PMID(sorted descending)
plague, a reemerging disease in madagascar.human cases of plague, which had virtually disappeared in madagascar after the 1930s, reappeared in 1990 with more than 200 confirmed or presumptive cases reported each year since. in the port of mahajanga, plague has been reintroduced, and epidemics occur every year. in antananarivo, the capital, the number of new cases has increased, and many rodents are infected with yersinia pestis. despite surveillance for the sensitivity of y. pestis and fleas to drugs and insecticides and control measures ...19989452403
studies on animal schistosomes in peninsular malaysia: record of naturally infected animals and additional hosts of schistosoma spindale.surveillance studies on cercarial dermatitis were carried out in paddy growing areas in peninsular malaysia. it was observed that dermatitis in paddy planters occurred in paddy fields which were cultivated using animals such as bafflos or fields where domestic animals were allowed to graze during the off planting season as these animals harbored the parasite. the causative agent of cercarial dermatitis was schistosoma spindale. a total of 215 small mammals trapped from alor setar and 126 trapped ...19979444010
vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. iv. electrophoretic studies on proteins of four vertebrate bloods with and without leishmania infantum or l. major.fifty five protein bands with relative mobilities of 8,954 to 245,471 kilo daltons (kd) were electrophoretically separated from 12 feeding media of blood from 4 natural vertebrate hosts of phlebotomus langeroni. the feeding media included human, dog (canis familiaris), rat (rattus rattus) and turkey (melagris gallopava) bloods without or with leishmania infantum or l. major promastigotes. protein bands were identical among the feeding media of one host's blood but varied in number (24-28 bands) ...19979425823
vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. iii. impact of blood meal from natural vertebrate hosts on the survival and the development of leishmania infantum and l. major in phlebotomus langeroni (diptera: psychodidae).phlebotomus langeroni collected from a leishmaniasis endemic focus at et agamy, alexandria, egypt, were found to have fed on blood from man, dogs (canis familiaris) and rats (rattus rattus). the effect of the kind of blood meal on the development and the life-cycle of l. infantum and l. major in laboratory reared p. langeroni was therefore investigated. a membrane feeding technique was used to infect sand flies. gut smears of infected females were examined immediately after feeding and daily for ...19979425822
vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. ii. influence of blood meal from natural vertebrate hosts with and without leishmania infantum and l. major on the proteolytic activity in the gut of phlebotomus langeroni (diptera: psychodidae).proteolytic activity in the gut of phlebotomus langeroni (nitzulescu) was studied at four subsequent 24 hours intervals post feeding on human, dog (canis familiaris), rat (rattus rattus) and turkey (melagris gallopava) bloods with and without leishmania infantum or l. major promastigotes. the gut proteolytic activity increased gradually after feeding to reach a maximum at 48 hours post feeding on any of the 12 studied blood meals. in all cases, the activity declined after 48 hours and almost ter ...19979425810
vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. i. the effect of leishmania parasites on rate of digestion of blood proteins from various vertebrate hosts by the sand fly phlebotomus langeroni (diptera: psychodidae).protein digestion in the gut of phlebotomus langeroni (nitzulescu) was studied at four subsequent 24 hour intervals post feeding on human, dog (canis familiaris), rat (rattus rattus) and turkey (melagris gallopava) bloods with and without leishmania infantum or l. major promastigotes. most of the proteins of the studied blood meals were digested within 96 hours. the percent of blood proteins digested in the first 48 hours was higher than in the second 48 hours in all cases of the studied blood m ...19979425809
new record of nosopsyllus (nosopsyllus) barbarus (jordan and rothschild, 1912) (aphaniptera: dolichopsyllidae) from sicily. morphology at scanning electron microscopy of n. (n.) barbarus and n. (n.) fasciatus (bosc d'antic, 1800).nosopsyllus (n.) fasciatus, species or complex cosmopolitan and very polymorphic, is established in most of italian regions, in association with murine rodents, especially domestic species. n. (n.) barbarus, similar to n. fasciatus in modified segments of the male and perhaps in ecology, is presently known from north africa regions and a few mediterranean islands; in italy it is reported from sardinia and egadi islands. in this note the n. barbarus presence in sicily (palermo) and the contempora ...19979419843
natural schistosoma mansoni infection in wild rats from guadeloupe: parasitological and immunological aspects.rattus rattus is the predominant rodent in the mangrove area of guadeloupe. between 1990 and 1991 we found 73 r. rattus and five r. norvegicus. among the infected rats with schistosoma mansoni, 59% for r. rattus and 80% for r. norvegicus, the comparison of the median of the worm load was not statistically different. both species of infected rats showed adult worms and eggs in the lungs and 20% of them showed, at the same time, two and even three generations of worms. neither adults nor eggs were ...19979351999
[research on three parasitic infestations in rats captured in marseille: evaluation of the zoonotic risk].a cross sectional survey was carried out on a population of 82 rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus alexandrinus) trapped in marseille. the main histopathological finding was the presence of adults or eggs of capillaria hepatica in 44% of the animals. 21% were found with fleas (xenopsylla cheopis). there was no evidence of trichinosis in any of the rats examined. hepatic capillariasis is a zoonosis seldom described in human beings. about 30 human cases have been reported in the world. human ...19979312363
role of small mammals in the ecology of borrelia burgdorferi in a peri-urban park in north coastal california.the role of small mammals other than woodrats in the enzootiology of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgorferi, was assessed in the peri-urban park. mammals were collected monthly from september through to april. following tick removal, the animals were tested for b. burgdorferi by culture of ear-punch biopsies. larvae and nymphs that were intermediate in morphology between ixodes spinipalpis and ixodes neotomae occurred on several species of rodents (peromyscus truei, peromyscus californ ...19979291589
first epidemiological data on pathogenic leptospires isolated on the azorean islands.insectivores (erinaceus europaeus) and rodents (rattus rattus, r. norvegicus and mus musculus) from different islands of the azores archipelago were found to carry three distinct leptospira interrogans s.l. serovars (copenhageni, icterohaemorrhagiae and ballum) which have never been previously investigated there. the house mouse and the black rat were the major leptospira reservoirs showing isolation rates ranging from 0% for both species (in graciosa) to 88% and 33%, respectively (in sãao migue ...19979258550
competence of urban rats as reservoir hosts for lyme disease determine whether urban rats serve efficiently as reservoir hosts for the agent of lyme disease, we recorded the frequency of infection in nymphal ixodes ricinus (l.) ticks that had fed as larvae on experimentally infected norway rats, rattus norvegicus (berkenhout), or on black rats, r. rattus (l.), and evaluated the nidicolous venue of transmission. subadult vector ticks attached readily to norway rats as well as black rats and virtually all became infected in the course of feeding. larval ...19979220684
infection by trypanosoma cruzi in mammals in yucatan, mexico: a serological and parasitological order to determine trypanosoma cruzi infection among mammals in yucatan, mexico, 372 animals, both wild and synanthropic including carnivores, marsupials and rodents were studied. serological studies by indirect haemagglutination (iha) were carried out to detect antibodies to t. cruzi and a parasitological study was also performed (blood smear and histopathology). of all the animals tested 18.54% were serologically positive, with a significantly higher frequency among the wild ones (33.33%) c ...19969216111
a new species of leptotrombidium (acari:trombiculidae) collected in active rice fields in northern thailand.leptotrombidium (leptotrombidium) chiangraiensis tanskul & linthicum is described and illustrated as new from specimens collected from the rodents rattus rattus (l., 1758), rattus argentiventer (robinson & kloss, 1916), rattus losea (swinhoe, 1870), and bandicota indica (bechstein, 1800) in chiangrai province northern thailand. the new species was collected in active rice fields and adjacent fruit plantation areas. the etiological agent of scrub typhus, orientia (formerly rickettsia) tsutsugamus ...19979151504
expression profiles of rt6 and other t lymphocyte surface markers in the black rat (rattus rattus). 19979142236
levels of chromosomal damage in hepatocytes of wild rats living within the area of a waste disposal plant.genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation or chemical mutagens/carcinogens has been shown to persist over periods of months in rat hepatocytes, implying that continual exposure to low levels of mutagens will cause an accumulation of damage. thus, it was assumed that hepatocytes of wild rats could be useful as 'biological indicators' for the exposure to mutagens/carcinogens in the environment. to test for this hypothesis house rats (rattus rattus) were trapped at a waste disposal site and the ...19979129332
physical mapping and structural analysis of new gene families rt1.s and rps2r in the grc region of the rat major histocompatibility complex.five new genes were identified in the growth and reproduction complex (grc) region: rt1.s1, rt1.s2, rps2r1, rps2r2, and rps2r3. the class ib rt1.s1 and rt1.s2 genes have five distinct exons (1, 4, 5, 6, 7) similar to other class i major histocompatibility complex genes but the conventional exons 2 and 3 are absent. the genes are 97% similar, have caat and tata boxes much upstream of the conventional position, obey the gt/ag rule in their exon-intron boundaries, and are transcribed at a low level ...19979089092
note on the occurrence of trypanosoma (herpetosoma) sp. in rattus rattus in beed district, maharashtra. 19969057455
quantitative assessment of changes and maturation of mast cells in the ovary of postnatal and adult rats, rattus rattus.numerical changes in the distribution of immature mast cells in the different ovarian compartments of the immature and adult ovary of rats rattus rattus have been studied using alcian blue-safranine staining method. maturational changes of mast cells from the first day of birth to maturity of animal and during the oestrous cycle have also been determined. immature animals were divided into five groups on the basis of their increasing body weights. all the mast cells in the ovary group of i and i ...19968979508
an investigation of leptospirosis in a laboratory animal house.a study was undertaken to investigate the possible involvement of leptospires in causing infection and persistent deaths among albino mice and wistar rats of a laboratory animal house. the serological study revealed that 79.2% of mice, 90% of wistar rats, 71.4% of guinea pigs and 81.8% of rabbits had leptospiral antibodies to one or more of serogroups. autumnalis predominated in guinea pigs and mice, while javanica predominated in wistar rats. rabbits exhibited equal seroprevalence of autumnalis ...19968973012
seroepidemiology of hantaan virus infection in order to investigate the infection rate of hantaan virus in taiwan, a total of 6,536 human serum samples were collected from residents, selected by stratified random sampling, from 19 townships covering four different ethnic groups: aborigines, fukien taiwanese, hakka taiwanese, and mainland chinese. serum samples were screened for hantaan virus antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. the prototype hantaan virus (76/118)-infected vero e6 cells were used as the viral antigen for the antibod ...19968950687
distribution of schistosome genetic diversity within naturally infected rattus rattus detected by rapd markers.random amplified polymorphic dna markers (rapd) were used to visualize the genetic diversity within and between infrapopulations of schistosoma mansoni recovered from the natural vertebrate host, rattus rattus, trapped at an insular guadeloupean focus. phenotypes were characterized by the sex of the parasites and by 8 polymorphic markers generated by 3 primers. among the 212 parasite individuals recovered from 10 infected rats, 78 genotypes were characterized. all the hosts naturally infected ha ...19968939047
[comparison of 4 microscopy techniques for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in wild rodents in a rural area of valdivia, chile].kidneys of six different species of 93 wild rodents captured in the rural area of valdivia (chile) were simultaneously examined for leptospira infection by means of levaditi silver stain, dark ground microscopy in wet smears, and immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques using pooled antiserum against hardjo and pomona serovars. leptospira was shown to be present in 40 (43.0%) rodents. they were detected in five of the six species: akodon olivaceus, akodon longipilis, rattus rattus, ory ...19958850345
g alpha 9/g alpha 11: immunolocalization in the olfactory epithelium of the rat (rattus rattus) and the channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus).the immunohistochemical localization of g alpha 9/g alpha 11 was studied in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium of two representative vertebrates, the rat and the channel catfish. localization in the rat was found at the apical surface of cells in the epithelium and within nerve tracts in the lamina propria. immunostaining of neuronal cilia and supporting cell microvilli was confirmed by electron microscopy. immunoreactivity on the ipsilateral neuroepithelium was abolished five weeks follow ...19968843091
prevalence of rat fleas in and around delhi (india) area and their susceptibility status to insecticides.a rapid survey in delhi and surrounding areas was undertaken in september 1994, during plague outbreak in district beed (maharashtra) and surat (gujarat) to monitor rodent/flea population and to determine susceptibility status of fleas to insecticides. the five rodent species in order of their prevalence were rattus rattus (86.06%), mus musculus (15.33%), suncus murinus (2.47%), bandicoota indica (0.48%) and b. bengalensis (0.48%). two flea species, xenopsylla cheopis and x. astia, were captured ...19968806038
[prevalence of protozoa infections in synanthropic rodents in valdivia city, chile].in order to determine the prevalence of infection by blood and intestinal protozoa in 57 synanthropic rodents from valdivia city, a study was carried out in the period march-september 1986. the group of rodents studied was constituted by 31 mus musculus, 19 rattus rattus and 7 oryzomys longicaudattus, being 42 males and 15 females. diagnostic forms of protozoa were found in 70.2% of the investigated animals. the presence of five species of enteroprotozoa and one species of hemoflagelate was dete ...19958762669
giardia survey in live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals in four regions in the southwest region of the state of são paulo, brazil.for the first time, a survey on giardia in live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals was performed in four regions of state of the são paulo, brazil, with special attention to the parasitism of rattus rattus rattus by giardia. this species was found infected in all studied sites: botucatu (15.4%), conchas (28.5%), itaporanga (38.7%) and são roque (100%). two new hosts and their frequency of infection were described for giardia in nectomys squamipes, an aquatic rodent and in bolomys lasiurus, ...19958731362
flea ectoparasites of commensal rodents in shebin el kom, menoufia governorate, egypt.rodents population are widely distributed in some egyptian governorates, particularly those in the nile delta. generally speaking, rodents particularly those living in close association with man, play a major role in human health, welfare and economy. besides, their arthropod ectoparasites are important vectors of pathogenic agents as well as they themselves are causative agents of many allergic disorders. no doubt, the increase in rodent population is followed by an increase in many zoonotic di ...19968721227
effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue, environmental temperature and prazosin injection on the rat.effects of an alpha 1 antagonist, prazosin, injection on the rat (rattus rattus) exposed to warm vs normal environments and fed endophyte-infected (e+) or -free (e-) tall fescue seed were studied. rats were injected ip daily with placebo or prazosin (1 mg/kg bw). daily skin and rectal temperatures and food intake measurements were recorded. selected brain tissues were dissected to determine treatment effects on monoamine receptor density. rats fed e+ and injected with placebo had reduced (p < 0. ...19968689528
[clinical, electrocardiographic and angiographic evaluation of natural reservoirs of chagas' disease in the republic of panama].the authors studied two groups of natural animal reservoirs for trypanosoma cruzi: a wild one, the common rat rattus rattus and the house dog, canis canis. thirty one naturally infected rats were evaluated with a technique developed by the authors which allows the recording of the ecg and the performance of a ventricular angiogram without altering the functional capacity of the animal. forty four dogs were followed clinically for a period of twenty years to study the development of the cardiac l ...19958668820
sarcocystis singaporensis: studies on host specificity, pathogenicity, and potential use as a biocontrol agent of wild specificity and pathogenicity of sarcocystis singaporensis were investigated as a prerequisite to a subsequent application of the parasite as a biocontrol agent of wild rats in egypt. after inoculation of 7 snake species comprising the families elapidae, viperidae, colubridae, and boidae with sarcocysts, sporocyst development was only observed in a reticulated python. among amphibians, reptiles, and rodents that orally received various sporocyst doses in the laboratory, 2 x 10(4) sporocysts ...19968604097
yersinia pseudotuberculosis in china.thirty strains of yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated from rabbits (17 strains), wild rats (9 strains) and house rats (4 strains) in china between 1990 and 1993. the biochemical properties of these isolates were identical with those of y. pseudotuberculosis and no special characteristics were found in these strains. serologically, serogroups 4b and 5b were identical to isolates found in japan, and a new serogroup 1c and unclassified strains have also been detected. the existence of virulen ...19958577274
isolation and identification of mycoplasma strains from various species of wild rodents.attempts were made to isolate mycoplasmas from respiratory and urogenital tracts of 35 apparently healthy wild rodents comprising 7 species under 4 genera. mycoplasmas were isolated from nasal and oral cavities, tracheas, vaginas and penises of the wild rats: ricefield rats (rattus argentiventer), roof rats (r. rattus) and polynesian rats (r. exulans), but none was isolated from brown rats (r. norvegicus), house mice (mus musculus), smithi's voles (eothenomys smithi) and soft-furred field rats ( ...19938513017
experimental host-induced selection in schistosoma mansoni strains from guadeloupe and comparison with natural observations.allelic frequency variation at the malate dehydrogenase (e.c. polymorphic locus (mdh-1) was analysed during several successive generations in four strains of schistosoma mansoni from guadeloupe, maintained experimentally on mice. a rapid evolution of the frequency of the mdh-1a allele is interpreted as being the result of an interaction between experimental drift and selection induced by the murine laboratory host. these experimental results are compared to the genetic structures observ ...19938432659
studies on commensal rodents in riyadh city, saudi arabia.a trapping survey in riyadh revealed that the abundant commensal rodent species were rattus rattus frugivorous (43%), r.r. alexandrinus (18%), r.r. rattus (14%), r.r. flaviventris (12%), rattus norvegicus (9%), mus musculus praetetus (3%) and mus m. gentilulus (1%). r.r. frugivorous was the predominant species in all the nine selected areas. the male: female ratio was 0.4: 0.6 for both r. norvegicus and r. rattus. in both r. norvegicus and r. rattus, the mature rats outnumbered the immature ones ...19938376873
larval occurrence of hydatigera taeniaeformis batsch (1786) (cestoda: taeniidae) in the liver of wild rodents in egypt.hydatigera taeniaeformis batsch (1786) was found in the liver of six species of egyptian wild rodents. wanas et al., (1990) found the total incidence of this larval stage to be 20.0% among cestode infection. it was found in (40.9%) rattus norvegicus; (33.3%) gerbillus gerbillus; (26.8%) rattus rattus; (25.0%) mus musculus; (16.6%) acomys cahirinus; and (7.2%) arvicanthis niloticus. the cysts of hydatigera taenioformis was always occupying the marginal surfaces of both right and left lobes and so ...19938376855
natural babesia infection sought in black and norway rats trapped in five egyptian governorates.babesiosis is a protozoal disease caused by members of the genus babesia transmitted by the ixodid ticks. it is a parasite of various mammalian hosts as bovine (b. bovis), equine (b. equi), rodent (b. microti), canine (b. canis) and others. human cases of babesiosis have been reported from several countries including egypt. it is now well established that man may become infected (fulminating or subclinical) with several species of babesia without prior splenectomy. in this paper, a total of 398 ...19938376851
calcium-binding protein-containing neuronal populations in mammalian visual cortex: a comparative study in whales, insectivores, bats, rodents, and primates.this study is focused on comparative analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid-positive (gabaergic) neuronal populations in primary visual cortex of totally aquatic toothed whales and select terrestrial mammals with different evolutionary histories and various ecological adaptations. the distribution of neuronal populations containing the calcium-binding proteins calbindin and parvalbumin, which are recognized markers for the gabaergic neurons in cerebral cortex, is compared in five species of toothed ...19938324371
studies on the ectoparasites (fleas and lice) on rodents in riyadh and its surroundings, saudi arabia.a survey was conducted on rodents from the riyadh city and surroundings. two species of fleas, xenopsylla cheopis and ctenocephalides felis felis together with polyplax spinulosa were collected. the highest infestation rate by both fleas occurred on rattus rattus followed by rattus norvegicus and mus musculus. females of r. rattus and r. norvegicus were more infested by fleas than males. on the other hand, meriones spp., gerbillus spp., jaculus jaculus and acomys dimidiatus were infested with x. ...19938308348
studies on the interrelation between rodents and their ectoparasitic acarines in riyadh region, saudi arabia.the ectoparasitic acarines of commensal and wild rodents collected from various areas in riyadh region were four species of mites (laelaps nutalli, ornythonyssus bacoti, cheyletus eruditus and articholaelaps glasgowi), and two species of ticks. (immature stages) rhipicephalus spp. and hyalomma spp. in urban areas the highest infestation rate by mites was 49.9% on rattus rattus followed by 18.5% on rattus norvegicus. the highest rat-mite index was 2.3 on r. rattus followed by 1.3 on r. norvegicus ...19938308342
leptospirosis serology in korean wild animals.a study was undertaken on wild animals to determine the seroprevalence of animal leptospirosis in korea. using the serum microagglutination test for 19 serogroups, it was shown that two of 26 rats (rattus rattus) had antibodies to leptospira canicola. when data for domestic animals were included, the most prevalent (nearly 50%) serogroup was leptospira canicola.19938258863
feeding behavior and an oropharyngeal component of satiety in a two-headed snake.we studied the feeding behavior of a dicephalous black rat snake (elaphe o. obsoleta) whose heads attack and ingest prey independently. both heads were given satiation feedings with mouse prey at either 5-day intervals (1989, n = 16 feedings) or 9-11 day intervals (1990, n = 4 feedings). in 1989, a meal pattern was manifested as a negative correlation between total (left + right) meal size (g) and total size of the last meal. meal sizes of the heads were consistently different (l > r) despite th ...19938248341
didelphis marsupialis, an important reservoir of trypanosoma (schizotrypanum) cruzi and leishmania (leishmania) chagasi in colombia.the role of didelphis marsupialis as a reservoir of zoonotic hemoflagellates was examined in two ecologically distinct settings in colombia. while 72% (12 of 18) of the opossums collected in the tropical rain forest harbored trypanosoma cruzi, other mammals in the area had lower infection rates: 1.3% (proechymis semispinosus [spiny rat]; 13% tylomys mirae [climbing rat]; and 6% rattus rattus). trypanosoma cruzi isolates from d. marsupialis were similar to zymodeme 1 (z1), and two of four phenoty ...19948203703
apical cochlear nerve exposed to perilymph in the gerbil and rat.there is considerable controversy regarding the origin and composition of perilymph in the scala vestibuli and scala tympani and the barriers and transport mechanisms between them. to elucidate the anatomical separation between perilymph and the extracellular fluid which surrounds the cochlear nerve in mongolian gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) and sprague dawley rats (rattus rattus) we examined the modiolus, osseous spiral lamina and the bone of the perilymphatic scalae using light and electron ...19948188549
follicular growth patterns in the house rat (rattus rattus).a histomorphometrical study has been made of the ovarian follicles in the house rat (rattus rattus) during estrous cycle, pregnancy and after treatment with fsh, lh and estrogen. the relationships between oocyte and follicle, oocyte nucleus and follicle, oocyte nucleus and oocyte have been analysed statistically. the logarithmic transformation of data on these components of the ovary yielded as regression: log y = a+b log x parabolic form in the control,. pregnant, fsh and estrogen treated group ...19938172756
babesia infection in rodents trapped in riyadh region, saudi arabia, with a general discussion.species of babesia are intraerythrocytic protozoal parasites of many species of mammalians in all parts of the world where the tick-vectors are found. babesiosis or piroplasmosis causes considerable damage to the livestock and other animals. human babesiosis has been documented in many countries. consequently, babesiosis is a zoonotic disease of medical, veterinary and economic importance. in this study, a total of 310 rodents of different species were trapped from different areas in riyadh regi ...19948169440
the identity of leishmania isolated from sand flies and vertebrate hosts in a major focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in baturite, northeastern brazil.during a field investigation carried out in baturite, brazil from 1989 to 1991, sand flies, sympatric rodents, domestic dogs and humans were surveyed for leishmaniasis. twenty strains of leishmania were isolated by in vitro culture from lutzomyia whitmani, three strains were obtained from rattus rattus, two strains from dogs, and five strains from humans. the isolates were characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis by hybridization with kinetoplast dna-specific probes. all the samples were ident ...19948116807
histamine: its metabolism and localization in mammary gland.1. mammary gland of mouse (mus musculus), rat (rattus rattus), guinea pig (cavia porcellus), cow (bos taurus) and pig (sus scrofa) contains different but always high concentrations of histamine. 2. generally, the tissue histamine is localized in mast cells, although non-mast cell histamine immunoreactivity is also present in mammary glands of the mouse, cow and pig. no histamine immunoreactive nerves could be detected. 3. mammary glands are able to synthesize and inactivate histamine; the activi ...19938103732
mechanism of bicarbonate secretion in rat (rattus rattus) colon.1. colonic hco3 secretion was measured as the residual flux in male sprague-dawley rats (rattus rattus). 2. basal hco3 secretion was increased by 1 mm dibutyryl cyclic amp (dbcamp) and was reduced to baseline by 0.1 mm methazolamide (mtz) but not by sits (1 mm), dids (1 mm) or amiloride (1 mm). 3. in vivo, intravenous vasoactive intestinal peptide increased hco3 secretion and prior perfusion with 1 mm mtz prevented this increase. 4. these results suggest that the source of basal and camp-stimula ...19938099872
adaptation of the small intestine in desert-dwelling animals: morphology, ultrastructure and electrolyte transport in the jejunum of rabbits, rats, gerbils and sand rats.1. the aim of this study was to characterize adaptive alterations of the small intestine in desert-dwelling animals by comparing jejunal morphology, ultrastructure and function in mammalian species with or without desert habitat origins. 2. crypt-villus architecture, brush border surface area, and electrolyte transport were measured and compared in the jejunum of rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus), rats (rattus rattus), gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) and sand rats (psammomys obesus). 3. in additio ...19938099869
[serotyping of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever (ehf) and serotyping and antigen typing of main hosts of ehf in shandong province].serotyping with hemagglutination-inhibition test (hi) on 458 patients with ehf showed that 419 (91.48%) of them belonged to the house-rat type, 33 (7.21%) belonged to the wild-rat type, and 6 (1.31%) were undetermined. the majority (80-100%) of the patients in various regions belonged to the house-rat type. the type of the virus antigen and the type of the antibody of rats were in conformity with the species of rats. these indicate that the epidemic areas of ehf in shandong province are mixed-ty ...19938099309
transmission of the agent of lyme disease on a subtropical determine whether the agent of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) perpetuates on a subtropical island, we recorded prevalence of spirochetal infection in ixodes ricinus ticks collected on madeira island and identified local reservoir hosts of both pathogen and vector tick. spirochetes infect at least 1.3% of the nymphal ticks collected in a particular site. subadult ticks frequently parasitized norway as well as black rats on the island, and lyme disease spirochetes were found in these hosts ...19948066380
some ectoparasites of commensal rodents from huambo, angola.eight species of ectoparasites were collected from 166 commensal rodents, including rattus rattus (l.), rattus norvegicus (berkenhout), and mus musculus (l.), from january to december 1986, in huambo, angola. the oriental rat flea, xenopsylla cheopis (rothschild), was the predominant species with respect to mean intensity and prevalence. other fleas collected were ctenophthalmus (ethioctenophthalmus) machadoi ribeiro, dinopsyllus (dinopsyllus) smiti ribeiro, and echidnophaga gallinacea (westwood ...19947966180
pathology of rickettsia tsutsugamushi infection in bandicota savilei, a natural host in thailand.following rodent surveys in a rice-growing area of central thailand where we found bandicota savilei, b. indica, and rattus rattus infected with rickettsia tsutsugamushi, we performed a study of pathogenesis of r. tsutsugamushi in laboratory-reared b. savilei. eight animals were injected with saline and 19 animals were injected with 4.0 x 10(6) mouse 50% lethal dose units of a strain of r. tsutsugamushi isolated from a human in central thailand. animals were evaluated at intervals for igg and ig ...19947943567
experimental infection of elaphid snakes with cryptosporidium serpentis (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae).the shedding pattern of fecal cryptosporidium serpentis oocysts, histopathologic changes in the gastric region, and the effect of spiramycin treatment were investigated in 6 experimentally infected, captive black rat (elaphe obsoleta obsoleta), 4 yellow rat (elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata), and 2 corn snakes (elaphe guttata guttata). feces were monitored for up to 2 years postinfection (pi). no significant (p > 0.07) differences were observed between expected and observed numbers of pi oocyst-pos ...19947931919
recent evolution of genes encoding the prohormone-like protein smr1 in the rat submandibular gland.the variable coding sequence (vcs) multigene family of rattus norvegicus, is composed of at least 10 members, and shows extensive evolutionary divergence in the protein-coding region. three members of the vcsa subclass, have been characterized: one of them, the vcsa1 gene mainly expressed in the submandibular gland (smg) encodes the prohormone-like protein, smr1-va1. as vcsa-related genes have not been detected in mus musculus, the vcsa genes subclass is presumed to have recently emerged. to stu ...19957865131
[natural murine infestation by angiostrongylus costaricensis morera and cespedes, 1971 in guadeloupe].in 1992, two cases of abdominal angiostrongylosis were reported in young guadeloupean children. with a view to determine the natural infestation rate of guadeloupe rodents (rattus rattus, r. norvegicus) by angiostrongylus costaricensis, 656 rats caught in the country have been examined. both murine species are naturally infested (6.2% in r. rattus and 14.9% in r. norvegicus), which gives a total prevalence of 7.5%. this total prevalence is higher in the tourist area. a complementary investigatio ...19937819811
[plague in zaire].two endemic foci of plague have been discovered in zaïre, the first in the ituri in 1928, the other in north-kivu in 1938. they are situated in the region of the great east-african rift and are adjacent to the ugandan focus, identified in 1877. a strict surveillance of these endemic foci makes it possible to state that, between 1928 and 1959, 632 cases of plague have been diagnosed in the ituri, or 20 a year, and 190 in the n-kivu, or 8 a year. since then several flare ups have been notified. th ...19947801703
mastomys natalensis and tatera gambiana as probable reservoirs of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in nigeria.leishmania sp. was isolated from the livers and spleens of 4 of 56 mastomys natalensis and one of 21 tatera gambiana in keana district, nigeria; none of the rodents had cutaneous lesions. parasites were not found in 42 rattus rattus. experimentally infected mice developed cutaneous lesions characteristic of l. major infection. the organisms could not be cultivated in vitro.19957747299
interaction between acari ectoparasites and rodents in suez governorate, egypt.from the medical point of view, the relation between man and rodents comes in the priority. some rodent populations are wild but others are commensal and live in close association with man. they steal his food and conveying many zoonotic diseases. their arthropod ectoparasites play an important role in conveying or transmitting these zoonotic diseases. several disorders and diseases of man are tick borne relapsing fever, rocky mountain spotted fever, lyme disease, and many others. besides numero ...19957665934
studies on zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis among a group of temporary workers in north sinai governorate, egypt.leishmaniasis (cutaneous, cl. and visceral, vl.) is an increasing public health problem in the mediterranean region. from a practical point of view, zcl is the most important and distributed form in egypt. consequently, it was aimed to study the status of zcl among a group of temporary workers in north sinai governorate. the results showed that (i) rodent populations are more or less common in al arish city (rattus rattus and r. norvegicus), bir lehfan (gerbillus pyramidum) and abo oegela (g. py ...19957602176
a comparative study of three methods of detection of borrelia crocidurae in wild rodents in a rural area in sénégal with a high incidence of tick-borne relapsing fever in humans, borrelia crocidurae was studied in the blood and brain of wild rodents (mastomys erythroleucus, arvicanthis niloticus and rattus rattus) using 3 methods: (i) direct examination of thick blood films; (ii) intraperitoneal inoculation of blood into white mice; (iii) intraperitoneal inoculation of homogenized cerebral tissue into white mice. of the 82 rodents examined, the proportion of infected animals was res ...19947570827
effects of dietary selenium on differentiation, morphology and functions of spermatozoa of the house rat, rattus rattus l.ingestion of 2 ppm and 4 ppm selenium in the diet by the house rat, rattus rattus, for 5 weeks caused a dose-dependent reduction in its body weight, testicular and cauda epididymidis weights, concentration, motility and percentage of live spermatozoa with a simultaneous increase in the percentage of their abnormal forms. compared to 1.39% abnormal spermatozoa in cauda epididymidis in untreated control rats, 3.89% and 24.64% abnormal spermatozoa were observed in rats with 2 ppm and 4 ppm dietary ...19947519730
laboratory trials of seven rodenticides for use against the cotton rat (sigmodon hispidus).the efficacy of seven rodenticides for use against sigmodon hispidus was investigated in the laboratory. the poisons (warfarin, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, brodifacoum, bromadiolone, calciferol and zinc phosphide) were all toxic at the concentrations normally used against rattus rattus and r. norvegicus and all were palatable. trials are now needed to confirm the efficacy of these poisons in the field, but it seems likely that, if used in suitable bait formulations, they would all be useful for t ...19807462594
leishmaniasis in tuscany (italy): (ii) leishmania form wild bodentia and carnivora in a human and canine leishmaniasis focus.from april 1977 to february 1978, wild mammals were trapped in a focus of low leishmanial endemicity (baccinello) in the province of grosseto (tuscany, italy). spleen homogenates of the trapped animals were injected i.p. into hamsters, from which spleen biopsies were taken after 60 days and impression smears carefully observed for the presence of leishmania. positive spleens were subinoculated into hamsters. 404 animals of 12 species were trapped: 31 insectivores, 317 rodents and 56 carnivores. ...19807434419
on the ecology of yersinia enterocolitica o 3. yersinia in synanthropic animals.rats (rattus rattus) and sewer rats (r. norvegicus) trapped outside in piggeries, small mouse-like rodents trapped in human habitations and swine from piggeries and slaughterhouses were examined. in rats, sewer rats and mouse-like rodents other serotypes of y. enterocolitica than o3 were isolated. however, two out of five sewer rats caught at a slaughterhous yielded y. pseudotuberculosis i; this finding corresponded with some findings made in swine. swine positivity rates in piggeries correspond ...19807424237
acetylthiocholinesterase staining in an interpedunculotegmental pathway in four species: procavia capensis (dassie), cavia procellus (guinea-pig), trichosurus vulpecula (brush-tail possum) and rattus rattus (hooded rat). 19807417850
acquisition and retention of classical conditioning in the newborn rat.the development of memory of a conditioned response was examined in london black rats between 0 and 4 days of age. for the conditioning, a vibrotactile stimulus paired with an electric shock was presented to the animal 80 times with an interval of 2000 msec between stimuli. the animals were retested at retention intervals of 3 min or 24 hr. the results showed that 0-, 2-, 3-, and 4-day-old rats possess a retention capacity of at least 24 hr and suggest that the emergence of memory may be task-sp ...19807409332
[comparative aspects of the white body of cephalopoda and the bone marrow of mammals].the compared observations carried out in the white body of the cephalopod todarodes sagittatus and in the bone marrow of the mammalian rattus rattus enabled us to note, especially on the electron microscope, some resemblances among the main cellular types, and namely between leucoblasts and promyeloblasts, between proleucocytes and promyelocytes and between leucocytes and granulocytes. these resemblances are due also to the presence, in both series, of indispensable conditions to the protein syn ...19807387788
[the "cercarial index" of schistosoma mansoni. epidemiological and experimental results (author's transl)].the cercarial index defined by bayssade-dufour (1977) differs according to the hosts in which schistosoma mansoni is cycled. this index is close to 1 in african human strains, 1.3 in carribbean human strains, and 1.6 in strains kept for a number of years in rodents. the first epidemiological and experimental results supported the argument that the transmission of intestinal bilharzia in the mountainous refuge of infection at grand-etang, guadeloup, is maintained exclusively by murine rodents. ne ...19817325525
a golgi-cox study of tanycytes in the hypothalamic region of the third ventricle in the wild rat, rattus rattus rattus (l.).in the third ventricle of the wild rat, golgi-cox-positive tanycytes of varied shape and size are arranged with their perikarya in the ependymal layer and basal processes extending into the core of the subependyma. the basal processes may be smooth and slender, or barbed and branching, and often take circuitous and overlapping courses. in some, the apical part of the perikaryon projects into the ventricle. in the arcuate region, groups of closely arranged tanycytes whose long basal processes end ...19817324858
observations on the food habits of some african habits of four common species of african rodents: the giant rat (cricetomys gambianus), the black house rat (rattus rattus), the multimammate rat (mastomys natalensis) and the pygmy mouse (mus minutoides) were studied on the basis of stomach content analysis, habitat sampling and experimental trials with caged animals. vegetable items (especially grass, grains and tubers) formed the bulk of the food of all the species. oil-palm nuts and kernels were also common in the guts of c. gambianus a ...19807323341
postpartum copulation and induction of pregnancy in roof rats (rattus rattus). 19817323186
ecological aspects of the epidemiology of infection with leptospires of the ballum serogroup in the black rat (rattus rattus) and the brown rat (rattus norvegicus) in new zealand.epidemiological aspects of infection with leptospires of the ballum serogroup in black rats (rattus rattus) and brown rats (rattus norvegicus) are described. rats inhabiting a variety of habitats were investigated and isolates identifed as belonging to the ballum serogroup were obtained from 21 of 61 black rats (34%) and 63 of 243 brown rats (26%). the high level of endemic ballum serogroup infection in these species reported here has not been described in other countries. a statistical relation ...19817310125
movements of rattus rattus in an artificial environment. 19817309167
responses of a free-living population of rattus rattus (linn.) towards poisoned baits & new food. 19817309154
leishmaniasis in tuscany (italy) v. further isolation of leishmania from rattus rattus in the province of grosseto. 19817305507
evaluation of brodifacoum against t. indica, m. hurrianae and r. rattus.brodifacoum was evaluated in the laboratory against the two gerbils, tatera indica and meriones hurrianae and the house rat, rattus rattus. the acute oral ld50 for these rodents was found to be 0.10 mg/kg, 0.083 mg/kg and 0.77 mg/kg respectively. feeding tests with 0.002% and 0.005% brodifacoum produced a 100% mortality after a 3-day feeding period in the gerbils and after a 4-day period in r. rattus. the anticoagulant is toxic at both the concentrations to all three species but is less palatabl ...19817288172
luminal mucin in the large intestine of mice, rats and guinea pigs.the luminal and epithelial mucin was studied histochemically in the large intestine of mice (mus musculus), rats (rattus rattus) and guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) using freeze-substitution and vapor-fixation methods. neutral mucin decreased and acid mucin increased in the epithelium from the cecum to the distal colon. vacuolated cells contained more acid mucin than goblet cells. luminal mucin always contained neutral mucin, which formed the main constituents in the cecum and in the proximal colo ...19817273117
the prevalence of anti-leptospiral agglutinins in sera of wildlife in southeastern australia.anti-leptospiral agglutinins were found in the serum from 18 (7 species) of 419 (25 species) animals sampled from various areas of southeastern australia. positive serologic reactions were observed in 5 of 25 (20%) brush-tailed possum (trichosurus vulpecula), 1 of 26 (3.8%) tammar wallaby (macropus eugenii), 2 of 12 (16.7%) swamp wallaby (wallabia bicolor), 1 of 3 (33.3%) koala (phascolarctos cinereus), 3 of 41 (7.3%) common wombat (vombatus ursinus), 2 of 100 (2%) bush rat (rattus fuscipes) and ...19817241704
the response of the egyptian spiny mouse (acomys cahirinus) and two other species of commensal rodents to anticoagulant rodenticides.the response of acomys cahirinus to three anticoagulant rodenticides was investigated in the laboratory. in contrast to the other commensal rodents rattus rattus and r. norvegicus, this species appears to be naturally very resistant to warfarin, difenacoum and brodifacoum. it is considered unlikely that anticoagulant poisons would be effective in the field for the control of a. cahirinus.19817240734
infectivity in rodents of schistosoma mansoni cercariae of human and murine origin.experimental infections of white laboratory mice and wild rats (rattus rattus) with cercariae of schistosoma mansoni of different descent, whether murine or human, demonstrate that there is no significant difference in the probability of maturation of these cercariae into adult schistosomes. these results enable us to hypothesize that the reverse would be true, i.e. that cercariae of murine or human descent would be capable of infecting man with the same success rate. circulation of the parasite ...19807217645
annual fluctuation of schistosoma japonicum infection in field rats, rattus rattus mindanensis, in dagami, leyte, philippines.the annual fluctuation of schistosoma japonicum infection in field rats, rattus rattus mindanensis, in leyte, the philippines was investigated. one hundrend live-traps were set for one week every month from february, 1978 to february, 1979, in and around central elementary school ii, diagami, leyte. out of 199 rats, 163 (81.9%) were infected. the prevalence rate of s. japonicum infecton in rats was high during the relatively dry season, april to july, 1978. meanwhile, the prevalence rate of schi ...19807206265
decrement in "social stress" among wild rattus rattus treated with antibiotic."black" rats, rattus rattus, were trapped and studied in colonies of 6 adult males and 6 adult females. eight colonies had antibiotic (neoterramycin) in their drinking water, and eight (controls) had not. twenty mated pairs were kept in small cages; of these, ten received neoterramycin. the only deaths of males were in the control colonies. in the antibiotic colonies there were also (1) a lower incidence of attack when behavior was directly observed, (2) less skin wounding, (3) less macroscopic ...19827200617
discrimination between harmless & harmful stimuli by the house rat rattus rattus rufescens (gray). 19827183530
lipid accumulation in chromium poisoned rats.interference of chromium with the hepato-renal lipids in rat (rattus rattus albino) was investigated using histochemical and biochemical parameters. present results show that chromium stimulates the accumulation of triglycerides and phospholipids in both liver and kidney. biochemical data on total lipids show that chromium enhanced the rate of lipid accumulations. since lipids accumulate if the factors necessary for their utilization are missing, it is concluded that chromium manipulates an incr ...19827169300
[enzymatic typing of 11 strains of leishmania isolated in mainland italy from the visceral murine, canine and vulpine forms. demonstration of an enzymatic variant in the fox (vulpes vulpes) and the dog].enzyme typing by starch gel electrophoretic techniques was carried out on 11 leishmania isolates from italy in laboratories in montpellier and london. the enzymes studied in the former were me, g-6-pd, 6-pgd, pgm, pgi, got (= asat), mdh and idh. in london slightly different procedures were used to examine me, 6-pgd, pgm, pgi and asat. in addition, sod, alat, nh, and mpi were studied. the combined data revealed that four rattus rattus and four dogs were infected with classical l. infantum (zymodè ...19827168524
a survey of calmodulin-activated protein kinase activity in several tissues of rattus rattus.1. in each of five tissues (brain, heart, spleen, mammary acini and pancreatic acini) the prominent endogenous protein substrate possessed a molecular weight between 51,900 and 56,800 on sds gel electrophoresis. 2. evidence was obtained for two species of protein substrate, differing slightly in molecular weight, which appear to be distributed in a tissue-specific manner. 3. one species, with a molecular weight of 52,900, was found in spleen, mammary acini and brain; the other species, with a mo ...19827151401
[parasitic fauna of the german democratic republic. 6. incidence of helminths in the rat (rattus rattus)]. 19827149328
[experimental approach of the role of rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus in the focus of schistosoma mansoni of guadeloupe. comparative development of s. mansoni in 2 natural hosts (r. rattus and r. norvegicus) and 2 laboratory hosts (the white mouse and the white rat)].we have studied the development of schistosoma mansoni in two natural hosts, rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus, and in two laboratory hosts, the white mouse and the white rat. the study of survival shows that the percentage of cercariae recovered as adult worms four weeks after exposure is 31% in r. rattus, 27% in the white mouse, 14% in the laboratory rat and 12% in r. norvegicus. twenty weeks after exposure, 62% of the schistosomes which were present four weeks after exposure are still alive ...19827137802
mitigation of poison aversion in the house rat rattus rattus rufescens (gray) through acclimatization. 19827129535
[evaluation of 10 years of research on s. mansoni schistosomiasis a in the french west indies].from 1971 until 1982, we studied the ecological factors which stead fast a perennial schistosomiasis in guadeloupe on an exhaustive mode. more recently, we start a similar investigation in martinique. in guadeloupe the single vector of schistosoma mansoni is the snail biomphalaria glabrata which is an ubiquist species. but the transmission to man is restricted to the "canal-sewers" where faeces are dropped and not in the rivers of basse-terre or the ponds of grande-terre. moreover, the infection ...19827126776
a comparative assessment of efficacy of three anticoagulant rodenticides.results are presented of feeding tests carried out with three common anticoagulant rodenticides viz., coumatetralyl, fumarin and warfarin on three common species of commensal rodents i.e., rattus rattus, rattus norvegicus and bandicota bengalensis. all three species of rodents were susceptible to anticoagulant rodenticides. however, the action of these compounds in b. bengalensis was comparatively slow. coumatetralyl was found to be the most effective rodenticide followed by fumarin and warfarin ...19827119429
the first outbreak of human plague in lushoto district, north-east tanzania.a one-week investigation was performed at mkunki and mavumo (ward of shume, lushoto district, tanzania) at the time of outbreak (june, 1980). rodents, people, domestic dogs and fleas were examined, 36 rats, mostly rattus rattus, were caught and used in serological and bacteriological analysis for plague. 48 fleas, mostly xenopsylla brasiliensis, were collected from the captured rodents. 413 people and 11 dogs were examined. all rodent, carnivorous and human sera were tested for plague antibodies ...19827101402
hematological changes in house rat after 32p internal irradiation. 19827100424
experimental yersinia pestis infection in rodents after intragastric inoculation and ingestion of clarify the pathogenesis of oral plague infection, we studied the susceptibility of three species of rodents to intragastric inoculation of yersinia pestis, described the pathology and progression of infection, and measured antibody responses to fraction ia antigen of y. pestis. the 50% lethal doses of bacteria by intragastric inoculation for mus musculus, zygodontomys pixuna, and rattus rattus were log10 = 6.32, 5.46, and 9.62, respectively, which were at least 1,000-fold higher than the val ...19827095845
population indices of chiggers (leptotrombidium deliense) and incidence of scrub typhus in chinese military personnel, pescadores islands of taiwan, 1976-77.larval leptotrombidium deliense were recovered from live-trapped suncus murinus, rattus rattus and r. norvegicus captured in the pescadores islands of taiwan during 1976 and 1977. weekly and monthly indices of chigger infestation expressed as a percentage of hosts infested and the number of chiggers per host for s. murinus and rattus spp. were calculated. close correlations were observed between monthly indices of l. deliense measured for s. murinus and rattus spp. and the number of laboratory-c ...19827080163
the stimulus-basis of a natural food aversion in norway rats.during a 30-min test, hungry adult male norway rats were permitted to feed on male rodents, freshly sacrificed by co2 asphyxiation. in experiment 1, the proportion of subjects feeding on the intact carcass of a dead conspecific decreased as a function of the dead conspecific's age. but the proportion of subjects feeding on the intact carcass of a dead house mouse remained high, regardless of the mouse's age. in experiment 2, norway rats were as likely to feed on tissue (heart, liver, and blood) ...19827079341
leptospirosis in rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus in israel.leptospires were isolated from 21.2% of rattus norvegicus (the brown rat) and 9.9% of rattus rattus trapped in a survey of urban and rural areas in israel. microagglutination antibodies were found in sera of 9.4 and 8.1% of these rats, respectively. the 191 strains isolated belonged to six serogroups: leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae (169), l. bataviae (3), l. semeranga (1), l andamana (1) and l. ballum (1) from r. norvegicus and l. ballum (13) and l. hebdomadis (3) from r. rattus. no significant ...19827068359
the parasites obtained and bacteria isolated from house rats (rattus rattus linnaeus, 1758) caught in human habitations in ibadan, nigeria.a total of 169 house rats were killed in different households distributed within five localities of ibadan. a wide range of parasites were encountered. the flea, ceratophylus fasciatus was the commonest ectoparasite found. trichostrongylus columbriformis eggs were the commonest nematode and hymenolepis diminuta the only cestode. escherichia coli was the commonest bacterium found. the incidence of helminthiasis, especially h. diminuta, was generally high among rats trapped in the villages and the ...19817037672
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