rattus rattus. feeding tests with 0.0375% coumatetralyl baits produced 100% mortality after a single day feeding period in b. bengalensis and after a 10-day period in r. rattus. the anticoagulant bait is less palatable in comparison to plain bait. in the case of r. rattus, lfp50 and lfp98 and their 95% confidence limits were 3.89 (2.62-5.77) days and 11.22 (6.1-20.65) days respectively. median period of survival and ...19854008919
a novel class of acetylcholinesterase, revealed by mutations, in the nematode caenorhabditis elegans.in ace-2;ace-1 double mutants of the nematode c. elegans, where the major acetylcholinesterase (ache) classes a and b have been eliminated by mutation, the animals are viable and residual ache activity remains. this residual activity differs markedly from ache classes a and b; its km for acetylcholine is 1000-5000-fold lower, its resistance to eserine is 3000-260,000-fold higher, it is markedly more thermolabile, and it can be separated from classes a and b by ion exchange chromatography. it has ...19854020535
[experimental deratization on a commercial swine-breeding farm].continuous eighth-month deratization was carried out on an industrial swine breeding complex, having great numbers of the black rat (r. rattus). anticoagulants were chiefly used, maintaining permanent sites of poisonous baits. the lowering of rat numbers was followed up at two-month intervals in the individual productional sectors. some indices were determined, such as intensiveness, extensiveness, and effectiveness. it was found that each of these indices characterized particular aspects of the ...19854036000
topographic organization of facial motoneurons to individual pinna muscles in rat (rattus rattus) and bat (rousettus aegyptiacus).the location and number of motoneurons to individual pinna muscles were determined by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase in rat and flying fox. the degree of ear mobility differs considerably between these species in that rats perform simpler ear movements while flying foxes move their pinnae in a sophisticated way. five pinna muscles were investigated in each species. motoneurons lay within the medial subdivision of the facial motor nucleus extending over its entire rostrocaudal len ...19854056108
field evaluation of brodifacoum against rattus rattus and bandicota bengalensis in bombay. 19854078301
laboratory transmission of leishmania infantum to rattus rattus by the bite of experimentally infected phlebotomus perniciosus.the role of the sandfly species phlebotomus perniciosus parrot in laboratory transmission of leishmania infantum was investigated. one of the wild reservoirs of the disease, the black rat (rattus rattus), was used as vertebrate host. the parasite was transmitted by the bite of experimentally infected p. perniciosus to the black rat which, six months later, was infective to the same sandfly species. these experimental data confirm the role of p. perniciosus in the transmission of l. infantum, as ...19854082264
[sources of infection of the house-rat variety of epidemic hemorrhagic fever]. 19852868794
dysenzymia induced by hexavalent chromium in rat liver.the alterations in the distribution and activity of certain key enzymes, viz. alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, cholinesterase and lipase, have been determined in the liver of rats (rattus rattus albino) after experimental poisoning with hexavalent chromium. the histochemical and biochemical observations presented herewith provide visual evidence of chromium-induced inhibition of all these enzymes except lipase, which was found to be stimulated insignificantly. the r ...19852999022
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