on the biology of spiruroidea parasites of murine rodents on el hierro (canary islands, spain) with molecular characterization of streptopharagus greenbergi wertheim, 1993.this paper reports the role of darkling beetles pimelia laevigata costipennis and hegeter amaroides (tenebrionidae) as intermediate hosts of spiruroid nematodes parasites of the black rat and house mouse of el hierro (canary islands). larvae of spiruroid species were found in the two tenebrionids (18.1% in p. l. costipennis, 7.8% in h. amaroides), streptopharagus greenbergi being predominant in both (16.1% and 7.1%, respectively), ahead of mastophorus muris and gongylonema type larva. the larval ...201324161241
evolution of nesting height in an endangered hawaiian forest bird in response to a non-native predator.the majority of bird extinctions since 1800 have occurred on islands, and non-native predators have been the greatest threat to the persistence of island birds. island endemic species often lack life-history traits and behaviors that reduce the probability of predation and they can become evolutionarily trapped if they are unable to adapt, but few studies have examined the ability of island species to respond to novel predators. the greatest threat to the persistence of the oahu elepaio (chasiem ...201222830652
environmental factors and zoonotic pathogen ecology in urban exploiter species.knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. this review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [columba livia domestica], european starlings [sturnus vulgari ...201728631116
nest predation by commensal rodents in urban bushland remnants.exotic predators are a major threat to native wildlife in many parts of the world. developing and implementing effective strategies to mitigate their effects requires robust quantitative data so that management can be evidence-based, yet in many ecosystems this is missing. birds in particular have been severely impacted by exotic mammalian predators, and a plethora of studies on islands record predation of bird eggs, fledglings and adults by exotic species such as rodents, stoats and cats. by co ...201627295091
feeding habits of introduced black rats, rattus rattus, in nesting colonies of galapagos petrel on san cristóbal island, galapagos.introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. in the galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the galapagos petrel (pterodroma phaeopygia) in its nesting zones. understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in th ...201525984724
geographic distribution of angiostrongylus cantonensis in wild rats (rattus rattus) and terrestrial snails in florida, usa.the parasitic nematode angiostrongylus cantonensis is a major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans, and has been documented in other incidental hosts such as birds, horses, dogs and non-human primates. it is endemic in hawaii, and there have been sporadic reports in the southern continental united states. this parasite uses rats as definitive hosts and snails as intermediate hosts. in this study, we collected potential definitive and intermediate hosts throughout florida to ascertain the g ...201728542310
bartonella in rodents and ectoparasites in the canary islands, spain: new insights into host-vector-pathogen relationships.bartonella genus is comprised of several species of zoonotic relevance and rodents are reservoirs for some of these bartonella species. as there were no data about the range of bartonella species circulating among rodents in the canary islands, our main aim was to overcome this lack of knowledge by targeting both the citrate synthase (glta) and the rna polymerase beta subunit (rpob) genes. a total of 181 small mammals and 154 ectoparasites were obtained in three of the canary islands, namely ten ...201728660292
introduced rats and an endemic roundworm: does rattus rattus contribute to baylisascaris procyonis transmission in california?the introduced black rat, rattus rattus, occurs throughout the native range of the raccoon roundworm, baylisascaris procyonis, and might incorporate into its life cycle if rats consume parasite eggs, acquire viable infections, and are eaten by raccoons. although rats forage at raccoon latrines, their role in b. procyonis transmission remains unknown. here i tested the potential for rats to amplify b. procyonis transmission in california by surveying wild rodents for b. procyonis and conducting s ...201728732456
emergence of wesselsbron virus among black rat and humans in eastern senegal in 2013.wesselsbron disease is a neglected mosquito transmitted flavivirus infection that causes abortions and has teratogenic effects on sheep and cattle in africa. human can also be infected. the detection of human or animal cases is complicated by the non-specific symptoms close to rift valley fever (rvf) in domestic livestock species or dengue like syndrome in humans. then, these detections are usually made during rvf investigations in sheep. these domestic animals should take a role in the life cyc ...201728616499
development of eimeria nieschulzi (coccidia, apicomplexa) gamonts and oocysts in primary fetal rat cells.the in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some eimeria species. for several mammalian eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. this study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the bla ...201323862053
a survey of zoonotic pathogens carried by house mouse and black rat populations in yucatan, mexico.the house mouse (mus musculus) and the black rat (rattus rattus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens, several of which cause neglected tropical diseases (ntds). studies of the prevalence of these ntd-causing zoonotic pathogens, in house mice and black rats from tropical residential areas are scarce. three hundred and two house mice and 161 black rats were trapped in 2013 from two urban neighbourhoods and a rural village in yucatan, mexico, and subsequently tested for trypanosoma cruzi, hy ...201728689507
prevalence of lassa virus among rodents trapped in three south-south states of nigeria.lassa fever has been endemic in nigeria since 1969. the rodent mastomys natalensis has been widely claimed to be the reservoir host of the lassa virus. this study was designed to investigate the dis- tribution of species of rodents in three states (edo, delta and bayelsa) of nigeria and to determine the prevalence of lassa virus amongst trapped rodents in the selected states.201728748835
human leptospirosis in seychelles: a prospective study confirms the heavy burden of the disease but suggests that rats are not the main reservoir.leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by pathogenic leptospira for which rats are considered as the main reservoir. disease incidence is higher in tropical countries, especially in insular ecosystems. our objectives were to determine the current burden of leptospirosis in seychelles, a country ranking first worldwide according to historical data, to establish epidemiological links between animal reservoirs and human disease, and to identify drivers of transmission.201728846678
leptospira species in feral cats and black rats from western australia and christmas island.leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of leptospira in different regions. in light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical christmas island, this study ai ...201728437186
identification and comparison of rcmv all 03 open reading frame (orf) among several different strains of cytomegalovirus worldwide.rat cytomegalovirus all-03 (malaysian strain) which was isolated from a placenta and uterus of a house rat, rattus rattus diardii has the ability to cross the placenta and infecting the fetus. to further elucidate the pathogenesis of the malaysian strain of rat cytomegalovirus all-03 (rcmv all-03), detailed analysis on the viral genome sequence is crucial.201728642159
abundance & distribution of trombiculid mites & orientia tsutsugamushi, the vectors & pathogen of scrub typhus in rodents & shrews collected from puducherry & tamil nadu, india.human cases of scrub typhus are reported every year from puducherry and adjoining areas in southern india. however, information on the presence of causative agent, orientia tsutsugamushi, and its vectors is lacking. hence, the objective of the study was to find out the vector as well as pathogen distribution in rodents and shrews present in the scrub typhus-reported areas in southern india.201628474626
detection of uncommon g3p[3] rotavirus a (rva) strain in rat possessing a human rva-like vp6 and a novel nsp2 genotype.rotavirus is one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. rvas infect not only humans but also a wide range of mammals including rats, which represent a reservoir of several other zoonotic pathogens. due to the segmented nature of the rva genome, animal rva strains can easily adapt to the human host by reassortment with co-infecting human viruses. this study aims to detect and characterize rva in the intestinal content of italian sinantropic rats (rattus ratt ...201728603021
transmission and shedding patterns of salmonella in naturally infected captive wild roof rats (rattus rattus) from a salmonella-contaminated layer farm.rodents play a major role in the transmission and maintenance of salmonella contamination cycles in poultry facilities. however, very limited field data are available regarding the transmission routes, infection cycle, and shedding patterns of salmonella by naturally infected wild rodents from commercial layer farms. in this study, a total of 128 resident wild roof rats (rattus ratus) were captured from a salmonella-contaminated layer facility. all roof rats were divided into 51 laboratory cages ...201222856184
[on the natural infection of domestic rats (rattus rattus) by schistosoma mansoni in central africa]. 195513250376
cat-rodent toxoplasma gondii type ii-variant circulation and limited genetic diversity on the island of fernando de noronha, brazil, studies on animals and humans in mainland areas have shown that most strains of toxoplasma gondii are pathogenic to mice and exhibit great genetic variability.201728468666
optimising the application of multiple-capture traps for invasive species management using spatial simulation.internationally, invasive vertebrate species pose a significant threat to biodiversity, agricultural production and human health. to manage these species a wide range of tools, including traps, are used. in new zealand, brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula), stoats (mustela ermine), and ship rats (rattus rattus) are invasive and there is an ongoing demand for cost-effective non-toxic methods for controlling these pests. recently, traps with multiple-capture capability have been developed whi ...201525782018
modifying the victor® easy set® rat trap to improve the animal welfare of stoats and ship rats trapped in new zealand.stoats (mustela erminea) and ship rats (rattus rattus) in new zealand are targeted by trapping to mitigate their predation on native wildlife. internationally recognized guidelines for assessing the effectiveness and welfare performance of kill traps are supported by new zealand legislation under the animal welfare act 1999. the victor® easy set® rat trap was tested and passed a similar standard for killing short-tailed weasels in canada but failed for stoats when tested in new zealand in 2002 ( ...201424505264
physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling of immune, reproductive and carcinogenic effects from contaminant exposure in polar bears (ursus maritimus) across the arctic.polar bears (ursus maritimus) consume large quantities of seal blubber and other high trophic marine mammals and consequently have some of the highest tissue concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (ohcs) among arctic biota. in the present paper we carried out a risk quotient (rq) evaluation on ohc-exposed polar bears harvested from 1999 to 2008 and from 11 circumpolar subpopulations spanning from alaska to svalbard in order to evaluate the risk of ohc-mediated reproductive effects (embryot ...201525825130
deadly intentions: naïve introduced foxes show rapid attraction to odour cues of an unfamiliar native prey.introduced predators have caused declines and extinctions of native species worldwide, seemingly able to find and hunt new, unfamiliar prey from the time of their introduction. yet, just as native species are often naïve to introduced predators, in theory, introduced predators should initially be naïve in their response to novel native prey. here we examine the response of free-living introduced red foxes (vulpes vulpes) to their first encounter with the odour cues of a novel native prey, the lo ...201627416966
body temperatures of selected amphibian and reptile species.ectothermic vertebrates are a diverse group of animals that rely on external sources to maintain a preferred body temperature. amphibians and reptiles have a preferred optimal temperature zone that allows for optimal biological function. physiologic processes in ectotherms are influenced by temperature; these animals have capabilities in which they make use of behavioral and physiologic mechanisms to thermoregulate. core body, ambient air, body surface, and surface/water temperatures were obtain ...201223082515
[fatty acid composition of phospholipids of erythrocytes of lamprey, frog, rat, and absorption spectra of their lipid extracts].the work deals with study of content and fatty acid composition of phospholipids as well as of absorption spectra of lipid extracts of blood erythrocytes poikilothermal and homoiothermal animals of different evolutionary levels. objects of study were poikilothermal lamprey (lampetra fluviatilis) consuming oxygen from water and the common frog (rana temporatia) consuming it both from water and from air. homoiothermal animals were white rats (rattus rattus) inhabiting in the air medium. the animal ...201525775862
comparative genome and evolutionary analysis of naturally occurring beilong virus in brown and black rats.recently, we reported the presence of beilong virus in spleen and kidney samples of brown rats and black rats, suggesting that these rodents could be natural reservoirs of beilong virus. in this study, four genomes of beilong virus from brown rats and black rats were sequenced. similar to the beilong virus genome sequenced from kidney mesangial cell line culture, those of j-virus from house mouse and tailam virus from sikkim rats, these four genomes from naturally occurring beilong virus also co ...201627663719
gongylonema parasites of rodents: a key to species and new data on gongylonema neoplasticum.specimens of the genus gongylonema were collected from the gastric mucosa of rodents of the rattus rattus linnaeus, 1758 and rattus norvegicus berkenhout, 1769 collected in urban areas in belém, pará, in the eastern brazilian amazon. the helminths were processed for analysis using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (sem) techniques, and presented taxonomic characteristics of the species gongylonema neoplasticum. the sem analyses revealed the presence of 2 developed buccal plates ( ...201729135391
pathological findings in wild rats (rattus rattus) captured at guafo island, northern chilean patagonia.the black rat (rattus rattus) is an invasive species and potential reservoir of significant pathogens of man, domestic animals and wildlife. during the 2012-2014 austral summers, 201 black rats were captured and examined on the uninhabited guafo island, in northern chilean patagonia (43.593029°s, 74.713481°w). the mite ornithonyssus bacoti caused lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic dermatitis in all infected rats (105/210, 52%), but no skin lesions were observed in rats infected with nosopsyllus ...201728942299
helminth infections of rodents and their zoonotic importance in boyer-ahmad district, southwestern iran.rodents are considered as reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases including helminthic infections. the current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of helminth infections in rodents, in boyer-ahmad district, southwestern iran.201829317882
molecular detection of leishmania infantum and leishmania tropica in rodent species from endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in morocco.leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem in african nations, including morocco, where little is known about the vertebrate reservoirs involved in the causal parasites' transmission cycles. the present study investigates the role of rodent species as potential reservoirs of leishmania spp. in central morocco, where both l. tropica and l. infantum have been reported.201728969710
identification of novel rosavirus species that infects diverse rodent species and causes multisystemic dissemination in mouse model.while novel picornaviruses are being discovered in rodents, their host range and pathogenicity are largely unknown. we identified two novel picornaviruses, rosavirus b from the street rat, norway rat, and rosavirus c from five different wild rat species (chestnut spiny rat, greater bandicoot rat, indochinese forest rat, roof rat and coxing's white-bellied rat) in china. analysis of 13 complete genome sequences showed that "rosavirus b" and "rosavirus c" represent two potentially novel picornavir ...201627737017
detection of leishmania spp in silvatic mammals and isolation of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis from rattus rattus in an endemic area for leishmaniasis in minas gerais state, brazil.knowledge of potential reservoirs of leishmania spp. in an anthropic environment is important so that surveillance and control measures can be implemented. the aim of this study was to investigate the infection by leishmania in small mammals in an area located in minas gerais, brazil, that undergoes changes in its natural environment and presents autochthonous human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) and visceral leishmaniasis (vl). for the capture of the animals, sherman and tomahawk traps w ...201729176902
assessment of the role of small mammals in the transmission cycle of tegumentary leishmaniasis and first report of natural infection with leishmania braziliensis in two sigmodontines in northeastern contribute to the knowledge of the role of small mammals in the transmission cycle of tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis, we studied the small mammal community and its temporal and spatial association with phlebotominae, as well as small mammal infection by leishmania spp. by pcr-rflp analyses in an endemic area of northeastern argentina. ten small mammal samplings were conducted (2007-2009, 7506 sherman trap nights and 422 cage trap nights). in two of these samplings ...201829264720
seasonal abundance and epidemiological indices of potential plague vectors dinopsyllus lypusus (siphonaptera: hystrichopsyllidae) and ctenophthalmus calceatus (siphonaptera: ctenophthalmidae) on rodents captured from three habitat types of hatcliffe and dzivarasekwa suburbs of harare, zimbabwe.the seasonal abundance of dinopsyllus lypusus jordan and rothschild and ctenophthalmus calceatus waterson (potential vectors of plague in southern africa) were studied on rodent hosts captured in selected habitat types of two periurban suburbs of harare, zimbabwe. removal trapping was used to capture the rodents, from which fleas were collected and identified. prevalence (proportion of animals infested) and specific flea index (sfi = number of fleas per animal) were calculated for each species o ...201223270175
prevalence and diversity of small mammal-associated bartonella species in rural and urban kenya.several rodent-associated bartonella species are human pathogens but little is known about their epidemiology. we trapped rodents and shrews around human habitations at two sites in kenya (rural asembo and urban kibera) to determine the prevalence of bartonella infection. bartonella were detected by culture in five of seven host species. in kibera, 60% of rattus rattus were positive, as compared to 13% in asembo. bartonella were also detected in c. olivieri (7%), lemniscomys striatus (50%), mast ...201525781015
serological survey of zoonotic viruses in invasive and native commensal rodents in senegal, west africa.increasing studies on rodent-borne diseases still highlight the major role of rodents as reservoirs of numerous zoonoses of which the frequency is likely to increase worldwide as a result of accelerated anthropogenic changes, including biological invasions. such a situation makes pathogen detection in rodent populations important, especially in the context of developing countries characterized by high infectious disease burden. here, we used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to describe the ci ...201728873024
comparative non-metric and morphometric analyses of rats at residential halls of the university of benin campus, mammals and across rat species, the variation in conformation is markedly observed in the head and the variation in the shape of the head is mostly determined by the shape of the skull. hence comparative topographic analysis and morphometry is a veritable tool in precise categorization of peri-domestic rats and species identification.201728967498
spatial segregation between invasive and native commensal rodents in an urban environment: a case study in niamey, niger.invasive rodents have been responsible for the diffusion worldwide of many zoonotic agents, thus representing major threats for public health. cities are important hubs for people and goods exchange and are thus expected to play a pivotal role in invasive commensal rodent dissemination. yet, data about urban rodents' ecology, especially invasive vs. native species interactions, are dramatically scarce. here, we provide results of an extensive survey of urban rodents conducted in niamey, niger, d ...201425379785
[study of the therapeutic activity of nocodazole on experimental models of larval alveococcosis].the therapeutic activity of parenteral nocodazole was studied on four larval alveococcosis models: golden hamsters (mesocricetus auratus), djungarian hamsters (phodopus sungorus campbelli thomas), albino rats (rattus rattus albus), and cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus) at the late stage of e. multilocularis invasion. the agent (aqueous suspension) was intraperitoneally, intramuscularly, and subcutaneously injected in daily doses of 0.125-0.5 g/kg as 1-8 injections. mebendazole was the drug of comp ...201324003517
environmental enrichment reduces anxiety by differentially activating serotonergic and neuropeptide y (npy)-ergic system in indian field mouse (mus booduga): an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder.exposure to a predator elicits an innate fear response and mimics several behavioral disorders related to post-traumatic stress disorder (ptsd). the protective role of an enriched condition (ec) against psychogenic stressors in various animal models has been well documented. however, this condition has not been tested in field mice in the context of ptsd. in this study, we show that field mice (mus booduga) housed under ec exhibit predominantly proactive and less reactive behavior compared with ...201526016844
ecological and sanitary impacts of bacterial communities associated to biological invasions in african commensal rodent communities.changes in host-parasite ecological interactions during biological invasion events may affect both the outcome of invasions and the dynamics of exotic and/or endemic infections. we tested these hypotheses, by investigating ongoing house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) and black rat (rattus rattus) invasions in senegal (west africa). we used a 16s gene rrna amplicon sequencing approach to study potentially zoonotic bacterial communities in invasive and native rodents sampled along two well-define ...201729101373
leishmania infection in rodents in investigate the prevalence of leishmania infection in rodents from various areas of northern greece.201728986939
global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (rattus norvegicus).native to china and mongolia, the brown rat (rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. while black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a response to relatively recent increases in global trade. we inferred the global phylogeography of brown rats using 32 k snps, and detected 13 evolutionary clusters within five expansion routes. one clus ...201627798305
diet analysis of small mammal pests: a comparison of molecular and microhistological methods.knowledge of what pest species are eating is important to determine their impact on stored food products and to plan management strategies accordingly. in this study, we investigated the food habits of 2 rodents, rattus rattus (ship rat) and mus musculus castaneus (house mouse) as well as an insectivore, suncus murinus (shrew), present in human dwellings. both a microhistological approach and a dna barcoding approach were used in the present study. following dna extraction, amplification was per ...201627001489
first histopathological study in kidneys of rodents naturally infected with leptospira pathogenic species from yucatan, report the renal histological lesions in synanthropic rodents, mus musculus and rattus rattus, naturally infected with leptospira spp., captured in a rural community in yucatan, mexico.201626919944
recent evolution in rattus norvegicus is shaped by declining effective population size.the brown rat, rattus norvegicus, is both a notorious pest and a frequently used model in biomedical research. by analyzing genome sequences of 12 wild-caught brown rats from their presumed ancestral range in ne china, along with the sequence of a black rat, rattus rattus, we investigate the selective and demographic forces shaping variation in the genome. we estimate that the recent effective population size (ne) of this species = [formula: see text], based on silent site diversity. we compare ...201526037536
camera trapping: a contemporary approach to monitoring invasive rodents in high conservation priority ecosystems.invasive rodent species have established on 80% of the world's islands causing significant damage to island environments. insular ecosystems support proportionally more biodiversity than comparative mainland areas, highlighting them as critical for global biodiversity conservation. few techniques currently exist to adequately detect, with high confidence, species that are trap-adverse such as the black rat, rattus rattus, in high conservation priority areas where multiple non-target species pers ...201424599307
positive co-occurrence of flea infestation at a low biological cost in two rodent hosts in the canary archipelago.non-random assemblages have been described as a common pattern of flea co-occurrence across mainland host species. however, to date, patterns of flea co-occurrence on islands are unknown. the present work investigates, on one hand, whether the decrease in the number of species on islands affects the pattern of flea co-occurrence, and on the other hand, how the cost of higher flea burdens affects host body mass. the study was carried out in the canary islands (spain) using null models to analyse ...201424476922
household characteristics associated with rodent presence and leptospira infection in rural and urban communities from southern chile.rodents are well-recognized reservoirs of leptospira, contributing to its maintenance in endemic areas and playing a role in the public health risk associated with the infection. this study sought to provide some insights into rodent populations from chile and their leptospira carriage. in total, 393 rodents were trapped in 177 households. higher rodent counts were associated with year 2 of the study, rainfall, and number of rodent signs. there was an inverse correlation with the number of cats. ...201424445209
xenopsylla spp. (siphonaptera: pulicidae) in murid rodents from the canary islands: an update.the geographical and host distributions of xenopsylla fleas parasitizing murid rodents on the canary islands have been reported. three xenopsylla species, x. cheopis, x. brasiliensis and x. guancha, have been detected on two rodents species, mus musculus and rattus rattus. x. guancha has been the most prevalent species detected, specifically on m. musculus, the most abundant rodent, but it has been detected only on three eastern islands, where the species is endemic. x. cheopis has been shown to ...201223193528
presence of stenoponia tripectinata (tiraboschi, 1902) (siphonaptera, ctenophtalmidae) in murine (rodentia) from the canary islands.this article reports the geographical and host distribution of the flea stenoponia tripectinata on the canary islands. s. tripectinata is widely distributed throughout the mediterranean and north africa as a parasite of muridae rodents. to date, gran canaria is the only island of the archipelago where s. tripectinata had been found. in this report, s. tripectinata has appeared parasitizing 116 specimens of mus musculus out of a total of 660, and only 2 rattus rattus of 215 captured. all the trap ...201222807056
parasite fauna of rodents (murinae) from el hierro (canary islands, spain): a multidisciplinary approach.the parasite fauna (protozoa, helminths and insects) of the two most widespread murinae rodents in el hierro (canary islands, spain), the black rat (rattus rattus) and the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) was studied. faunistic, ecological, ecotoxicological data, as well as information on the biology of some nematode parasites of r. rattus are provided. the present work is unprecedented in the canary islands, and provides the first data on the parasite biodiversity in murinae from the archi ...201222807054
rapid morphological change in black rats (rattus rattus) after an island introduction.rapid morphological change has been shown in rodent populations on islands, including endemic deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus subspp.) on the california channel islands. surprisingly, most of these changes were towards a smaller size. black rats were introduced to anacapa island in the mid-1800s (probably in 1853) and eradicated in 2001-2002. to assess possible changes in these rats since their introduction, eleven cranial and four standard external measurements were taken from 59 rattus rattu ...201525780765
effectiveness of rodenticides for managing invasive roof rats and native deer mice in orchards.roof rats (rattus rattus) and deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) are occasional pests of nut and tree fruit orchards throughout california and in many other parts of the usa and beyond. in general, the most practical and cost-effective control method for rodents in many agricultural environments is the use of rodenticides (toxic baits), but little or no information exists on the efficacy of current rodenticides in controlling roof rats and deer mice in orchards. therefore, our goals were to deve ...201424443051
andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (andean-cl, uta) in peru and ecuador: the vector lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir mammals.the vector lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir host mammals of the leishmania parasites, causing the andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (andean-cl, uta) in peru and ecuador were thoroughly reviewed, performing a survey of literatures including our unpublished data. the peruvian l. (v.) peruviana, a principal leishmania species causing andean-cl in peru, possessed three lutzomyia species, lu. peruensis, lu. verrucarum and lu. ayacuchensis as vectors, while the ecuadorian l. (l.) mexicana parasite poss ...201829224978
cytonuclear discordance among southeast asian black rats (rattus rattus complex).black rats are major invasive vertebrate pests with severe ecological, economic and health impacts. remarkably, their evolutionary history has received little attention, and there is no firm agreement on how many species should be recognized within the black rat complex. this species complex is native to india and southeast asia. according to current taxonomic classification, there are three taxa living in sympatry in several parts of thailand, cambodia and lao people's democratic republic, wher ...201323278980
control of invasive rats on islands and priorities for future action.invasive rats are one of the world's most successful animal groups that cause native species extinctions and ecosystem change, particularly on islands. on large islands, rat eradication is often impossible and population control, defined as the local limitation of rat abundance, is now routinely performed on many of the world's islands as an alternative management tool. however, a synthesis of the motivations, techniques, costs, and outcomes of such rat-control projects is lacking. we reviewed t ...201727982493
improving pcr detection of prey in molecular diet studies: importance of group-specific primer set selection and extraction protocol performances.while the morphological identification of prey remains in predators' faeces is the most commonly used method to study trophic interactions, many studies indicate that this method does not detect all consumed prey. polymerase chain reaction-based methods are increasingly used to detect prey dna in the predator food bolus and have proven efficient, delivering highly accurate results. when studying complex diet samples, the extraction of total dna is a critical step, as polymerase chain reaction (p ...201323134438
competitive naïveté between a highly successful invader and a functionally similar native species.naïveté can occur within any novel antagonistic interaction, and competitive forces play a fundamental role in shaping community structure, yet competitive naïveté has received very little attention in the literature to date. naïveté towards a novel competitor is unlikely to result in immediate mortality, but could potentially affect access to resources and hence population growth and survival. in cases where only one species (either native or alien) remains naïve to the other, the species that ...201424390480
parasite spread at the domestic animal - wildlife interface: anthropogenic habitat use, phylogeny and body mass drive risk of cat and dog flea (ctenocephalides spp.) infestation in wild mammals.spillover of parasites at the domestic animal - wildlife interface is a pervasive threat to animal health. cat and dog fleas (ctenocephalides felis and c. canis) are among the world's most invasive and economically important ectoparasites. although both species are presumed to infest a diversity of host species across the globe, knowledge on their distributions in wildlife is poor. we built a global dataset of wild mammal host associations for cat and dog fleas, and used bayesian hierarchical mo ...201829307305
rodent-borne bartonella infection varies according to host species within and among is becoming increasingly likely that rodents will drive future disease epidemics with the continued expansion of cities worldwide. though transmission risk is a growing concern, relatively little is known about pathogens carried by urban rats. here, we assess whether the diversity and prevalence of bartonella bacteria differ according to the (co)occurrence of rat hosts across new orleans, la (no), where both norway (rattus norvegicus) and roof rats (rattus rattus) are found, relative to new y ...201729164472
coxiella burnetii and rickettsia conorii: two zoonotic pathogens in peridomestic rodents and their ectoparasites in nigeria.rodents are hosts of numerous pathogenic agents of public health importance globally. their ability to harbor these pathogens without showing overt clinical signs of disease has epidemiologic consequences. in some rural settings in nigeria, humans and rodents do not only share feeds and abode, but the latter may end up on the table of the former as a source of protein, thereby increasing the risks of disease transmission. molecular assays were used to detect and characterize two agents of zoonot ...201829042240
hymenolepis diminuta and rodentolepis nana (hymenolepididae: cyclophyllidea) in urban rodents of gran la plata: association with socio-environmental conditions.the aim of this survey was to study two hymenolepididae species in urban rodents, rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus, and to analyse factors that favour their presence in the environment and pose a sanitary risk. hymenolepis diminuta and rodentolepis nana were found in r. rattus and r. norvegicus in different proportions. values of prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity were recorded, and new morphometric characters were described, adding to previously known information. no significant d ...201729017635
detection of rat hepatitis e virus in wild norway rats (rattus norvegicus) and black rats (rattus rattus) from 11 european countries.rat hepatitis e virus (hev) is genetically only distantly related to hepeviruses found in other mammalian reservoirs and in humans. it was initially detected in norway rats (rattus norvegicus) from germany, and subsequently in rats from vietnam, the usa, indonesia, china, denmark and france. here, we report on a molecular survey of norway rats and black rats (rattus rattus) from 12 european countries for rathev and human pathogenic hepeviruses. rathev-specific real-time and conventional rt-pcr i ...201728888650
asian house rats may facilitate their invasive success through suppressing brown rats in chronic interaction.the asian house rat (rattus tanezumi) and the brown rat (rattus norvegicus) are closely related species and are partially sympatric in southern china. over the past 20 years, r. tanezumi has significantly expanded northward in china and partially replaced the native brown rat subspecies, r. n. humiliatus. although invasive species are often more aggressive than native species, we did not observe interspecific physical aggression between r. tanezumi and r. n. humiliatus. here, we focused on wheth ...201728413431
broad and flexible stable isotope niches in invasive non-native rattus spp. in anthropogenic and natural habitats of central eastern madagascar.rodents of the genus rattus are among the most pervasive and successful invasive species, causing major vicissitudes in native ecological communities. a broad and flexible generalist diet has been suggested as key to the invasion success of rattus spp. here, we use an indirect approach to better understand foraging niche width, plasticity, and overlap within and between introduced rattus spp. in anthropogenic habitats and natural humid forests of madagascar.201728412938
vkorc1 sequencing suggests anticoagulant resistance in rats in new zealand.anticoagulant toxins are used globally to control rats. resistance of rattus species to these toxins now occurs in at least 18 countries in europe, america and asia. resistance is often associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) in the vkorc1 gene. this study gives a first overview of the distribution and frequency of vkorc1 snps in rats in new zealand. new zealand is unusual in having no native rodents but three species of introduced rattus - norvegicus berk., rattus l. and exulans ...201727117082
aboriginal and invasive rats of genus rattus as hosts of infectious agents.from the perspective of ecology of zoonotic pathogens, the role of the old world rats of the genus rattus is exceptional. the review analyzes specific characteristics of rats that contribute to their important role in hosting pathogens, such as host-pathogen relations and rates of rat-borne infections, taxonomy, ecology, and essential factors. specifically the review addresses recent taxonomic revisions within the genus rattus that resulted from applications of new genetic tools in understanding ...201525629775
rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (ixodidae) in synantropic rodents in rio grande do sul, brazil.rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, is responsible for maintaining and transmitting various pathogens, both in animals and human beings, and it is of great sanitary importance. this communication reports the first occurrence of rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato parasitizing rattus norvegicus in the state of rio grande do sul, brazil, and it is also the first record of this tick species parasitizing rattus rattus in brazil. the rodents were captured from the port area, located in the ...201425054514
[strategies for sustainable management of commensal rodents. definitions of control objectives at communal level].the german act on the prevention and control of infectious diseases in man (infektionsschutzgesetz, ifsg) provides a legal framework for activities and responsibilities concerning communal rodent control. however, actual governance of communal rodent control is relatively heterogeneous, as federal states (bundesländer) have different or even no regulations for prevention and management of commensal rodent infestations (e.g. brown rats, roof rats and house mice). control targets and control requi ...201424781906
survey of cardiovascular pathology in wild urban rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus.norway (rattus norvegicus) and black rats (rattus rattus) are common commensal pests, yet little is known about the ecology of wild rats, including their natural diseases. we describe microscopic cardiovascular pathology in a subset of a sample of 725 wild urban rats. changes observed in the pulmonary blood vessels (n = 199) included arteriolar medial hypertrophy (20.1%, n = 40) and blood vessel mineralization (19.1%, n = 38). microscopic changes in the heart (n = 200) included myocarditis (33.5 ...201524686390
evolutionary history of rat-borne bartonella: the importance of commensal rats in the dissemination of bacterial infections globally.emerging pathogens that originate from invasive species have caused numerous significant epidemics. some bacteria of genus bartonella are rodent-borne pathogens that can cause disease in humans and animals alike. we analyzed glta sequences of 191 strains of rat-associated bartonellae from 29 rodent species from 17 countries to test the hypotheses that this bacterial complex evolved and diversified in southeast asia before being disseminated by commensal rats rattus rattus (black rat) and rattus ...201324223261
ear mange mites (notoedres muris) in black and norway rats (rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus) from inner-city vancouver, canada.the ear mange mite, notoedres muris (astigmata: sarcoptidae), is a parasitic burrowing mite of black and norway rats (rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus), which causes a proliferative dermatitis primarily affecting the ears. we characterize the ecology of n. muris in a group of black and norway rats trapped in an inner-city area of vancouver, canada. rats (n = 725) were trapped for 1 yr (september 2011-august 2012) in 43 city blocks (0.82 km(2)) and one property (0.03 km(2)) within an internati ...201424171578
perfluoroalkyl substances in the blood of wild rats and mice from 47 prefectures in japan: use of samples from nationwide specimen bank.numerous studies have reported on the global distribution, persistence, fate, and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (pfass). however, studies on pfass in terrestrial mammals are scarce. rats can be good sentinels of human exposure to toxicants because of their habitat, which is in close proximity to humans. furthermore, exposure data measured for rats can be directly applied for risk assessment because many toxicological studies use rodent models. in this study, a nationw ...201323494483
a mathematical epidemiological model of gram-negative bartonella bacteria: does differential ectoparasite load fully explain the differences in infection prevalence of rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus?we postulate that the large difference in infection prevalence, 24% versus 5%, in r. norvegicus and r. rattus, respectively, between these two co-occurring host species may be due to differences in ectoparasite and potential vector infestation rates. a compartmental model, representative of an infectious system containing these two rattus species and two ectoparasite vectors, was constructed and the coefficients of the forces of infection determined mathematically. the maximum difference obtaine ...201222873616
attack and defense in laboratory and wild norway and black rats.intra- and interspecific agonistic encounters in long-evans and field-trapped rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus showed a consistency in the form and character of attack and defensive behaviors. colony alpha males exhibited high levels of lateral attack, on-top, and chasing behaviors which resulted in a high percentage of bites on the intruder's back. bites directed to the back were countered by intruders through the utilization of boxing, on-back, and flight defense. these findings indicate th ...198224897650
high prevalence of angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) on eastern hawai'i island: a closer look at life cycle traits and patterns of infection in wild rats (rattus spp.).the nematode angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen and the etiological agent of human angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. hawai'i, particularly east hawai'i island, is the epicenter for angiostrongyliasis in the usa. rats (rattus spp.) are the definitive hosts while gastropods are intermediate hosts. the main objective of this study was to collect adult a. cantonensis from wild rats to isolate protein for the development of a blood-based diagnostic, in the process we evaluat ...201729252992
potential causative mutation for melanism in rats identified in the agouti signaling protein gene (asip) of the rattus rattus species complex on okinawa island, japan.the occurrence of black fur, or melanism, in many mammalian species is known to be linked to dna sequence variation in the agouti signaling protein (asip) gene, which is a major determinant of eumelanin and pheomelanin pigments in coat color. we investigated 38 agouti (i.e., banded wildtype) and four melanistic rattus rattus species complex (rrc) lineage ii specimens from okinawa island, ryukyu islands, japan, for genetic variation in three exons and associated flanking regions in the asip gene. ...201729219041
use of anticoagulant rodenticides in outdoor urban areas: considerations and proposals for the protection of public health and non-target species.rodent control operations represent an important tool for the prevention and management of infestations, in outdoor environments, by synanthropic rodents (rattus rattus and r. norvegicus), which are a source of economic and environmental damage with significant sanitary implications. although the use of anticoagulants is safer to humans and pets compared to the use of acute poisoning substances, an intrinsic hazard of the active ingredients exists, i.e. the possible poisoning of non-target organ ...201729215130
draft genome of the emerging pathogen, kocuria marina, isolated from a wild urban rat.kocuria marina has recently emerged as a cause for catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients with underlying health complications. one k. marina strain was recently isolated from the lung tissues of a wild urban rat (rattus rattus diardii) caught during rodent surveillance. here, we present the draft genome of the first k. marina animal isolate, k. marina tre150902.201729211248
dipterofauna associated with rat carcasses in the atlantic forest, southeastern brazil.each biome has its own fauna and intrinsic local conditions that determine the succession patterns of insects on carcasses. for this reason, regional studies are very important to forensics. this study deals with the flies that visit carcasses of rattus rattus (l., 1758) in the atlantic forest remnant of floresta da tijuca, rio de janeiro, brazil. we compare the diversity and relative abundance of fly families and species throughout the four seasons of the year and test for correlations between ...201728981854
dietary diversity on the swahili coast: the fauna from two zanzibar trading locales.occupants of coastal and island eastern africa-now known as the 'swahili coast'-were involved in long-distance trade with the indian ocean world during the later first millennium ce. such exchanges may be traced via the appearance of non-native animals in the archaeofaunal record; additionally, this record reveals daily culinary practises of the members of trading communities and can thus shed light on subsistence technologies and social organisation. yet despite the potential contributions of f ...201728979085
abiotic and biotic contributors to support inter-epidemic francisella tularensis in an agricultural peri-urban characterize the inter-epidemic ecology of francisella tularensis, we surveyed vertebrates and invertebrates for the abundance, spatial distribution, and status of infection at a site in northern california that had evidence of endemic type b tularemia. we collected 2910 mosquitoes, 77 biting flies, 704 ticks, 115 mammals, and 1911 aquatic invertebrates in 2013-2014. real-time pcr on all mosquitoes, 40 biting flies, 113 aquatic invertebrates, and 650 ticks did not detect f. tularensis dna. in ...201728968195
lack of trypanosoma cruzi infection in urban roof rats (rattus rattus) at a texas facility housing naturally infected nonhuman primates.the protozoan parasite trypanosoma cruzi causes chagas disease, uses kissing bugs as a vector, and is maintained in nature by a variety of wildlife reservoirs. many natural cases of chagas disease have been reported in nhp at facilities across the southern united states, where infected vectors and wildlife occur. infection of nhp with t. cruzi can diminish their value as research models and lead to health problems and death. identifying the modes of transmission and role of wildlife reservoirs i ...201728905716
assessment of ddt contamination in house rat as a possible bioindicator in ddt-sprayed areas from ethiopia and south africa.ethiopia and south africa are among the few countries to still implement indoor residual spraying with dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (ddt) for malaria vector control. in this study, we investigated the levels and ecological risks of ddt and its metabolites in liver tissues of house rat, as a sentinel animal, for providing an early warning system for public health and wildlife intervention from ethiopia and south africa. the results showed that σddt concentration ranged from 127 to 9155 μg/kg ...201728865000
spatial capture-mark-resight estimation of animal population density.sightings of previously marked animals can extend a capture-recapture dataset without the added cost of capturing new animals for marking. combined marking and resighting methods are therefore an attractive option in animal population studies, and there exist various likelihood-based non-spatial models, and some spatial versions fitted by markov chain monte carlo sampling. as implemented to date, the focus has been on modeling sightings only, which requires that the spatial distribution of pre-m ...201728834536
reconstructing asian faunal introductions to eastern africa from multi-proxy biomolecular and archaeological datasets.human-mediated biological exchange has had global social and ecological impacts. in sub-saharan africa, several domestic and commensal animals were introduced from asia in the pre-modern period; however, the timing and nature of these introductions remain contentious. one model supports introduction to the eastern african coast after the mid-first millennium ce, while another posits introduction dating back to 3000 bce. these distinct scenarios have implications for understanding the emergence o ...201728817590
vasoactive intestinal peptide (vip) localization in the epididymis of two vertebrate and its receptors (vpacrs) are largely investigated in vertebrate testis, as well as their functions in the control of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. by contrast, a few data are available about the presence and role of vip in the epididymis. the aim of the present paper was to investigate the localization of vip and its receptors in the epididymis of two vertebrates: podarcis sicula, a seasonal reproducer, and rattus rattus, a continuous reproducer. by immunohystochemical investigation ...201728784577
studies on bromadiolone resistance in rattus rattus populations from punjab, india.there are several reports on development of resistance to bromadiolone in different species of rodents around the globe, however, there is no such report involving systematic study from india. hence, present study was carried out to investigate current status of bromadiolone resistance in house rat (rattus rattus; n=154) collected from different poultry farms (n=8) based on feeding test, blood clotting response (bcr) test and molecular characterization of vkorc1 gene. based on feeding test and b ...201728595918
insight into the global evolution of rodentia associated morbilli-related portion of the family paramyxoviridae is a group of unclassified morbilli-related viruses (umrv) recently recognized in wild small mammals. at a global level, the evolutionary history of these viruses is not properly understood and the relationships between umrv and their hosts still remain largely unstudied. the present study revealed, for the first time, that rodentia associated umrv emerged from a common ancestor in southern africa more than 4000 years ago. sequenced umrv originating from ...201728512347
consistent individual differences in standard exploration tasks in the black rat (rattus rattus).in a fluctuating environment, the optimal level of exploratory behavior depends on the proportion of current risks and benefits. the exploratory behavior is, therefore, often subjected to heterogenous selection. in populations of commensal rodents living in close proximity of humans, this pressure is further increased by pest management. we hypothesize that the black rat (rattus rattus) responds to this pressure by either high behavioral flexibility or by development of personality types. the ai ...201728318291
rodent species distribution and hantavirus seroprevalence in residential and forested areas of sarawak, malaysia.rodents belong to the order rodentia, which consists of three families in borneo (i.e., muridae, sciuridae and hystricidae). these include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. they are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (family: bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in peninsular malaysia in the early 1980s, i ...201728228923
two strains of roof rats as effective models for assessing new-object reaction.wild animals generally avoid even small and harmless novel objects and/or familiar objects moved to a novel position, which is termed "new-object reaction". although new-object reaction appears to be a biologically important characteristic for animals, little progress has been made in understanding the neural mechanisms underlying new-object reaction. one reason might be the lack of effective experimental animals. two strains of roof rats (sj and og strains) were established from wild roof rats ...201728202879
visualizations for genetic assignment analyses using the saddlepoint approximation method.we propose a method for visualizing genetic assignment data by characterizing the distribution of genetic profiles for each candidate source population. this method enhances the assignment method of rannala and mountain (1997) by calculating appropriate graph positions for individuals for which some genetic data are missing. an individual with missing data is positioned in the distributions of genetic profiles for a population according to its estimated quantile based on its available data. the ...201728182851
using effect size benchmarks to assess when alien impacts are actually alien.alien predators have on average twice the impact on native prey populations than do native predators, and are a severe threat to wildlife globally. manipulation experiments can be used to quantify the impact of an alien predator on its prey population/s, but unless the results are compared to benchmarks, it is unclear whether this impact is indeed greater than that of a native predator. here we use the australian garden skink lampropholis delicata and alien black rat rattus rattus to test if bla ...201728128305
novel revelation of warfarin resistant mechanism in roof rats (rattus rattus) using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis.roof rats (rattus rattus) live mainly in human habitats. heavy use of rodenticides, such as warfarin, has led to the development of drug resistance, making pest control difficult. there have been many reports regarding mutations of vitamin k epoxide reductase (vkor), the target enzyme of warfarin, in resistant rats. however, it has been suggested there are other mechanisms of warfarin resistance. to confirm these possibilities, closed colonies of warfarin-susceptible roof rats (s) and resistant ...201627914534
magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of neurometabolite changes in the developing rat brain at 7t.we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate the metabolic profile of the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex of the developing rat brain from postnatal days 14-70. measured metabolite concentrations were modeled using linear, exponential, or logarithmic functions and the time point at which the data reached plateau (i.e. when the portion of the data could be fit to horizontal line) was estimated and was interpreted as the time when the brain has reached maturity with res ...201627663970
from human geography to biological invasions: the black rat distribution in the changing southeastern of the contemporary context of zoonosis emergence and spread, invasive species are a major issue since they represent potential pathogen hosts. even though many progresses have been done to understand and predict spatial patterns of invasive species, the challenge to identify the underlying determinants of their distribution remains a central question in invasion biology. this is particularly exacerbated in the case of commensal species that strictly depend on humankind for dispersal and perenni ...201727661619
disease, models, variants and altered pathways-journeying rgd through the magnifying glass.understanding the pathogenesis of disease is instrumental in delineating its progression mechanisms and for envisioning ways to counteract it. in the process, animal models represent invaluable tools for identifying disease-related loci and their genetic components. amongst them, the laboratory rat is used extensively in the study of many conditions and disorders. the rat genome database (rgd- has been established to house rat genetic, genomic and phenotypic data. since its in ...201627602200
Displaying items 901 - 1000 of 1210