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ameloblastoma in a wild black rat snake (pantherophis alleghaniensis).reports of neoplasia in captive reptiles are becoming more frequent; however, there is still scarce knowledge of the occurrence of neoplasia in wild reptiles. a wild black rat snake (pantherophis alleghaniensis) was presented to the zoological medicine service of the university of georgia's veterinary teaching hospital with a 3 cm in diameter solid mandibular mass that was partially ulcerated. radiographically, the mass was radiopaque with small bone spicules and partial osteolysis of the adjace ...201526077548
eradications as scientific experiments: progress in simultaneous eradications of two major invasive taxa from a mediterranean island.black rats, rattus rattus, and mat-forming iceplants, carpobrotus aff. acinaciformis and carpobrotus edulis, are pervasive pests on mediterranean islands. their cumulative impacts on native biotas alter the functioning of island ecosystems and threaten biodiversity. a report is given here of the first attempt to eradicate both taxa from a protected nature reserve in south-eastern france (bagaud island). in order to minimise unwanted hazardous outcomes and produce scientific knowledge, the operat ...201524687625
serological survey of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and coxiella burnetii in rodents in north-western african islands (canary islands and cape verde).coxiella burnetii and toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. the aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of c. burnetii and t. gondii in the north-western african archipelagos of the canary islands and cape verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. between 2 ...201526244685
serological survey of antibodies to <i>toxoplasma gondii</i> and <i>coxiella burnetii</i> in rodents in north-western african islands (canary islands and cape verde).coxiella burnetii and toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. the aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of c. burnetii and t. gondii in the north-western african archipelagos of the canary islands and cape verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. between 2 ...201528235262
an investigation of bartonella spp., rickettsia typhi, and seoul hantavirus in rats (rattus spp.) from an inner-city neighborhood of vancouver, canada: is pathogen presence a reflection of global and local rat population structure?urban norway and black rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) are reservoirs for variety of zoonotic pathogens. many of these pathogens, including rickettsia typhi, bartonella spp., and seoul hantavirus (seov), are thought to be endemic in rat populations worldwide; however, past field research has found these organisms to be absent in certain rat populations. rats (rattus spp.) from an inner city neighborhood of vancouver, canada, were tested for exposure to and/or infection with seov and r ...201525629777
genotyping and subtyping of giardia and cryptosporidium isolates from commensal rodents in china.cryptosporidium and giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal parasites responsible for diarrhoea in humans and other animals worldwide. rodents, as reservoirs or carriers of cryptosporidium and giardia, are abundant and globally widespread. in the present study, we collected 232 fecal specimens from commensal rodents captured in animal farms and farm neighbourhoods in china. we collected 33 asian house rats, 168 brown rats and 31 house mice. 6.0% (14/232) and 8.2% (19/232) of these rodents ...201525579244
detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis st6-vanb2 and e. faecium st915-vana in faecal samples of wild rattus rattus in spain.the detection of vancomycin-resistant-enterococci (vre) among wild animals represents a worrisome public health concern. the objectives of the study were to determine the possible presence of vre in faecal samples of wild small mammals in spain, to characterize the vancomycin resistance mechanisms and genetic lineages of recovered isolates and to know the diversity of enterococcal species in these animals. a total of 155 faecal samples from small mammals were inoculated in slanetz-bartley agar s ...201525795517
prevalence and characteristics of escherichia coli and salmonella spp. in the feces of wild urban norway and black rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) from an inner-city neighborhood of vancouver, canada.although rat feces are widely suspected to be a source of pathogenic bacteria, few investigators have studied fecal pathogens in rats. we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of escherichia coli and salmonella spp. in norway and black rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus, respectively) from an urban neighborhood of vancouver, canada, collected september 2011-august 2012. colon content was cultured for e. coli and salmonella spp. and screened for the seven most-common enteropathog ...201525932669
seasonal fluctuations of small mammal and flea communities in a ugandan plague focus: evidence to implicate arvicanthis niloticus and crocidura spp. as key hosts in yersinia pestis transmission.the distribution of human plague risk is strongly associated with rainfall in the tropical plague foci of east africa, but little is known about how the plague bacterium is maintained during periods between outbreaks or whether environmental drivers trigger these outbreaks. we collected small mammals and fleas over a two year period in the west nile region of uganda to examine how the ecological community varies seasonally in a region with areas of both high and low risk of human plague cases.201525573253
pneumonic plague outbreak, northern madagascar, 2011.yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to madagascar, particularly to the central highlands. although plague has not been previously reported in northern madagascar, an outbreak of pneumonic plague occurred in this remote area in 2011. over a 27-day period, 17 suspected, 2 presumptive, and 3 confirmed human cases were identified, and all 15 untreated 20 patients died. molecular typing of y. pestis isolated from 2 survivors and 5 rattus rattus rat samples identified the madaga ...201525530466
rickettsia and bartonella species in fleas from reunion island.rickettsia felis, rickettsia typhi, and bartonella dna was detected by molecular tools in 12% of rattus rattus fleas (xenopsylla species) collected from reunion island. one-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. as clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed.201525646263
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in rodents from various locations in peninsular malaysia.numerous studies have reported the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among malaysians and various domestic animals; but there is paucity of information on its prevalence among rodents which could potentially contribute to the transmission of toxoplasma gondii in both domestic and sylvatic fauna. five hundred twenty-six rodents were captured from six locations in malaysia and identified to species. serum samples were collected from these rodents and tested for t.gondii antibodies using an immunofluores ...201526521512
streptobacillus notomytis sp. nov., isolated from a spinifex hopping mouse (notomys alexis thomas, 1922), and emended description of streptobacillus levaditi et al. 1925, eisenberg et al. 2015 emend.a pleomorphic, gram-negative, rod-shaped, indole-, oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium was isolated in 1979 from the heart of a spinifex hopping mouse (notomys alexis thomas, 1922) with septicaemia and stored as streptobacillus moniliformis in the strain collection of the animal health laboratory, south perth, western australia (ahl 370-1), as well as under ccug 12425. on the basis of 16srrna gene sequence analyses, the strain was assigned to the genus strepto ...201526438009
rats: if you can't beat them eat them! (tricks of the trade observed among the adi and other north-east indian tribals).since outside the tribal areas of north-east india it is not widely known, neither in the world nor in india itself, that rats are considered a delicious food item, this was one of several reasons why we decided to present this ethnographic account of rat procurement and preparation (together with some additional comments on the cultural role that rats have especially amongst members of the adi tribe). consumption of rats by humans as a biological control method far superior to the use of rodent ...201526024664
breinlia (breinlia) jittapalapongi n. sp. (nematoda: filarioidea) from the asian house rat rattus tanezumi temminck in lao pdr.a new species of filarioid nematode of the genus breinlia yorke & maplestone, 1926 (nematoda: filarioidea) is described from rodents in lao pdr and according to its morphology, is placed in the subgenus breinlia. breinlia (breinlia) jittapalapongi n. sp. occurs in the asian house rat (rattus tanezumi temminck) and the sikkim rat (rattus andamanensis blyth) and is reported from two localities (luang prabang and champasak). the new species can be distinguished from all other congeners, which are m ...201525693458
infection levels of intestinal helminths in two commensal rodent species from rural households in yucatan, mexico.the aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (mus musculus) and the black rat (rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of yucatan, mexico. sampling was conducted during the rainy season from october to december 2011 and the dry season from january to march 2012. a total of 154 m. musculus and 46 r. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of m. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence ...201524000977
proposal for 'candidatus mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi' in mice, and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti' in rats.mycoplasma haemomuris is causative of infectious anaemia or splenomegaly in rodents. we examined the nucleotide sequences of the non-ribosomal genes, rnpb and dnak, in strains of the species m. haemomuris detected in small field mice and black rats. rnpb nucleotide sequences in strains of the species m. haemomuris isolated from small field mice and black rats had only 89 % sequence similarity, suggesting their separation into two distinct subgroups. dnak had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 8 ...201525406232
molecular phylogenetic characterization of common murine rodents from manipur, northeast india.the indian subcontinent and southeast asia are hotspots of murine biodiversity, but no species from the arakan mountain system that demarcates the border between the two areas has been subjected to molecular phylogenetic analyses. we examined the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences in six murine species (the rattus rattus species complex, r. norvegicus, r. nitidus, berylmys manipulus, niviventer sp. and mus musculus) from manipur, which is located at the western foot of the mountain range. ...201526119663
is the oriental house rat (rattus tanezumi) a potential reservoir for trypanosoma evansi in thailand?trypanosoma evansi is a protozoan blood parasite and etiologic agent of "surra," a disease affecting a wide range of domestic and wild mammals, some identified as potential reservoirs. although t. evansi has been detected in several small wild rodent species, their role in the epidemiology of surra is unclear. there is molecular evidence of t. evansi in wild rodents in asia, but it is not known whether they can carry the parasite for sufficient time to significantly contribute to the epidemiolog ...201525932666
clonal diversity of ctx-m-producing, multidrug-resistant escherichia coli from rodents.this territory-wide study investigated the occurrence of faecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (esbl)-producing escherichia coli among wild rodents from the 18 districts in hong kong. individual rectal swabs were obtained from the trapped animals and cultured in plain and selective media. a total of 965 wild rodents [148 chestnut spiny rats (niviventer fulvescens), 326 indo-chinese forest rats (rattus andamanensis), 452 brown rats (rattus norvegicus) and 39 black rats (rattus rattus)] ...201525627207
leishmania infantum in wild rodents: reservoirs or just irrelevant incidental hosts?wild rodents constitute a very large biomass of potential reservoirs for leishmania spp. therefore, an epidemiological study was carried out in a well-known focus of canine leishmaniasis from southern spain, with the objective of detecting and characterizing leishmania infantum infection in wild rodents. blood, liver, spleen, bone marrow, and skin from 37 rodents (24 apodemus sylvaticus, 9 rattus rattus, and 4 mus musculus) were analyzed by optical microscopy, culture, and two different polymera ...201525797596
respiratory pathology and pathogens in wild urban rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus).norway (rattus norvegicus) and black rats (rattus rattus) are common peridomestic species, yet little is known about wild rat ecology, including their natural diseases. we describe gross and histological lesions in the respiratory tract of a sample of 711 wild urban rats. a subset was examined for 19 distinct categories of histological lesions in the respiratory tract. testing for known respiratory pathogens included serology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) of lung samples. grossly evident l ...201526169386
characterization of leishmania (leishmania) waltoni n.sp. (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae), the parasite responsible for diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in the dominican republic.leishmania parasites isolated, between 1979 and 1988 by the late bryce walton, from dominican republic (dr) patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, were characterized using a panel of 12 isoenzymes, 23 monoclonal antibodies, small subunit ribosomal dna (ssu rdna), and multilocus sequence analysis (mlsa). the isoenzyme and monoclonal antibody profiles and the mlsa results showed that the dominican republic parasites were distinct from other described leishmania species. this new species be ...201526149864
ectoparasites of rodents captured in hamedan, western iran.rodents with a population greater than the entire population of other mammals on earth are the source of economic losses and health conflicts. one of the major health problems with the rodents is their role as reservoir hosts of zoonotic diseases. the aim of this study was to assess the infestation of commensal rodents with ectoparasites in hamedan city, western iran.201526623438
optimising the application of multiple-capture traps for invasive species management using spatial simulation.internationally, invasive vertebrate species pose a significant threat to biodiversity, agricultural production and human health. to manage these species a wide range of tools, including traps, are used. in new zealand, brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula), stoats (mustela ermine), and ship rats (rattus rattus) are invasive and there is an ongoing demand for cost-effective non-toxic methods for controlling these pests. recently, traps with multiple-capture capability have been developed whi ...201525782018
physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling of immune, reproductive and carcinogenic effects from contaminant exposure in polar bears (ursus maritimus) across the arctic.polar bears (ursus maritimus) consume large quantities of seal blubber and other high trophic marine mammals and consequently have some of the highest tissue concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (ohcs) among arctic biota. in the present paper we carried out a risk quotient (rq) evaluation on ohc-exposed polar bears harvested from 1999 to 2008 and from 11 circumpolar subpopulations spanning from alaska to svalbard in order to evaluate the risk of ohc-mediated reproductive effects (embryot ...201525825130
prevalence and diversity of small mammal-associated bartonella species in rural and urban kenya.several rodent-associated bartonella species are human pathogens but little is known about their epidemiology. we trapped rodents and shrews around human habitations at two sites in kenya (rural asembo and urban kibera) to determine the prevalence of bartonella infection. bartonella were detected by culture in five of seven host species. in kibera, 60% of rattus rattus were positive, as compared to 13% in asembo. bartonella were also detected in c. olivieri (7%), lemniscomys striatus (50%), mast ...201525781015
the distribution and diversity of bartonella species in rodents and their ectoparasites across thailand.our study highlights the surveillance of bartonella species among rodents and their associated ectoparasites (ticks, fleas, lice, and mites) in several regions across thailand. a total of 619 rodents and 554 pooled ectoparasites (287 mite pools, 62 flea pools, 35 louse pools, and 170 tick pools) were collected from 8 provinces within 4 regions of thailand. bandicota indica (279), rattus rattus (163), and r. exulans (96) were the most prevalent species of rats collected in this study. real-time p ...201526484537
infectiousness of sylvatic and synanthropic small rodents implicates a multi-host reservoir of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis.the possibility that a multi-host wildlife reservoir is responsible for maintaining transmission of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis causing human cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is tested by comparative analysis of infection progression and infectiousness to sandflies in rodent host species previously shown to have high natural infection prevalences in both sylvatic or/and peridomestic habitats in close proximity to humans in northeast brazil.201526448187
discovery of a novel coronavirus, china rattus coronavirus hku24, from norway rats supports the murine origin of betacoronavirus 1 and has implications for the ancestor of betacoronavirus lineage a.we discovered a novel betacoronavirus lineage a coronavirus, china rattus coronavirus (chrcov) hku24, from norway rats in china. chrcov hku24 occupied a deep branch at the root of members of betacoronavirus 1, being distinct from murine coronavirus and human coronavirus hku1. its unique putative cleavage sites between nonstructural proteins 1 and 2 and in the spike (s) protein and low sequence identities to other lineage a betacoronaviruses (βcovs) in conserved replicase domains support chrcov h ...201525552712
capillaria hepatica infection in black rats (rattus rattus) on diego garcia, british indian ocean territory.rats (rattus spp.) are among the most damaging invasive species worldwide. the accidental introduction of rats has caused significant detriment to native flora and fauna, crops, structures, and human livelihoods. rats are vectors of disease and carriers of various zoonotic parasites. capillaria hepatica (syn. callodium hepaticum) is a parasitic nematode found primarily in rodents but is known to infect over 140 mammal species, including human beings and several species of domestic animals. in th ...201525691507
identification of phlebotomine sand fly blood meals by real-time pcr.phlebotomine sand flies are blood-feeding insects of great medical and veterinary significance acting as vectors of leishmania parasites. studying the blood-feeding pattern of these insects may help in the understanding of their interactions with potential reservoir hosts of leishmania parasites. in this study, we developed real time pcr assays for the identification of sand fly blood meal.201525889289
barriers to seed and seedling survival of once-common hawaiian palms: the role of invasive rats and ungulates.mammalian herbivores can limit plant recruitment and affect forest composition. loulu palms (pritchardia spp.) once dominated many lowland ecosystems in hawai'i, and non-native rats (rattus spp.), ungulates (e.g. pigs sus scrofa, goats capra hircus) and humans have been proposed as major causes of their decline. in lowland wet forest, we experimentally determined the vulnerability of seeds and seedlings of two species of pritchardia, p. maideniana and p. hillebrandii, by measuring their removal ...201526019231
a survey of angiostrongylus species in definitive hosts in queensland.despite the recent sporadic reports of angiostrongyliasis in humans, dogs and wildlife in eastern australia there has been no systematic study to explore the epidemiology of angiostrongylus spp. in definitive and intermediate hosts in the region. little is known about the epidemiology of angiostrongylus species in the definitive host in southeast queensland, since the only survey conducted in this region was performed in the late 1960s. in this study, free-living populations of rattus spp. were ...201526236633
detection of angiostrongylus cantonensis in the blood and peripheral tissues of wild hawaiian rats (rattus rattus) by a quantitative pcr (qpcr) assay.the nematode angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rat lungworm, a zoonotic pathogen that causes human eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis characteristic of rat lungworm (rlw) disease. definitive diagnosis is made by finding and identifying a. cantonensis larvae in the cerebral spinal fluid or by using a custom immunological or molecular test. this study was conducted to determine if genomic dna from a. cantonensis is detectable by qpcr in the blood or tissues of experimentally infe ...201525910229
record of tropical rat mite, ornithonyssus bacoti (acari: mesostigmata: macronyssidae) from domestic and peridomestic rodents (rattus rattus) in nilgiris, tamil nadu, india.tropical rat mite (ornithonyssus bacoti) is reported from many parts of the world and is considered important in transmitting rickettsial pathogens. there have been scanty reports on prevalence of this parasite from india. following a recent report of o. bacoti infestation in a laboratory mice colony from nilgiris, tamil nadu, india, attempts were made to detect the parasite in its natural reservoir, ie the domestic and peridomestic rats (rattus rattus).201527047977
detection of a yersinia pestis gene homologue in rodent samples.a homologue to a widely used genetic marker, pla, for yersinia pestis has been identified in tissue samples of two species of rat (rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus) and of mice (mus musculus and apodemus sylvaticus) using a microarray based platform to screen for zoonotic pathogens of interest. samples were from urban locations in the uk (liverpool) and canada (vancouver). the results indicate the presence of an unknown bacterium that shares a homologue for the pla gene of yersinia pestis, so ...201627602258
identification of tenrec ecaudatus, a wild mammal introduced to mayotte island, as a reservoir of the newly identified human pathogenic leptospira mayottensis.leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis of major concern on tropical islands. human populations on western indian ocean islands are strongly affected by the disease although each archipelago shows contrasting epidemiology. for instance, mayotte, part of the comoros archipelago, differs from the other neighbouring islands by a high diversity of leptospira species infecting humans that includes leptospira mayottensis, a species thought to be unique to this island. using bacterial culture, molecular ...201627574792
an epidemiological study of a. cantonensis in jamaica subsequent to an outbreak of human cases of eosinophilic meningitis in 2000.the infection status of angiostrongylosis in jamaica was assessed in wild rats and molluscs in the 5 years following the major outbreak of eosinophilic meningitis (em) in 2000. parasitological analyses of 297 rattus rattus and 140 rattus norvegicus, and 777 terrestrial molluscs from all 14 parishes on the island revealed angiostrongylus cantonensis in 32·0% of the rats and in 12·5% of the molluscs. multivariate analyses confirmed that a. cantonensis occurred significantly more frequently in r. r ...201627350332
first isolates of leptospira spp., from rodents captured in angola.rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic leptospira spp. however, in angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. regarding this gap, we captured rodents in luanda and huambo provinces to identify circulating leptospira spp. rodent kidney tissue was cultured and dna amplified and sequenced. culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (pcr) a ...201626928840
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in synanthropic rodents in two rural communities of yucatán, méxico.lyme disease is a multisystemic zoonotic disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. this spirochete circulates in an enzootic cycle between the primary vertebrate reservoir and its tick vectors. different species of rodents are known to be efficient natural reservoirs for b. burgdorferi s.l.201627622631
evaluating the risk of pathogen transmission from wild animals to domestic pigs in australia.wild animals contribute to endemic infection in livestock as well as the introduction, reintroduction and maintenance of pathogens. the source of introduction of endemic diseases to a piggery is often unknown and the extent of wildlife contribution to such local spread is largely unexplored. the aim of the current study was to quantitatively assess the probability of domestic pigs being exposed to different pathogens from wild animals commonly found around commercial piggeries in australia. spec ...201626711303
bartonella species identified in rodent and feline hosts from island and mainland western australia.bacteria of the genus bartonella have been described in multiple mammalian hosts with many species capable of causing disease in humans. cats and various species of rats have been reported to play a role as vertebrate hosts to a number of bartonella spp. this study aimed to identify bartonella spp. in western australia, dirk hartog island (dhi), and christmas island (ci) and to investigate the presence of potential arthropod vectors. feral cats were collected from ci (n = 35), dhi (n = 23) and s ...201626900749
parasites and invasions: changes in gastrointestinal helminth assemblages in invasive and native rodents in senegal.understanding why some exotic species become widespread and abundant in their colonised range is a fundamental issue that still needs to be addressed. among many hypotheses, newly established host populations may benefit from a parasite loss ("enemy release" hypothesis) through impoverishment of their original parasite communities or reduced infection levels. moreover, the fitness of competing native hosts may be negatively affected by the acquisition of exotic taxa from invaders ("parasite spil ...201627670366
bartonella spp. in small mammals, benin.this study aimed to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of bartonella organisms in small mammals in cotonou, benin. we captured 163 rodents and 12 insectivores and successfully detected bartonella dna from 13 of the 175 small mammal individuals. bartonella spp., identical or closely related to bartonella elizabethae, bartonella tribocorum, and bartonella rochalimae, was detected. a potential new bartonella species, proposed as candidatus bartonella mastomydis, was found in three mas ...201626910412
deadly intentions: naïve introduced foxes show rapid attraction to odour cues of an unfamiliar native prey.introduced predators have caused declines and extinctions of native species worldwide, seemingly able to find and hunt new, unfamiliar prey from the time of their introduction. yet, just as native species are often naïve to introduced predators, in theory, introduced predators should initially be naïve in their response to novel native prey. here we examine the response of free-living introduced red foxes (vulpes vulpes) to their first encounter with the odour cues of a novel native prey, the lo ...201627416966
nest predation by commensal rodents in urban bushland remnants.exotic predators are a major threat to native wildlife in many parts of the world. developing and implementing effective strategies to mitigate their effects requires robust quantitative data so that management can be evidence-based, yet in many ecosystems this is missing. birds in particular have been severely impacted by exotic mammalian predators, and a plethora of studies on islands record predation of bird eggs, fledglings and adults by exotic species such as rodents, stoats and cats. by co ...201627295091
musserellus gen. nov., and five new species of fleas (siphonaptera: stivaliidae) from murid rodents in sulawesi and west papua, indonesia.a new stivaliid flea genus, musserellus, and five new species are described. the new genus is compared with its closest morphological relatives, the genera rectidigitus holland and metastivalius holland. musserellus vanpeeneni sp. nov., musserellus wattsi sp. nov., musserellus whitei sp. nov., and musserellus marshalli sp. nov. are described from endemic murid rodents in sulawesi, indonesia, while musserellus dunneti sp. nov. is described from rattus rattus in west papua, indonesia. host associa ...201627073227
identification of novel rosavirus species that infects diverse rodent species and causes multisystemic dissemination in mouse model.while novel picornaviruses are being discovered in rodents, their host range and pathogenicity are largely unknown. we identified two novel picornaviruses, rosavirus b from the street rat, norway rat, and rosavirus c from five different wild rat species (chestnut spiny rat, greater bandicoot rat, indochinese forest rat, roof rat and coxing's white-bellied rat) in china. analysis of 13 complete genome sequences showed that "rosavirus b" and "rosavirus c" represent two potentially novel picornavir ...201627737017
tooth wear patterns in black rats (rattus rattus) of madagascar differ more in relation to human impact than to differences in natural habitats.dietary characteristics and environmental variables are important selective factors directing ecological diversification in rodents. on madagascar, the introductions and spread of the commensal black rat (rattus rattus) can be seen as example cases to study dietary niche occupation and dietary adaptation in an insular environment. we investigate how tooth wear as a measure of dietary adaptation of black rats differs between four distinct habitats (village, manioc fields, spiny forest, and rainfo ...201627069577
surveillance of trypanosoma spp of rodents and studies in their transmission probability by fleas in some rural egyptian areas.a new public health problem arises from animal trypanosomes that afflict human by a disease called atypical human trypanosomiasis. although humans have an innate protection against most trypanosoma species, nineteen cases of atypical human trypanosomiasis caused by the animal trypanosome as t. b. brucei, t. vivax, t. congolense, t. evansi and t. lewisi have been recorded. some of theserecorded cases were transient, six required trypanocidal treatments however two patients died. rodent trypanosom ...201627363052
whole-genome sequencing reveals genetic variation in the asian house rat.whole-genome sequencing of wild-derived rat species can provide novel genomic resources, which may help decipher the genetics underlying complex phenotypes. as a notorious pest, reservoir of human pathogens, and colonizer, the asian house rat, rattus tanezumi, is successfully adapted to its habitat. however, little is known regarding genetic variation in this species. in this study, we identified over 41,000,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, plus insertions and deletions, through whole-genome ...201627172215
fleas and trypanosomes of peridomestic small mammals in sub-saharan mali.fleas are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites and vectors of several bacterial zoonotic pathogens as well as trypanosomes that parasitize rodents and other small mammals. during investigations of tick- and rodent-borne diseases in mali, west africa, we included fleas and rodent-borne trypanosomes, both of which are poorly known in this country, but are attracting greater public health interest.201627724960
determination of leptospira borgpetersenii serovar javanica and leptospira interrogans serovar bataviae as the persistent leptospira serovars circulating in the urban rat populations in peninsular malaysia.leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease of global significance, and is endemic in tropical countries, including malaysia. over the last decade, a dramatic increase of human cases was reported; however, information on the primary vector, the rat, and the leptospira serovars circulating among the rat population is limited. therefore, the present study was undertaken to isolate leptospira and characterise the serovars circulating in the urban rat populations from selected main cities in pen ...201626927873
review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.we have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. anthraquinone (aq) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. avian repellent research with aq began in the 1940s. in the context of pest management, aq is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. criteria for evaluation of e ...201627252044
survey of house rat intestinal parasites from surabaya district, east java, indonesia that can cause opportunistic infections in humans.the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from surabaya district, east java, indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. house rat fecal samples were collected from an area of surabaya district with a dense rat population during may 2015. intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with lugol's iodine and modified ziehl-neelsen stains. the fecal samples were a ...201627244955
leptospira interrogans in rodents from cape verde.leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonotic disease that can infect both animals and humans. in most cases, leptospirosis is a nonspecific self-limiting illness, but some patients can develop a severe form with a high mortality. this study was carried out in santiago island, cape verde, in 2012-2013. a total of 62 wild rodents (rattus rattus and mus domesticus) were analyzed. the lipl32 gene, present only in pathogenic leptospira spp., was amplified by pcr, and 16 samples were positive (25. ...201627482622
streptobacillus ratti sp. nov., isolated from a black rat (rattus rattus).an indole-, oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-motile bacterium, strain ogs16t, was isolated from an oral swab of a feral black rat (rattus rattus) in 2007 in japan. it stained gram-negative and had pleomorphic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming cells. based on 16s rrna gene sequence analyses, strain ogs16t was assigned to the genus streptobacillus, with 16s rrna gene sequence similarities of 99.3, 99.0, 98.6 and 95.5% to the type strains of streptobacillus moniliformis, streptobacillus notomytis, ...201626705259
helminth parasites in black rats (rattus rattus) and brown rats (rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the netherlands.rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode trichinella spiralis to farm animals. we aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health.201627193418
16s rrna amplicon sequencing for epidemiological surveys of bacteria in wildlife.the human impact on natural habitats is increasing the complexity of human-wildlife interactions and leading to the emergence of infectious diseases worldwide. highly successful synanthropic wildlife species, such as rodents, will undoubtedly play an increasingly important role in transmitting zoonotic diseases. we investigated the potential for recent developments in 16s rrna amplicon sequencing to facilitate the multiplexing of the large numbers of samples needed to improve our understanding o ...201627822541
isolation and genotyping of toxoplasma gondii in seronegative urban rats and presence of antibodies in communicating dogs in brazil.the role of rodents in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis was investigated in londrina, paraná state, brazil. one hundred and eighty-one rattus rattus and one mus musculus were caught in 37 places. blood and tissues were collected and submitted to the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) and the bioassay. serum samples from 61 contacting dogs were also collected. sixteen rats (8.8%) were positive for toxoplasma gondii, but just two of them were positive by serology and bioassay test. antibo ...201627074322
discovery of hantavirus circulating among rattus rattus in french mayotte island, indian ocean.hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses that cause human diseases. in this study, sera from 642 mammals from la réunion and mayotte islands (indian ocean) were screened for the presence of hantaviruses by molecular analysis. none of the mammals from la réunion island was positive, but hantavirus genomic rna was discovered in 29/160 (18 %) rattus rattus from mayotte island. the nucleoprotein coding region was sequenced from the liver and spleen of all positive individuals allowing epidemiologi ...201626932442
serologic evidence of flavivirus infections in peridomestic rodents in merida, mexico.we conducted surveillance for flavivirus infection in peridomestic rodents in merida, mexico in 2011-12. we captured 161 rodents inside private residences, using sherman traps, including 86 house mice (mus musculus) and 75 black rats (rattus rattus). serum from each animal was assayed by plaque reduction neutralization test (prnt) using two vertebrate-specific flaviviruses (apoi and modoc viruses) and five mosquito-borne flaviviruses (dengue 2, dengue 4, st. louis encephalitis virus, west nile, ...201626540177
experimental infection of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses to chickens, ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats for the evaluation of their roles in virus transmission.highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (hpaivs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds. determining transmission routes of these viruses during an outbreak is essential for the control of avian influenza. it has been widely postulated that migratory ducks play crucial roles in the widespread dissemination of hpaivs in poultry by carrying viruses along with their migrations; however close contacts between wild migratory ducks and poultry are less likely in modern industrial poultry farming ...201626711036
identification of bartonella species isolated from rodents from yucatan, mexico, and isolation of bartonella vinsonii subsp. yucatanensis subsp. nov.bartonella species are highly endemic among wild rodents in many parts of the world. blood and/or blood clot cultures from 38 rodents, including 27 yucatan deer mouse (peromyscus yucatanicus), 7 gaumer's spiny pocket mouse (heteromys gaumeri), 2 black rats (rattus rattus) and 2 big-eared climbing rats (ototylomys phyllotis) captured near merida, yucatan, mexico, led to the isolation in 3-4 days of small gram-negative bacilli, which were identified as bartonella spp. based on colony morphology. d ...201627626126
intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation of gongylonema pulchrum and two rodent gongylonema spp. (g. aegypti and g. neoplasticum), with the proposal of g. nepalensis n. sp. for the isolate in water buffaloes from nepal.the gullet worm (gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide. in an earlier study, we demonstrated two separate transmission cycles in cattle (bos taurus) and wild mammals in japan based on nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal rna gene (rdna) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (cox-1) region of mitochondrial dna of multiple isolates of different origins. our earlier study additionally demonstrated two major cox-1 haplotypes of g. pulchrum prevalent in cattle in j ...201626531300
coxiella burnetii genotypes in iberian wildlife.to investigate if coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of q fever, genotypes circulating in wildlife are associated with those infecting livestock and humans, multiple-locus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (mlva-6-marker) was carried out over c. burnetii obtained from red deer (cervus elaphus), eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa), european wild rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), black rat (rattus rattus), and wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus). mlva typing was performed by using six variable loc ...201627216529
gastrointestinal helminth fauna of rodents from cambodia: emphasizing the community ecology of host-parasite associations.extensive field surveys of rodents were conducted in cambodia from 2008 to 2014 to study the diversity and ecology of helminth infection in wild rodent populations. gastrointestinal helminths were isolated from 14 species of rodents (569 individuals) trapped from different habitats (forest, dry land, rain-fed land and human settlements) in four provinces of cambodia (krong preah sihanouk, mondolkiri, pursat and steung treng). the average prevalence of parasitic infection was 58.5% (range, 16.0-6 ...201627905270
novel revelation of warfarin resistant mechanism in roof rats (rattus rattus) using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis.roof rats (rattus rattus) live mainly in human habitats. heavy use of rodenticides, such as warfarin, has led to the development of drug resistance, making pest control difficult. there have been many reports regarding mutations of vitamin k epoxide reductase (vkor), the target enzyme of warfarin, in resistant rats. however, it has been suggested there are other mechanisms of warfarin resistance. to confirm these possibilities, closed colonies of warfarin-susceptible roof rats (s) and resistant ...201627914534
disease, models, variants and altered pathways-journeying rgd through the magnifying glass.understanding the pathogenesis of disease is instrumental in delineating its progression mechanisms and for envisioning ways to counteract it. in the process, animal models represent invaluable tools for identifying disease-related loci and their genetic components. amongst them, the laboratory rat is used extensively in the study of many conditions and disorders. the rat genome database (rgd-http://rgd.mcw.edu) has been established to house rat genetic, genomic and phenotypic data. since its in ...201627602200
cryptic diversity in black rats rattus rattus of the galápagos islands, ecuador.human activity has facilitated the introduction of a number of alien mammal species to the galápagos archipelago. understanding the phylogeographic history and population genetics of invasive species on the archipelago is an important step in predicting future spread and designing effective management strategies. in this study, we describe the invasion pathway of rattus rattus across the galápagos using microsatellite data, coupled with historical knowledge. microsatellite genotypes were generat ...201627231528
disease-induced decline of an apex predator drives invasive dominated states and threatens biodiversity.apex predators are important in protecting biodiversity through top-down influence on food webs. their loss is linked with competitive release of invasive mesopredators and species extinctions. the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) has experienced severe declines over a 15-yr period as a novel transmissible cancer has spread across its current geographic range. we surveyed the mammalian community, using hair traps, across the spatial extent of the devil's progressive population decline. we ...201627145614
spermatozoon ultrastructure of thysanotaenia congolensis (cyclophyllidea, anoplocephalidae, inermicapsiferinae): phylogenetic implications.the mature spermatozoon of thysanotaenia congolensis, an intestinal parasite of black rat rattus rattus from cape verde, is described by means of transmission electron microscopy. the ultrastructural organization of the sperm cell of t. congolensis follows levron et al.'s type vii of the eucestoda. it corresponds to a uniflagellate spermatozoon that presents crested bodies, periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus spiralled around the axoneme. t ...201627083191
rat breeding parameters according to floor space available in cage.the cage floor space recommended for a female rat with a litter is greater in the 8th edition of the guide for the care and use of laboratory animals than in previous editions. as a result, research institutions using commonly available cages to house rats may not offer the recommended amount of space for a breeding pair and litter housed in the same cage. we evaluated breeding parameters in rats housed in cages with 143 in(2) (922.6 cm(2)) compared with 210 in(2) (1355 cm(2)) of floor space. gi ...201626817975
functional ultrastructure of eggs and cellular organization of hexacanths of the cyclophyllidean cestode thysanotaenia congolensis: a phylogenetic implication of obtained results.the functional ultrastructure of eggs and cellular organization of hexacanths from gravid proglottids of thysanotaenia congolensis, from black rats from cape verde, were examined by transmission electron microscopy. mature eggs with fully formed hexacanths are grouped within parenchymatous capsules of gravid proglottids. oncospheral envelopes surrounding mature hexacanths are reduced to a very thin membranous embryophore as their protective function is taken over by the parenchymatous capsules o ...201626689933
evidence of a target resistance to antivitamin k rodenticides in the roof rat rattus rattus: identification and characterisation of a novel y25f mutation in the vkorc1 gene.in spite of intensive use of bromadiolone, rodent control was inefficient on a farm infested by rats in zaragoza, spain. while metabolic resistance was previously described in this rodent species, the observation of a target resistance to antivitamin k rodenticides had been poorly documented in rattus rattus.201625847836
magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of neurometabolite changes in the developing rat brain at 7t.we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate the metabolic profile of the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex of the developing rat brain from postnatal days 14-70. measured metabolite concentrations were modeled using linear, exponential, or logarithmic functions and the time point at which the data reached plateau (i.e. when the portion of the data could be fit to horizontal line) was estimated and was interpreted as the time when the brain has reached maturity with res ...201627663970
small mammalian remains from the late holocene deposits on ishigaki and yonaguni islands, southwestern japan.yuichiro nishioka, ryohei nakagawa, shin nunami, and satoshi hirasawa (2016) small mammalian remains were newly discovered from the late quaternary sediments of the yaeyama region (ishigaki and yonaguni islands) in the southwestern-most part of japan. we examined these materials based on taxonomical and chronological approaches, in order to reconstruct the past fauna in this region. accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating indicates that the mammalian assemblages from ishigaki and yonagu ...201631966150
global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (rattus norvegicus).native to china and mongolia, the brown rat (rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. while black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a response to relatively recent increases in global trade. we inferred the global phylogeography of brown rats using 32 k snps, and detected 13 evolutionary clusters within five expansion routes. one clus ...201627798305
diet analysis of small mammal pests: a comparison of molecular and microhistological methods.knowledge of what pest species are eating is important to determine their impact on stored food products and to plan management strategies accordingly. in this study, we investigated the food habits of 2 rodents, rattus rattus (ship rat) and mus musculus castaneus (house mouse) as well as an insectivore, suncus murinus (shrew), present in human dwellings. both a microhistological approach and a dna barcoding approach were used in the present study. following dna extraction, amplification was per ...201627001489
first histopathological study in kidneys of rodents naturally infected with leptospira pathogenic species from yucatan, mexico.to report the renal histological lesions in synanthropic rodents, mus musculus and rattus rattus, naturally infected with leptospira spp., captured in a rural community in yucatan, mexico.201626919944
abundance & distribution of trombiculid mites & orientia tsutsugamushi, the vectors & pathogen of scrub typhus in rodents & shrews collected from puducherry & tamil nadu, india.human cases of scrub typhus are reported every year from puducherry and adjoining areas in southern india. however, information on the presence of causative agent, orientia tsutsugamushi, and its vectors is lacking. hence, the objective of the study was to find out the vector as well as pathogen distribution in rodents and shrews present in the scrub typhus-reported areas in southern india.201628474626
comparative genome and evolutionary analysis of naturally occurring beilong virus in brown and black rats.recently, we reported the presence of beilong virus in spleen and kidney samples of brown rats and black rats, suggesting that these rodents could be natural reservoirs of beilong virus. in this study, four genomes of beilong virus from brown rats and black rats were sequenced. similar to the beilong virus genome sequenced from kidney mesangial cell line culture, those of j-virus from house mouse and tailam virus from sikkim rats, these four genomes from naturally occurring beilong virus also co ...201627663719
response of dominant rodents to coumatetralyl and bromadiolone in greater cairo, egypt.since the 1950s, anticoagulant rodenticides are used to control rodents in public health and agriculture sectors. the extensive use of these compounds has acted as selective force to rodents, leading to resistance. resistance mechanisms have been iden- tified in rats and mice, including the modification of the enzyme that activates vitamin k, vitamin k epoxide reductase (vkor). susceptibility levels of the norway rat, rattus norvegicus and the roof rat, rattus rattus to coumatetralyl (first gene ...201630230752
invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a south pacific island rainforest.invasive rats (rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. to conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. however, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats (rattus rattus and r. exulans) on native bird eggs in a new ...201729492018
investigations into the role of rats as intermediate hosts for neospora caninum in chennai, india.attempts were made to detect neospora caninum in rats (rattus rattus) in and around chennai, india. during the study, 112 feral rats were trapped and blood, brain, heart, lungs and diaphragm samples were collected for serological, parasitological and molecular identification of n. caninum. out of 112 rats, cyst-like structures were identified in 16 brain squash samples. however, the identity of the cysts could not be confirmed as n. caninum. a total of 12 sera samples were positive for n. caninu ...201731014654
[(acari: trombiculidae) (the infestation of small mammals in south-eastern vietnam with harvest mites (acari: trombiculidae))].this investigation was conducted in three provinces of southern vietnam in september-october 2011. a total of 257 small mammals of 11 species were caught; among them 120 rodents were infected with harvest mites of 8 species (trom- biculidac). about 4000 mites of nearly 1200 identified species were collected from the small mammals. 17 species of harvest mites were identified. walchia lupella, leptotrombidium deliense, walchia kritochaeta, and walchia micropelta predominated in the collections. mo ...201730721614
long-term data from a small mammal community reveal loss of diversity and potential effects of local climate change.climate change affects distribution and persistence of species. however, forecasting species' responses to these changes requires long-term data series that are often lacking in ecological studies. we used 15 years of small mammal trapping data collected between 1978 and 2015 in 3 areas at doñana national park (southwest spain) to (i) describe changes in species composition and (ii) test the association between local climate conditions and size of small mammal populations. overall, 5 species wer ...201729492011
introduced rats and an endemic roundworm: does rattus rattus contribute to baylisascaris procyonis transmission in california?the introduced black rat, rattus rattus, occurs throughout the native range of the raccoon roundworm, baylisascaris procyonis, and might incorporate into its life cycle if rats consume parasite eggs, acquire viable infections, and are eaten by raccoons. although rats forage at raccoon latrines, their role in b. procyonis transmission remains unknown. here i tested the potential for rats to amplify b. procyonis transmission in california by surveying wild rodents for b. procyonis and conducting s ...201728732456
bartonella in rodents and ectoparasites in the canary islands, spain: new insights into host-vector-pathogen relationships.bartonella genus is comprised of several species of zoonotic relevance and rodents are reservoirs for some of these bartonella species. as there were no data about the range of bartonella species circulating among rodents in the canary islands, our main aim was to overcome this lack of knowledge by targeting both the citrate synthase (glta) and the rna polymerase beta subunit (rpob) genes. a total of 181 small mammals and 154 ectoparasites were obtained in three of the canary islands, namely ten ...201728660292
molecular detection of leishmania infantum and leishmania tropica in rodent species from endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in morocco.leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem in african nations, including morocco, where little is known about the vertebrate reservoirs involved in the causal parasites' transmission cycles. the present study investigates the role of rodent species as potential reservoirs of leishmania spp. in central morocco, where both l. tropica and l. infantum have been reported.201728969710
emergence of wesselsbron virus among black rat and humans in eastern senegal in 2013.wesselsbron disease is a neglected mosquito transmitted flavivirus infection that causes abortions and has teratogenic effects on sheep and cattle in africa. human can also be infected. the detection of human or animal cases is complicated by the non-specific symptoms close to rift valley fever (rvf) in domestic livestock species or dengue like syndrome in humans. then, these detections are usually made during rvf investigations in sheep. these domestic animals should take a role in the life cyc ...201728616499
gongylonema parasites of rodents: a key to species and new data on gongylonema neoplasticum.specimens of the genus gongylonema were collected from the gastric mucosa of rodents of the rattus rattus linnaeus, 1758 and rattus norvegicus berkenhout, 1769 collected in urban areas in belém, pará, in the eastern brazilian amazon. the helminths were processed for analysis using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (sem) techniques, and presented taxonomic characteristics of the species gongylonema neoplasticum. the sem analyses revealed the presence of 2 developed buccal plates ( ...201729135391
human leptospirosis in seychelles: a prospective study confirms the heavy burden of the disease but suggests that rats are not the main reservoir.leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by pathogenic leptospira for which rats are considered as the main reservoir. disease incidence is higher in tropical countries, especially in insular ecosystems. our objectives were to determine the current burden of leptospirosis in seychelles, a country ranking first worldwide according to historical data, to establish epidemiological links between animal reservoirs and human disease, and to identify drivers of transmission.201728846678
vkorc1 sequencing suggests anticoagulant resistance in rats in new zealand.anticoagulant toxins are used globally to control rats. resistance of rattus species to these toxins now occurs in at least 18 countries in europe, america and asia. resistance is often associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) in the vkorc1 gene. this study gives a first overview of the distribution and frequency of vkorc1 snps in rats in new zealand. new zealand is unusual in having no native rodents but three species of introduced rattus - norvegicus berk., rattus l. and exulans ...201727117082
asian house rats may facilitate their invasive success through suppressing brown rats in chronic interaction.the asian house rat (rattus tanezumi) and the brown rat (rattus norvegicus) are closely related species and are partially sympatric in southern china. over the past 20 years, r. tanezumi has significantly expanded northward in china and partially replaced the native brown rat subspecies, r. n. humiliatus. although invasive species are often more aggressive than native species, we did not observe interspecific physical aggression between r. tanezumi and r. n. humiliatus. here, we focused on wheth ...201728413431
detection of rat hepatitis e virus in wild norway rats (rattus norvegicus) and black rats (rattus rattus) from 11 european countries.rat hepatitis e virus (hev) is genetically only distantly related to hepeviruses found in other mammalian reservoirs and in humans. it was initially detected in norway rats (rattus norvegicus) from germany, and subsequently in rats from vietnam, the usa, indonesia, china, denmark and france. here, we report on a molecular survey of norway rats and black rats (rattus rattus) from 12 european countries for rathev and human pathogenic hepeviruses. rathev-specific real-time and conventional rt-pcr i ...201728888650
control of invasive rats on islands and priorities for future action.invasive rats are one of the world's most successful animal groups that cause native species extinctions and ecosystem change, particularly on islands. on large islands, rat eradication is often impossible and population control, defined as the local limitation of rat abundance, is now routinely performed on many of the world's islands as an alternative management tool. however, a synthesis of the motivations, techniques, costs, and outcomes of such rat-control projects is lacking. we reviewed t ...201727982493
hymenolepis diminuta and rodentolepis nana (hymenolepididae: cyclophyllidea) in urban rodents of gran la plata: association with socio-environmental conditions.the aim of this survey was to study two hymenolepididae species in urban rodents, rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus, and to analyse factors that favour their presence in the environment and pose a sanitary risk. hymenolepis diminuta and rodentolepis nana were found in r. rattus and r. norvegicus in different proportions. values of prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity were recorded, and new morphometric characters were described, adding to previously known information. no significant d ...201729017635
identification and comparison of rcmv all 03 open reading frame (orf) among several different strains of cytomegalovirus worldwide.rat cytomegalovirus all-03 (malaysian strain) which was isolated from a placenta and uterus of a house rat, rattus rattus diardii has the ability to cross the placenta and infecting the fetus. to further elucidate the pathogenesis of the malaysian strain of rat cytomegalovirus all-03 (rcmv all-03), detailed analysis on the viral genome sequence is crucial.201728642159
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