cryptic diversity in black rats rattus rattus of the galápagos islands, ecuador.human activity has facilitated the introduction of a number of alien mammal species to the galápagos archipelago. understanding the phylogeographic history and population genetics of invasive species on the archipelago is an important step in predicting future spread and designing effective management strategies. in this study, we describe the invasion pathway of rattus rattus across the galápagos using microsatellite data, coupled with historical knowledge. microsatellite genotypes were generat ...201627231528
disease-induced decline of an apex predator drives invasive dominated states and threatens biodiversity.apex predators are important in protecting biodiversity through top-down influence on food webs. their loss is linked with competitive release of invasive mesopredators and species extinctions. the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) has experienced severe declines over a 15-yr period as a novel transmissible cancer has spread across its current geographic range. we surveyed the mammalian community, using hair traps, across the spatial extent of the devil's progressive population decline. we ...201627145614
spermatozoon ultrastructure of thysanotaenia congolensis (cyclophyllidea, anoplocephalidae, inermicapsiferinae): phylogenetic implications.the mature spermatozoon of thysanotaenia congolensis, an intestinal parasite of black rat rattus rattus from cape verde, is described by means of transmission electron microscopy. the ultrastructural organization of the sperm cell of t. congolensis follows levron et al.'s type vii of the eucestoda. it corresponds to a uniflagellate spermatozoon that presents crested bodies, periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus spiralled around the axoneme. t ...201627083191
rat breeding parameters according to floor space available in cage.the cage floor space recommended for a female rat with a litter is greater in the 8th edition of the guide for the care and use of laboratory animals than in previous editions. as a result, research institutions using commonly available cages to house rats may not offer the recommended amount of space for a breeding pair and litter housed in the same cage. we evaluated breeding parameters in rats housed in cages with 143 in(2) (922.6 cm(2)) compared with 210 in(2) (1355 cm(2)) of floor space. gi ...201626817975
functional ultrastructure of eggs and cellular organization of hexacanths of the cyclophyllidean cestode thysanotaenia congolensis: a phylogenetic implication of obtained results.the functional ultrastructure of eggs and cellular organization of hexacanths from gravid proglottids of thysanotaenia congolensis, from black rats from cape verde, were examined by transmission electron microscopy. mature eggs with fully formed hexacanths are grouped within parenchymatous capsules of gravid proglottids. oncospheral envelopes surrounding mature hexacanths are reduced to a very thin membranous embryophore as their protective function is taken over by the parenchymatous capsules o ...201626689933
correlation of host specificity, environmental factors and oriental rat flea abundance.fleas are the vectors of many communicable diseases that are normally found in oriental rats. climate and environmental changes influence the habitat and migration patterns of vectors. in this study, the oriental rat flea abundance, represented as total flea index, was determined in correlation to host specificity and various environmental factors. the number of hosts and fleas calculated from 3 specific habitats (shipping area, decayed area, and market area) from july 2010 to june 2011. the res ...201526513922
what is your diagnosis? a soft tissue mass in a black rat snake. 201526427028
caloric restriction and formalin-induced inflammation: an experimental study in rat model.acute and chronic inflammations are difficult to control. using chemical anti-inflammatory medications along with their complications considerably limit their use. according to traditional iranian medicine (tim), there is an important relation between inflammation and imtila (food and blood accumulation in the body); food reduction or its more modern equivalent caloric restriction (cr) may act against both imtila and inflammation.201526421173
ameloblastoma in a wild black rat snake (pantherophis alleghaniensis).reports of neoplasia in captive reptiles are becoming more frequent; however, there is still scarce knowledge of the occurrence of neoplasia in wild reptiles. a wild black rat snake (pantherophis alleghaniensis) was presented to the zoological medicine service of the university of georgia's veterinary teaching hospital with a 3 cm in diameter solid mandibular mass that was partially ulcerated. radiographically, the mass was radiopaque with small bone spicules and partial osteolysis of the adjace ...201526077548
evidence of a target resistance to antivitamin k rodenticides in the roof rat rattus rattus: identification and characterisation of a novel y25f mutation in the vkorc1 spite of intensive use of bromadiolone, rodent control was inefficient on a farm infested by rats in zaragoza, spain. while metabolic resistance was previously described in this rodent species, the observation of a target resistance to antivitamin k rodenticides had been poorly documented in rattus rattus.201625847836
ectoparasites and endoparasites of peridomestic house-rats in ile-ife, nigeria and implication on human health.there has never been a single case report of any parasitic zoonosis in ile-ife while just a case of human acanthocephalan infection in nigeria is available.201425642271
discriminating the drivers of edge effects on nest predation: forest edges reduce capture rates of ship rats (rattus rattus), a globally invasive nest predator, by altering vegetation structure.forest edges can strongly affect avian nest success by altering nest predation rates, but this relationship is inconsistent and context dependent. there is a need for researchers to improve the predictability of edge effects on nest predation rates by examining the mechanisms driving their occurrence and variability. in this study, we examined how the capture rates of ship rats, an invasive nest predator responsible for avian declines globally, varied with distance from the forest edge within fo ...201425412340
reproductive toxicity of triptolide in male house rat, rattus rattus.the aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, rattus rattus. feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male r. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. pregnancy rates we ...201425374942
functional ultrastructure of the parenchymatic capsules of the cestode thysanotaenia congolensis (cyclophyllidea, anoplocephalidae, inermicapsiferinae).proglottids from adult thysanotaenia congolensis from naturally infected black rats rattus rattus from santiago island, cape verde, were examined by transmission electron microscopy (tem). the uterus in mature proglottids is composed of an ephemeral transverse tube or sac that breaks down, releasing eggs into the parenchyma where they are sequestered in groups and encapsulated by parenchymatous layers. in gravid proglottids, eggs accumulate in groups of 6-12 at the distal end of sac-like uterine ...201525344207
fleas of small mammals on reunion island: diversity, distribution and epidemiological consequences.the diversity and geographical distribution of fleas parasitizing small mammals have been poorly investigated on indian ocean islands with the exception of madagascar where endemic plague has stimulated extensive research on these arthropod vectors. in the context of an emerging flea-borne murine typhus outbreak that occurred recently in reunion island, we explored fleas' diversity, distribution and host specificity on reunion island. small mammal hosts belonging to five introduced species were ...201425188026
poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, rattus compare the acceptance and efficacy of cereal bait containing different concentrations of poultry egg components in laboratory and poultry farms to control house rat, rattus rattus (r. rattus).201425183108
bird-repellent effects on bait efficacy for control of invasive mammal pests.repellents to reduce crop damage from birds and mammals have been investigated extensively, but their efficacy in reducing risk to non-target birds in aerial poisoning operations for control of mammal pests is less known. we assessed the impact on bait acceptability, palatability and kill efficacy for captive wild rats (rattus rattus l.) and possums (trichosurus vulpecula kerr) of adding bird repellents (anthraquinone and d-pulegone) to baits used for their control in food choice trials.201525143303
[influence of radiation on survivability, behavior and neurochemical correlates of rats].the aim of the work was to study the dependence of individual radiosensitivity of white and black rats on radiation. the rats under study were derived from a cross between black and white rats and called ratus ratus-georgia. comparative radiosensitivity of white (wistar) and black rats was studied at a total exposure with sublethal and lethal doses (5, 7 and 9 gy). cumulative survival functions of rats, a spectrum of changes in some ethological parameters and content of serotonin and catecholami ...201425020178
invasion genetics of a human commensal rodent: the black rat rattus rattus in madagascar.studies focusing on geographical genetic patterns of commensal species and on human history complement each other and provide proxies to trace common colonization events. on madagascar, the unintentional introduction and spread of the commensal species rattus rattus by people may have left a living clue of human colonization patterns and history. in this study, we addressed this question by characterizing the genetic structure of natural populations of r. rattus using both microsatellites and mi ...201424975563
animal reservoirs and potential vectors of leishmania siamensis in southern thailand.leishmania siamensis is newly described as the causative pathogen of autochthonous leishmaniasis in thailand. potential vectors and animal reservoirs of l. siamensis are not thoroughly studied. an environmental survey was carried out in the affected area in two provinces in southern thailand: songkhla and nakhon si thammarat. ninety-nine villagers, 378 sandflies, and potential animal reservoirs were examined. leishmania dna amplicon was identified in two species of female sandflies, sergentomyia ...201424964648
highly diverse morbillivirus-related paramyxoviruses in wild fauna of the southwestern indian ocean islands: evidence of exchange between introduced and endemic small mammals.the paramyxoviridae form an increasingly diverse viral family, infecting a wide variety of different hosts. in recent years, they have been linked to disease emergence in many different animal populations and in humans. bats and rodents have been identified as major animal populations capable of harboring paramyxoviruses, and host shifting between these animals is likely to be an important driving factor in the underlying evolutionary processes that eventually lead to disease emergence. here, we ...201424829336
eradications as scientific experiments: progress in simultaneous eradications of two major invasive taxa from a mediterranean rats, rattus rattus, and mat-forming iceplants, carpobrotus aff. acinaciformis and carpobrotus edulis, are pervasive pests on mediterranean islands. their cumulative impacts on native biotas alter the functioning of island ecosystems and threaten biodiversity. a report is given here of the first attempt to eradicate both taxa from a protected nature reserve in south-eastern france (bagaud island). in order to minimise unwanted hazardous outcomes and produce scientific knowledge, the operat ...201524687625
differential population responses of native and alien rodents to an invasive predator, habitat alteration and plant masting.invasive species and anthropogenic habitat alteration are major drivers of biodiversity loss. when multiple invasive species occupy different trophic levels, removing an invasive predator might cause unexpected outcomes owing to complex interactions among native and non-native prey. moreover, external factors such as habitat alteration and resource availability can affect such dynamics. we hypothesized that native and non-native prey respond differently to an invasive predator, habitat alteratio ...201324197409
rats and seabirds: effects of egg size on predation risk and the potential of conditioned taste aversion as a mitigation method.seabirds nesting on islands are threatened by invasive rodents, such as mice and rats, which may attack eggs, chicks and even adults. the low feasibility of rat eradications on many islands makes the development of alternate control plans necessary. we used a combination of field experiments on a mediterranean island invaded by black rats (rattusrattus) to evaluate (1) the predation risk posed to different-sized seabird eggs and (2), the potential of two deterrent methods (electronic and chemica ...201324058712
potential of triptolide in reproductive management of the house rat, rattus rattus.mature and healthy male house rats, rattus rattus (n= 160) were fed on bait (cracked wheat: powdered sugar, 98:2) containing different concentrations of triptolide (0.1, 0.05, 0.025 and 0%) for 7 and 14 days in no-choice and bi-choice feeding tests in the laboratory. the objective of the study was to record the antifertility affects of triptolide after 30 and 60 days of termination of treatment. results revealed no significant effect of triptolide treatment on weights of testis, epididymis, semi ...201324020465
efficiency of barley bran and oat bran in ameliorating blood lipid profile and the adverse histological changes in hypercholesterolemic male rats.the efficiency of oat bran and barley bran in lowering the induced hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in blood of male albino rats (rattus rattus) was studied. twenty rats were divided into four groups each consisted of five rats and fed the specified test diets for eight weeks. the first group (g1) is the negative group which was fed basal diet, the second group (g2) was fed 1.0% cholesterol, was the third group (g3) fed 1.0% cholesterol and 10% oats bran, and the fourth group (g4) was fed ...201323984330
urinary lipocalin protein in a female rodent with correlation to phases in the estrous cycle: an experimental study accompanied by in silico analysis.male urinary lipocalin family proteins, practically odorant-binding proteins but also could be pheromones by themselves, in rodents act as a shuttle for chemosignal communication and facilitate delivery of the signals for access to congeners. however, presence of this protein in urine of female rodents has not yet been reported. therefore, the present investigation was carried out to find if lipocalin family protein is present in the urine of female house rat and, if so, to find whether its expr ...201323967199
odour cues influence predation risk at artificial bat roosts in urban bushland.odours that accumulate from roosting can attract predators and increase predation risk. consequently, selection should favour strategies that allow prey to evade detection by predators, including changing roosts. insectivorous bats that roost in tree hollows regularly switch roosts and roost in different sized groups, strategies that would alter the accumulation of roost odours and are hypothesized to reduce predation risk. we experimentally manipulated the amount and refresh rate of roosting od ...201323637390
preservation of rna and dna from mammal samples under field conditions.ecological and conservation genetics require sampling of organisms in the wild. appropriate preservation of the collected samples, usually by cryostorage, is key to the quality of the genetic data obtained. nevertheless, cryopreservation in the field to ensure rna and dna stability is not always possible. we compared several nucleic acid preservation solutions appropriate for field sampling and tested them on rat (rattus rattus) blood, ear and tail tip, liver, brain and muscle. we compared the e ...201323617785
analysis of gamasid mites (acari: mesostigmata) associated with the asian house rat, rattus tanezumi (rodentia: muridae) in yunnan province, southwest china.during a survey lasting from 1990 to 2008, we captured 4,113 asian house rats, rattus tanezumi temminck 1844 (rodentia: muridae) from 28 counties of yunnan province in southwestern china. from these rats, a total of 19,304 gamasid mites (acari: mesostigmata) were collected and identified as comprising 50 different species. the species diversity of gamasid mites from this single rat species is higher than that reported previously from multiple hosts within a given geographical region. of the 50 m ...201323471780
anthropogenic subsidies mitigate environmental variability for insular rodents.the exogenous input of nutrients and energy into island systems fuels a large array of consumers and drives bottom-up trophic cascades in island communities. the input of anthropogenic resources has increased on islands and particularly supplemented non-native consumers with extra resources. we test the hypothesis that the anthropogenic establishments of super-abundant gulls and invasive iceplants carpobrotus spp. have both altered the dynamics of an introduced black rat rattus rattus population ...201323223862
influence of risk factors on renal leptospiral load in naturally infected wild black 2009, a survey was conducted in reunion island to determine the renal leptospiral load in black rats trapped in the field. the concentration of leptospires in kidney tissue was calculated using qpcr. our results showed high inter-individual variations of renal bacterial load in naturally infected black rats (mean=8.27 ± 4.72 log-genome copies per mg kidney tissue). the objective of this study was to model the renal leptospiral load in 50 naturally infected black rats as a function of sex, age ...201323220230
invasion genetics of the introduced black rat (rattus rattus) in senegal, west understanding of the evolutionary history and dynamics of invasive species is required for the construction of predictive models of future spread and the design of biological management measures. the black rat (rattus rattus) is a major vertebrate invader with a worldwide distribution. despite the severe ecological, economic and health impacts of this species, its evolutionary history has been little studied. we carried out extensive specimen sampling in senegal, west africa, and used microsa ...201323206272
exploiting olfactory learning in alien rats to protect birds' eggs.predators must ignore unhelpful background "noise" within information-rich environments and focus on useful cues of prey activity to forage efficiently. learning to disregard unrewarding cues should happen quickly, weakening future interest in the cue. prey odor, which is rapidly investigated by predators, may be particularly appropriate for testing whether consistently unrewarded cues are ignored, and whether such behavior can be exploited to benefit prey. using wild free-ranging populations of ...201223071301
accumulation and biological effects of metals in wild rats in mining areas of zambia.the lead-zinc (pb-zn) mine in kabwe city and the copper-cobalt (cu-co) mine in the copperbelt province are major mining areas in zambia. to examine the effects of metal pollution on wildlife, wild black rats (rattus rattus and rattus tanezumi) were captured in kabwe and chingola (in the copperbelt province), and in lusaka (a noncontaminated site). wild black rats in kabwe accumulated significantly higher concentrations of pb and cd in various organs than rats from lusaka. in chingola, significan ...201323054276
effects of spatially extensive control of invasive rats on abundance of native invertebrates in mainland new zealand forests.predation on native fauna by non-native invasive mammals is widely documented, but effects of predation at the population level are rarely measured. eradication of invasive mammals from islands has led to recovery of native biota, but the benefits of controlling invasive mammal populations in settings where eradication is not feasible are less understood. we used various combinations of aerially delivered toxic bait and control measures on the ground to reduce abundances of invasive rats (rattus ...201323020670
isotopic niche mirrors trophic niche in a vertebrate island invader.caution for the indiscriminate conversion of the isotopic niche into ecologic niche was recently advised. we tested the utility of the isotopic niche to answer ecological questions on oceanic islands. we compared the isotopic niches of black rats (rattus rattus) on two islands in the gulf of california, mexico: farrallón de san ignacio (fsi) and san pedro mártir (spm). both islands maintained several species of marine birds, but fsi is devoid of terrestrial vegetation and spm has several species ...201322886039
assessing spatial variation and overall density of aerially broadcast toxic bait during a rat eradication on palmyra atoll.baits containing brodifacoum rodenticide were aerially applied to eradicate invasive black rats from palmyra atoll, an important biodiversity center. bait application must be sufficient to be effective, while minimizing environmental hazards by not exceeding designated label rates, prompting our bait density assessments for two aerial drops. with few physical or human resources on this remote, uninhabited atoll, assessments were particularly challenging, requiring observations within 30 min of a ...201322773308
bait aggregation to reduce cost and toxin use in aerial 1080 baiting of small mammal pests in new zealand.the metabolic toxin sodium fluoroacetate ('compound 1080') is widely used for controlling introduced mammalian pests in new zealand. for large-scale operations, 1080 is distributed aerially in bait to kill brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula kerr) and ship rats (rattus rattus l.). while usually successful in reducing pest populations by > 80%, widespread distribution of toxic bait is relatively expensive and raises concerns from some members of the public. here, trials with spatial aggregat ...201222615267
invasion facilitates hybridization with introgression in the rattus rattus species complex.biological invasions result in novel species interactions, which can have significant evolutionary impacts on both native and invading taxa. one evolutionary concern with invasions is hybridization among lineages that were previously isolated, but make secondary contact in their invaded range(s). black rats, consisting of several morphologically very similar but genetically distinct taxa that collectively have invaded six continents, are arguably the most successful mammalian invaders on the pla ...201222607228
genetic characterization of okinawan black rats showing coat color polymorphisms of white spotting and melanism.we examined pelage color variation in wild populations of black rats (the rattus rattus species complex) in the yambaru forest area, northern okinawa island, ryukyu archipelago, japan. our field study revealed that 8.7% (38/438) and 0.2% (4/2500) of rats exhibited two types of coat color: white spotting and melanism, respectively. using 34 representative animals, the phylogeography of the population was inferred using a nuclear gene marker, i.e., sequences (954 bp) of the melanocortin-1 receptor ...201222531792
will climate change, genetic and demographic variation or rat predation pose the greatest risk for persistence of an altitudinally distributed island endemic?species endemic to mountains on oceanic islands are subject to a number of existing threats (in particular, invasive species) along with the impacts of a rapidly changing climate. the lord howe island endemic palm hedyscepe canterburyana is restricted to two mountains above 300 m altitude. predation by the introduced black rat (rattus rattus) is known to significantly reduce seedling recruitment. we examined the variation in hedyscepe in terms of genetic variation, morphology, reproductive outpu ...201224832517
hierarchical patterns of genetic population structure in black rat snakes (elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) as revealed by microsatellite dna analysis.we investigated the distribution of variation at six microsatellite loci in the black rat snake (elaphe obsoleta obsoleta). sampling occurred at three hierarchical scales ranging from communal hibernacula to regional populations, with most locales situated within the frontenac axis region of eastern ontario. we detected no statistically significant pairwise differentiation (fst and rst ) between hibernacula within the same subpopulations (interhibernaculum distance <6 km). however, isolation-by- ...199928565468
community structure and demography of small-mammal populations in insular montane forests in southern india.small mammals were studied in insular montane forest patches in the upper nilgiris in southern india from february 1994 to september 1996. nine patches were selected at two sites, one with a single large 600-ha patch, the other with several small patches ranging in size from 0.2 to 60 ha. the population characteristics and community structure of small mammals were studied in relation to patch size and habitat structure within the patches. the two most abundant species were rattus rattus (2-36 in ...199828308532
chemical ecology of canarian laurel forest: toxic diterpenes frompersea indica (lauraceae).the tree speciesp. indica (lauraceae) is an important endemism in the canary islands laurel forest and can readily be distinguished by its defoliated appearance due to the seasonal action of wild rats (rattus rattus), which eat the plant and become intoxicated. these observations and the phytochemical interest of this plant species led us to study the potentially toxic chemicals responsible for such action. we found that an ethanolic extract ofp. indica and its water fraction were toxic when inj ...199024264325
long-term data from a small mammal community reveal loss of diversity and potential effects of local climate change.climate change affects distribution and persistence of species. however, forecasting species' responses to these changes requires long-term data series that are often lacking in ecological studies. we used 15 years of small mammal trapping data collected between 1978 and 2015 in 3 areas at doñana national park (southwest spain) to (i) describe changes in species composition and (ii) test the association between local climate conditions and size of small mammal populations. overall, 5 species wer ...201729492011
identification and characterization of a novel rodent bocavirus from different rodent species in china.members in the genus bocaparvovirus are closely related to human health and have a wide host range. the diverse hosts raise the possibility of crossing species barrier, which is a feature of emerging viruses. among the mammalian hosts, rodents are generally acknowledged to be important reservoirs of emerging viruses. here, rodent samples collected from six provinces and autonomous regions of china (liaoning, inner mongolia, tibet, xinjiang, guangxi and yunnan) were used to investigate the preval ...201829593218
trypanosoma cruzi infection in domestic and synanthropic mammals such as potential risk of sylvatic transmission in a rural area from north of antioquia, colombia, dogs and opossum are the most important mammals in domestic and sylvatic t. cruzi transmission. however, the role of both species has not been evaluated in areas where both species converge in the peridomestic area. to evaluate the infection status of domestic and wild mammals in peridomestic habitats of puerto valdivia, antioquia department. the infection of domestic dogs and small wild mammals was performed by hemoculture, molecular and serological methods. additionally, the infec ...202032875129
a survey on endoparasites in wild rodents of the jaz murian depression and adjacent areas, southeast of this survey, rodents and their endoparasites were investigated in the jaz murian depression and adjacent areas, southeast iran. in total, 146 specimens of rodents belong to 13 species were trapped. in general, 10 different genera of endoparasites including 11 species were collected. the endoparasites were identified as follows: (1) nematodes: trichuris muris, syphacia obvelata, labiostomum sp., labiostomum naimi, mastrophorus muris, aspicularis tetraptera and heligmosomoides skrjabini, physal ...201830538358
rats as potential reservoirs for neglected zoonotic bartonella species in flanders, belgium.bartonella spp. are vector-borne pathogens transmitted to humans via blood-sucking arthropods. rodents such as the black rat (rattus rattus) and norway rat (r. norvegicus) are thought to be the main reservoirs. an infection with rodent-associated bartonella spp. may cause severe symptoms in humans such as endocarditis and neuroretinitis. the current knowledge of bartonella prevalence in rats from western europe is scarce.202032381113
development and evaluation of a duplex taqman qpcr assay for detection and quantification of trypanosoma cruzi infection in domestic and sylvatic reservoir hosts.a question of epidemiological relevance in chagas disease studies is to understand trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles and trace the origins of (re)emerging cases in areas under vector or disease surveillance. conventional parasitological methods lack sensitivity whereas molecular approaches can fill in this gap, provided that an adequate sample can be collected and processed and a nucleic acid amplification method can be developed and standardized. we developed a duplex qpcr assay for accurat ...201931783770
rodent-borne diseases and their public health importance in iran.rodents are reservoirs and hosts for several zoonotic diseases such as plague, leptospirosis, and leishmaniasis. rapid development of industry and agriculture, as well as climate change throughout the globe, has led to change or increase in occurrence of rodent-borne diseases. considering the distribution of rodents throughout iran, the aim of this review is to assess the risk of rodent-borne diseases in iran.201829672510
nematodes of rodents of armeniathis review summarizes known data on the species composition of nematodes in 24 species of rodents inhabiting the territory of armenia (south of lesser caucasus). the studied rodents include members of some cosmopolitan species (mus musculus, rattus norvegicus, rattus rattus), as well as endemic and narrow-areal species (meriones vinogradovi, spermophilus xanthoprymnus, microtus schidlovskii, mesocricetus brandti, sciurus anomalus). the taxonomical identity of the nematode species reported by pr ...201930316207
urban green area provides refuge for native small mammal biodiversity in a rapidly expanding city in ghana.urbanization is a key driver of global biodiversity loss. although sub-saharan african countries are experiencing unprecedented urbanization and urban expansion, very little is known about how this impacts tropical biodiversity. here, we assessed the effects of urban expansion and urban green space on local small mammal species diversity in accra, ghana. we surveyed small mammals in the university of ghana botanical garden, an urban green area (uga) and adjoining built-up environment (be) and co ...201830032389
molecular characterization of trypanosoma cruzi and leishmania spp. coinfection in mammals of venezuelan coendemic areas.trypanosoma cruzi and leishmania spp. are protozoans that cause american trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, respectively. in endemic foci where both diseases coincide, coinfection can occur. the objective of this work was the characterization of the parasites involved in coinfection in several endemic areas of venezuela.202032655075
molecular diagnosis of trypanosoma cruzi/leishmania spp. coinfection in domestic, peridomestic and wild mammals of venezuelan co-endemic areas.american trypanosomiasis and leishmaniases are diseases caused by protozoans of the trypanosomatidae family. in venezuela, although several endemic foci of both diseases coincide, there are no reports of coinfection in mammals. the molecular diagnosis of the coinfection t. cruzi-leishmania spp. was done in 527 blood samples collected on filter paper of several species of mammals (canis familiaris, equus asinus, didelphis marsupialis, equus mulus, rattus rattus, equus caballus, artibeus fratercul ...201831014717
molecular surveillance of piroplasms in ticks from small and medium-sized urban and peri-urban mammals in australia.natural landscape alterations as a consequence of urbanisation are one of the main drivers in the movements of wildlife into metropolitan and peri-urban areas. worldwide, these wildlife species are highly adaptable and may be responsible for the transmission of tick-borne pathogens including piroplasms (babesia, theileria and cytauxzoon spp.) that cause piroplasmosis in animals and occasionally in humans. little is known about piroplasms in the ticks of urban wildlife in australia. ticks from lo ...201829988853
landscapes within landscapes: a parasite utilizes different ecological niches on the host landscapes of two host species.parasites are distributed across populations of hosts, but also across microhabitats on or inside hosts: together the host population distribution and "host landscape" distribution comprise a part of the ecological niche of a parasite. in this paper we examine how a generalist parasite, the tick ixodes holocyclus, is distributed at both the host population and host landscape scales in two species of host (perameles nasuta and rattus rattus) that co-occur. we anaesthetized wildlife to locate tick ...201930807751
helminth fauna of small mammals from public parks and urban areas in bangkok metropolitan with emphasis on community ecology of infection in synanthropic 2018, extensive field studies of diversity and prevalence of helminth infection in synanthropic rodents and non-rodent small mammals from public parks and citified areas in the bangkok metropolitan were conducted. rattus rattus complex was the dominant small mammal in public parks. of the 197 animals, 147 individuals were infected with one or more species of helminths, yielding an infection prevalence of 74.6%. twenty-five species of helminths were recovered during necropsy. pterygodermatites ...202033001253
molecular characterization of pathogenic leptospira sp. in small mammals captured from the human leptospirosis suspected areas of selangor state, malaysia.leptospirosis is caused by the spirochetal bacterium leptospira of which rodents are considered the most important reservoir. this study aims to determine and characterize virulent leptospira species among rodents and small mammals found in human settlements and recreational spots within the hulu langat and gombak districts of selangor, malaysia; regions that frequently report probable human leptospirosis cases. molecular analysis revealed an overall leptospira detection rate of 14.3% among the ...201830145261
risk of maritime introduction of plague from madagascar to mayotte.plague is a rodent-borne disease caused by yersinia pestis. most human infections are bubonic plague, as a result of being bitten by infected rodent fleas. madagascar, democratic republic of congo and peru are the three most affected countries. plague was introduced into eastern madagascar in 1898 by boat from india. it is estimated that the risk of introduction of plague from madagascar to neighboring islands is very high due to the maritime links. we conducted a study of plague reservoirs and ...201830075098
geographical distribution and relative risk of anjozorobe virus (thailand orthohantavirus) infection in black rats (rattus rattus) in madagascar.hantavirus infection is a zoonotic disease that is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and cardiopulmonary syndrome in human. anjozorobe virus, a representative virus of thailand orthohantavirus (thaiv), was recently discovered from rodents in anjozorobe-angavo forest in madagascar. to assess the circulation of hantavirus at the national level, we carried out a survey of small terrestrial mammals from representative regions of the island and identified environmental factors ass ...201829743115
small mammalian remains from the late holocene deposits on ishigaki and yonaguni islands, southwestern japan.yuichiro nishioka, ryohei nakagawa, shin nunami, and satoshi hirasawa (2016) small mammalian remains were newly discovered from the late quaternary sediments of the yaeyama region (ishigaki and yonaguni islands) in the southwestern-most part of japan. we examined these materials based on taxonomical and chronological approaches, in order to reconstruct the past fauna in this region. accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating indicates that the mammalian assemblages from ishigaki and yonagu ...201631966150
non-volant small mammal data from fragmented forests in terengganu state.this data article is about non-volant small mammal (squirrel, rat and tree shrew) capture from fragmented forest understories within sub-urban areas of setiu (peladang agro resort and setiu wetland research station) and inhabited areas of hulu terengganu (saok and lasir waterfalls) that are situated in terengganu state, peninsular malaysia. fruits like banana and oil palm were individually placed into each cage before the cages were fastened onto three to five meter height tree branches. the tra ...201830480062
leptospiral agglutinins in the cayo santiago macaques.the colony of free-ranging rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta) on cayo santiago, puerto rico, was surveyed for leptospiral agglutinins. only 5 (3%) of 169 monkeys (25% of the population) were seropositive (titers of ⩾ 1:100). an additional 29 animals (17%) had titers ⩽1:50. the proportions of seropositive males and females were 22% and 18%, respectively, and twice as many adult as immature animals (32% vs. 15%) were positive. in most seropositive monkeys a single serogroup predominated, icterohaemor ...198831968916
seoul orthohantavirus in wild black rats, senegal, 2012-2013.hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever in humans worldwide. however, few hantavirus surveillance campaigns occur in africa. we detected seoul orthohantavirus in black rats in senegal, although we did not find serologic evidence of this disease in humans. these findings highlight the need for increased surveillance of hantaviruses in this region.202032946728
diversity of cryptosporidium spp. in wild rodents from the canary islands, spain.cryptosporidium spp. are worldwide protozoan parasites which include species that can lead to cryptosporidiosis in humans. different animal species can serve as reservoirs and sources of dissemination of the disease, such as rodent species due their potential in transmitting zoonotic pathogens to humans and other animals. in the canary islands (spain), cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium hominis have been identified in patients with diarrhea. however, the occurrence of cryptosporidium spp ...202032887646
an investigation of potential health risks from zoonotic bacterial pathogens associated with farm rats.the 21st century has seen a wide range of diseases resulting from zoonotic infections, of which bacterial infections have led to outbreaks of food-borne diseases.202032874093
multilocus sequence typing reveals diverse known and novel genotypes of leptospira spp. circulating in sri lanka.leptospirosis has gained much attention in sri lanka since its large outbreak in 2008. however, most of the cases were clinically diagnosed and information on leptospira genotypes and serotypes currently prevailing in the country is lacking.202032841248
baiting location affects anticoagulant rodenticide exposure of non-target small mammals on farms.commensal rodents such as norway rats (rattus norvegicus berk.), black rats (r. rattus l.) and house mice (mus musculus l.) damage stored produce and infrastructure, cause hygienic problems and transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. the management of commensal rodents relies mainly on the use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ars). ars are persistent and bio-accumulative, which can cause exposure of non-target species. we compared the baiting strategies to use brodifacoum (br) in bait boxes indoors ...202032633096
molecular characterization and novel genotypes of enterocytozoon bieneusi in pet snakes in beijing, china.little is known regarding the enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in snakes worldwide. in the present study, a total of 273 fecal samples were collected from pet snakes in beijing, china. they were then tested for the presence of e. bieneusi by pcr amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (its) gene. the overall infection rate of e. bieneusi was 4.4% (12/273), with the highest infection rate (20%, 1/5) of e. bieneusi was found in the black rat snake (pantherophis obsoletus), whereas no pos ...202032612925
helminths of urban rats in developed countries: a systematic review to identify research gaps.although black (rattus rattus) and brown (rattus norvegicus) rats are among the most widespread synanthropic wild rodents, there is a surprising scarcity of knowledge about their ecology in the urban ecosystem. in particular, relatively few studies have investigated their helminth species diversity in such habitat. we followed the prisma (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis) guideline to synthesize the existing published literature regarding the helminth fauna of u ...202032607706
prevalence and detail morphological identification of helminths of murine rodents in dhaka city, bangladesh.rodents are common pests that transmit various deadly pathogens to humans. here we have studied the helminth parasites of rodents from different ecological niches in dhaka city, bangladesh. the gastrointestinal helminths were investigated from a total of 70 rodents, namely bandicota bengalensis (20), rattus rattus (15), rattus norvegicus (25) and mus musculus (10). the rodents were live-captured from houses in the slum areas (20), stationary shops (20), residential buildings (15) and rice fields ...202032592456
leishmaniasis in saudi arabia: current situation and future perspectives.leishmaniasis is endemic in saudi arabia with cases reported in many regions. this review refers to publications on leishmaniasis in saudi arabia and discusses issues related to parasite species, clinical manifestation and diagnosis.202032494284
commensal rats and humans: integrating rodent phylogeography and zooarchaeology to highlight connections between human societies.phylogeography and zooarchaeology are largely separate disciplines, yet each interrogates relationships between humans and commensal species. knowledge gained about human history from studies of four commensal rats (rattus rattus, r. tanezumi, r. exulans, and r. norvegicus) is outlined, and open questions about their spread alongside humans are identified. limitations of phylogeographic and zooarchaeological studies are highlighted, then how integration would increase understanding of species' d ...202032173902
detection of rodent-borne parasitic pathogens of wild rats in serdang, selangor, malaysia: a potential threat to human health.rodent species, such as rattus rattus diardii and rattus norvegicus are invasive species of wild rats that serve as potential reservoirs of important human's pathogens. parasitic zoonosis accounts for over 60% of all human infectious diseases worldwide. this situation arises from the recent changes in the global climate and ecosystem composition, which led to the spread of rodents and rodent-borne pathogens globally. the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of rodent's parasites and ...202032099788
an evaluation of the flea index as a predictor of plague epizootics in the west nile region of uganda.plague is a low incidence flea-borne zoonosis that is often fatal if treatment is delayed or inadequate. outbreaks occur sporadically and human cases are often preceded by epizootics among rodents. early recognition of epizootics coupled with appropriate prevention measures should reduce plague morbidity and mortality. for nearly a century, the flea index (a measure of fleas per host) has been used as a measure of risk for epizootic spread and human plague case occurrence, yet the practicality a ...202031891169
morphological and molecular identification of hymenolepidid cestodes in children and synanthropic rodents from rural mexico.hymenolepidid cestodes of synanthropic rodents represent a risk for public health. in order to describe the occurrence of hymenolepidids in children and the role of rodents as a potential source of infection, we conducted a morphological and molecular survey on cestodes in two rural villages from yucatan, mexico. one hundred and thirty-five stool samples from children (64 from paraíso and 71 from xkalakdzonot), 233 mus musculus (159 from paraíso and 74 from xkalakdzonot) and 125 rattus rattus (7 ...202031862425
molecular detection and genetic characterization of bartonella species from rodents and their associated ectoparasites from northern tanzania.bartonellae are intracellular bacteria, which can cause persistent bacteraemia in humans and a variety of animals. several rodent-associated bartonella species are human pathogens but data on their global distribution and epidemiology are limited. the aims of the study were to: 1) determine the prevalence of bartonella infection in rodents and fleas; 2) identify risk factors for bartonella infection in rodents; and 3) characterize the bartonella genotypes present in these rodent and flea populat ...201931613914
detection of hepatitis e virus rna in rats caught in pig farms from northern italy.hepatitis e virus (hev) strains belonging to the orthohepevirus genus are divided into four species (a-d). hev strains included in the orthohepevirus a species infect humans and several other mammals. among them, the hev-3 and hev-4 genotypes are zoonotic and infect both humans and animals, of which, pigs and wild boar are the main reservoirs. viruses belonging to the orthohepevirus c species (hev-c) have been considered to infect rats of different species and carnivores. recently, two studies r ...202031592576
zoonotic trypanosomes in rats and fleas of venezuelan slums.rattus spp. are reservoirs of many human zoonoses, but their role in domestic transmission cycles of human trypanosomiasis is underestimated. in this study, we report trypanosome-infected rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus in human dwellings in slums neighboring maracay, a large city near caracas, the capital of venezuela. blood samples of r. norvegicus and r. rattus examined by pcr and fflb (fluorescent fragment length barcoding) revealed a prevalence of 6.3% / 31.1% for trypanosoma lewisi (ag ...201931583491
resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in martinique could lead to inefficient rodent control in a context of endemic leptospirosis.leptospirosis is a re-emergent worldwide zoonosis. it is endemic in martinique where transmission conditions are favourable. humans are usually infected through contact with water contaminated with urine of rodents. recent human leptospirosis outbreaks in martinique require today effective rodent management to prevent leptospirosis transmission. nowadays, use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ar) is the main method implemented to control rodent populations. nevertheless, intensive use of these ar h ...201931530819
histopathological study in cardiac tissue of rodents infected with trypanosoma cruzi, captured in suburbs of mérida, méxicointroduction: trypanosoma cruzi is the causal agent of the american trypanosomiasis, an endemic disease in méxico. the commensal rodents mus musculus and rattus rattus are reservoirs of this parasite, which invades cardiac fibers and develops parasite nests causing various lesions. histopathological studies in naturally infected rodents are scarce.objective: to describe the types and frequencies of microscopic lesions in cardiac tissue of m. musculus and r. rattus infected with t. cruzi captured ...201931529832
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) levels in rat livers collected from a malaria vector control region.dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) is an organochlorine insecticide that has been used for indoor residual spraying for the control of mosquito-borne diseases including malaria. however, due to its toxicity and environmental persistence, there are concerns about its potential deleterious effects in humans and wildlife. therefore, the current study aimed to monitor and estimate the level of ddts in human communities. the accumulation of ddt and its metabolites was evaluated in house rat (as se ...201931447459
rodents as reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens coxiella burnetii and toxoplasma gondii in corsica (france).coxiella burnetii and toxoplasma gondii are intracellular pathogens that cause important reproductive disorders in humans and animals worldwide, which translates into high economic losses. the aim of this study was to analyze the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of c. burnetii and t. gondii in the mediterranean island of corsica, by the analysis of the seroprevalence in rodents. our results showed a wide distribution of c. burnetii and t. gondii in ...201931407951
leptospira infection in rats: a literature review of global prevalence and distribution.the role of rodents in leptospira epidemiology and transmission is well known worldwide. rats are known to carry different pathogenic serovars of leptospira spp. capable of causing disease in humans and animals. wild rats (rattus spp.), especially the norway/brown rat (rattus norvegicus) and the black rat (r. rattus), are the most important sources of leptospira infection, as they are abundant in urban and peridomestic environments. in this study, we compiled and summarized available data in the ...201931398190
fleas of black rats (rattus rattus) as reservoir host of bartonella spp. in chile.rattus rattus is a widely distributed, invasive species that presents an important role in disease transmission, either directly or through vector arthropods such as fleas. these black rats can transmit a wide variety of pathogens, including bacteria of the genus bartonella, which can cause diseases in humans and animals. in chile, no data are available identifying fleas from synanthropic rodents as bartonella vectors. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bartonella spp. in ...201931396444
cryptosporidium spp. in wild rats (rattus spp.) from the hainan province, china: molecular detection, species/genotype identification and implications for public health.wild rats (rattus spp.) carry many zoonotic pathogens including cryptosporidium. due to the close proximity of rats to humans in urban environments, the potential for disease transmission is high. cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite which when ingested causes serious human illness. despite its importance, genetic characterization of cryptosporidium in wild rats in the hainan province of china has not been performed. in this study, we analyzed the occurrence and genetics of cryptosporidium in ...201931338292
epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis outbreak in corsica (france): are animal reservoir hosts implicated in local transmission?environmental and anthropogenic changes are expected to promote emergence and spread of pathogens worldwide. since 2013, human urogenital schistosomiasis is established in corsica island (france). schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting both humans and animals. the parasite involved in the corsican outbreak is a hybrid form between schistosoma haematobium, a human parasite, and schistosoma bovis, a livestock parasite. s. bovis has been detected in corsican livestock few decades ago rais ...201931233502
the prevalence of leptospira among invasive small mammals on puerto rican cattle farms.leptospirosis, an emerging infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus leptospira, is thought to be the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world. a first step in preventing the spread of leptospira is delineating the animal reservoirs that maintain and disperse the bacteria. quantitative pcr (qpcr) methods targeting the lipl32 gene were used to analyze kidney samples from 124 house mice (mus musculus), 94 black rats (rattus rattus), 5 norway rats (r. norvegicus), and 89 small indian ...201931107872
clostridium difficile in wild rodents and insectivores in the netherlands.with wild rodents and insectivores being present around humans and their living, working and food production environments, it is important to gain knowledge of the zoonotic pathogens present in these animals. the enteropathogen clostridium difficile, an opportunistic anaerobic bacteria, can be carried by both animals and humans, and is distributed globally. it is known that there is genetic overlap between human and animal sources of c. difficile. in this study, the aim was to assess the presenc ...201930958895
bacterial isolation from internal organs of rats (rattus rattus) captured in baghdad city of iraq.rats are accused in disseminating many zoonotic diseases. this study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria from internal organs of rats captured in baghdad city, iraq.201930936664
peri-urban black rats host a rich assembly of ticks and healthier rats have more ticks.the black rat rattus rattus has a distribution that includes much of earth's terrestrial surface, and has adapted to exploit both habitats extensively modified by humans and rural habitats. despite the fact that r. rattus are nearly ubiquitous, few studies have investigated urban or peri-urban r. rattus as potential hosts for ticks. in this study, we identified the species of ticks that parasitize r. rattus in a remnant bush area within sydney, australia. we then examined the relationship betwee ...201930894289
alterations in the mitochondrial physiology of biomphalaria glabrata (mollusca: gastropoda) after experimental infection by angiostrongylus cantonensis (nematoda: metastrongylidae).angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongylid nematode that has a heteroxenous cycle, where snails act as intermediate hosts and the rodents rattus rattus and rattus novergicus are the definitive hosts. however, humans may act as accidental hosts presenting an atypical form of parasitism. this fact has motivated research to better understand systems of relationships involving a. cantonensis, targeting the control of species of gastropods that act as intermediary hosts.201930887270
host-parasite life-histories of the diurnal vs. nocturnal chronotypes of schistosoma mansoni: adaptive optimise host-to-host transmission, digenean trematodes (parasites) synchronise their cercarial emission patterns with the aquatic activities of their vertebrate hosts. schistosoma mansoni has two different circadian chronotypes: a diurnal shedding pattern with a mean peak occurring at 11:00 h, and a nocturnal shedding pattern with a mean peak occurring at 20:00 h. we analysed the life-history variations between these two chronotypes at the levels of the parasite and its hosts.201930851235
detection of novel astroviruses among rodents of gabon, central africa.astroviruses (astvs) are mostly responsible for mild to severe gastroenteritis infections in humans and animals. astvs infect a wide range of host species, have a large genetic diversity with different circulating variants and are thus a high zoonotic risk for human populations. among these host species, rodents are known to harbor several astvs variants. therefore, it is important to identify in rodent species which astvs are circulating and evaluate their potential zoonotic risk for humans. in ...201930529088
rat as an overlooked reservoir for coxiella burnetii: a public health implication.q fever is a zoonosis with a mounting public health concern throughout the world. rodents have been assumed to be a potential reservoir for coxiella burnetii, a bacterium which causes q fever. the current study was carried out to investigate the possible role of rats in the epidemiology of such disease. for this purpose, fecal samples were collected from 75 rats (55 rattus norvegicus and 20 rattus rattus) trapped from giza governorate, egypt. dnas were extracted and samples were examined for the ...201830502830
relationship of peripheral blood mononuclear cells mirna expression and parasitic load in canine visceral leishmaniasis.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in humans is a chronic and often fatal disease if left untreated. dogs appear to be the main reservoir host for l. infantum infection, however, in many regions other canids such as jackals, foxes, wolves and other mammals, such as hares or black rats, have been implicated as wild reservoirs. most dogs cannot form an effective immune response against this infection, and this could be modulated by small non-coding rnas, called micrornas, responsible for post-transcripti ...201830517108
case report: two confirmed cases of human seoul virus infections in indonesia.seoul virus (seov) is a member of hantavirus family, which is transmitted to humans by rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus. diagnosing seov infection is difficult because the clinical presentations are often undifferentiated with other viral or bacterial infections and assays to test antibodies seroconversion and rna detection are not available in resource-limited setting like indonesia.201830445913
a perspective for resolving the systematics of rattus, the vertebrates with the most influence on human welfare.the murid rodent genus rattus fischer 1803 contains several species that are responsible for massive loss of crops and food, extinction of other species and the spread of zoonotic diseases to humans, as well as a laboratory species used to answer important questions in physiology, immunology, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, behaviour and learning. despite the well-known significant impacts of rattus, a definitive evolutionary based systematic framework for the genus is not yet available. th ...201830314119
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