[ecological aspects of american tegumentary leishmaniasis: 8. evaluation of the enzootic activity of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, in forest and peridomiciliary environments of the ribeira valley region, são paulo state, brazil].the evidence of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in the non-forest environment in the ribeira valley region, são paulo, brazil, has made this epidemiologic four years' study possible, viewing the enzootic activity of l. (v.) braziliensis. furthermore, the natural infection in small mammals and the domestic dog population has been completed in collecting of phlebotomine sandflies in the forest and peridomiciliar environments. positive test-results have only been found in resident dogs (ca ...19902095626
recent isolations of lassa virus from nigerian rodents.rodents were trapped in the benue-plateau and north-eastern states of nigeria where lassa fever had been reported in previous years. eight lassa virus strains were isolated from tissues and blood of rodents identified in the field as being of 3 different species: mastomys natalensis, rattus rattus, and mus minutoides. all the infected rodents were collected in village habitats. these isolations indicate the presence of lassa virus in wild rodents in nigeria during periods when no human infection ...19751085216
[scanning electron microscopic investigations on the formation of reissner's fiber in rattus rattus [l.] (author's transl)]. 1977927633
circadian rhythm of movements of the house rat, rattus rattus l. 19751193692
distribution and insecticide resistance of the plague flea xenopsylla cheopis in maharashtra state, india.distributions are reported for commensal rat fleas, predominantly xenopsylla cheopis (rothschild), in the state of maharashtra, india, including the city of bombay, during 1965-80. the x.cheopis flea index was high in most parts of maharashtra, but low in bombay. rattus rattus linnaeus is the principal host of x.cheopis, but the host range includes bandicota bengalensis gray, golunda ellioti gray, mus musculus linnaeus, rattus blandfordi thomas, r. norvegicus berkenhout, suncus caerulaeus lerr, ...19902132973
[the black death in norway].the old icelandic annals tell that the black death came to bergen, norway, in 1349 with a ship from england. this was probably at the beginning of september. from bergen the plague spread rapidly northwards and southwards along the coast and over land to eastern norway. the black death remained in norway for approximately six months. the epidemic must have been started by infected black rats and rat fleas in the grain cargo of the ship. the account in the annals, and experiences from other count ...19902197762
acoustic signaling in the black rat (rattus rattus).this study surveyed the vocalization repertoire of descendants of wild-trapped rattus rattus. sound recordings synchronized with behavioral observations were conducted in an animal colony living undisturbed under seminatural conditions. analyses of sound recordings revealed 10 distinct acoustic signals, 5 of which were in the ultrasonic frequency range. the time course and the frequency pattern of the analyzed sounds were similar to those described for r. norvegicus, and they occurred in compara ...19902225759
animals as reservoir hosts for leishmania in qualyobia governorate, egypt.a total of 239 rodents were collected from el-khanka, shebin el-kanater, el-kanater, shoubra el khima, qualiob, tokh, benha and kafr-shokr and identified as mus musculus (30), rattus rattus (78), rattus norvegicus (35), arvicanthus niloticus (62) and acomys cahirinus (34). examination of these rodents showed the presence of cutaneous lesions in two r. rattus, three r. norvegicus and one a. cahirinus which showed no leishmania parasites neither by smear nor by culture. on examination of the liver ...19902230335
rodents and their ectoparasites in sharkia governorate, egypt.rodents serve as reservoir hosts for many parasitic and bacterial diseases which are spread to man and animals by their habits, their droppings or by their arthropod ectoparasites. commensal (semi-domestic) rodents were collected by different methods from sharkia governorate over a period of one year, 1989. the trapped rodents in descending order of prevalence were rattus norvegicus, rattus rattus, mus musculus and gerbillus gerbillus. the ectoparasites were collected and identified as five spec ...19902230340
liver dysfunction following whole-body co-60 irradiation in gerbil (meriones hurrianae jerdon) and house rat (rattus rattus rufescens).liver dysfunction following whole-body co-60 irradiation has been studied in domestic and desert rat species. a significant elevation in the serum transaminases activity was noticed both in gerbil and house rat. alkaline phosphatase and plasma cholesterol levels were also increased indicating an early radiation impairment of the liver tissue, which was later confirmed by histological studies. a steady fall in liver glycogen in irradiated gerbils was strikingly in contrast to an increase in irrad ...1976960139
the toxicity of yellow oleander (thevetia neriifolia juss) seed kernels to rats.toxic effects of yellow oleander (thevetia neriifolia juss) seed kernels were evaluated against the roof rat (rattus rattus linn). crushed ground seed kernels were fed with bait at 20 and 30% concentrations. the bait was fed up to mortality or for a maximum of 10 d. major signs of poisoning observed were hind limb paralysis, rolling of the body on the long axis, circular flailing of the tail, muscular twitch, tetanic convulsions, tremors, collapse and death. significant reductions in the rats' w ...19902264265
x-monosomy in the indian black rat.the south indian black rat, rattus r. rufescens (gray) has a diploid number of 38 chromosomes. a random sample from hinakal (mysore, s.w. india) revealed the presence of rats with aneuploid chromosome numbers, viz. 2n = 37, 39, 40, and 42. the 37-chromosome individual was a female and possessed the xo constitution. the diploid numbers higher than 38 were due to the presence of supernumerary (b) chromosomes. the origin and consequences of the xo condition in rattus r. rufescens and other mammals ...1977874306
nematode parasites of rats in west java, indonesia.from the indonesian rats, namely rattus rattus diardii, r. exulans, r. tiomanicus, r. niviventer, r. lepturus, r. bartelsii, r. cremoriventer, r. sabanus and pithecheir melanurus, surveyed for nematode parasites, the following parasites were recovered: angiostrongylus cantonensis, capillaria hepatica, cyclodontostomum purvisi, hepatojarakus malayae, rictularia tani, mastophorus muris, physaloptera sp. and subulura andersoni. of these, c. purvisi, h. malayae, physaloptera, sp. and s. andersoni ha ...1978571622
characterization of third beta-chain variant in rattus rattus rufescens.different molecular forms of hemoglobins of locally available murines, represented by rattus rattus rufescens, have been investigated and the probable genetic mechanisms leading to the observed heterogenicity in the hemoglobin phenotypes are discussed. each fraction was isolated in chromatographically pure form, identified and characterised structurally to establish their alpha- and non-alpha-chain constitution. six molecular forms of component hemoglobins were identified from a wild population ...19902387596
genetic aspects of polymorphic c-bands in the chromosomes of the black rat (rattus rattus tanezumi) in japan. 1979535425
lectin staining studies on follicular atresia in house rat (rattus rattus).topographic distribution of terminal and intercalary carbohydrate moieties were studied using horseradish peroxidase conjugated glycine max (gma), arachis hypogea (pna), lotus tetragonolobus (lta), bandirarea simplicifolia (bsa), and dolichos biflorus (dba) agglutinins. n-gal nac, alpha-d-gal, alpha-l-fuc, d-gal (beta-1-3)-d-gal nac, and alpha-beta-d gal nac linked glyco-conjugates were exposed during follicular atresia in oocyte, zona pellucida and granulosa cells. theca interna and interstitia ...19921365769
prevalence of listeria (spp.) in wild rats captured in the kanto area of the kanto area a total of 245 wild rats were captured. all rats captured in ikebukuro (110 rats) and 9 out of 41 rats in yokohama were rattus rattus, and all other 126 rats were rattus norvegicus. in kashima and ikebukuro, listeria was isolated from 28 rats (77.8%) and 27 rats (24.5%), respectively, but in the other 4 areas listeria was isolated from 0-7% rats. listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 12 rats (10.9%) captured in ikebukuro and 2 rats in kashima and numazu. the frequent isolati ...19921643170
seroprevalence of rickettsia typhi and rickettsia conorii infection among rodents and dogs in egypt.a serological survey of 1813 rodent and 549 dog sera, collected from 1979 to 1986 from animals in 16 egyptian governorates were tested for antibody to rickettsia typhi and rickettsia conorii by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. only three of 82 (4%) sera from rattus rattus collected near aswan had antibody to r. conorii. the prevalence of r. typhi antibody in dog sera was only 0.4% (n = 549) while 25% (n = 547) of rattus norvegicus and 11% (n = 1138) of r. rattus had measurable antibodies. ...19892509729
echinostoma revolutum and echinoparyphium recurvatum recovered from house rats in yangyang-gun, kangwon-do.during an investigation on intestinal flukes of house rats in yangyang-gun, kangwon-do, a total of 6 species of trematodes belonging to 3 families; echinostomatidae (echinostoma hortense, e. cinetorchis, e. revolutum and echinoparyphium recurvatum), diplostomidae (fibricola seoulensis) and plagiorchiidae (plagiorchis muris), were recovered from two adult rats. e. revolutum and e. recurvatum were new trematode faunae of rats in korea. e. revolutum had an elongated body, 5.3-6.0 mm long and 1.0-1. ...19902099177
effects of regional amygdaloid lesions on flight and defensive behaviors of wild black rats (rattus rattus).flight and defensive behaviors of wild black rats (r. rattus) in response to nonpainful threatening stimuli were examined before and after regional amygdaloid lesions. striking disruption of flight was found following damage to all major amygdaloid regions. in contrast, reduced defensiveness was most consistently associated with damage to cortical and, perhaps, central nuclei. the diffuse organization of flight behavior may result from extensive modality-specific cortical afferents to the amygda ...19902236254
frequencies of chromosome polymorphism in pairs no. 1, 9, and 13 in three geographical variants of black rats, rattus rattus.frequencies of the acrocentric and subtelocentric polymorphism in pairs no. 1, 9 and 13 chromosomes have been examined in 358 black rats. rattus rattus, distributed over several countries of asia, austrailia and united states. the black rats are divided into three geographical types by the different chromosome numbers, such as asian (2n=42), ceylon (2n=40) and oceanian types (2n=38). pairs no. 13 polymorphism was found widely in these all types, but the pair no. 1 and 9 polymorphisms were found ...1977858265
study on genetic polymorphism of leishmania infantum through the analysis of restriction enzyme digestion patterns of kinetoplast dna.twenty-nine leishmania infantum strains characterized by different host source, tropism and belonging to 6 zymodemes, were examined by restriction enzyme analysis of kinetoplast dna (kdna) using 15 endonucleases. the enzymes which produced only one fragment revealed full identity between all the strains examined, while those producing many bands gave different electrophoretic patterns. they were interpreted with the aid of numerical analyses (cluster and multifactorial analysis). the results sho ...19892558337
structural analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic 5s rrnas by rnase h.the availabilities of single-stranded 5s rrna regions c, d and d' for base pairing interactions were analyzed by using synthetic dna oligomers. hybrid formation was detected by the endonucleolytical mode of the rna-dna specific action of rnase h. provided that the hybrid interaction involved 6 successive base pairs, 5s rrna loop c nucleotides 42-47 displayed accessibility in escherichia coli, bacillus stearothermophilus and thermus thermophilus 5s rrnas as well as in eukaryotic 5s rrnas from sac ...19892561346
attenuation of defensive threat and attack in wild rats (rattus rattus) by benzodiazepines.a battery of tests designed to elicit reactions to a variety of non-painful threat stimuli was used to study the effects of chlordiazepoxide (5-20 mg/kg), diazepam (1-5 mg/kg) and midazolam (1-10 mg/kg) on the defensive repertoire of wild rattus rattus. the most consistent effect of benzodiazepine treatment, across compounds and tests, was a marked reduction in defensive threat and attack behaviors, with midazolam effective over a wider range of situations. in contrast, effects on freezing and f ...19892566187
leptospirosis in man, in wild and in domestic animals at waste disposal sites in cairo.the authors examined 65 rattus rattus, 28 pigs, 12 donkeys, 67 goats, 5 sheep, 1 cow and 1 dog as well as 196 inhabitants at two settlements on the waste disposal sites at the periphery of cairo. rattus norvegicus were positive in 55.4% for l. ictero-haemorrhagiae, pigs in 14.3% for l. pomona and in 3.6% for l. ictero-haemorrhagiae. 2 out of 12 donkeys were positive for l. pomona, 1 of them for l. pyrogenes and l. icterohaemorrhagiae as well, goats in 1.5% for l. grippotyphosa. human sera reacte ...19892583498
uptake of bacteria by trophozoites of giardia duodenalis (say).rod-like bacteria were found in the cytoplasm of trophozoites of giardia duodenalis (say) in domestic rats (rattus rattus). these structures were always in phagocytic vacuoles without signs of bacteria digestion or degradation of the trophozoite cytoplasm. the uptake of the bacteria was observed from their attachment to the trophozoite membrane until their total incorporation by phagocytosis.19892596903
capillaria hepatica in small mammals collected from shoa province, ethiopia.a total of 1,110 small mammals has been examined for capillaria hepatica in shoa province, ethiopa. nineteen of 308 (6.2%) rattus rattus and 1 of 212 (0.5%) praomys albipes were infected. the data indicate that c. hepatica was essentially limited to commensal rats (r. rattus).1978691131
peripheral anosmia and the discrimination of poisoned food by rattus rattus l. 19751122203
plasmodium berghei: malaria infection causes increased cardiac output in rats, rattus rattus.thirty-two 4-week-old male wistar rats were infected with plasmodium berghei malaria. on days 12 through 14, blood volume, arterial blood pressure, right ventricular pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, hematocrit, and vascular resistances were determined. all of the cardiovascular parameters measured, with the exception of calculated pulmonary vascular resistance, changed progressively as the peripheral blood parasitemia increased. with a rising parasitemia, cardiac output incre ...19892649387
[epidemiology of trichinellosis in italy and in neighboring countries].in italy trichinella infection is present only in sylvatic animals, especially the fox. nevertheless, the prevalence of this vulpine infection in northern italy decreased from 32% in 1960 to 4% in 1988. other wild and synanthropic animals also promote the survival of the parasite in nature (in the wolf, bear, stray dog and cat, wild boar, norway and black rats). at present, human infections are caused mostly by wild boar meat (11% of all cases) and by imported horse meat (43%), whereas pork does ...19892698605
variation of c-bands in the chromosomes of several subspecies of rattus rattus.all subspecies of black rats (rattus rattus) used in the present study are characterized by having large and clear c-bands at the centromeric region. the appearance of the bands, however, is different in the subspecies. chromosome pair no. 1 in asian type black rats (2n=42), which are characterized by an acrocentric and subtelocentric polymorphism, showed c-band polymorphism. in phillipine rats (r. rattus mindanensis) the pair was subtelocentric with c-bands, but in malayan black rats (r. rattus ...19751149576
omega-hydroxyacid derivatives in the epidermis of several mammalian species.1. omega-hydroxyacids from the acylceramides and acylglucosylceramides of mammalian epidermis were examined by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography to determine their degree of unsaturation and chain-length distributions. the species examined included human (homo sapiens), pig (sus scrofa), mouse (mus musculus) and rat (rattus rattus). 2. within a species, the omega-hydroxyacids from the acylceramide and acylglucosylceramide were essentially identical. 3. the human omega-hydroxyacids proved ...19892776425
brachylaima apoplania n. sp. (digenea: brachylaimidae) from the polynesian rat, rattus exulans (rodentia: muridae), in new zealand: origins and zoogeography.brachylaima apoplania n. sp. is described from the small intestine of the polynesian rat (rattus exulans) on tiritiri matangi island, new zealand. the new species is most similar to brachylaima ratti baugh, 1962, from rattus rattus. the two species differ only in morphometric characters, b. apoplania possessing significantly smaller suckers, pharynx, testes, ovary, and cirrus sac. the close resemblance between b. apoplania and b. ratti, the close relationship between their hosts, and archaeologi ...19892795370
induction of renal cancers in rats by intrarenal injection of nickel subsulfide.the carcinogenicity of nickel subsulfide (alpha ni3s2) was studied following intrarenal (i.r.) injection in rats. within 100 weeks after i.r. injection of 5 mg of alpha ni3s2, renal cancers were found in 64 percent of wistar-lewis rats, 50 percent of nih black rats, 28 percent of fischer rats and 0 percent of long-evans rats. these findings demonstrate significant differences in susceptibilities of the four rat strains to alpha ni3s2-induction of renal cancers. no renal cancers were found in mal ...1979528855
[the effect of ethyl alcohol on the laryngeal mucosa].laryngeal mucous membranes of experimental animals (rattus rattus l. albino) which were given 25% ethyl alcohol for 4, 10 and 20 weeks was investigated using histochemical methods. it was found that tissues were considerably damaged, especially in the areas covered by stratified squamous epithelium.19902099300
group a rotavirus infection in animals from an animal house and in wild-caught monkeys.randomly selected samples from different animal colonies from two laboratory animal houses and from the wild-caught monkeys were tested for the presence of anti-rotavirus antibodies to estimate the rates of infection with group a rotavirus. antibodies to the common group a rotaviral antigen were detected by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using reagents of who elisa rotavirus detection kit. the results of the study showed that white mice, albino rats, and guinea pigs from ...19902122998
comparative dimensional characteristics of spermatozoa in muridae.a comparative study has been made of the dimensional characteristics in six species of muridae (malardia meltada, bandicota bengalensis, albino rat, rattus norvegicus, mus booduga, rattus rattus). characteristic differences were found in the dimensions of their spermatozoa. head dimensions viz., acrosome length, width, area and post-acrosomal area, vary significantly between different species but the differences are significant within individuals of the same species. flagellum dimensions viz., m ...1977615418
reinvestigation of the ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of hymenolepis nana (cestoda, cyclophyllidea), parasite of the small intestine of rattus rattus.spermiogenesis in hymenolepsis nana begins with the formation of a differentiation zone. this is limited at the front by arched membranes, is surrounded by cortical microtubules associated with 12 crested-like bodies, and contains a single centriole made up of doublets. the distal centriole gives rise to a flagellum that grows at the same pace as the cortical microtubules. migration of the nucleus takes place after the formation of the flagellum. it is followed by the separation of the old sperm ...19921510842
chromosomal complements of five species of indian mammals.the chromosomal complements of five species of mammals, mus musculus (linn.), rattus rattus rattus (linn.), bandicota bengalensis (gray and hardw.), funambulus pennanti (wr.) and lepus ruficaudatus (geoff.) were elaborated. the karyotypes of all the species were compared. the diploid number (2n) in mus is 40, rattus 42, bandicota 42, funambulus 54 and lepus 48. an extra large x-chromosome was observed in one population of male rattus rattus rattus (linn.), which might have been formed as a resul ...19902376151
changes in the configuration and the dimensions of the fossa hypophysealis in the rat (rattus rattus norvegicus) dependent on the age, weight and individual size of the skull.the aim of our work was to describe the fossa hypophysealis in the most common laboratory animal--in the rat, to measure its dimensions, to determine its stereotactic coordinates and to find the dependence of these coordinates on the age, weight and individual size of the skull in different rats. from this measurement we obtained data on the growth and possible shifts of the fossa hypophysealis but also found data facilitating the selection of animals to stereotactic operations so that the hit o ...19921303103
intestinal uptake and retention of copper in the suckling rat, rattus rattus--iv. mechanisms of intestinal copper accumulation.copper-67, administered either parenterally or via the maternal milk, accumulates principally in the intestine and liver of the 6-day-old pup. most of the 67cu in the soluble fraction of the intestine is associated with the heterogeneous cu-complex, which is located predominantly in the ileum. the rates of uptake and loss of 67cu in the liver and intestine indicate that enterohepatic circulation of cu in the neonate is appreciable. whilst the concentration of cu in the bile of the 13-day-old pup ...19872881716
[polymorphism of schistosoma mansoni eggs in the guadeloupe (french antilles) focus: presence of s. rodhaini-like parasites?].a comparative study of egg morphology of schistosoma mansoni carried out between 9 parasite populations from guadeloupean foci demonstrates the existence of an intraspecific polymorphism. three types of lateral spined eggs have been described and their relative proportions observed between populations are related to the participation of a wild host-reservoir (rattus rattus) in the life cycle of the parasite. eggs of schistosomes originating from urbanized foci where man plays the main role in th ...19862882660
comparative infectivity of a kenyan strain of leishmania donovani amastigotes for rattus rattus and the laboratory white rat.amastigotes of a kenyan strain of leishmania donovani from a previously infected hamster were used to inoculate rattus rattus and the laboratory white rat intracardially. the animals were sampled at 2, 4, 6, and 12 weeks post-inoculation to determine infectivity and total parasite burdens in the liver and spleen. higher parasite burdens were observed in the livers and spleens of r. rattus. parasite culture indicated more generalized parasite dissemination compared to the white rat. demonstration ...19872894131
haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: clinical, virological and epidemiological perspectives.haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is caused by a group of rna viruses within the family of bunyaviridae known as hantaviruses. the classical, severe form of hfrs is characterized by fever, headache, abdominal and lumbar pain, proteinuria, haemorrhagic phenomena, shock and renal failure. the disease is associated with the prototype hantaan virus and occurs in rural areas of korea and china with apodemus mice as reservoir hosts. a clinically less severe form of hfrs, which is caused by ...19872895603
[study on the surveillance of house-rat type epidemic haemorrhagic fever]. 19882905938
morphology and life cycle of schistosoma sinensium pao, 1959, from northwest thailand.schistosoma sinensium pao, 1959, was first isolated from an unidentified snail in szechuan province, china, and was described on the basis of adult worms and eggs recovered from experimentally infected mice. we discovered snails, tricula bollingi davis, and rodents, rattus rattus (l.) and crocidura attenuata milne-edwards, infected with s. sinensium near fang in northwest thailand. adult worms were recovered from small veins immediately adjacent to the small intestine. eggs first appeared in the ...19892918446
in vitro effects of ethanol and ddt on myofibrillar-atpase in cardiac and certain skeletal muscles of pigeon (columba livia) and rat (rattus rattus). 19872969369
dysenzymia induced by hexavalent chromium in rat liver.the alterations in the distribution and activity of certain key enzymes, viz. alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, cholinesterase and lipase, have been determined in the liver of rats (rattus rattus albino) after experimental poisoning with hexavalent chromium. the histochemical and biochemical observations presented herewith provide visual evidence of chromium-induced inhibition of all these enzymes except lipase, which was found to be stimulated insignificantly. the r ...19852999022
conserved restriction sites within the ribosomal rna genes of vertebrates.we have mapped the cleavage sites of four restriction enzymes which recognize six-base sequences within the nuclear ribosomal (rrna) genes of twelve vertebrates, including several placental mammals (homo sapiens, man; bos taurus, cow; equus caballus, horse; sus scofra, pig; ovis aries, sheep; rattus rattus, rat), a marsupial (didelphis marsupialis, opossum), a bird (gallus domesticus, chicken), an amphibian (xenopus laevis), a reptile (alligator mississipiensis), a bony fish (cynoscion nebulosus ...19863004584
intestinal uptake and retention of copper in the suckling rat, rattus rattus--iii. effects of closure.the ileum of suckling rats contains a high level of copper, most of which is concentrated within cytoplasmic vesicles of the enterocytes. intestinal closure, 20-21 days after birth, results in the replacement of enterocytes by cells devoid of these vesicles and there is a concomitant fall in the level of copper in the ileum. administration of cortisone acetate (0.5 mg/g body wt) to 5-day-old rats results in premature loss of copper-laden ileal enterocytes and an 80-90% decrease in the ileal copp ...19862874948
the new object reaction of rattus rattus l: the relative importance of various cues. 19761252217
schistosoma mansoni: comparison of a caribbean and african strain and experimental crossing based on compatibility with intermediate hosts and rattus elucidate changes relative to compatibility with intermediate and definitive hosts affecting schistosoma mansoni since it was introduced to the new world, the compatibility of s. mansoni from africa (the cameroons), from the caribbean (guadeloupe), and those resulting from experimental crosses with the gastropods biomphalaria glabrata and b. pfeifferi has been studied. results show that s. mansoni, regardless of its origin or its usual snail host, always infects b. pfeifferi more successfully ...19863082664
schistosoma mansoni from naturally infected rattus rattus in guadeloupe: identification, prevalence and enzyme enzymatic comparison has been made between isolates of schistosoma mansoni from rats and humans in guadeloupe and a burundi isolate of s. rodhaini. analyses of ldh, mdh, acp, pgm, gpi, g6pdh and hk by isoelectric focusing provided no evidence for the involvement of s. rodhaini in the recent evolution of the schistosomes currently endemic in guadeloupe. no distinction could be made between murine and human isolates of s. mansoni and it is suggested that murine schistosomiasis should not theref ...19863092170
serological investigations in q-fever and listeriosis of wild-living small mammals on the cape verde islands.serological investigations of small mammals had been made on the island santiago (cape verde islands), to clear up how far synantropic, small mammals are reservoir hosts for pathogens, such as coxiella burnetti and listeria monocytogenes. 367 small mammals representing two species (rattus rattus and mus musculus) were trapped. q-fever antibodies were detected in 155 of 350 examined rats and mice (44.29%). 18.89% of all tested sera showed positive results to listeria-antigen, serovar 4bh, 5.48% t ...19883169561
short term effects of animal venoms on the mitotic index of the duodenal mucosa of albino rats.short term administration of the venoms of the snakes naja haje, naja nigricollis, and cerastes vipera and of the scorpion leiurus quinquestriatus on the mitotic index of the duodenal mucosal cells of the white rat, rattus rattus, has been studied. all the venoms increased the number of dividing cells of the duodenal mucosa significantly. naja haje crude venom was fractionated into three fractions. fraction i had no effect on the mitotic index whereas fractions ii and iii increased it significan ...19921344905
serotypes of erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in australian pigs, small ruminants, poultry, and captive wild birds and animals.serotypes of 93 australian isolates of erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae from diseased domestic animals and poultry and a variety of captive wild birds and animals were determined by double diffusion gel precipitation. two isolates, from the faeces of a swallow were also examined. serotypes 1a, 1b and 2 were isolated from pigs and serotypes 1a, 1b, 2, 5, 15 and 21 from sheep or goats. erysipelas in poultry was attributed to serotypes 1b, 5, 15 and 16. in captive wild birds serotypes 1b, 5, 6, 8, 14, ...19883190592
cochlea in old world mice and rats (muridae).morphometric analysis of the cochlea was performed in wild and laboratory murids: mus musculus, apodemus sylvaticus, rattus rattus, r. norvegicus, nmri mouse, and wistar rat. results are based on light microscopic examination of surface specimens and serial sections and on three-dimensional computer reconstruction. the cochleae have 1.75-2.2 coils. the length of the basilar membrane varies from 6.0 to 12.1 mm. mean density of outer hair cells ranges between 363 and 411, inner hair cells 98 and 1 ...19883221404
genetic evidence for an androgen-regulated epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase whose transcript does not contain a selenocysteine codon.epididymal glutathione peroxidase (gpx) has been suggested as a major factor in combating loss of fertility of spermatozoa due to lipid peroxidation. we report here the isolation and sequence of putative gpx cdnas from rat (rattus rattus) and cynomolgus-monkey (macaca fascicularis) epididymis, which exhibit marked sequence identity with known gpxs. in both species the cdnas encode predicted preproteins containing 221 amino acid residues. unlike other characterized gpx sequences, epididymal gpx m ...19921386734
studies on flea fauna in el fayoum governorate, egypt.this paper dealt with the studies of flea fauna as collected on the rodent hosts over one year. the collected rodents (499) in a descending order of abundance in the collection were rattus rattus, r. norvegicus, mus musculus, gerbillus pyramidum and arvicanthis niloticus. the collected fleas in a descending order in the collection were x. cheopis, p. irritans, n. jasciatus, c. felis, l. segnis and e. gallinacea. the total flea index reached the maximum (0.76) in may and it was zero in december a ...19921431297
plague in lushoto district, tanzania, 1980-1988.rodents were live-trapped in selected plague-inflicted villages from june 1980 to march 1988. flea infestation rates were determined and the animals were serologically tested for plague. clinically suspected and clinically healthy people in the affected areas were similarly tested for plague antibodies. of 1596 rodent sera tested, 91 (5.7%) were positive for plague. these were mostly from rattus rattus, mastomys natalensis, otomys spp. and pelomys fallax. a total of 1772 fleas, of which dinopsyl ...19921440831
morphology of the house rat (rattus rattus) ovary during the oestrous cycle. 19873445664
isolation of members of the haemophilus-pasteurella-actinobacillus group from feral rodents.46 feral rodents, including a common vole (microtus arvalis), house mice (mus musculus), muskrats (ondatra zibetica), house rats (rattus rattus) and brown rats (r. norvegicus) were examined for bacteria of the haemophilus-pasteurella-actinobacillus group. haemophilus spp. (only m. musculus examined) were not obtained. all animal species were found contaminated by p. pneumotropica and/or actinobacillus spp. almost all m. musculus (96%) and most rattus spp. (76%) were contaminated by p. pneumotrop ...19863512906
a general survey of blood and tissue parasites of some rodents in arbil province, a survey of blood and tissue parasites from 233 mice and rats, consisting of 105 specimens of house mice (mus musculus), 99 black rats (rattus rattus), and 29 norway rats (rattus norvegicus), collected from different localities of arbil province, northern iraq, trypanosoma lewisi was found in 7 (7.07%) of 99 r. rattus and in 5 (17.86%) of 29 r. norvegicus, while trypanosoma musculi was found in 4 (3.80%) of 105 m. musculus and this is the first record of this trypanosome from rodents in iraq. ...19883052538
leptospira fort-bragg isolated from a rat in barbados.leptospira fort-bragg was isolated from the kidney tissue of a rat (rattus rattus) trapped on a plantation in st. philip parish, barbados. this constitutes the first reported isolation of this autumnalis group serotype outside of the united states and its first known isolation from an animal species. serologic evidence is presented which indicates that this serotype may be the cause of leptospiral infections in barbadian cattle.19751212536
observations on the transmission of angiostrongylus cantonensis from snail to rodent.a survey of angiostrongylus cantonensis was carried out to investigate the mode of transmission from mollusc to rat in a fixed study area of yoron island from 1979 to 1982. rattus rattus was found to be infected with a small number of worms in spite of heavy infection with third-stage larvae in achatina fulica and an abundance of this snail in the area. natural infection and/or susceptibility with a. cantonensis were confirmed in three small snail species. bradybaena circulus, fruticicola despec ...19873668215
effects of scopolamine on antipredator defense reactions in wild and laboratory rats.two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of scopolamine hydrobromide (0.25-1.0 mg/kg), and its methyl derivative, on the defensive reactions of rats to nonpainful threat stimuli. in the first experiment, over the dose range studied neither compound significantly altered avoidance, freezing, defensive threat or attack in wild rattus rattus confronted by the experimenter and other predator-related stimuli. scopolamine hydrobromide did, however, produce a dose-dependent increase in ...19902377658
inhibition of epidermal growth factor-mediated dna synthesis by a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor in vascular smooth muscle cells of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.aortic vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from spontaneously hypertensive rats (shr) grow nearly twice as fast in vitro as cells isolated from several normotensive control strains of rats. we have previously shown that dna synthesis in shr cells from both young and adult animals in response to epidermal growth factor is selectively enhanced compared with normotensive controls, suggesting that epidermal growth factor may be at least partly responsible for the enhanced growth rate. to determine ...19892632697
new alkyl n,n-dialkyl-substituted amino acetates as transdermal penetration alcohol derivatives of n,n-disubstituted amino acids with a low toxicity have been synthesized and evaluated for their transdermal penetration enhancing effects on the transport of indomethacin from petrolatum ointments across shed skin of black rat snake (elaphe obsoleta). the derivatives show excellent penetration enhancement of indomethacin, as high as 3.8 times that of azone, with decyl n,n-dimethylamino acetate as the lead compound in the series. the release of indomethacin from an oint ...19892748516
[macromutation and evolution: the fixation of goldschmidt's macromutations as species and genus traits. hairlessness mutations in mammals].a brief survey of the development of concepts on the role of macromutations in evolution is given. contrary to iu. a. filipchenko (1926, 1927), who introduced the "micro- and macromutation" terms and believed that regularities of macroevolution could not be reduced to microevolutionary processes, the majority of "synthetists" explained any form of evolution by changes in allele frequencies. from the studies of drosophila homoeotic mutants r. goldschmidt (1940) developed the concept of "hopeful m ...19883049233
the ontogeny of exploratory behavior in the house rat (rattus rattus): the mobility gradient.infants of rats and other mammals respond to a novel environment by becoming immobile, and then showing a process of motorial expansion called "warm-up." starting from immobility, new types of movement are incorporated into the stream of behavior according to rather strict rules of order. once a new type of movement has been performed, the infant reverts to it repeatedly. as a result, the earlier portion of the behavior appears stereotyped, giving the impression of an automatism. later, as new t ...19883234601
the susceptibility of rattus rattus and bandicota bengalensis to a new anticoagulant rodenticide, flocoumafen.the anticoagulant rodenticide flocoumafen was evaluated against rattus rattus and bandicota bengalensis. in no-choice 24 h feeding tests 100% mortality occurred at 0.00125% concentration of the poison in the bait in the case of b. bengalensis and at 0.00375% in r. rattus. feeding of 0.0025% poison bait in 1-day, no-choice and 2-day choice tests resulted in 60% and 75% mortality of r. rattus, respectively, and 100% of b. bengalensis. the differences between the consumption of plain food in the pr ...19863755452
food preference, consumption and efficacy of three rodenticides against rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus frugivorous, in ismailia, egypt. 19863782919
leishmania in the old world: 4. the distribution of l. donovani sensu lato zymodemes.isoenzyme profiles of 67 stocks of leishmania donovani sensu lato from across the old world were compared with those of reference strains of l. donovani sensu stricto, l. infantum, l. major, l. tropica and l. aethiopica using starch-gel electrophoresis of 13 enzymes (gpi, gd, es, pgm, pepd, nh, asat, alat, pk, mpi, 6pgd, sod, mdh). 12 zymodemes were seen. isolates from man, canis familiaris, vulpes vulpes, rattus rattus, arvicanthis sp. and phlebotomus martini were examined. several zymodemes co ...19863798531
[the genus leishmania in italy].seventy-four leishmania isolates collected in italy from six different regions where leishmaniases are endemic, have been typed. parasites have been isolated from: man (vl and cl), dog, black rat (rattus rattus), fox (vulpes vulpes) and geckoes (tarentola mauritanica and cyrtodactylus kotschyi). the isolates have been characterized by starch-gel electrophoresis for 9-16 enzymes whose mobility was compared with that of international reference strains for l. infantum, l. tropica, l. major, l. dono ...19853870639
first report of angiostrongylus cantonensis in puerto rico.from january to april 1984, 63 rattus rattus and 40 r. norvegicus were trapped in northeastern puerto rico and examined for angiostrongylus cantonensis adults. nineteen (47.5%) of the r. norvegicus and 10 (15.9%) of the r. rattus were infected, giving an overall infection rate of 28.2%. four species of terrestrial snails and one species of brown slug were examined for a. cantonensis larvae. two snail species, subulina octona and aquebana belutina, were found infected with third stage larvae of a ...19863953946
intestinal uptake and retention of copper in the suckling rat, rattus rattus--ii. copper accumulation in the ileum and distal jejunum.high concentrations of copper were demonstrated histochemically in the enterocytes lining the ileum and distal jejunum of suckling rats. copper was not detected in cells from the duodenum or proximal jejunum of these rats or from any region of the small intestine of rats in which "closure" had taken place. x-ray microanalysis demonstrated copper, in equi-atomic association with sulphur, within discrete vesicles in the supranuclear cytoplasm of the enterocytes. despite the high concentrations of ...19862423288
salmonella ochiogu: experimental infection of laboratory rats (rattus rattus).oral infection of experimental rats with 10(8) colony forming units of salmonella ochiogu resulted in clinical salmonellosis in 42 of 98 (43%) rats and a carrier state in 56 of 98 (57%). infection was characterized by septicaemia, pneumonia and loss of condition. organisms were shed in faeces on the first day after infection and cultures of most visceral organs revealed good systemic dissemination of the serotype, which was pathogenic to experimental rats.19853999688
evaluation of coumatetralyl against two predominant murid species.coumatetralyl was evaluated in the laboratory against bandicota bengalensis and rattus rattus. feeding tests with 0.0375% coumatetralyl baits produced 100% mortality after a single day feeding period in b. bengalensis and after a 10-day period in r. rattus. the anticoagulant bait is less palatable in comparison to plain bait. in the case of r. rattus, lfp50 and lfp98 and their 95% confidence limits were 3.89 (2.62-5.77) days and 11.22 (6.1-20.65) days respectively. median period of survival and ...19854008919
seasonal patterns of rodents, fleas and plague status in the western usambara mountains, tanzania.field and commensal rodents were live-trapped at three villages in an active focus of plague (yersinia pseudotuberculosis pestis) in lushoto district, western usambara mountains, tanga region, tanzania, from december 1983 to november 1984. their flea ectoparasites were collected, identified and counted. the rodent carcasses were serologically examined for specific plague antibodies and antigens, and bacteriologically examined for bipolar staining bacilli. a total of 1758 traps were set during th ...19892519642
the muridae glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family.although only one gene is known to be functional, numerous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) related sequences are scattered throughout mus musculus and rattus rattus genomes. in this report we show that: (1) gapdh pseudogenes are repeated to comparable extents, at least 400 copies, in 12 other muridae species; (2) the complete, or nearly so, sequence of gapdh messenger rna is amplified, and a high proportion, if not all of these copies, are intronless; (3) gapdh pseudogenes are p ...19892550656
epidemiological studies of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) related virus infection among urban rats in hokkaido, japan.seroepidemiological studies of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) virus infection were carried out among urban rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) and small field rodents in hokkaido, japan. an urban rat colony that was seropositive to sr-11 strain of hfrs virus (laboratory rat origin) was demonstrated in february 1983 at a dumping ground area of kami-iso town near hakodate port. an hfrs-related virus, named ki-262 strain, was isolated from the lung tissue of a seropositive rat ...19862871823
effect of glyzophrol on fertility of female black rats (rattus rattus).mild degree of fibrosis, dilatation of blood vessels, haemorrhagic reactions in a few places, granulosa cells in stroma and no effect on maturation process of follicles were observed in ovary of 20 mg/kg of glyzophrol treated rats. after 60 mg/kg of glyzophrol treatment, ovary revealed reduction in number of follicles, degenerative changes in existing follicles, frequent proliferation of granulosa cells and fibrosis in stroma along with karyorrhexis, karyolysis and pyknosis in nuclei. haemorrhag ...19863577594
laboratory transmission of leishmania infantum to rattus rattus by the bite of experimentally infected phlebotomus perniciosus.the role of the sandfly species phlebotomus perniciosus parrot in laboratory transmission of leishmania infantum was investigated. one of the wild reservoirs of the disease, the black rat (rattus rattus), was used as vertebrate host. the parasite was transmitted by the bite of experimentally infected p. perniciosus to the black rat which, six months later, was infective to the same sandfly species. these experimental data confirm the role of p. perniciosus in the transmission of l. infantum, as ...19854082264
ectoparasites of commensal rodents in sulawesi utara, indonesia, with notes on species of medical importance.ectoparasite records are presented for four species of commensal murid rodents (rattus rattus palelae miller & hollister, r. argentiventer (robinson & kloss), r. exulans (peale) and mus musculus castaneus waterhouse) in sulawesi utara, with particular reference to the potential for these arthropods to bite and transmit pathogens to humans. the flea, xenopsylla cheopis (rothschild), was most common on r.r. palelae and is capable of transmitting plague and other pathogens to humans although no cur ...19911768888
dna replication, g- and c-bands and meiotic behaviour of supernumerary chromosomes of rattus rattus (linn.). 19744135136
electrocardiographic changes in panamanian rattus rattus naturally infected by trypanosoma cruzi. 19744214454
herpesvirus infection in the black rat (rattus rattus). 19734349598
chromosomal identity of black rats (rattus rattus) from the galápagos islands, ecuador. 19744435115
anatomical, neurohistological and histochemical observations on tongue of rattus rattus rufescens (indian black rat) as revealed by cholinesterase technique. 19744444774
studies on the karyotype and serum transferrin in the ceylon black rat, rattus rattus, having 40 chromosomes. 19744448104
patterns of dental caries in osborne-mendel and nih black rats in relation to length of the caries test period. 19724506561
pathological features of trypanosoma cruzi infections of rattus rattus. 19734575168
comparative neurohistological observations on the intrinsic innervation of islets of langerhans in gallus domesticus (white leghorn) and rattus rattus rufescens (indian black rat). 19744604247
[to what period does the rat (rattus rattus) date back in europe?]. 19744619054
infectivity of cryptosporidium muris (strain rn 66) in various laboratory animals.the infectivity of cryptosporidium muris (strain rn 66), originally isolated from the house rat (iseki 1986), to various laboratory animals was studied by transmission experiments. after oral inoculation with 1 x 10(6) oocysts, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, and cats all discharged endogenously produced oocysts in their feces. among these host species, mice and cats were highly susceptible to the parasite. the prepatent period for six 3-week-old specific pathogen-free (spf) mice was 5 days po ...19892523540
female prostate in the house rat rattus rattus. 19724639719
endophenotype of mysore (south india) population of the black rat (rattus rattus l.). 19724654228
litter stimulus factors in maternal retrieval (rattus rattus). 19734748752
studies on rodent chromosomes. co-existence of rattus rattus with 38 and 42 chromosomes in south western india. 19734764761
epidemiological investigations following an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in greece.epidemiological investigations were conducted following an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) which occurred in the state of epirus, northwestern greece, in july and august 1983. a total of 8 patients were hospitalized during the outbreak; 3 were severely ill and 1 died. a serosurvey made in may 1984 sampled 184 of the approximately 400 residents of the village of tsepelovo, where 4 patients resided, and found 12 (6.5%) persons, including convalescent sera from 4 patients, ...19862871769
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