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detection of uncommon g3p[3] rotavirus a (rva) strain in rat possessing a human rva-like vp6 and a novel nsp2 genotype.rotavirus is one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. rvas infect not only humans but also a wide range of mammals including rats, which represent a reservoir of several other zoonotic pathogens. due to the segmented nature of the rva genome, animal rva strains can easily adapt to the human host by reassortment with co-infecting human viruses. this study aims to detect and characterize rva in the intestinal content of italian sinantropic rats (rattus ratt ...201728603021
hymenolepis diminuta and rodentolepis nana (hymenolepididae: cyclophyllidea) in urban rodents of gran la plata: association with socio-environmental conditions.the aim of this survey was to study two hymenolepididae species in urban rodents, rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus, and to analyse factors that favour their presence in the environment and pose a sanitary risk. hymenolepis diminuta and rodentolepis nana were found in r. rattus and r. norvegicus in different proportions. values of prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity were recorded, and new morphometric characters were described, adding to previously known information. no significant d ...201729017635
asian house rats may facilitate their invasive success through suppressing brown rats in chronic interaction.the asian house rat (rattus tanezumi) and the brown rat (rattus norvegicus) are closely related species and are partially sympatric in southern china. over the past 20 years, r. tanezumi has significantly expanded northward in china and partially replaced the native brown rat subspecies, r. n. humiliatus. although invasive species are often more aggressive than native species, we did not observe interspecific physical aggression between r. tanezumi and r. n. humiliatus. here, we focused on wheth ...201728413431
broad and flexible stable isotope niches in invasive non-native rattus spp. in anthropogenic and natural habitats of central eastern madagascar.rodents of the genus rattus are among the most pervasive and successful invasive species, causing major vicissitudes in native ecological communities. a broad and flexible generalist diet has been suggested as key to the invasion success of rattus spp. here, we use an indirect approach to better understand foraging niche width, plasticity, and overlap within and between introduced rattus spp. in anthropogenic habitats and natural humid forests of madagascar.201728412938
control of invasive rats on islands and priorities for future action.invasive rats are one of the world's most successful animal groups that cause native species extinctions and ecosystem change, particularly on islands. on large islands, rat eradication is often impossible and population control, defined as the local limitation of rat abundance, is now routinely performed on many of the world's islands as an alternative management tool. however, a synthesis of the motivations, techniques, costs, and outcomes of such rat-control projects is lacking. we reviewed t ...201727982493
rodent-borne bartonella infection varies according to host species within and among cities.it is becoming increasingly likely that rodents will drive future disease epidemics with the continued expansion of cities worldwide. though transmission risk is a growing concern, relatively little is known about pathogens carried by urban rats. here, we assess whether the diversity and prevalence of bartonella bacteria differ according to the (co)occurrence of rat hosts across new orleans, la (no), where both norway (rattus norvegicus) and roof rats (rattus rattus) are found, relative to new y ...201729164472
from human geography to biological invasions: the black rat distribution in the changing southeastern of senegal.in the contemporary context of zoonosis emergence and spread, invasive species are a major issue since they represent potential pathogen hosts. even though many progresses have been done to understand and predict spatial patterns of invasive species, the challenge to identify the underlying determinants of their distribution remains a central question in invasion biology. this is particularly exacerbated in the case of commensal species that strictly depend on humankind for dispersal and perenni ...201727661619
high prevalence of angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) on eastern hawai'i island: a closer look at life cycle traits and patterns of infection in wild rats (rattus spp.).the nematode angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen and the etiological agent of human angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. hawai'i, particularly east hawai'i island, is the epicenter for angiostrongyliasis in the usa. rats (rattus spp.) are the definitive hosts while gastropods are intermediate hosts. the main objective of this study was to collect adult a. cantonensis from wild rats to isolate protein for the development of a blood-based diagnostic, in the process we evaluat ...201729252992
potential causative mutation for melanism in rats identified in the agouti signaling protein gene (asip) of the rattus rattus species complex on okinawa island, japan.the occurrence of black fur, or melanism, in many mammalian species is known to be linked to dna sequence variation in the agouti signaling protein (asip) gene, which is a major determinant of eumelanin and pheomelanin pigments in coat color. we investigated 38 agouti (i.e., banded wildtype) and four melanistic rattus rattus species complex (rrc) lineage ii specimens from okinawa island, ryukyu islands, japan, for genetic variation in three exons and associated flanking regions in the asip gene. ...201729219041
use of anticoagulant rodenticides in outdoor urban areas: considerations and proposals for the protection of public health and non-target species.rodent control operations represent an important tool for the prevention and management of infestations, in outdoor environments, by synanthropic rodents (rattus rattus and r. norvegicus), which are a source of economic and environmental damage with significant sanitary implications. although the use of anticoagulants is safer to humans and pets compared to the use of acute poisoning substances, an intrinsic hazard of the active ingredients exists, i.e. the possible poisoning of non-target organ ...201729215130
draft genome of the emerging pathogen, kocuria marina, isolated from a wild urban rat.kocuria marina has recently emerged as a cause for catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients with underlying health complications. one k. marina strain was recently isolated from the lung tissues of a wild urban rat (rattus rattus diardii) caught during rodent surveillance. here, we present the draft genome of the first k. marina animal isolate, k. marina tre150902.201729211248
dipterofauna associated with rat carcasses in the atlantic forest, southeastern brazil.each biome has its own fauna and intrinsic local conditions that determine the succession patterns of insects on carcasses. for this reason, regional studies are very important to forensics. this study deals with the flies that visit carcasses of rattus rattus (l., 1758) in the atlantic forest remnant of floresta da tijuca, rio de janeiro, brazil. we compare the diversity and relative abundance of fly families and species throughout the four seasons of the year and test for correlations between ...201728981854
lack of trypanosoma cruzi infection in urban roof rats (rattus rattus) at a texas facility housing naturally infected nonhuman primates.the protozoan parasite trypanosoma cruzi causes chagas disease, uses kissing bugs as a vector, and is maintained in nature by a variety of wildlife reservoirs. many natural cases of chagas disease have been reported in nhp at facilities across the southern united states, where infected vectors and wildlife occur. infection of nhp with t. cruzi can diminish their value as research models and lead to health problems and death. identifying the modes of transmission and role of wildlife reservoirs i ...201728905716
assessment of ddt contamination in house rat as a possible bioindicator in ddt-sprayed areas from ethiopia and south africa.ethiopia and south africa are among the few countries to still implement indoor residual spraying with dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (ddt) for malaria vector control. in this study, we investigated the levels and ecological risks of ddt and its metabolites in liver tissues of house rat, as a sentinel animal, for providing an early warning system for public health and wildlife intervention from ethiopia and south africa. the results showed that σddt concentration ranged from 127 to 9155 μg/kg ...201728865000
spatial capture-mark-resight estimation of animal population density.sightings of previously marked animals can extend a capture-recapture dataset without the added cost of capturing new animals for marking. combined marking and resighting methods are therefore an attractive option in animal population studies, and there exist various likelihood-based non-spatial models, and some spatial versions fitted by markov chain monte carlo sampling. as implemented to date, the focus has been on modeling sightings only, which requires that the spatial distribution of pre-m ...201728834536
vasoactive intestinal peptide (vip) localization in the epididymis of two vertebrate species.vip and its receptors (vpacrs) are largely investigated in vertebrate testis, as well as their functions in the control of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. by contrast, a few data are available about the presence and role of vip in the epididymis. the aim of the present paper was to investigate the localization of vip and its receptors in the epididymis of two vertebrates: podarcis sicula, a seasonal reproducer, and rattus rattus, a continuous reproducer. by immunohystochemical investigation ...201728784577
studies on bromadiolone resistance in rattus rattus populations from punjab, india.there are several reports on development of resistance to bromadiolone in different species of rodents around the globe, however, there is no such report involving systematic study from india. hence, present study was carried out to investigate current status of bromadiolone resistance in house rat (rattus rattus; n=154) collected from different poultry farms (n=8) based on feeding test, blood clotting response (bcr) test and molecular characterization of vkorc1 gene. based on feeding test and b ...201728595918
insight into the global evolution of rodentia associated morbilli-related paramyxoviruses.one portion of the family paramyxoviridae is a group of unclassified morbilli-related viruses (umrv) recently recognized in wild small mammals. at a global level, the evolutionary history of these viruses is not properly understood and the relationships between umrv and their hosts still remain largely unstudied. the present study revealed, for the first time, that rodentia associated umrv emerged from a common ancestor in southern africa more than 4000 years ago. sequenced umrv originating from ...201728512347
consistent individual differences in standard exploration tasks in the black rat (rattus rattus).in a fluctuating environment, the optimal level of exploratory behavior depends on the proportion of current risks and benefits. the exploratory behavior is, therefore, often subjected to heterogenous selection. in populations of commensal rodents living in close proximity of humans, this pressure is further increased by pest management. we hypothesize that the black rat (rattus rattus) responds to this pressure by either high behavioral flexibility or by development of personality types. the ai ...201728318291
rodent species distribution and hantavirus seroprevalence in residential and forested areas of sarawak, malaysia.rodents belong to the order rodentia, which consists of three families in borneo (i.e., muridae, sciuridae and hystricidae). these include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. they are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (family: bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in peninsular malaysia in the early 1980s, i ...201728228923
two strains of roof rats as effective models for assessing new-object reaction.wild animals generally avoid even small and harmless novel objects and/or familiar objects moved to a novel position, which is termed "new-object reaction". although new-object reaction appears to be a biologically important characteristic for animals, little progress has been made in understanding the neural mechanisms underlying new-object reaction. one reason might be the lack of effective experimental animals. two strains of roof rats (sj and og strains) were established from wild roof rats ...201728202879
visualizations for genetic assignment analyses using the saddlepoint approximation method.we propose a method for visualizing genetic assignment data by characterizing the distribution of genetic profiles for each candidate source population. this method enhances the assignment method of rannala and mountain (1997) by calculating appropriate graph positions for individuals for which some genetic data are missing. an individual with missing data is positioned in the distributions of genetic profiles for a population according to its estimated quantile based on its available data. the ...201728182851
ecological and sanitary impacts of bacterial communities associated to biological invasions in african commensal rodent communities.changes in host-parasite ecological interactions during biological invasion events may affect both the outcome of invasions and the dynamics of exotic and/or endemic infections. we tested these hypotheses, by investigating ongoing house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) and black rat (rattus rattus) invasions in senegal (west africa). we used a 16s gene rrna amplicon sequencing approach to study potentially zoonotic bacterial communities in invasive and native rodents sampled along two well-define ...201729101373
leishmania infection in rodents in greece.to investigate the prevalence of leishmania infection in rodents from various areas of northern greece.201728986939
long-term data from a small mammal community reveal loss of diversity and potential effects of local climate change.climate change affects distribution and persistence of species. however, forecasting species' responses to these changes requires long-term data series that are often lacking in ecological studies. we used 15 years of small mammal trapping data collected between 1978 and 2015 in 3 areas at doñana national park (southwest spain) to (i) describe changes in species composition and (ii) test the association between local climate conditions and size of small mammal populations. overall, 5 species wer ...201729492011
using effect size benchmarks to assess when alien impacts are actually alien.alien predators have on average twice the impact on native prey populations than do native predators, and are a severe threat to wildlife globally. manipulation experiments can be used to quantify the impact of an alien predator on its prey population/s, but unless the results are compared to benchmarks, it is unclear whether this impact is indeed greater than that of a native predator. here we use the australian garden skink lampropholis delicata and alien black rat rattus rattus to test if bla ...201728128305
elucidating transmission dynamics and host-parasite-vector relationships for rodent-borne bartonella spp. in madagascar.bartonella spp. are erythrocytic bacteria transmitted via arthropod vectors, which infect a broad range of vertebrate hosts, including humans. we investigated transmission dynamics and host-parasite-vector relationships for potentially zoonotic bartonella spp. in invasive rattus rattus hosts and associated arthropod ectoparasites in madagascar. we identified five distinct species of bartonella (b. elizabethae 1, b. elizabethae 2, b. phoceensis 1, b. rattimassiliensis 1, and b. tribocorum 1) infe ...201728351673
a survey of zoonotic pathogens carried by non-indigenous rodents at the interface of the wet tropics of north queensland, australia.in 1964, brucella was isolated from rodents trapped in wooroonooran national park (wnp), in northern queensland, australia. genotyping of bacterial isolates in 2008 determined that they were a novel brucella species. this study attempted to reisolate this species of brucella from rodents living in the boundary area adjacent to wnp and to establish which endo- and ecto-parasites and bacterial agents were being carried by non-indigenous rodents at this interface. seventy non-indigenous rodents wer ...201725906923
molecular and serological evidence of flea-associated typhus group and spotted fever group rickettsial infections in madagascar.rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for many febrile syndromes around the world, including in sub-saharan africa. vectors of these pathogens include ticks, lice, mites and fleas. in order to assess exposure to flea-associated rickettsia species in madagascar, human and small mammal samples from an urban and a rural area, and their associated fleas were tested.201728259176
effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against xenopsylla cheopis (siphonaptera: pulicidae) in madagascar.fipronil was evaluated as a systemic control agent for the rat flea xenopsylla cheopis (rothschild), the main vector of yersinia pestis (yersin), the causative agent of plague, in madagascar. the effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against x. cheopis was assessed by determining the toxicity values of the "lethal dose 50" (ld50). two techniques were used to evaluate the systemic action of the insecticide on the vector: 1) an artificial feeding device filled with blood-fipronil m ...201728122816
rodent-borne trypanosoma from cities and villages of niger and nigeria: a special role for the invasive genus rattus?although they are known to sometimes infect humans, atypical trypanosomes are very poorly documented, especially in africa where one lethal case has yet been described. here we conducted a survey of rodent-borne trypanosoma in 19 towns and villages of niger and nigeria, with a special emphasis on niamey, the capital city of niger. the 1,298 rodents that were captured yielded 189 qpcr-positive animals from 14 localities, thus corresponding to a 14.6% overall prevalence. rats, especially black rat ...201728373037
at home with mastomys and rattus: human-rodent interactions and potential for primary transmission of lassa virus in domestic spaces.the multimammate mouse (mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir for lassa virus (lasv). zoonotic transmission occurs when humans are directly or indirectly exposed to fluids of the multimammate mouse, such as urine, saliva, and blood. housing characteristics and domestic organization affect rodent density in and around households and villages, and are likely to be a risk factor for lassa fever in humans where the reservoir exists. we use semi-structured interviews (n = 51), a quantitative survey ( ...201728167603
leishmania in synanthropic rodents (rattus rattus): new evidence for the urbanization of leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis.this study aimed to detect parasites from leishmania genus, to determine the prevalence of anti-leishmania spp. antibodies, to identify circulating species of the parasite, and to determine epidemiological variables associated with infection in rats caught in urban area of londrina, paraná, brazil. animal capture was carried out from may to december 2006, serological and molecular methods were performed. dna was extracted from total blood, and nested-pcr, targeting ssu rrna from leishmania genus ...201728177041
helminth infections in rattus ratus and rattus norvigicus in tehran, iran.the aim of this study was to determine intestinal and liver helminth infections in rattus rodents in tehran iran.201725759736
leishmaniasis in thailand: a review of causative agents and situations.before 1999, leishmaniasis was considered an imported disease in thailand. since then, autochthonous leishmaniasis was reported in both immmunocompetent and immmunocompromised patients especially in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). a new species was identified and named as leishmania siamensis consisting of two lineages, that is, lineages tr and pg. analysis of isoenzymes has clarified the more commonly detected l. siamensis lineage pg as leishmania m ...201728093539
condition factor and organosomatic indices of parasitized rattus rattus as indicators of host health.this study describes the influence of parasitism (trypanosoma lewisi and cysticercus fasciolaris) on the condition factor, hepato and splenosomatic indices of the common house rat, rattus rattus linnaeus, 1758 from rohilkhand, uttar pradesh, india. examination of r. rattus (n = 389) revealed t. lewisi (prevalence 12.40 %; intensity14 parasites/1000 rbc) from the blood and c. fasciolaris (larval taenia taeniaeformis) (prevalence 46.70 %; intensity 2-4 par/host) from the liver. condition factor (k ...201728316383
environmental factors and zoonotic pathogen ecology in urban exploiter species.knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. this review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [columba livia domestica], european starlings [sturnus vulgari ...201728631116
detection of leishmania spp in silvatic mammals and isolation of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis from rattus rattus in an endemic area for leishmaniasis in minas gerais state, brazil.knowledge of potential reservoirs of leishmania spp. in an anthropic environment is important so that surveillance and control measures can be implemented. the aim of this study was to investigate the infection by leishmania in small mammals in an area located in minas gerais, brazil, that undergoes changes in its natural environment and presents autochthonous human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) and visceral leishmaniasis (vl). for the capture of the animals, sherman and tomahawk traps w ...201729176902
serological survey of zoonotic viruses in invasive and native commensal rodents in senegal, west africa.increasing studies on rodent-borne diseases still highlight the major role of rodents as reservoirs of numerous zoonoses of which the frequency is likely to increase worldwide as a result of accelerated anthropogenic changes, including biological invasions. such a situation makes pathogen detection in rodent populations important, especially in the context of developing countries characterized by high infectious disease burden. here, we used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to describe the ci ...201728873024
comparative non-metric and morphometric analyses of rats at residential halls of the university of benin campus, nigeria.in mammals and across rat species, the variation in conformation is markedly observed in the head and the variation in the shape of the head is mostly determined by the shape of the skull. hence comparative topographic analysis and morphometry is a veritable tool in precise categorization of peri-domestic rats and species identification.201728967498
prevalence of lassa virus among rodents trapped in three south-south states of nigeria.lassa fever has been endemic in nigeria since 1969. the rodent mastomys natalensis has been widely claimed to be the reservoir host of the lassa virus. this study was designed to investigate the dis- tribution of species of rodents in three states (edo, delta and bayelsa) of nigeria and to determine the prevalence of lassa virus amongst trapped rodents in the selected states.201728748835
cat-rodent toxoplasma gondii type ii-variant circulation and limited genetic diversity on the island of fernando de noronha, brazil.in brazil, studies on animals and humans in mainland areas have shown that most strains of toxoplasma gondii are pathogenic to mice and exhibit great genetic variability.201728468666
molecular detection of leishmania infantum and leishmania tropica in rodent species from endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in morocco.leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem in african nations, including morocco, where little is known about the vertebrate reservoirs involved in the causal parasites' transmission cycles. the present study investigates the role of rodent species as potential reservoirs of leishmania spp. in central morocco, where both l. tropica and l. infantum have been reported.201728969710
pathological findings in wild rats (rattus rattus) captured at guafo island, northern chilean patagonia.the black rat (rattus rattus) is an invasive species and potential reservoir of significant pathogens of man, domestic animals and wildlife. during the 2012-2014 austral summers, 201 black rats were captured and examined on the uninhabited guafo island, in northern chilean patagonia (43.593029°s, 74.713481°w). the mite ornithonyssus bacoti caused lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic dermatitis in all infected rats (105/210, 52%), but no skin lesions were observed in rats infected with nosopsyllus ...201728942299
gongylonema parasites of rodents: a key to species and new data on gongylonema neoplasticum.specimens of the genus gongylonema were collected from the gastric mucosa of rodents of the rattus rattus linnaeus, 1758 and rattus norvegicus berkenhout, 1769 collected in urban areas in belém, pará, in the eastern brazilian amazon. the helminths were processed for analysis using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (sem) techniques, and presented taxonomic characteristics of the species gongylonema neoplasticum. the sem analyses revealed the presence of 2 developed buccal plates ( ...201729135391
post-harvest impacts of rodents in myanmar; how much rice do they eat and damage?we undertook studies on post-harvest losses by rodents in two townships in the ayeyarwady delta, myanmar. farmers harvest their monsoon rice crop and then stack it on levee banks to await threshing 4-6 weeks later. after threshing and drying, paddy rice is stored in granaries. the amount of grain stored in burrows was collected 4 weeks after harvest by excavating burrows. in grain stores, we quantified the weight of grain consumed by rodents for 3-6 months post-harvest.201727061129
exploiting interspecific olfactory communication to monitor predators.olfaction is the primary sense of many mammals and subordinate predators use this sense to detect dominant species, thereby reducing the risk of an encounter and facilitating coexistence. chemical signals can act as repellents or attractants and may therefore have applications for wildlife management. we devised a field experiment to investigate whether dominant predator (ferret mustela furo) body odor would alter the behavior of three common mesopredators: stoats (mustela erminea), hedgehogs (e ...201727983773
assessment of the role of small mammals in the transmission cycle of tegumentary leishmaniasis and first report of natural infection with leishmania braziliensis in two sigmodontines in northeastern argentina.to contribute to the knowledge of the role of small mammals in the transmission cycle of tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis, we studied the small mammal community and its temporal and spatial association with phlebotominae, as well as small mammal infection by leishmania spp. by pcr-rflp analyses in an endemic area of northeastern argentina. ten small mammal samplings were conducted (2007-2009, 7506 sherman trap nights and 422 cage trap nights). in two of these samplings ...201829264720
helminth infections of rodents and their zoonotic importance in boyer-ahmad district, southwestern iran.rodents are considered as reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases including helminthic infections. the current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of helminth infections in rodents, in boyer-ahmad district, southwestern iran.201829317882
identification and characterization of a novel rodent bocavirus from different rodent species in china.members in the genus bocaparvovirus are closely related to human health and have a wide host range. the diverse hosts raise the possibility of crossing species barrier, which is a feature of emerging viruses. among the mammalian hosts, rodents are generally acknowledged to be important reservoirs of emerging viruses. here, rodent samples collected from six provinces and autonomous regions of china (liaoning, inner mongolia, tibet, xinjiang, guangxi and yunnan) were used to investigate the preval ...201829593218
a survey on endoparasites in wild rodents of the jaz murian depression and adjacent areas, southeast of iran.in this survey, rodents and their endoparasites were investigated in the jaz murian depression and adjacent areas, southeast iran. in total, 146 specimens of rodents belong to 13 species were trapped. in general, 10 different genera of endoparasites including 11 species were collected. the endoparasites were identified as follows: (1) nematodes: trichuris muris, syphacia obvelata, labiostomum sp., labiostomum naimi, mastrophorus muris, aspicularis tetraptera and heligmosomoides skrjabini, physal ...201830538358
rodent-borne diseases and their public health importance in iran.rodents are reservoirs and hosts for several zoonotic diseases such as plague, leptospirosis, and leishmaniasis. rapid development of industry and agriculture, as well as climate change throughout the globe, has led to change or increase in occurrence of rodent-borne diseases. considering the distribution of rodents throughout iran, the aim of this review is to assess the risk of rodent-borne diseases in iran.201829672510
urban green area provides refuge for native small mammal biodiversity in a rapidly expanding city in ghana.urbanization is a key driver of global biodiversity loss. although sub-saharan african countries are experiencing unprecedented urbanization and urban expansion, very little is known about how this impacts tropical biodiversity. here, we assessed the effects of urban expansion and urban green space on local small mammal species diversity in accra, ghana. we surveyed small mammals in the university of ghana botanical garden, an urban green area (uga) and adjoining built-up environment (be) and co ...201830032389
molecular characterization of pathogenic leptospira sp. in small mammals captured from the human leptospirosis suspected areas of selangor state, malaysia.leptospirosis is caused by the spirochetal bacterium leptospira of which rodents are considered the most important reservoir. this study aims to determine and characterize virulent leptospira species among rodents and small mammals found in human settlements and recreational spots within the hulu langat and gombak districts of selangor, malaysia; regions that frequently report probable human leptospirosis cases. molecular analysis revealed an overall leptospira detection rate of 14.3% among the ...201830145261
molecular diagnosis of trypanosoma cruzi/leishmania spp. coinfection in domestic, peridomestic and wild mammals of venezuelan co-endemic areas.american trypanosomiasis and leishmaniases are diseases caused by protozoans of the trypanosomatidae family. in venezuela, although several endemic foci of both diseases coincide, there are no reports of coinfection in mammals. the molecular diagnosis of the coinfection t. cruzi-leishmania spp. was done in 527 blood samples collected on filter paper of several species of mammals (canis familiaris, equus asinus, didelphis marsupialis, equus mulus, rattus rattus, equus caballus, artibeus fratercul ...201831014717
molecular surveillance of piroplasms in ticks from small and medium-sized urban and peri-urban mammals in australia.natural landscape alterations as a consequence of urbanisation are one of the main drivers in the movements of wildlife into metropolitan and peri-urban areas. worldwide, these wildlife species are highly adaptable and may be responsible for the transmission of tick-borne pathogens including piroplasms (babesia, theileria and cytauxzoon spp.) that cause piroplasmosis in animals and occasionally in humans. little is known about piroplasms in the ticks of urban wildlife in australia. ticks from lo ...201829988853
relationship of peripheral blood mononuclear cells mirna expression and parasitic load in canine visceral leishmaniasis.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in humans is a chronic and often fatal disease if left untreated. dogs appear to be the main reservoir host for l. infantum infection, however, in many regions other canids such as jackals, foxes, wolves and other mammals, such as hares or black rats, have been implicated as wild reservoirs. most dogs cannot form an effective immune response against this infection, and this could be modulated by small non-coding rnas, called micrornas, responsible for post-transcripti ...201830517108
case report: two confirmed cases of human seoul virus infections in indonesia.seoul virus (seov) is a member of hantavirus family, which is transmitted to humans by rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus. diagnosing seov infection is difficult because the clinical presentations are often undifferentiated with other viral or bacterial infections and assays to test antibodies seroconversion and rna detection are not available in resource-limited setting like indonesia.201830445913
a perspective for resolving the systematics of rattus, the vertebrates with the most influence on human welfare.the murid rodent genus rattus fischer 1803 contains several species that are responsible for massive loss of crops and food, extinction of other species and the spread of zoonotic diseases to humans, as well as a laboratory species used to answer important questions in physiology, immunology, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, behaviour and learning. despite the well-known significant impacts of rattus, a definitive evolutionary based systematic framework for the genus is not yet available. th ...201830314119
detection and evaluation of antibody response to a baylisascaris-specific antigen in rodent hosts with the use of western blotting and elisa.diagnosis of parasitic diseases that involve tissue-stage larvae is challenging, and serology remains the most effective antemortem test for detecting these infections. baylisascaris procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, is a zoonotic ascarid. raccoons are the usual definitive host, and humans may be infected as accidental hosts. more than 150 species of birds and mammals may act as paratenic hosts, and rodents play an important role in the transmission and maintenance of this parasite in nature. mi ...201830074878
epidemiological and genetic studies suggest a common leishmania infantum transmission cycle in wildlife, dogs and humans associated to vector abundance in southeast spain.leishmania infantum infection was investigated in 202 wild carnivores, rodents and lagomorphs in southeast spain using a real-time pcr (rtpcr) in skin and organ samples, mostly spleen. lesions compatible with leishmaniosis were not observed in any of the animals. prevalence defined as the percentage of rtpcr-positive animals was 32% overall, and 45% in foxes (n = 69), 30% in rabbits (n = 80) and stone martens (n = 10), 19% in wood mice (n = 16), 0% in black rats (n = 10) and ranged between 0% an ...201830056986
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in commensal rodents sampled across senegal, west africa.risks related to toxoplasma gondii infection in humans remain poorly known in senegal. although rodent surveys could help to assess the circulation of t. gondii, they have seldom been set up in sub-saharan africa. the aim of this study was to examine toxoplasma seroprevalence in rodents from villages and towns across senegal. rodents were sampled in 40 localities using a standardised trapping protocol. detection of t. gondii antibodies was performed on 1205 rodents, using a modified agglutinatio ...201830016257
detection of rat hepatitis e virus, but not human pathogenic hepatitis e virus genotype 1-4 infections in wild rats from lithuania.rat hepatitis e virus (hev) is an orthohepevirus which is related to other hev found in humans and other mammals. it was first identified in norway rats (rattus norvegicus) from germany in 2010, and later it has been detected in black rats (rattus rattus) and norway rats from usa, china, indonesia, vietnam and many european countries. in this study, we describe molecular and serological investigations of black and norway rats trapped in lithuania, eastern europe, for infections with rat hev and ...201829981698
trypanosoma cruzi load in synanthropic rodents from rural areas in chile.trypanosoma cruzi is the agent of chagas disease, a major public health problem in latin america. many wild and domestic animals are naturally infected with t. cruzi; rodents are one of the groups which have been consistently detected infected in different countries. the aim of this work was to characterize blood t. cruzi load in naturally infected rodents from a chagas disease endemic region in chile.201829530074
coxiella burnetii and rickettsia conorii: two zoonotic pathogens in peridomestic rodents and their ectoparasites in nigeria.rodents are hosts of numerous pathogenic agents of public health importance globally. their ability to harbor these pathogens without showing overt clinical signs of disease has epidemiologic consequences. in some rural settings in nigeria, humans and rodents do not only share feeds and abode, but the latter may end up on the table of the former as a source of protein, thereby increasing the risks of disease transmission. molecular assays were used to detect and characterize two agents of zoonot ...201829042240
parasite spread at the domestic animal - wildlife interface: anthropogenic habitat use, phylogeny and body mass drive risk of cat and dog flea (ctenocephalides spp.) infestation in wild mammals.spillover of parasites at the domestic animal - wildlife interface is a pervasive threat to animal health. cat and dog fleas (ctenocephalides felis and c. canis) are among the world's most invasive and economically important ectoparasites. although both species are presumed to infest a diversity of host species across the globe, knowledge on their distributions in wildlife is poor. we built a global dataset of wild mammal host associations for cat and dog fleas, and used bayesian hierarchical mo ...201829307305
andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (andean-cl, uta) in peru and ecuador: the vector lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir mammals.the vector lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir host mammals of the leishmania parasites, causing the andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (andean-cl, uta) in peru and ecuador were thoroughly reviewed, performing a survey of literatures including our unpublished data. the peruvian l. (v.) peruviana, a principal leishmania species causing andean-cl in peru, possessed three lutzomyia species, lu. peruensis, lu. verrucarum and lu. ayacuchensis as vectors, while the ecuadorian l. (l.) mexicana parasite poss ...201829224978
predicting reintroduction outcomes for highly vulnerable species that do not currently coexist with their key threats.predicting reintroduction outcomes before populations are released is inherently challenging. it becomes even more difficult when the species being considered for reintroduction no longer coexists with the key threats limiting its distribution. however, data from other species facing the same threats can be used to make predictions under these circumstances. we used an integrated bayesian modeling approach to predict growth of a reintroduced population at a range of predator densities when no da ...201829455467
non-volant small mammal data from fragmented forests in terengganu state.this data article is about non-volant small mammal (squirrel, rat and tree shrew) capture from fragmented forest understories within sub-urban areas of setiu (peladang agro resort and setiu wetland research station) and inhabited areas of hulu terengganu (saok and lasir waterfalls) that are situated in terengganu state, peninsular malaysia. fruits like banana and oil palm were individually placed into each cage before the cages were fastened onto three to five meter height tree branches. the tra ...201830480062
[first report on leptospira interrogans in the sigmodontine rodent scapteromys aquaticusprimeiro relato da presença de leptospira interrogans em roedores sigmodontíneos scapteromys aquaticus].leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonosis that can be transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine or tissues of infected animals. in argentina, leptospirosis is endemic in the province of santa fe and epidemic outbreaks occur during floods. however, very little is known about the role that wild rodents play in the spread of the disease in argentina. the objective of this study was to identify the host species of pathogenic leptospira among rodents in a riverine settlemen ...201831093111
exposure to yersinia pestis increases resistance to plague in black rats and modulates transmission in madagascar.in madagascar, plague (yersinia pestis infection) is endemic in the central highlands, maintained by the couple rattus rattus/flea. the rat is assumed to die shortly after infection inducing migration of the fleas. however we previously reported that black rats from endemic areas can survive the infection whereas those from non-endemic areas remained susceptible. we investigate the hypothesis that lineages of rats can acquire resistance to plague and that previous contacts with the bacteria will ...201830551741
invasive rat control is an efficient, yet insufficient, method for recovery of the critically endangered hawaiian plant hau kuahiwi (hibiscadelphus giffardianus).biological invasions of rodents and other species have been especially problematic on tropical islands. invasive rattus rattus consumption of hibiscadelphus giffardianus (malvaceae; common hawaiian name hau kuahiwi) fruit and seeds has been hypothesized to be the most-limiting factor inhibiting the critically endangered tree, but this has not been experimentally tested, and little is known about other factors affecting seed dispersal, germination, and seedling establishment. thus, we do not know ...201830485341
frequency of trypanosoma cruzi infection in synanthropic and wild rodents captured in a rural community in southeast of mexico.the protozoan parasite trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of the chagas disease, which is endemic in southeastern mexico and is transmitted by the vector triatoma dimidiata (triatomide). t. cruzi infect a great variety of domestic and wild mammals; rodents are considered one of the most important reservoirs of the parasite in the transmission cycles of t. cruzi. the objective of this study was to determine the frequency of t. cruzi infection and to determine the parasitic load in synanthro ...201830410717
ticks, rickettsial and erlichial infection in small mammals from atlantic forest remnants in northeastern brazil.we evaluated infection by rickettsia spp. and ehrlichia spp in small mammals and their ticks from two atlantic forest conservation areas in the state of rio grande do norte, northeastern brazil. a total of 39 small mammals were captured during 2012-2013, encompassing 33 marsupials (29 didelphis albiventris, four monodelphis domestica), three cricetidae rodents (two necromys lasiurus, one rattus rattus), one caviomorpha rodent (thrichomys apereoides) and two armadillos (euphractus sexcinctus). th ...201830370217
vertical foraging shifts in hawaiian forest birds in response to invasive rat removal.worldwide, native species increasingly contend with the interacting stressors of habitat fragmentation and invasive species, yet their combined effects have rarely been examined. direct negative effects of invasive omnivores are well documented, but the indirect effects of resource competition or those caused by predator avoidance are unknown. here we isolated and examined the independent and interactive effects of invasive omnivorous black rats (rattus rattus) and forest fragment size on the in ...201830248110
impacts of rainforest fragmentation on the composition of ground-active vertebrate communities and their patterns of seed consumption.post-dispersal seed consumption by rainforest vertebrates on the forest floor can substantially influence the community dynamics of rainforest trees. studies of rainforest vertebrate seed predators at a community level, however, are lacking. furthermore, there is very limited understanding of the effects of forest fragmentation on seed predators and their feeding behaviour. here, we test whether communities of vertebrate seed predators, and their patterns of feeding on rainforest tree seeds, are ...201830208055
gut microflora may facilitate adaptation to anthropic habitat: a comparative study in rattus.anthropophilic species ("commensal" species) that are completely dependent upon anthropic habitats experience different selective pressures particularly in terms of food than their noncommensal counterparts. using a next-generation sequencing approach, we characterized and compared the gut microflora community of 53 commensal rattus rattus and 59 noncommensal rattus satarae captured in 10 locations in the western ghats, india. we observed that, while species identity was important in characteriz ...201830038748
invasive rat eradication strongly impacts plant recruitment on a tropical atoll.rat eradication has become a common conservation intervention in island ecosystems and its effectiveness in protecting native vertebrates is increasingly well documented. yet, the impacts of rat eradication on plant communities remain poorly understood. here we compare native and non-native tree and palm seedling abundance before and after eradication of invasive rats (rattus rattus) from palmyra atoll, line islands, central pacific ocean. overall, seedling recruitment increased for five of the ...201830016347
calliphoridae (diptera) associated with rattus rattus carcasses in the tijuca national park, rio de janeiro, brazil.forensic entomology is a complementary tool for penal procedures, mainly on estimating postmortem interval. study of cadaveric fauna in various environments is primary as source of information to support this science. this study collected information about the fauna of calliphoridae associated to carcasses of rattus rattus in the tijuca national park, rj. four collections were conducted, one for each season of 2015, exposing six carcasses at georeferenced points in each collection. the carcasses ...201829961829
reemergence of human plague in yunnan, china in 2016.the third plague pandemic originated from yunnan province, china in the middle of the 19th century. the last human plague epidemic in yunnan occurred from 1986-2005. on june 6, 2016, a case of human plague was reported in the xishuangbanna prefecture, yunnan. the patient suffered from primary septicemic plague after exposure to a dead house rat (rattus flavipectus), which has been identified as the main plague reservoir in the local epizootic area. moreover, a retrospective investigation identif ...201829897940
investigation of hepatic warfarin metabolism activity in rodenticide-resistant black rats (rattus rattus) in tokyo by in situ liver perfusion.anti-blood coagulation rodenticides, such as warfarin, have been used all over the world. they inhibit vitamin k epoxide reductase (vkor), which is necessary for producing several blood clotting factors. this inhibition by rodenticides results in lethal hemorrhage in rodents. however, heavy usage of these agents has led to the appearance of rodenticide-resistant rats. there are two major mechanisms underlying this resistance, i.e., mutation of the target enzyme of warfarin, vkor, and enhanced me ...201829891376
different segments within vertebrate muscles can operate on different regions of their force-length relationships.to relate in vivo behavior of fascicle segments within a muscle to their in vitro force-length relationships, we examined the strain behavior of paired segments within each of three vertebrate muscles. after determining in vivo muscle activity patterns and length changes of in-series segments within the semimembranosus muscle (sm) in the american toad (bufo americanus) during hopping and within the sternohyoid (sh) muscle in the rat (rattus rattus) during swallowing, and of spatially separated f ...201829889253
molecular detection of bartonella coopersplainsensis and b. henselae in rats from new zealand.aim to identify bartonella spp. in rats from new zealand using molecular methods. methods dna was extracted from the spleens of 143 black rats (rattus rattus) captured in the tongariro national park, new zealand. pcr was performed using bartonella genus-specific primers amplifying segments of the 16s-23s rrna internal transcribed spacer and citrate synthase (glta) and beta subunit of the rna polymerase (rpob) genes. pcr products were sequenced and compared online with sequences stored in the dat ...201829874523
an evaluation of removal trapping to control rodents inside homes in a plague-endemic region of rural northwestern uganda.rodents pose a significant threat to human health, particularly in rural subsistence farming communities in africa, where rodents threaten food security and serve as reservoirs of human pathogens, including the agents of plague, leptospirosis, murine typhus, rat-bite fever, lassa fever, salmonellosis, and campylobacteriosis. our study focused on the plague-endemic west nile region of uganda, where a majority of residents live in uganda government-defined poverty, rely on subsistence farming for ...201829768127
geographical distribution and relative risk of anjozorobe virus (thailand orthohantavirus) infection in black rats (rattus rattus) in madagascar.hantavirus infection is a zoonotic disease that is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and cardiopulmonary syndrome in human. anjozorobe virus, a representative virus of thailand orthohantavirus (thaiv), was recently discovered from rodents in anjozorobe-angavo forest in madagascar. to assess the circulation of hantavirus at the national level, we carried out a survey of small terrestrial mammals from representative regions of the island and identified environmental factors ass ...201829743115
risk of maritime introduction of plague from madagascar to mayotte.plague is a rodent-borne disease caused by yersinia pestis. most human infections are bubonic plague, as a result of being bitten by infected rodent fleas. madagascar, democratic republic of congo and peru are the three most affected countries. plague was introduced into eastern madagascar in 1898 by boat from india. it is estimated that the risk of introduction of plague from madagascar to neighboring islands is very high due to the maritime links. we conducted a study of plague reservoirs and ...201830075098
rat as an overlooked reservoir for coxiella burnetii: a public health implication.q fever is a zoonosis with a mounting public health concern throughout the world. rodents have been assumed to be a potential reservoir for coxiella burnetii, a bacterium which causes q fever. the current study was carried out to investigate the possible role of rats in the epidemiology of such disease. for this purpose, fecal samples were collected from 75 rats (55 rattus norvegicus and 20 rattus rattus) trapped from giza governorate, egypt. dnas were extracted and samples were examined for the ...201830502830
structure of parasite communities in urban environments: the case of helminths in synanthropic rodents.identifying patterns with sufficient predictive power is a constant challenge for ecologists to address ecological problems related to species conservation, pollution or infectious disease control. during the last years, the amounts of parasitological studies in this sense increased, but they are still scarce in urban environments. the main aim of this study was to investigate if the helminth communities of urban rodents are structured within host assembly (compound community) or they are a resu ...201830183669
isotopic evidence for niche partitioning and the influence of anthropogenic disturbance on endemic and introduced rodents in central madagascar.we applied a multi-isotope approach to examine aspects of niche partitioning, competition, and mobility for rodents in the central highlands of madagascar. specifically, we used carbon (δ13c), nitrogen (δ15n), and strontium (87sr/86sr) isotope ratios in bone to investigate diet and mobility for endemic tufted tail rats (eliurus spp.), and introduced black rats (rattus rattus) and house mice (mus musculus) within and outside a fragment of montane humid forest in the ambohitantely special reserve. ...201829959538
leishmania major and trypanosoma lewisi infection in invasive and native rodents in senegal.bioinvasion is a major public health issue because it can lead to the introduction of pathogens in new areas and favours the emergence of zoonotic diseases. rodents are prominent invasive species, and act as reservoirs in many zoonotic infectious diseases. the aim of this study was to determine the link between the distribution and spread of two parasite taxa (leishmania spp. and trypanosoma lewisi) and the progressive invasion of senegal by two commensal rodent species (the house mouse mus musc ...201829958273
prevalence of hepatozoon and sarcocystis spp. in rodents and their ectoparasites in nigeria.using polymerase chain reaction targeting the 18s rrna gene and dna sequencing the prevalence and diversity of apicomplexa and piroplasmida infections in rodents from nigeria was studied. overall, 13 of 194 (7.7%) rodent blood samples tested were positive for hepatozoon spp. while 2 (1.0%) were positive for sarcocystis dispersa. hepatozoon spp. dna was detected in all the rodentspecies tested except neotoma spp., and was most prevalent (50%) in the african giant rat (cricetomys gambianus), follo ...201830071191
molecular detection of leptospira spp. in rodents trapped in the mozambique island city, nampula province, mozambique.leptospirosis is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by a bacteria of the genus leptospira. in africa it is frequently mistaken for frequently occurring conditions such as malaria. the aim of this study was to identify rodent species involved in the transmission of the disease, the prevalence of pathogenic leptospira spp. in selected rodent species and risk factors for human leptospirosis.201831681910
a checklist of the helminth parasites of sympatric rodents from two mayan villages in yucatán, méxico.in this survey, 19 species of helminths including cestoda (davaineidae, hymenolepididae, and taeniidae), acanthocephala (oligacanthorhynchidae), and nematoda (trichuridae, ornithostrongylidae, heligmonellidae, oxyuridae, and gongylonematidae) from rattus rattus, mus musculus, sigmodon toltecus, heteromys gaumeri, and peromyscus yucatanicus in two mayan villages in yucatán, méxico, were recorded. ten species of helminths were collected in both localities. the highest species richness was recorded ...201829690219
rodents are carriers of clostridioides difficile strains similar to those isolated from piglets.features of clostridioides difficile transmission in swine and the role of rodents as c. difficile reservoir are not clear. to investigate if rodents can carry strains of c. difficile that are genetically similar to those isolated from swine, 97 fecal samples from neonatal piglets and 41 intestinal contents from rodents were collected in two farms. all samples were subjected to c. difficile culture and the presence of a/b toxins in piglet feces were accessed by commercial enzyme imunoassay (eia) ...201829680295
endoparasites of small mammals in edo state, nigeria: public health implications.some small mammals occur as household pests and harbour a number of parasites that could be of public health importance. this study profiled the helminth and protozoan parasites in trapped small mammals within and around human dwelling places (houses) located across 4 major towns (auchi, benin, ekpoma, and uromi) and environs in edo state, nigeria. six genera (apodemus sp., crocidura sp., mastomys natalensis, mus musculus, rattus sp., and sorex sp.) were identified from 502 trapped small mammals ...201829529857
photons and foraging: artificial light at night generates avoidance behaviour in male, but not female, new zealand weta.avoiding foraging under increased predation risk is a common anti-predator behaviour. using artificial light to amplify predation risk at ecologically valuable sites has been proposed to deter introduced mice (mus musculus) and ship rats (rattus rattus) from degrading biodiversity in island ecosystems. however, light may adversely affect native species; in particular, little is known about invertebrate responses to altered lighting regimes. we investigated how endemic orthopterans responded to a ...201829414377
widespread arenavirus occurrence and seroprevalence in small mammals, nigeria.lassa fever, killing thousands of people annually, is the most reported viral zoonotic disease in nigeria. recently, different rodent species carrying diverse lineages of the lassa virus (lasv) in addition to a novel mobala-like genetic sequence were detected within the country. here, screening 906 small mammal specimens from 11 localities for igg antibodies and incorporating previous pcr detection data involving the same populations, we further describe arenavirus prevalence across nigeria in r ...201830005641
a new species of sucking louse hoplopleura villosissima n. sp. (psocodea: phthiraptera: hoplopleuridae) and a new host record of the spiny rat louse polyplax spinulosa burmeister, 1839 (psocodea: phthiraptera: polyplacidae) from the long-haired rat rattus villosissimus waite (rodentia: muridae) in australia.the sucking louse fauna of endemic australian rodents has been under-studied for decades. sixty-five species of native rodents have been recorded in australia. however, only 11 species of lice have been reported from 11 species of endemic australian rodents.201830139365
genetic differentiation of the oriental rat flea, xenopsylla cheopis, from two sympatric host species.the oriental rat flea (xenopsylla cheopis), which infests several mammals, primarily rats (rattus spp.), is the most notorious vector of human plague. in this study, we measured the genetic differentiation among populations of fleas from the asian house rat (rattus tanezumi) and the brown rat (r. norvegicus) using microsatellite markers in order to investigate the extent of host-switching in this parasite.201829884224
clinical infection in house rats (rattus rattus) caused by streptobacillus notomytis.rat bite fever is an under-reported, under-diagnosed emerging zoonosis with worldwide distribution. besides spirillum minus, streptobacillus moniliformis is the major causative microorganism although it usually colonises rats without any clinical signs. a group of house rats (rattus rattus) kept in a zoo exhibition for educational purposes suffered from neurological signs including disorientation, torticollis, stall walking, ataxia and death. gross pathological and histo-pathological examination ...201829671179
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