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detection of alpha(2u)-globulin and its bound putative pheromones in the preputial gland of the indian commensal rat (rattus rattus) using mass spectrometry.the role of pheromones and pheromone-binding proteins in the laboratory rat has been extensively investigated. however, we have previously reported that the preputial gland of the indian commensal rat produces a variety of pheromonal molecules and preputial glands would seem to be the predominant source for pheromonal communication. the presence of pheromone-binding proteins has not yet been identified in the preputial gland of the indian commensal rat; therefore, the experiments were designed t ...201020169559
invasive non-native species' provision of refugia for endangered native species.the influence of non-native species on native ecosystems is not predicted easily when interspecific interactions are complex. species removal can result in unexpected and undesired changes to other ecosystem components. i examined whether invasive non-native species may both harm and provide refugia for endangered native species. the invasive non-native plant casuarina stricta has damaged the native flora and caused decline of the snail fauna on the ogasawara islands, japan. on anijima in 2006 a ...201020184648
stomach nematodes (mastophorus muris) in rats (rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (cocos nucifera) habitat at palmyra atoll.black rats ( rattus rattus ) and their stomach nematodes (mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at palmyra atoll in the central pacific line islands. to investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. most rats were parasitized (59%) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (w ...201019799487
epidemiology of bartonella infection in rodents and shrews in taiwan.during the period of august 2002 and november 2004, an epidemiological investigation for bartonella infection was conducted in small mammals in taiwan. using whole blood culture on chocolate agar plates, bartonella species were successfully isolated from 41.3% of the 310 animals tested. the isolation rate of bartonella species varied among different animal species, including 52.7% of the 169 rattus norvegicus, 28.6% of the 126 sucus murinus, 10% of the 10 rattus rattus and 66.7% of the three rat ...201019538457
effects of invasive rats and burrowing seabirds on seeds and seedlings on new zealand islands.rats (rattus rattus, rattus norvegicus, rattus exulans) are important invaders on islands. they alter vegetation indirectly by preying on burrowing seabirds. these seabirds affect vegetation through nutrient inputs from sea to land and physical disturbance through trampling and burrowing. rats also directly affect vegetation though consumption of seeds and seedlings. seedling communities on northern new zealand islands differ in composition and densities among islands which have never been invad ...201019921273
rats as indicators of the presence and dispersal of pathogens in cyprus: ectoparasites, parasitic helminths, enteric bacteria, and encephalomyocarditis virus.rodents play an active role in the transmission of a number of zoonoses by harboring and disseminating the pathogens involved, either through their biological materials or via their ectoparasites. hence, the spatial and seasonal distribution of potential agents of zoonoses may be studied by examining their distribution in the rodent vectors and their ectoparasites. a surveillance was conducted in wild rodents in 51 different areas of cyprus, an island ecosystem, to monitor the reemergence of ech ...201020370433
moisture can be the dominant environmental parameter governing cadaver decomposition in soil.forensic taphonomy involves the use of decomposition to estimate postmortem interval (pmi) or locate clandestine graves. yet, cadaver decomposition remains poorly understood, particularly following burial in soil. presently, we do not know how most edaphic and environmental parameters, including soil moisture, influence the breakdown of cadavers following burial and alter the processes that are used to estimate pmi and locate clandestine graves. to address this, we buried juvenile rat (rattus ra ...201020400249
susceptibility to yersinia pestis experimental infection in wild rattus rattus, reservoir of plague in madagascar.in madagascar, the black rat, rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague (yersinia pestis infection), a disease still responsible for hundreds of cases each year in this country. this study used experimental plague challenge to assess susceptibility in wild-caught rats to better understand how r. rattus can act as a plague reservoir. an important difference in plague resistance between rat populations from the plague focus (central highlands) and those from the plague-free zone (low altitude ...201020443044
molecular evolution of trichuris muris isolated from different muridae hosts in europe.a phylogeographic study was carried out of trichuris muris, nematode parasitizing murinae rodents from the muridae family, isolated from four different hosts and from different geographical regions of europe by amplification and sequencing of the its1-5.8s-its2 fragment of the ribosomal dna. t. muris was found in the apodemus sylvaticus, apodemus flavicollis, mus domesticus, and rattus rattus rodents. the molecular results confirm the presence of dna polymorphisms among t. muris isolates from eu ...201020473527
analysis of vkorc1 polymorphisms in norway rats using the roof rat as outgroup.certain mutations in the vitamin k epoxide reductase subcomponent 1 gene (vkorc1) mediate rodent resistance to warfarin and other anticoagulants. testing for resistance often involves analysis of the vkorc1. however, a genetic test for the roof rat (rattus rattus) has yet to be developed. moreover, an available roof rat vkorc1 sequence would enable species identification based on vkorc1 sequence and the evaluation of natural selection on particular vkorc1 polymorphisms in the norway rat (r. norv ...201020497562
susceptibility of bromadiolone anticoagulant rodenticide in two rodent species and its haematologic effect.susceptibility levels of the norway rat, rattus norvegicus and the roof rat, rattus rattus to bromadiolone anticoagulant rodenticide by bioassay and biochemical methods were studied. animals were trapped from giza and qualyobia governorates in which the anticoagulant rodenticides were used to control rodents for long periods. complete mortality was obtained for both species and sexes within standard no-choice feeding test period (4 days) indicating bromadiolone susceptibility. treatment of rats ...201020503584
the case of an insular molarless black rat: effects on lifestyle and mandible morphology.we report a specimen of an insular black rat (rattus rattus) from illa den colom (menorca, western mediterranean) displaying a singular dental characteristic. it has no molar teeth but displays regular incisors. its mere occurrence as a regular adult rat is puzzling and we attempted to evaluate what diet and morphological changes in jaw shape were promoted by the total lack of molars, and allowed the successful survival of this specimen. two approaches were performed: first, bone tissue was anal ...201020538260
isolation and multilocus genotyping of toxoplasma gondii in seronegative rodents in brazil.synanthropic rodents, mainly rats and mice, become ecologically associated with men due to changes in their ecosystems caused by human activities. these animals may take part in the epidemiological cycles of several diseases, including toxoplasmosis. the presence of serum antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in 43 rodents captured in the urban area of umuarama, pr, brazil, was verified by modified agglutination test (mat). brain and heart samples were also collected and bioassayed in mice for the iso ...201020869811
the role of wild rodents in the transmission of trypanosoma evansi infection in an endemic area of the canary islands (spain).trypanosoma evansi was diagnosed for the first time in camels in the canary islands in 1997. several sanitary measures including treatment of infected animals were taken; however, nowadays a little area is still infected. in order to determine possible reservoirs 138 wild rodents were trapped, 64 of them in the infected farms and the remaining 74 in other areas. the captured species were rattus rattus (24), rattus norvegicus (69) and mus musculus domesticus (45). serological (catt/t. evansi), pa ...201020888126
molecular survey of rodent-borne trypanosoma in niger with special emphasis on t. lewisi imported by invasive black rats.invading rodent species can harbor parasites with potential transmission to native rodents and/or humans. to investigate trypanosomes prevalence in rodents, the spleen of 76 rodents from niger identified by their karyotype was used as a dna source for trypanosoma detection using a newly developed qpcr assay. of the invasive black rat, rattus rattus, 71% (10/14) were pcr positive as well as 6% (4/62) of native african rodents. sequences of ~400bp of the ssu rdna gene identified phylogenetically c ...201021126503
seasonal abundance of plague vector xenopsylla brasiliensis from rodents captured in three habitat types of periurban suburbs of harare, zimbabwe.abstract the study was aimed at determining the seasonal abundance of xenopsylla brasiliensis, an important vector of plague in zimbabwe, from rodent hosts captured in selected habitat types of two periurban suburbs of harare, zimbabwe. the removal-trapping method was used to capture the rodents, from which fleas were collected and identified. percentage incidence index (pii) and specific flea index (sfi) were calculated for x. brasiliensis in relation to rodent species host. mastomys natalensis ...201021142965
infestation rate of tick, mite and lice among rodent species in menoufia governorate, egypt.a preliminary survey of domestic rodent species and their ectoparasites tick, mite and lice was carried out in ten centers of menoufia (quesna, shebeen el-kom, berka el-saabe, el-bagour, el-shohada, tala, menoff, searth el-lian, ashmon and el-sadat) governorate. frequency of rodent species and ectoparasites indices (tick, mite and lice) were recorded in spring (2009). the main species of rodent was norway rat, rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellied rat, rattus rattus alexandrinus, the white-bellied ...201021246950
isoenzyme electrophetic characterization of leishmania major, the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in north and west saudi arabia.several expeditions were carried out to four localities (al-madinah almona-warah, tabouk region, al-jouf and northern frontiers regions) in northern and western saudi arabia for sampling zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (zcl) cases from patients and rodents. biopsy samples were collected from 51 patients complaining of skin lesions, most of which (40 or 78.4%) proved to be zcl. amastigotes were detected in 33 patients (64.7%), but only 30 (58.9%) gave successful growth of promastigotes in the cu ...201021246954
response of predominant rodent borne diseases to difethialone anticoagulant rodenticide under laboratory conditions.susceptibility level to difethialone 0.0025% anticoagulant rodenticide by bioassay method were studied (during 2009 & 2010) to the norway rat rattus norvegicus and the roof rat rattus rattus trapped from giza and menoufia governorates (g) where anticoagulant rodenticides were used to control rodents for long periods. complete mortality was obtained for both species at two governorates within 3 days no-choice feeding test period, indicated to be susceptible to difethialone. the bait consumption a ...201021268533
development of a new humane toxin for predator control in new zealand.the endemic fauna of new zealand evolved in the absence of mammalian predators and their introduction has been responsible for many extinctions and declines. introduced species including possums (trichosurus vulpecula kerr), ship rats (rattus rattus l.) and stoats (mustela erminea l.) are targeted to protect native birds. control methodologies currently rely largely on labor-intensive trapping or the use of increasingly unpopular poisons, or poisons that are linked with low welfare standards. he ...201021392319
occurrence of ectoparasites on rodents in sukhothai province, northern thailand.a survey of ectoparasites on rodents was carried out bimonthly from april 2008 to march 2009 in 3 districts of sukhothai province, northern thailand. a total of 130 rodents comprising 8 species of hosts were captured and examined for ectoparasites. the hosts examined were bandicota indica, bandicota savilei, rattus losea, rattus rattus, rattus exulans, rattus norvegicus, menetes berdmorei and tamiops mcclellandii. ninety-seven ectoparasites were collected: 1 species of tick (hemaphysalis bandico ...201021329306
cross-species surveillance of leptospira in domestic and peri-domestic animals in mahalla city, gharbeya governorate, egypt.a survey of 179 animals (black rats, dogs, sheep, buffaloes, cattle, donkeys, weasels, and cats) for leptospira infection was conducted in mahalla city (lower egypt). blood, urine, and kidney were collected and tested by culture, microscopic agglutination test (mat), and/or polymerase chain reaction (pcr). among rats, 26% were positive by pcr, including 7% that were also positive by culture for l. interrogans serovars grippotyphosa, pyrogenes, and icterohaemorrhagiae. l. borpetersenii serovar po ...201121363980
the current status of fleas according to environmental changes in some governorates in egypt.a preliminary survey of domestic rodent and their fleas was carried out in different environmental governorates (ismailia, dakahlia, el-fayoum, north sinai and matrouh), egypt. flea index (number of flea/rodent) and percentage frequency of different flea species were recorded in spring (2009- 2010). the main rodent species found were the norway rat, rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellied rat, rattus rattus alexandrinus, the white- bellied rat, rattus rattus frugivorus, the house mouse, mus musculus ...201121634253
coxiella burnetii (q fever) in rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus at livestock farms and urban locations in the netherlands; could rattus spp. represent reservoirs for (re)introduction?the q fever outbreak in the netherlands in 2007-2010 prompted government interventions to reduce the human incidence by reduction of q fever shedding at dairy goat farms. mandatory hygiene measures were taken, including the control of animal reservoirs. it has been postulated that brown rats, through their commensal nature, form an important factor in the persistent dissemination of endemic circulating coxiella burnetii in nature to domestic animals, livestock and humans. here, the occurrence of ...201121640416
the island syndrome and population dynamics of introduced rats.the island syndrome predicts directional changes in the morphology and demography of insular vertebrates, due to changes in trophic complexity and migration rates caused by island size and isolation. however, the high rate of human-mediated species introductions to some islands also increases trophic complexity, and this will reduce the perceived insularity on any such island. we test four hypotheses on the role of increased trophic complexity on the island syndrome, using introduced black rats ...201121643994
origin of agouti-melanistic polymorphism in wild black rats (rattus rattus) inferred from mc1r gene sequences.we examined nucleotide changes that underlie coat color variation in black rats (the rattus rattus species complex), which show polymorphism in dorsal fur color, including either grayish brown (agouti) or black (melanistic) forms. we examined the full coding sequence of a gene known to produce melanism in other vertebrates-melanocortin-1-receptor gene mc1r (954 bp) -using samples of both r. rattus (with 2n = 38) and its close relative asian black rat (r. tanezumi; 2n = 42). we used 61 specimens ...201121800996
a survey of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infection in urban rodents from brazil.abstract toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects humans and other warm blooded animals; it uses feral and domestic cats as the definitive hosts. neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals whose life cycle is very similar to t. gondii, but uses canids as definitive hosts. small rodents play an important role in the life cycle of t. gondii and a few findings indicated that they may be natural intermediate hosts for n. caninum. the present study was aimed at identifying infe ...201121790367
the influence of spatio-temporal resource fluctuations on insular rat population dynamics.local spatio-temporal resource variations can strongly influence the population dynamics of small mammals. this is particularly true on islands which are bottom-up driven systems, lacking higher order predators and with high variability in resource subsidies. the influence of resource fluctuations on animal survival may be mediated by individual movement among habitat patches, but simultaneously analysing survival, resource availability and habitat selection requires sophisticated analytical met ...201121775327
genetic impacts of anacapa deer mice reintroductions following rat eradication.the anacapa deer mouse is an endemic subspecies that inhabits anacapa island, part of channel islands national park, california. we used mitochondrial dna cytochrome c oxidase subunit ii gene (coii) and 10 microsatellite loci to evaluate the levels of genetic differentiation and variation in ôê+1400 anacapa deer mice sampled before and for 4ôçâyears after a black rat (rattus rattus) eradication campaign that included trapping, captive holding and reintroduction of deer mice. both mitochondrial a ...201121711403
survey of angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and giant african land snails in phitsanulok province, thailand.to survey the angiostrongylus cantonensis (a. cantonensis) or the rat lungworm in a rat, definitive host, and in a giant african land snail (achatina fulica), the intermediate host, in phitsanulok, thailand.201121914534
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from the fernando de noronha, brazil.abstract fernando de noronha is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the atlantic ocean, state of pernambuco, brazil, and has a varied biodiversity, including alien species or sinantropic animals. the objective here was to determine seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from fernando de noronha archipelago, brazil. between july 2007 to may 2010, blood samples were collected from 764 animals (533 domestic and 231 wild animals). sera were tested by the indirect f ...201122150091
distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the canary islands (spain).in the canary islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (cestoda) of rodents. in order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 rattus rattus, 13 rattus norvegicus and 655 mus musculus domesticus) was carried out in the whole archipelago. molecular studies based on nuclear its1 and mitochondrial coi loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation.201121943096
Investigation of Chagas disease in four periurban areas in northeastern Brazil: epidemiologic survey in man, vectors, non-human hosts and reservoirs.Chagas disease was investigated in four periurban areas of Ceará state, northeastern Brazil, through serological, parasitological and molecular methods in humans, reservoirs and vectors. A cross-sectional survey revealed a seroprevalence rate of 1.2% (13/1076 residents, six also proving positive through PCR). Trypanosoma cruzi infection was not detected in children under 10 years old. Triatoma pseudomaculata prevailed in the peridomiciles: 63 specimens, 69% (34/49) infected with trypanosomatids. ...201122136953
phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of yersinia pestis in madagascar.plague was introduced to madagascar in 1898 and continues to be a significant human health problem. it exists mainly in the central highlands, but in the 1990s was reintroduced to the port city of mahajanga, where it caused extensive human outbreaks. despite its prevalence, the phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of y. pestis in madagascar has been difficult to study due to the great genetic similarity among isolates. we examine island-wide geographic-genetic patterns based upon whole-geno ...201121931876
multiple geographic origins of commensalism and complex dispersal history of black rats.the black rat (rattus rattus) spread out of asia to become one of the world's worst agricultural and urban pests, and a reservoir or vector of numerous zoonotic diseases, including the devastating plague. despite the global scale and inestimable cost of their impacts on both human livelihoods and natural ecosystems, little is known of the global genetic diversity of black rats, the timing and directions of their historical dispersals, and the risks associated with contemporary movements. we surv ...201122073158
epidemiological factors related to the transmission risk of trypanosoma cruzi in a quilombola community, state of mato grosso do sul, brazil.this work was an epidemiological investigation of the risk of trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the rural quilombola community of furnas do dionízio, state of mato grosso do sul, brazil.201122031072
invasive rats and recent colonist birds partially compensate for the loss of endemic new zealand pollinators.reported declines of pollinator populations around the world have led to increasing concerns about the consequences for pollination as a critical ecosystem function and service. pollination could be maintained through compensation if remaining pollinators increase their contribution or if novel species are recruited as pollinators, but empirical evidence of this compensation is so far lacking. using a natural experiment in new zealand where endemic vertebrate pollinators still occur on one offsh ...201122090388
seroprevalence of angiostrongylus cantonensis in wild rodents from the canary islands.angiostrongylus cantonensis is a lungworm of rats (muridae) that is the causative agent of human cerebral angiostrongyliasis. the life cycle of a. cantonensis involves rats and mollusks as the definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. this study was designed to increase the knowledge about the occurrence and distribution of a. cantonensis in its definitive host in the canary islands, using parasitological and serological analysis in different areas and age groups.201122110752
Evaluating the anti-fertility potential of a-chlorohydrin on testis and spermatozoa in the adult male wild Indian house rat (Rattus rattus).To examine the effects of a-chlorohydrin on testis and cauda epididymis in the male house rat (Rattus rattus), 24 adult male rats were segregated into two groups. Group I rats were force-fed daily by intragastric intubation with a-chlorohydrin at a single dose of 1.0 mg/100 g body weight/d for 5, 15, and 45 days. Another group was fed with distilled water, which served as the control. The treated male rats were paired with 24 adult proestrus female rats for 5 days after the last oral treatment a ...201121967454
epidemiological survey of angiostrongylus cantonensis in the west-central region of guangdong province, china.the study was to understand the angiostrongylus cantonensis infectious situation of rodent definitive host, snail intermediate host, and local residents in the west-central region of guangdong province in china. the snails achatina fulica and pomacea canaliculata collected from the survey place were digested with artificial gastric juice, and the third-stage larvae of a. cantonensis in the snails were examined under microscope. the heart and lung of rats captured from the survey place were taken ...201121301874
genetic monitoring detects an overlooked cryptic species and reveals the diversity and distribution of three invasive rattus congeners in south africa.south africa's long and extensive trade activity has ensured ample opportunities for exotic species introduction. whereas the rich biodiversity of endemic southern african fauna has been the focus of many studies, invasive vertebrates are generally overlooked despite potential impacts on biodiversity, health and agriculture. genetic monitoring of commensal rodents in south africa which uncovered the presence of rattus tanezumi, a south-east asian endemic not previously known to occur in africa, ...201121324204
the occurrence of the larval cestode cysticercus fasciolaris in rodent populations from the cuxtal ecological reserve, yucatan, mexico.cysticercus fasciolaris is the larval stage of the cestode taenia taeniaeformis, whose definitive hosts are mainly cats. this larval stage uses a wide variety of small rodents, and occasionally birds and humans, as intermediate hosts. in the yucatan, there are no reports of the presence of this cestode in animal populations. the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of c. fasciolaris in rodent populations from the cuxtal ecological reserve, yucatan, mexico. trapping of rodents was con ...201121208511
accurate measurement of body weight and food intake in environmentally enriched male wistar rats.laboratory animals are crucial in the study of energy homeostasis. in particular, rats are used to study alterations in food intake and body weight. to accurately record food intake or energy expenditure it is necessary to house rats individually, which can be stressful for social animals. environmental enrichment may reduce stress and improve welfare in laboratory rodents. however, the effect of environmental enrichment on food intake and thus experimental outcome is unknown. we aimed to determ ...201121233804
some laelapine mites (acari: laelapidae) ectoparasitic on small mammals in the galapagos islands, including a new species of gigantolaelaps from aegialomys galapagoensis.abstract abstract: a collection of laelapine mites from small mammals in the galapagos islands is identified and their host distributions reviewed. two species of native rodents, aegialomys galapagoensis and nesoryzomys narboroughii, were infested only with laelapine species typical of neotropical oryzomyine rodents; rattus rattus was infested with laelaps nuttalli, a host-specific ectoparasite endemic to old world rattus. a synopsis of gigantolaelaps fonseca is provided and we describe a new la ...201121506821
[on the history of the spread of the black rat (rattus rattus l., 1758) in northwestern russia].data on the first reliable findings of subfossil remains of the black rat in north-western russia (vologda and vladimir oblasts) are given. the burying of the remains dates to the twelfth to thirteenth centuries. it is assumed that the spread of the black rat in the european part of russia in the middle ages was associated first of all with the development of trade.201121509989
[artyfechinostomum sufratyfex lane, 1915 (trematoda:echinostomatidae), a parasite of mammals in southern vietnam].trematoda artyfechinostomumn sufratyfex lane, 1915 was found in different mammal species of southern vietnam. original measurements of this species from domestic pig, black rat, and asian palm civet are given.201121598669
detection of rickettsia felis and rickettsia typhi and seasonal prevalence of fleas collected from small mammals at gyeonggi province in the republic of korea.abstract fleas were collected from live-captured small mammals to identify flea-borne pathogens, host associations, and seasonal prevalence of flea species, as part of the 65th medical brigade rodent-borne disease surveillance program at 20 military installations and training sites, gyeonggi province, republic of korea, 2005-2007. a total of 1251 fleas were recovered from 2833 small mammals. apodemus agrarius, the striped field mouse, accounted for 93.1% (2,637/2,833) of all small mammals captur ...201121612536
chromosomal polymorphism of rattus rattus (linnaeus, 1758) (rodentia: muridae) in central anatolia.in this study, conventionally stained, c- and ag-nor banded karyotypes of rattus rattus from central anatolia are presented. the karyotype of the specimens from ankara and (cankiri provinces consist of 2n = 38, nf = 60 and nfa = 58 while the karyotype of kirikkale specimens consist of 2n = 38 and nfa = 59 due to a heteromorphic autosome pair. the x is a large to medium sized acrocentric and the y chromosome is a small acrocentric in all examined specimens. constitutive heterochromatin is located ...201121614964
efficacy of rodenticide baits for the control of three invasive rodent species in hawaii.we tested the efficacy and palatability of nine commercial rodenticide bait formulations on polynesian rats (rattus exulans), roof rats (r. rattus), and house mice (mus musculus). efficacy varied by rodenticide tested and rodent species. generally, rodenticides were more effective against mice than for either of the rat species, and mice tended to consume more rodenticide bait than the laboratory chow alternative food. efficacy was generally highest for the second-generation anticoagulants teste ...201120552335
aflp genome scan in the black rat (rattus rattus) from madagascar: detecting genetic markers undergoing plague-mediated selection.the black rat (rattus rattus) is the main reservoir of plague (yersinia pestis infection) in madagascar's rural zones. black rats are highly resistant to plague within the plague focus (central highland), whereas they are susceptible where the disease is absent (low altitude zone). to better understand plague wildlife circulation and host evolution in response to a highly virulent pathogen, we attempted to determine genetic markers associated with plague resistance in this species. to this purpo ...201120444082
detection of enzootic plague foci in peninsular india.a continuous serological and bacteriological surveillance in rodents was carried out in peninsular india i.e. andhra pradesh, karnataka and tamil nadu to detect the role of different species of rodents in the maintenance of active enzootic plague foci. live rodents were collected from wild and ruderal/peri-domestic situations by digging and trapping for sera and organ samples. during 1989 to 2007 serological evidence of plague was detected in different species of rodents in peninsular india. pla ...201123781629
feed-through insecticides for the control of the sand fly phlebotomus argentipes.three rodent feed-through studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides to control phlebotomus argentipes (diptera: psychodidae). the initial test evaluated diflubenzuron, eprinomectin, fipronil and ivermectin as feed-through treatments in rattus rattus (rodentia: muridae). in the preliminary trial, all four insecticides yielded 100% mortality of p. argentipes larvae within 20 days of exposure to treated rodent faeces. based upon the initial results, fipronil was evaluated furt ...201223278322
establishment of a molecular tool for blood meal identification in malaysia.to establish a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique based on cytochrome b (cytb) gene of mitochondria dna (mtdna) for blood meal identification.201223569902
similarities in leptospira serogroup and species distribution in animals and humans in the indian ocean island of mayotte.our objective was to identify local animal reservoirs of leptospirosis to explain the unusual features of leptospira strains recently described among patients on the island of mayotte. by means of a microscopic agglutination test using local clinical isolates, we found that 11.2% of black rats were seropositive to leptospira, whereas 10.2% of flying foxes, 2% of lemurs, 93.1% of domestic dogs, and 87.5% of stray dogs were seropositive. as observed in humans, mini was the main serogroup circulati ...201222764304
novel murine norovirus-like genes in wild rodents in japan.novel murine norovirus (mnv)-like sequences were detected in 7 (14.9%) of 47 fecal and intestinal samples obtained from wild rodents in japan. sequencing and genetic analyses of the 7 mnv-like genes, 6 derived from apodemus speciosus and 1 from rattus rattus, suggested that these sequences form a cluster distinct from known mnv within genogroup v and differed even among clusters of wild rodents. considering these results, mnv might be genetically diverse depending on the host species or distribu ...201222673564
multiple cryptosporidium genotypes detected in wild black rats (rattus rattus) from northern australia.as part of a broader investigation into the potential role of black rats (rattus rattus) as disease vectors into native small mammal populations of northern australia, blood and faecal samples from wild black rats were screened by molecular methods, for piroplasms (babesia and theileria), trypanosomes and the enteric parasite cryptosporidium. while piroplasms and trypanosomes were not detected in the blood of these animals, the overall prevalence of cryptosporidium 18s rdna in faecal samples was ...201222659228
evolution of nesting height in an endangered hawaiian forest bird in response to a non-native predator.the majority of bird extinctions since 1800 have occurred on islands, and non-native predators have been the greatest threat to the persistence of island birds. island endemic species often lack life-history traits and behaviors that reduce the probability of predation and they can become evolutionarily trapped if they are unable to adapt, but few studies have examined the ability of island species to respond to novel predators. the greatest threat to the persistence of the oahu elepaio (chasiem ...201222830652
the role of wild mammals in the maintenance of rift valley fever virus.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting primarily domestic ruminants and humans. numerous vector species are known or implicated in the transmission of rvfv. the role of mammals in the maintenance of rvfv, and the existence of a wild mammal reservoir in the epidemiologic cycle of rvfv, remain largely unknown. our objective is to present a detailed review of studies undertaken on rvfv, often associated with wild mammals, with the aim of focusing future research on potenti ...201222493102
a new chronotype of schistosoma mansoni: adaptive significance.to optimise host-to-host transmission, digenean trematodes (parasites) synchronize their cercarial emission patterns with the aquatic activities of their vertebrate hosts. schistosoma mansoni has a strictly diurnal shedding pattern involving two circadian chronotypes: an early shedding pattern with a mean peak occurring at 11:00 h and a late pattern with a mean peak occurring at 16:00 h. we analysed the cercarial emergence pattern of three schistosome populations from oman where s. mansoni is re ...201222512397
immune responses to plague infection in wild rattus rattus, in madagascar: a role in foci persistence?plague is endemic within the central highlands of madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, rattus rattus. typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. however, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. immunity against plague a ...201222719908
contrasted patterns of selection on mhc-linked microsatellites in natural populations of the malagasy plague reservoir.plague (yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent rodent disease that persists in many natural ecosystems. the black rat (rattus rattus) is the main host involved in the plague focus of the central highlands of madagascar. black rat populations from this area are highly resistant to plague, whereas those from areas in which the disease is absent (low altitude zones of madagascar) are susceptible. various lines of evidence suggest a role for the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) in pla ...201222403713
helminth communities from two urban rat populations in kuala lumpur, malaysia.the prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection.201222397763
prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in kuala lumpur, malaysia.a survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in urban area of kuala lumpur, malaysia. a total of 137 stool and blood samples were collected from wild rats from sentul and chow kit areas. five species of rats were captured and supplied by kuala lumpur city hall. the most common was rattus rattus diardii (malayan black rat), 67%, followed by rattus norvegicus (norway rat), 10%, rattus argentiventer (rice-field rat), 10%, rattus tiomanicus ...201223202599
exploiting olfactory learning in alien rats to protect birds' eggs.predators must ignore unhelpful background "noise" within information-rich environments and focus on useful cues of prey activity to forage efficiently. learning to disregard unrewarding cues should happen quickly, weakening future interest in the cue. prey odor, which is rapidly investigated by predators, may be particularly appropriate for testing whether consistently unrewarded cues are ignored, and whether such behavior can be exploited to benefit prey. using wild free-ranging populations of ...201223071301
bait aggregation to reduce cost and toxin use in aerial 1080 baiting of small mammal pests in new zealand.the metabolic toxin sodium fluoroacetate ('compound 1080') is widely used for controlling introduced mammalian pests in new zealand. for large-scale operations, 1080 is distributed aerially in bait to kill brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula kerr) and ship rats (rattus rattus l.). while usually successful in reducing pest populations by > 80%, widespread distribution of toxic bait is relatively expensive and raises concerns from some members of the public. here, trials with spatial aggregat ...201222615267
invasion facilitates hybridization with introgression in the rattus rattus species complex.biological invasions result in novel species interactions, which can have significant evolutionary impacts on both native and invading taxa. one evolutionary concern with invasions is hybridization among lineages that were previously isolated, but make secondary contact in their invaded range(s). black rats, consisting of several morphologically very similar but genetically distinct taxa that collectively have invaded six continents, are arguably the most successful mammalian invaders on the pla ...201222607228
genetic characterization of okinawan black rats showing coat color polymorphisms of white spotting and melanism.we examined pelage color variation in wild populations of black rats (the rattus rattus species complex) in the yambaru forest area, northern okinawa island, ryukyu archipelago, japan. our field study revealed that 8.7% (38/438) and 0.2% (4/2500) of rats exhibited two types of coat color: white spotting and melanism, respectively. using 34 representative animals, the phylogeography of the population was inferred using a nuclear gene marker, i.e., sequences (954 bp) of the melanocortin-1 receptor ...201222531792
will climate change, genetic and demographic variation or rat predation pose the greatest risk for persistence of an altitudinally distributed island endemic?species endemic to mountains on oceanic islands are subject to a number of existing threats (in particular, invasive species) along with the impacts of a rapidly changing climate. the lord howe island endemic palm hedyscepe canterburyana is restricted to two mountains above 300 m altitude. predation by the introduced black rat (rattus rattus) is known to significantly reduce seedling recruitment. we examined the variation in hedyscepe in terms of genetic variation, morphology, reproductive outpu ...201224832517
a mathematical epidemiological model of gram-negative bartonella bacteria: does differential ectoparasite load fully explain the differences in infection prevalence of rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus?we postulate that the large difference in infection prevalence, 24% versus 5%, in r. norvegicus and r. rattus, respectively, between these two co-occurring host species may be due to differences in ectoparasite and potential vector infestation rates. a compartmental model, representative of an infectious system containing these two rattus species and two ectoparasite vectors, was constructed and the coefficients of the forces of infection determined mathematically. the maximum difference obtaine ...201222873616
xenopsylla spp. (siphonaptera: pulicidae) in murid rodents from the canary islands: an update.the geographical and host distributions of xenopsylla fleas parasitizing murid rodents on the canary islands have been reported. three xenopsylla species, x. cheopis, x. brasiliensis and x. guancha, have been detected on two rodents species, mus musculus and rattus rattus. x. guancha has been the most prevalent species detected, specifically on m. musculus, the most abundant rodent, but it has been detected only on three eastern islands, where the species is endemic. x. cheopis has been shown to ...201223193528
presence of stenoponia tripectinata (tiraboschi, 1902) (siphonaptera, ctenophtalmidae) in murine (rodentia) from the canary islands.this article reports the geographical and host distribution of the flea stenoponia tripectinata on the canary islands. s. tripectinata is widely distributed throughout the mediterranean and north africa as a parasite of muridae rodents. to date, gran canaria is the only island of the archipelago where s. tripectinata had been found. in this report, s. tripectinata has appeared parasitizing 116 specimens of mus musculus out of a total of 660, and only 2 rattus rattus of 215 captured. all the trap ...201222807056
parasite fauna of rodents (murinae) from el hierro (canary islands, spain): a multidisciplinary approach.the parasite fauna (protozoa, helminths and insects) of the two most widespread murinae rodents in el hierro (canary islands, spain), the black rat (rattus rattus) and the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) was studied. faunistic, ecological, ecotoxicological data, as well as information on the biology of some nematode parasites of r. rattus are provided. the present work is unprecedented in the canary islands, and provides the first data on the parasite biodiversity in murinae from the archi ...201222807054
transmission and shedding patterns of salmonella in naturally infected captive wild roof rats (rattus rattus) from a salmonella-contaminated layer farm.rodents play a major role in the transmission and maintenance of salmonella contamination cycles in poultry facilities. however, very limited field data are available regarding the transmission routes, infection cycle, and shedding patterns of salmonella by naturally infected wild rodents from commercial layer farms. in this study, a total of 128 resident wild roof rats (rattus ratus) were captured from a salmonella-contaminated layer facility. all roof rats were divided into 51 laboratory cages ...201222856184
body temperatures of selected amphibian and reptile species.ectothermic vertebrates are a diverse group of animals that rely on external sources to maintain a preferred body temperature. amphibians and reptiles have a preferred optimal temperature zone that allows for optimal biological function. physiologic processes in ectotherms are influenced by temperature; these animals have capabilities in which they make use of behavioral and physiologic mechanisms to thermoregulate. core body, ambient air, body surface, and surface/water temperatures were obtain ...201223082515
seasonal abundance and epidemiological indices of potential plague vectors dinopsyllus lypusus (siphonaptera: hystrichopsyllidae) and ctenophthalmus calceatus (siphonaptera: ctenophthalmidae) on rodents captured from three habitat types of hatcliffe and dzivarasekwa suburbs of harare, zimbabwe.the seasonal abundance of dinopsyllus lypusus jordan and rothschild and ctenophthalmus calceatus waterson (potential vectors of plague in southern africa) were studied on rodent hosts captured in selected habitat types of two periurban suburbs of harare, zimbabwe. removal trapping was used to capture the rodents, from which fleas were collected and identified. prevalence (proportion of animals infested) and specific flea index (sfi = number of fleas per animal) were calculated for each species o ...201223270175
isolation and molecular characterization of leptospira interrogans and leptospira borgpetersenii isolates from the urban rat populations of kuala lumpur, malaysia.rats are considered the principal maintenance hosts of leptospira. the objectives of this study were isolation and identification of leptospira serovars circulating among urban rat populations in kuala lumpur. three hundred urban rats (73% rattus rattus and 27% r. norvegicus) from three different sites were trapped. twenty cultures were positive for leptospira using dark-field microscopy. r. rattus was the dominant carrier (70%). polymerase chain reaction (pcr) confirmed that all isolates were p ...201323358635
leptospirosis risk increases with changes in species composition of rat populations.rats are major reservoirs of leptospirosis and considered as a main threat to biodiversity. a recent introduction of rattus rattus to the island of futuna (western polynesia) provided the opportunity to test if a possible change in species composition of rat populations would increase the risk of leptospirosis to humans. we trapped rodents on wallis and futuna and assessed leptospira carriage in 357 rodents (rattus norvegicus, r. rattus, rattus exulans, and mus domesticus) from 2008 to 2012. whi ...201323535996
cross-sectional study of leptospira seroprevalence in humans, rats, mice, and dogs in a main tropical sea-port city.samples were collected from 128 symptomatic humans, 83 dogs, 49 mice, and 20 rats (rattus rattus: 16; rattus norvegicus: 4) in neighborhoods where human leptospirosis have been reported within the principal sea-port city of colombia. seroprevalences were assessed against 19 pathogenic, 1 intermediate pathogenic, and 1 saprophytic leptospira serogroups. pathogenic leptospira were confirmed using conventional leptospira-specific polymerase chain-reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analys ...201323149584
[study of the therapeutic activity of nocodazole on experimental models of larval alveococcosis].the therapeutic activity of parenteral nocodazole was studied on four larval alveococcosis models: golden hamsters (mesocricetus auratus), djungarian hamsters (phodopus sungorus campbelli thomas), albino rats (rattus rattus albus), and cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus) at the late stage of e. multilocularis invasion. the agent (aqueous suspension) was intraperitoneally, intramuscularly, and subcutaneously injected in daily doses of 0.125-0.5 g/kg as 1-8 injections. mebendazole was the drug of comp ...201324003517
development of eimeria nieschulzi (coccidia, apicomplexa) gamonts and oocysts in primary fetal rat cells.the in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some eimeria species. for several mammalian eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. this study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the bla ...201323862053
cytonuclear discordance among southeast asian black rats (rattus rattus complex).black rats are major invasive vertebrate pests with severe ecological, economic and health impacts. remarkably, their evolutionary history has received little attention, and there is no firm agreement on how many species should be recognized within the black rat complex. this species complex is native to india and southeast asia. according to current taxonomic classification, there are three taxa living in sympatry in several parts of thailand, cambodia and lao people's democratic republic, wher ...201323278980
improving pcr detection of prey in molecular diet studies: importance of group-specific primer set selection and extraction protocol performances.while the morphological identification of prey remains in predators' faeces is the most commonly used method to study trophic interactions, many studies indicate that this method does not detect all consumed prey. polymerase chain reaction-based methods are increasingly used to detect prey dna in the predator food bolus and have proven efficient, delivering highly accurate results. when studying complex diet samples, the extraction of total dna is a critical step, as polymerase chain reaction (p ...201323134438
perfluoroalkyl substances in the blood of wild rats and mice from 47 prefectures in japan: use of samples from nationwide specimen bank.numerous studies have reported on the global distribution, persistence, fate, and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (pfass). however, studies on pfass in terrestrial mammals are scarce. rats can be good sentinels of human exposure to toxicants because of their habitat, which is in close proximity to humans. furthermore, exposure data measured for rats can be directly applied for risk assessment because many toxicological studies use rodent models. in this study, a nationw ...201323494483
evolutionary history of rat-borne bartonella: the importance of commensal rats in the dissemination of bacterial infections globally.emerging pathogens that originate from invasive species have caused numerous significant epidemics. some bacteria of genus bartonella are rodent-borne pathogens that can cause disease in humans and animals alike. we analyzed glta sequences of 191 strains of rat-associated bartonellae from 29 rodent species from 17 countries to test the hypotheses that this bacterial complex evolved and diversified in southeast asia before being disseminated by commensal rats rattus rattus (black rat) and rattus ...201324223261
accumulation and biological effects of metals in wild rats in mining areas of zambia.the lead-zinc (pb-zn) mine in kabwe city and the copper-cobalt (cu-co) mine in the copperbelt province are major mining areas in zambia. to examine the effects of metal pollution on wildlife, wild black rats (rattus rattus and rattus tanezumi) were captured in kabwe and chingola (in the copperbelt province), and in lusaka (a noncontaminated site). wild black rats in kabwe accumulated significantly higher concentrations of pb and cd in various organs than rats from lusaka. in chingola, significan ...201323054276
effects of spatially extensive control of invasive rats on abundance of native invertebrates in mainland new zealand forests.predation on native fauna by non-native invasive mammals is widely documented, but effects of predation at the population level are rarely measured. eradication of invasive mammals from islands has led to recovery of native biota, but the benefits of controlling invasive mammal populations in settings where eradication is not feasible are less understood. we used various combinations of aerially delivered toxic bait and control measures on the ground to reduce abundances of invasive rats (rattus ...201323020670
isotopic niche mirrors trophic niche in a vertebrate island invader.caution for the indiscriminate conversion of the isotopic niche into ecologic niche was recently advised. we tested the utility of the isotopic niche to answer ecological questions on oceanic islands. we compared the isotopic niches of black rats (rattus rattus) on two islands in the gulf of california, mexico: farrallón de san ignacio (fsi) and san pedro mártir (spm). both islands maintained several species of marine birds, but fsi is devoid of terrestrial vegetation and spm has several species ...201322886039
assessing spatial variation and overall density of aerially broadcast toxic bait during a rat eradication on palmyra atoll.baits containing brodifacoum rodenticide were aerially applied to eradicate invasive black rats from palmyra atoll, an important biodiversity center. bait application must be sufficient to be effective, while minimizing environmental hazards by not exceeding designated label rates, prompting our bait density assessments for two aerial drops. with few physical or human resources on this remote, uninhabited atoll, assessments were particularly challenging, requiring observations within 30 min of a ...201322773308
differential population responses of native and alien rodents to an invasive predator, habitat alteration and plant masting.invasive species and anthropogenic habitat alteration are major drivers of biodiversity loss. when multiple invasive species occupy different trophic levels, removing an invasive predator might cause unexpected outcomes owing to complex interactions among native and non-native prey. moreover, external factors such as habitat alteration and resource availability can affect such dynamics. we hypothesized that native and non-native prey respond differently to an invasive predator, habitat alteratio ...201324197409
rats and seabirds: effects of egg size on predation risk and the potential of conditioned taste aversion as a mitigation method.seabirds nesting on islands are threatened by invasive rodents, such as mice and rats, which may attack eggs, chicks and even adults. the low feasibility of rat eradications on many islands makes the development of alternate control plans necessary. we used a combination of field experiments on a mediterranean island invaded by black rats (rattusrattus) to evaluate (1) the predation risk posed to different-sized seabird eggs and (2), the potential of two deterrent methods (electronic and chemica ...201324058712
potential of triptolide in reproductive management of the house rat, rattus rattus.mature and healthy male house rats, rattus rattus (n= 160) were fed on bait (cracked wheat: powdered sugar, 98:2) containing different concentrations of triptolide (0.1, 0.05, 0.025 and 0%) for 7 and 14 days in no-choice and bi-choice feeding tests in the laboratory. the objective of the study was to record the antifertility affects of triptolide after 30 and 60 days of termination of treatment. results revealed no significant effect of triptolide treatment on weights of testis, epididymis, semi ...201324020465
efficiency of barley bran and oat bran in ameliorating blood lipid profile and the adverse histological changes in hypercholesterolemic male rats.the efficiency of oat bran and barley bran in lowering the induced hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in blood of male albino rats (rattus rattus) was studied. twenty rats were divided into four groups each consisted of five rats and fed the specified test diets for eight weeks. the first group (g1) is the negative group which was fed basal diet, the second group (g2) was fed 1.0% cholesterol, was the third group (g3) fed 1.0% cholesterol and 10% oats bran, and the fourth group (g4) was fed ...201323984330
urinary lipocalin protein in a female rodent with correlation to phases in the estrous cycle: an experimental study accompanied by in silico analysis.male urinary lipocalin family proteins, practically odorant-binding proteins but also could be pheromones by themselves, in rodents act as a shuttle for chemosignal communication and facilitate delivery of the signals for access to congeners. however, presence of this protein in urine of female rodents has not yet been reported. therefore, the present investigation was carried out to find if lipocalin family protein is present in the urine of female house rat and, if so, to find whether its expr ...201323967199
odour cues influence predation risk at artificial bat roosts in urban bushland.odours that accumulate from roosting can attract predators and increase predation risk. consequently, selection should favour strategies that allow prey to evade detection by predators, including changing roosts. insectivorous bats that roost in tree hollows regularly switch roosts and roost in different sized groups, strategies that would alter the accumulation of roost odours and are hypothesized to reduce predation risk. we experimentally manipulated the amount and refresh rate of roosting od ...201323637390
preservation of rna and dna from mammal samples under field conditions.ecological and conservation genetics require sampling of organisms in the wild. appropriate preservation of the collected samples, usually by cryostorage, is key to the quality of the genetic data obtained. nevertheless, cryopreservation in the field to ensure rna and dna stability is not always possible. we compared several nucleic acid preservation solutions appropriate for field sampling and tested them on rat (rattus rattus) blood, ear and tail tip, liver, brain and muscle. we compared the e ...201323617785
analysis of gamasid mites (acari: mesostigmata) associated with the asian house rat, rattus tanezumi (rodentia: muridae) in yunnan province, southwest china.during a survey lasting from 1990 to 2008, we captured 4,113 asian house rats, rattus tanezumi temminck 1844 (rodentia: muridae) from 28 counties of yunnan province in southwestern china. from these rats, a total of 19,304 gamasid mites (acari: mesostigmata) were collected and identified as comprising 50 different species. the species diversity of gamasid mites from this single rat species is higher than that reported previously from multiple hosts within a given geographical region. of the 50 m ...201323471780
anthropogenic subsidies mitigate environmental variability for insular rodents.the exogenous input of nutrients and energy into island systems fuels a large array of consumers and drives bottom-up trophic cascades in island communities. the input of anthropogenic resources has increased on islands and particularly supplemented non-native consumers with extra resources. we test the hypothesis that the anthropogenic establishments of super-abundant gulls and invasive iceplants carpobrotus spp. have both altered the dynamics of an introduced black rat rattus rattus population ...201323223862
influence of risk factors on renal leptospiral load in naturally infected wild black rats.in 2009, a survey was conducted in reunion island to determine the renal leptospiral load in black rats trapped in the field. the concentration of leptospires in kidney tissue was calculated using qpcr. our results showed high inter-individual variations of renal bacterial load in naturally infected black rats (mean=8.27 ± 4.72 log-genome copies per mg kidney tissue). the objective of this study was to model the renal leptospiral load in 50 naturally infected black rats as a function of sex, age ...201323220230
invasion genetics of the introduced black rat (rattus rattus) in senegal, west africa.an understanding of the evolutionary history and dynamics of invasive species is required for the construction of predictive models of future spread and the design of biological management measures. the black rat (rattus rattus) is a major vertebrate invader with a worldwide distribution. despite the severe ecological, economic and health impacts of this species, its evolutionary history has been little studied. we carried out extensive specimen sampling in senegal, west africa, and used microsa ...201323206272
calodium hepaticum (nematoda: capillariidae) in synanthropic rodents (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) in eastern amazonia.calodium hepaticum (syn. capillaria hepatica) is a trichurid nematode that parasitizes the hepatic parenchyma of rodents and other mammals. infections in humans are rare, although they have been reported worldwide. a number of factors contribute to the distribution of this zoonosis, particularly the presence of dense populations of rodents associated with relatively poor urban environments, such as those found in parts of the northern brazilian city of belém in the eastern amazon basin. this stu ...201323856730
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