PMID(sorted descending)
isoenzyme electrophetic characterization of leishmania major, the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in north and west saudi arabia.several expeditions were carried out to four localities (al-madinah almona-warah, tabouk region, al-jouf and northern frontiers regions) in northern and western saudi arabia for sampling zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (zcl) cases from patients and rodents. biopsy samples were collected from 51 patients complaining of skin lesions, most of which (40 or 78.4%) proved to be zcl. amastigotes were detected in 33 patients (64.7%), but only 30 (58.9%) gave successful growth of promastigotes in the cu ...201021246954
infestation rate of tick, mite and lice among rodent species in menoufia governorate, egypt.a preliminary survey of domestic rodent species and their ectoparasites tick, mite and lice was carried out in ten centers of menoufia (quesna, shebeen el-kom, berka el-saabe, el-bagour, el-shohada, tala, menoff, searth el-lian, ashmon and el-sadat) governorate. frequency of rodent species and ectoparasites indices (tick, mite and lice) were recorded in spring (2009). the main species of rodent was norway rat, rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellied rat, rattus rattus alexandrinus, the white-bellied ...201021246950
accurate measurement of body weight and food intake in environmentally enriched male wistar rats.laboratory animals are crucial in the study of energy homeostasis. in particular, rats are used to study alterations in food intake and body weight. to accurately record food intake or energy expenditure it is necessary to house rats individually, which can be stressful for social animals. environmental enrichment may reduce stress and improve welfare in laboratory rodents. however, the effect of environmental enrichment on food intake and thus experimental outcome is unknown. we aimed to determ ...201121233804
the occurrence of the larval cestode cysticercus fasciolaris in rodent populations from the cuxtal ecological reserve, yucatan, mexico.cysticercus fasciolaris is the larval stage of the cestode taenia taeniaeformis, whose definitive hosts are mainly cats. this larval stage uses a wide variety of small rodents, and occasionally birds and humans, as intermediate hosts. in the yucatan, there are no reports of the presence of this cestode in animal populations. the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of c. fasciolaris in rodent populations from the cuxtal ecological reserve, yucatan, mexico. trapping of rodents was con ...201121208511
seasonal abundance of plague vector xenopsylla brasiliensis from rodents captured in three habitat types of periurban suburbs of harare, zimbabwe.abstract the study was aimed at determining the seasonal abundance of xenopsylla brasiliensis, an important vector of plague in zimbabwe, from rodent hosts captured in selected habitat types of two periurban suburbs of harare, zimbabwe. the removal-trapping method was used to capture the rodents, from which fleas were collected and identified. percentage incidence index (pii) and specific flea index (sfi) were calculated for x. brasiliensis in relation to rodent species host. mastomys natalensis ...201021142965
molecular survey of rodent-borne trypanosoma in niger with special emphasis on t. lewisi imported by invasive black rats.invading rodent species can harbor parasites with potential transmission to native rodents and/or humans. to investigate trypanosomes prevalence in rodents, the spleen of 76 rodents from niger identified by their karyotype was used as a dna source for trypanosoma detection using a newly developed qpcr assay. of the invasive black rat, rattus rattus, 71% (10/14) were pcr positive as well as 6% (4/62) of native african rodents. sequences of ~400bp of the ssu rdna gene identified phylogenetically c ...201021126503
the role of wild rodents in the transmission of trypanosoma evansi infection in an endemic area of the canary islands (spain).trypanosoma evansi was diagnosed for the first time in camels in the canary islands in 1997. several sanitary measures including treatment of infected animals were taken; however, nowadays a little area is still infected. in order to determine possible reservoirs 138 wild rodents were trapped, 64 of them in the infected farms and the remaining 74 in other areas. the captured species were rattus rattus (24), rattus norvegicus (69) and mus musculus domesticus (45). serological (catt/t. evansi), pa ...201020888126
isolation and multilocus genotyping of toxoplasma gondii in seronegative rodents in brazil.synanthropic rodents, mainly rats and mice, become ecologically associated with men due to changes in their ecosystems caused by human activities. these animals may take part in the epidemiological cycles of several diseases, including toxoplasmosis. the presence of serum antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in 43 rodents captured in the urban area of umuarama, pr, brazil, was verified by modified agglutination test (mat). brain and heart samples were also collected and bioassayed in mice for the iso ...201020869811
epidemiological studies of plague in india: 2. the changing pattern of rodents and fleas in calcutta and other from early in the twentieth century up to the present day indicate that rattus rattus among rodents and xenopsylla cheopis among fleas are the two most important elements in urban human plague infection in india, r. norvegicus playing a more minor role. the relative numbers of both these species have decreased in recent years in bombay and calcutta, while those of bandicota bengalensis, which is less heavily parasitized by x. cheopis, have risen. this reduction in the numbers of the epidemi ...196020604076
efficacy of rodenticide baits for the control of three invasive rodent species in hawaii.we tested the efficacy and palatability of nine commercial rodenticide bait formulations on polynesian rats (rattus exulans), roof rats (r. rattus), and house mice (mus musculus). efficacy varied by rodenticide tested and rodent species. generally, rodenticides were more effective against mice than for either of the rat species, and mice tended to consume more rodenticide bait than the laboratory chow alternative food. efficacy was generally highest for the second-generation anticoagulants teste ...201120552335
the case of an insular molarless black rat: effects on lifestyle and mandible morphology.we report a specimen of an insular black rat (rattus rattus) from illa den colom (menorca, western mediterranean) displaying a singular dental characteristic. it has no molar teeth but displays regular incisors. its mere occurrence as a regular adult rat is puzzling and we attempted to evaluate what diet and morphological changes in jaw shape were promoted by the total lack of molars, and allowed the successful survival of this specimen. two approaches were performed: first, bone tissue was anal ...201020538260
susceptibility of bromadiolone anticoagulant rodenticide in two rodent species and its haematologic effect.susceptibility levels of the norway rat, rattus norvegicus and the roof rat, rattus rattus to bromadiolone anticoagulant rodenticide by bioassay and biochemical methods were studied. animals were trapped from giza and qualyobia governorates in which the anticoagulant rodenticides were used to control rodents for long periods. complete mortality was obtained for both species and sexes within standard no-choice feeding test period (4 days) indicating bromadiolone susceptibility. treatment of rats ...201020503584
analysis of vkorc1 polymorphisms in norway rats using the roof rat as outgroup.certain mutations in the vitamin k epoxide reductase subcomponent 1 gene (vkorc1) mediate rodent resistance to warfarin and other anticoagulants. testing for resistance often involves analysis of the vkorc1. however, a genetic test for the roof rat (rattus rattus) has yet to be developed. moreover, an available roof rat vkorc1 sequence would enable species identification based on vkorc1 sequence and the evaluation of natural selection on particular vkorc1 polymorphisms in the norway rat (r. norv ...201020497562
molecular evolution of trichuris muris isolated from different muridae hosts in europe.a phylogeographic study was carried out of trichuris muris, nematode parasitizing murinae rodents from the muridae family, isolated from four different hosts and from different geographical regions of europe by amplification and sequencing of the its1-5.8s-its2 fragment of the ribosomal dna. t. muris was found in the apodemus sylvaticus, apodemus flavicollis, mus domesticus, and rattus rattus rodents. the molecular results confirm the presence of dna polymorphisms among t. muris isolates from eu ...201020473527
aflp genome scan in the black rat (rattus rattus) from madagascar: detecting genetic markers undergoing plague-mediated selection.the black rat (rattus rattus) is the main reservoir of plague (yersinia pestis infection) in madagascar's rural zones. black rats are highly resistant to plague within the plague focus (central highland), whereas they are susceptible where the disease is absent (low altitude zone). to better understand plague wildlife circulation and host evolution in response to a highly virulent pathogen, we attempted to determine genetic markers associated with plague resistance in this species. to this purpo ...201120444082
susceptibility to yersinia pestis experimental infection in wild rattus rattus, reservoir of plague in madagascar, the black rat, rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague (yersinia pestis infection), a disease still responsible for hundreds of cases each year in this country. this study used experimental plague challenge to assess susceptibility in wild-caught rats to better understand how r. rattus can act as a plague reservoir. an important difference in plague resistance between rat populations from the plague focus (central highlands) and those from the plague-free zone (low altitude ...201020443044
moisture can be the dominant environmental parameter governing cadaver decomposition in soil.forensic taphonomy involves the use of decomposition to estimate postmortem interval (pmi) or locate clandestine graves. yet, cadaver decomposition remains poorly understood, particularly following burial in soil. presently, we do not know how most edaphic and environmental parameters, including soil moisture, influence the breakdown of cadavers following burial and alter the processes that are used to estimate pmi and locate clandestine graves. to address this, we buried juvenile rat (rattus ra ...201020400249
rats as indicators of the presence and dispersal of pathogens in cyprus: ectoparasites, parasitic helminths, enteric bacteria, and encephalomyocarditis virus.rodents play an active role in the transmission of a number of zoonoses by harboring and disseminating the pathogens involved, either through their biological materials or via their ectoparasites. hence, the spatial and seasonal distribution of potential agents of zoonoses may be studied by examining their distribution in the rodent vectors and their ectoparasites. a surveillance was conducted in wild rodents in 51 different areas of cyprus, an island ecosystem, to monitor the reemergence of ech ...201020370433
pigmentation and hair growth in black rats, as modified by the chronic administration of thiourea, phenyl thiourea and alphanaphthyl thiourea. 194720294400
ectoparasite fauna of rodents and shrews from four habitats in kuala lumpur and the states of selangor and negeri sembilan, malaysia and its public health significance.a total of 204 rodents comprising 14 host species from four different habitats were examined. nine rodent species were trapped from the forest and another five species were trapped from the coastal, rice field and urban habitats. rattus rattus diardii (67%) was the predominant rodent species examined. fifty six (47.3%) rodents and shrews were found to be infested with at least one of the 20 species of ectoparasite recovered. mites belonging to the family trombiculidae were the predominant ectopa ...200920237444
[study on the prevalence and genotypes of bartonella species in rodent hosts from fujian coastal regions].to investigate bartonella infection in rodent hosts from different environments and types of climate in fujian coastal regions. genetypes of the bartonella strains was also studied to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of the correlated diseases.200920193373
invasive non-native species' provision of refugia for endangered native species.the influence of non-native species on native ecosystems is not predicted easily when interspecific interactions are complex. species removal can result in unexpected and undesired changes to other ecosystem components. i examined whether invasive non-native species may both harm and provide refugia for endangered native species. the invasive non-native plant casuarina stricta has damaged the native flora and caused decline of the snail fauna on the ogasawara islands, japan. on anijima in 2006 a ...201020184648
detection of alpha(2u)-globulin and its bound putative pheromones in the preputial gland of the indian commensal rat (rattus rattus) using mass spectrometry.the role of pheromones and pheromone-binding proteins in the laboratory rat has been extensively investigated. however, we have previously reported that the preputial gland of the indian commensal rat produces a variety of pheromonal molecules and preputial glands would seem to be the predominant source for pheromonal communication. the presence of pheromone-binding proteins has not yet been identified in the preputial gland of the indian commensal rat; therefore, the experiments were designed t ...201020169559
study on the movement of rattus rattus and evaluation of the plague dispersion in madagascar.plague affects mainly the rural areas in the central highlands of madagascar. rattus rattus is the main rodent host of yersinia pestis in these localities. since the introduction of plague, endemic foci have continued to expand, and spatiotemporal variability in the distribution of human plague has been observed. to assess the movements of r. rattus and evaluate the risk of dispersion of the disease, a field study at the scale of the habitats (houses, hedges of sisals, and rice fields) in the pl ...201020158335
finding of parastrongylus cantonensis (chen, 1935) in rattus rattus in tenerife, canary islands (spain).parastrongylus cantonensis is a parasite of murid rodents that can infect humans and cause health problems as eosinophilic meningitis. although it is endemic in south asia, the pacific islands, australia, usa, and a few caribbean islands, it has been extended to new geographical regions. in the canary islands (spain) a survey of helminths of rattus rattus, rattus norvegicus and mus musculus domesticus was carried out. furthermore, five species of molluscs were examined for nematode larvae to det ...201020153283
serological surveillance of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals captured at twin bridges training area, gyeonggi province, republic of korea, 2005-2007.soldiers from the republic of korea and the united states conduct armistice military operations at twin bridges training area (tbta) located near the demilitarized zone (dmz) and are exposed to zoonotic disease pathogens that small mammals and their potentially disease-carrying ectoparasites transmit. tbta is a 36 km2 rural training site with small villages and various forms of agriculture along its boundary. at tbta, rodents, insectivores, and their ectoparasites are commonly found in associati ...201020108842
[detection of leptospira organisms in rattus rattus of two islands in the mozambique channel: europa and juan-de-nova].europa and juan-de-nova are two little coral islands in the mozambique channel. they are only occupied by a troop detachment of 15 men, who exercise the french sovereignty and maintain the island. during these activities, the men work in dampness and they can encounter rats. the aim of this survey is to show presence of leptospirosis in these islands by testing rat kidney by specific pcr. the results found a positive specimen on each island (2/52) indicating a previously unknown presence of lept ...201020099052
invasive rats alter woody seedling composition on seabird-dominated islands in new zealand.invasive rats (rattus rattus, r. norvegicus, r. exulans) have large impacts on island habitats through both direct and indirect effects on plants. rats affect vegetation by extirpating burrowing seabirds through consumption of eggs, chicks, and adults. these seabirds serve as ecosystem engineers, affecting plant communities by burying and trampling seeds and seedlings, and by altering microclimate. rats also directly affect plant communities by consuming seeds and seedlings. we studied the direc ...201020033216
primary structural documentation of the major urinary protein of the indian commensal rat (rattus rattus) using a proteomic platform.a number of proteome studies have been performed recently to identify pheromone-related protein expression and their molecular function using genetically modified rodents' urine. however, no such studies have used indian commensal rodents; interestingly, in a previous investigation, we confirmed the presence of volatile molecules in commensal rodents urine and these molecules seem to be actively involved in pheromonal communication. therefore, the present study aims to identify the major urinary ...201020015025
surveys for ectoparasites on wildlife associated with amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae)-infested livestock in st. croix, u.s. virgin islands.surveys in 2001, 2005, and 2006 attempted to determine the role of wildlife in maintenance and dissemination of the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum (f.) (acari: ixodidae), in st. croix, u.s. virgin islands. small mammals; birds; white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmermann); and feral cattle, bos taurus l., were examined at nine premises, in mountainous rain forest, and in surrounding areas in western st. croix, an area including and central to all known bont tick-infested prem ...200919960701
effects of invasive rats and burrowing seabirds on seeds and seedlings on new zealand islands.rats (rattus rattus, rattus norvegicus, rattus exulans) are important invaders on islands. they alter vegetation indirectly by preying on burrowing seabirds. these seabirds affect vegetation through nutrient inputs from sea to land and physical disturbance through trampling and burrowing. rats also directly affect vegetation though consumption of seeds and seedlings. seedling communities on northern new zealand islands differ in composition and densities among islands which have never been invad ...201019921273
geotropic orientation of young rats.the geotropic orientation of rattus rattus (roof rat) obeys the equations previously found applicable for rattus norvegicus. the former is more sensitive, geotiopically, and the numerical values of the constants in the equations for the two forms are found to differ significantly. certain consequences of this difference are pointed out.192719872340
experimental rickets in rats : vii. the prevention of rickets by sunlight, by the rays of the mercury vapor lamp, and by the carbon arc lamp.young rats on a diet low in phosphorus can be protected from rickets by irradiations with sunlight for about 15 minutes daily. in the winter months, however, this degree of light was found insufficient. the effective rays of the sun, in the intensities studied, did not penetrate window glass. they manifested some protective value after reflection from a smooth white surface. irradiation of a few minutes with the rays of the mercury vapor lamp suffices to protect rats against rickets. this is tru ...192219868685
spirochaeta morsus muris, n.sp., the cause of rat-bite fever : second paper.1. since our first report on the discovery of the cause of rat-bite fever, we have been able to prove the existence of the same spirochete in five out of six more cases which have come under our observation. 2. the clinical symptoms of rat-bite fever are inflammation of the bitten parts, paroxysms of fever of the relapsing type, swelling of the lymph glands, and eruption of the skin, all occurring after an incubation period usually of from 10 to 22 days, or longer. 3. our spirochete is present i ...191719868077
reproductive performance in east greenland polar bears (ursus maritimus) may be affected by organohalogen contaminants as shown by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (pbpk) modelling.polar bears (ursus maritimus) feed mainly on ringed seal (phoca hispida) and consume large quantities of blubber and consequently have one of the highest tissue concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (ohcs) worldwide. in east greenland, studies of ohc time trends and organ system health effects, including reproductive, were conducted during 1990-2006. however, it has been difficult to determine the nature of the effects induced by ohc exposures on wild caught polar bears using body burden ...200919863991
transmission, reservoir hosts and control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (zvl) caused by leishmania infantum is an important disease of humans and dogs. here we review aspects of the transmission and control of zvl. whilst there is clear evidence that zvl is maintained by sandfly transmission, transmission may also occur by non-sandfly routes, such as congenital and sexual transmission. dogs are the only confirmed primary reservoir of infection. meta-analysis of dog studies confirms that infectiousness is higher in symptomatic infectio ...200919835643
flea diversity and infestation prevalence on rodents in a plague-endemic region of uganda, the west nile region is the primary epidemiologic focus for plague. the aims of this study were to 1) describe flea-host associations within a plague-endemic region of uganda, 2) compare flea loads between villages with or without a history of reported human plague cases and between sampling periods, and 3) determine vector loads on small mammal hosts in domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic settings. we report that the roof rat, rattus rattus, is the most common rodent collected in hu ...200919815894
stomach nematodes (mastophorus muris) in rats (rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (cocos nucifera) habitat at palmyra rats ( rattus rattus ) and their stomach nematodes (mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at palmyra atoll in the central pacific line islands. to investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. most rats were parasitized (59%) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (w ...201019799487
seasonal variation of infestation rate with lice, tick and mite among rodents in certain egyptian regions.four species of mites (ornithonyssus bacoti, haemolaelaps glusgowi, echinolaelaps echinolelaps & dermanyssus gallinae), two species of ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus & hyalomma dromedarrii) and one species of lice (polyplax spinulose) were identified on rodents during 4 successive seasons (2005) trapped in five governorates (suez, menoufia, giza, damietta and beni-sewaf). the rodents were rattus norvegicus, rattus rattus alexandrinus, rattus rattus frugivourus, acomys cahirinus and mus musculus ...200919795768
identification of alpha2u-globulin and bound volatiles in the indian common house rat (rattus rattus).the alpha2u-globulin (alpha2u) is a pheromone carrier urinary protein believed to be relevant for sexual communication among rats and is characterized in laboratory rats. in the present study 17 kda protein and the bound pheromones were characterized in a population of wild-type indian common house rat (rattus rattus). the protein was purified by two runs of sephadex g-50 chromatography and analyzed with sds-page with maldi-tof/ms. the results of mascot search identified the protein as an alpha2 ...200919788064
detection of bartonella spp. in wild rodents in israel using hrm real-time pcr.the prevalence of bartonella spp. in wild rodents was studied in 19 geographical locations in israel. one hundred and twelve rodents belonging to five species (mus musculus, rattus rattus, microtus socialis, acomys cahirinus and apodemus sylvaticus) were included in the survey. in addition, 156 ectoparasites were collected from the rodents. spleen sample from each rodent and the ectoparasites were examined for the presence of bartonella dna using high resolution melt (hrm) real-time pcr. the met ...200919595521
isolation and genetic characterization of a bartonella strain closely related to bartonella tribocorum and bartonella elizabethae in israeli commensal rats.ten bartonella isolates were cultured from blood drawn from black rats (rattus rattus) captured in the tel aviv area. genetic characterization included amplification and sequencing of five gene fragments including the ribc, rpob, 16s, groel, and glta and the 16s-23s intergenic spacer region. sequence comparisons showed that all 10 isolates were identical in all genes studied comprising a total of 3,873 bp analyzed. the sequences of each of the partial genes analyzed indicated a high sequence sim ...200919556567
rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health.rodents are the most abundant and diversified order of living mammals in the world. already since the middle ages we know that they can contribute to human disease, as black rats were associated with distribution of plague. however, also in modern times rodents form a threat for public health. in this review article a large number of pathogens that are directly or indirectly transmitted by rodents are described. moreover, a simplified rodent disease model is discussed.200919548807
epidemiology of bartonella infection in rodents and shrews in taiwan.during the period of august 2002 and november 2004, an epidemiological investigation for bartonella infection was conducted in small mammals in taiwan. using whole blood culture on chocolate agar plates, bartonella species were successfully isolated from 41.3% of the 310 animals tested. the isolation rate of bartonella species varied among different animal species, including 52.7% of the 169 rattus norvegicus, 28.6% of the 126 sucus murinus, 10% of the 10 rattus rattus and 66.7% of the three rat ...201019538457
occurrence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in rats living on pig the netherlands, mrsa st398 has emerged in hospitals and human carriers have been associated with exposure to pigs and cattle. high prevalences of mrsa st398 in pigs and pig farmers have been determined and the transmission routes of mrsa on pig farms need to be elucidated. in the south of the netherlands, in recent years, the black rat (rattus rattus) has emerged as a prominent rodent on livestock farms. from march till may 2008, a survey on mrsa in rats living on livestock farms in the sout ...200919523703
identification of flea blood meals using multiplexed real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting mitochondrial gene fragments.human plague is found in the west nile region of uganda and democratic republic of the congo where flea vectors are often found inhabiting homes. we have developed a multiplexed, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting mitochondrial genes that is capable of detecting blood meal sources in fleas collected off-host in east africa. laboratory tests showed that the assay is specific for the intended targets and has a detection limit below one picogram of dna. testing of wild-caught fleas ...200919478265
predominance of trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in two reservoirs infected by sylvatic triatoma infestans of an endemic area of chile.we report results of trypanosoma cruzi infection and parasite genotypes in the wild octodon degus and synantropic reservoir rattus rattus from an endemic area with sylvatic triatoma infestans as the only detected vector. the infection status was determined by hemi-nested pcr directed to minicircles dna and genotyping by hybridization tests with a panel of five specific probes, including two probes for tci subgroups (clones 19 and 20). o. degus was found infected with 13.3% and mainly with sublin ...200919426670
encephalomyocarditis virus infection in wildlife species in greece.the objective of this work was to search for potential wildlife reservoir hosts of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) in wildlife species. from 1994 to 2006, 317 blood and tissue samples were collected from 17 wildlife species in greece. encephalomyocarditis virus was isolated only from two rattus rattus. in addition, antibody to emcv were detected in sera from 39 rattus rattus, one apodemus sylvaticus, one microtus arvalis, and 13 sus scrofa.200919395765
successful artificial insemination in the corn snake, elaphe gutatta, using fresh and cooled semen.the design and implementation of assisted reproductive technology to improve genetic diversity and augment captive populations is an important but rarely applied research field in reptiles. using the corn snake (elaphe gutatta) as a model, the henry doorly zoo recently produced offspring born as a result of artificial insemination using both fresh, diluted semen, and diluted semen stored at refrigeration for 3 days. semen was collected noninvasively from sexually mature male corn snakes using a ...200719360586
mammalian hair as an accumulative bioindicator of metal bioavailability in australian terrestrial environments.the current study represents the first investigation of the suitability of marsupial and eutherian mammalian hair as indicator tissue for metal exposure and accumulation within contaminated australian terrestrial ecosystems. a soil metal contamination gradient was established across 22 sites at increasing distances from a decommissioned lead/zinc smelter in nsw, australia. within each site, soil and small mammal populations were sampled. an australian native marsupial, the insectivorous brown an ...200919232676
helminthes of synanthropic rodents (rodentia: muridae) from dakahlia and menoufia, egypt.a cross-sectional survey was conducted to monitor and compare the prevalence of helminthes in rodents from dakahlia and menoufia governorates. the domestic rodents (271) were rattus norvegicus, rattus rattus frugivorous, rattus r. alexandrinus, & mus musculus. the overall prevalence of helminthes was 52.8%. in dakahlia, 72/145 rats (49.6%) were infected. the highest prevalence of infection was in r. r. frugivorous 43 (60.4%), then r. r. alexandrinus 44 (47.7%), r. norvegicus 38 (44.7%), and the ...200819209758
surveillance of endoparasitic infections and the first report of physaloptera sp. and sarcocystis spp. in farm rodents and shrews in central taiwan.a total of 95 rodents and shrews including 82 rattus norvegicus, 7 rattus rattus, and 6 suncus murinus were trapped from different localities of taichung, taiwan. the overall prevalence of parasites was 93.7%. the infection rates for r. norvegicus, r. rattus, and s. murinus were 93.9%, 85.7%, and 100%, respectively. the rats were infected with four cestodes, taenia taeniaeformis (48.4%), hymenolepis diminuta (38.9%), hymenolepis nana (5.3%), and raillietina celebensis (45.3%); ten nematodes, ang ...200919194075
isolation and characterization of a new fungal species, chrysosporium ophiodiicola, from a mycotic granuloma of a black rat snake (elaphe obsoleta obsoleta).isolation and characterization of the new species chrysosporium ophiodiicola from a mycotic granuloma of a black rat snake (elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) are reported. analysis of the sequences of different fragments of the ribosomal genes demonstrated that this species belongs to the onygenales and that this species is genetically different from other morphologically similar species of chrysosporium. this new species is unique in having both narrow and cylindrical-to-slightly clavate conidia and a ...200919109465
a newly recognized hantavirus in the asian house rat (rattus tanezumi) in indonesia.hantaviral sequences were recovered from the lung tissue of an asian house rat (rattus tanezumi) captured in serang, indonesia. phylogenetic analysis of partial l, m and s segment sequences showed that they belonged to a novel hantavirus provisionally named serang virus (serv). notably, serv is distinct from the hantaviruses associated with rodents of the species rattus: seoul virus associated with rattus norvegicus worldwide and gou virus isolated from rattus rattus in china. instead serv appea ...200919088290
prickly coexistence or blunt competition? opuntia refugia in an invaded rodent community.endemic nesoryzomys swarthi and invasive rattus rattus exist in unlikely sympatry in galápagos as female n. swarthi suffer from competition with r. rattus. this study evaluates the role of feeding habits in facilitating their co-occurrence. spool-and-line tracking of 85 n. swarthi and 33 r. rattus was used to quantify their selected diets, foods of which were used in captive trials of 46 n. swarthi and 34 r. rattus to quantify their preferred diets. selected diets were compared between species a ...200918998171
historical mammal extinction on christmas island (indian ocean) correlates with introduced infectious is now widely accepted that novel infectious disease can be a leading cause of serious population decline and even outright extinction in some invertebrate and vertebrate groups (e.g., amphibians). in the case of mammals, however, there are still no well-corroborated instances of such diseases having caused or significantly contributed to the complete collapse of species. a case in point is the extinction of the endemic christmas island rat (rattus macleari): although it has been argued that ...200818985148
detection of antibodies against anaplasma phagocytophilum in algerian mice (mus spretus), portugal.the recent detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum in portugal stimulated further research on the agent's enzootic cycle, which usually involves rodents. thus a total 322 rodents belonging to five species, including 30 apodemus sylvaticus (wood mouse), 65 mus musculus (house mouse), 194 m. spretus (algerian mouse), 5 rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and 28 r. rattus (black rat), were studied by indirect immunofluorescent assay (ifa) and/or polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for a. phagocytophilum expos ...200918973448
the effect of removing various endocrine glands on the hair cycles of black rats. 194818915900
[not available]. 194818880606
serological and genetic evidence for the presence of seoul hantavirus in rattus norvegicus in flanders, belgium.seoul hantavirus (seov), carried by rattus rattus (black rat) and r. norvegicus (norway, brown rat), was reported to circulate as well as cause hfrs cases in asia. as rattus sp. are present worldwide, seov has the potential to cause human disease worldwide. in europe however, only seov prevalence in rats from france was reported and no confirmed cases of seov infection were published. we here report genetic and serological evidence for the presence of seov virus in brown rat populations in belgi ...200918821445
pigs are the most important animal reservoir for tunga penetrans (jigger flea) in rural nigeria.we examined the domestic animals and rodents in a community in rural nigeria. of the 133 animals examined, 29 (21.8%) were infested, the highest prevalence of infestation and highest parasite load was found in the pigs (prevalence 54.8%, median = nine embedded parasites), followed by dogs (45.5%; median = 4), rattus rattus (29.4%; median = 2) and mus minutoides (15.4%; median = 1.5). of all the tungiasis lesions identified 83% were found in pigs. our data confirm that tungiasis is a zoonotic dis ...200818820191
dietary shift of an invasive predator: rats, seabirds and sea turtles.rats have reached about 80% of the world's islands and are among the most successful invasive mammals. rats are opportunistic predators that are notorious for their impact on a variety of animal and plant species. however, little documented evidence on the complexities of these interactions is our study, we assessed the impact of black rats rattus rattus introduced on a small uninhabited island with a relatively simple ecosystem, surprise island, new caledonia. we also compared the ...200818784794
dating of divergences within the rattus genus phylogeny using whole mitochondrial genomes.the timing and order of divergences within the genus rattus have, to date, been quite speculative. in order to address these important issues we sequenced six new whole mitochondrial genomes from wild-caught specimens from four species, rattus exulans, rattus praetor, rattus rattus and rattus tanezumi. the only rat whole mitochondrial genomes available previously were all from rattus norvegicus specimens. our phylogenetic and dating analyses place the deepest divergence within rattus at approxim ...200818725306
effects of housing density on long evans and fischer 344 many breeding facilities, rats are housed at relatively high densities until they are 5 weeks old, at which point they are either shipped for research or rehoused at standard cage densities according to weight. the authors carried out a pilot study in long evans and in fischer 344 rats to investigate whether continuing to house rats at high densities (24 in(2) floor space per rat) past the age of 5 weeks, through puberty and into adulthood would alter behavioral or physiological parameters co ...200818719695
ccr5 polymorphism and plague resistance in natural populations of the black rat in madagascar.madagascar remains one of the world's largest plague foci. the black rat, rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague in rural areas. this species is highly susceptible to plague in plague-free areas (low-altitude regions), whereas rats from the plague focus areas (central highlands) have evolved a disease-resistance polymorphism. we used the candidate gene ccr5 to investigate the genetic basis of plague resistance in r. rattus. we found a unique non-synonymous substitution (h184r) in a funct ...200818703167
prevalence and genetic diversity of bartonella species isolated from wild rodents in, we describe for the first time the prevalence and genetic properties of bartonella organisms in wild rodents in japan. we captured 685 wild rodents throughout japan (in 12 prefectures) and successfully isolated bartonella organisms from 176 of the 685 rodents (isolation rate, 25.7%). those bartonella isolates were all obtained from the rodents captured in suburban areas (rate, 51.8%), but no organism was isolated from the animals captured in city areas. sequence analysis of rpob and glta r ...200818606803
seroprevalence of antibodies to encephalitozoon cuniculi in domestic rabbits in nigeria.serum samples from 237 randomized rabbits from the five ecological zones of nigeria, i.e. northwest (nw), northeast (ne), southeast (se), southwest (sw) and northcentral (nc), were evaluated for the presence of antibodies to encephalitozoon cuniculi by the indirect immunofluorescent antibodies test. a titre of 10 or more was taken as positive. thirty-nine (16.5%) of the 237 samples were positive with 11, 10, 8, 6 and 4 seropositive rabbits occurring in the nw, ne, se, sw and nc zones of nigeria, ...200818575061
early-phase transmission of yersinia pestis by cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) and their potential role as vectors in a plague-endemic region of recent decades, the majority of human plague cases (caused by yersinia pestis) have been reported from africa. in northwest uganda, which has had recent plague outbreaks, cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) have been reported as the most common fleas in the home environment, which is suspected to be a major exposure site for human plague in this country. in the past, c. felis has been viewed as only a nuisance-biting insect because limited laboratory studies suggested it is incapable of transmi ...200818541775
topographical anatomy and measurements of selected parameters of the rat temporal bone.on the basis of dissection of 24 bones of 12 black rats a systematic anatomical description was made and measurements of selected size parameters of the temporal bone were taken. besides the main air space in the middle ear, the tympanic bulla, there are also additional air cells, namely the anterior and posterior epitympanic recesses, containing the head of the malleus and the body of the incus. on the side of the epitympanic recesses the following are easily accessible: the malleus head and th ...200818521809
[carbohydrate metabolism in the liver of rats in food deprivation and experimental diabetes].in experiments with starving rats (rattus rattus l.) and rats with alloxan-induced diabetes, the activity of enzymes and the contents of metabolites of the main metabolic pathways have been studied. it has been shown that adaptation of carbohydrate metabolism to these stress conditions has common trends: intensification of gluconeogenetic processes and glyoxylate cycle induction are observed against the background of decrease in the activities of glycolytic enzymes and the pentose phosphate path ...200818491569
effect of warfarin anticoagulant rodenticide on the blood cell counts of rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus.the effect of the warfarin ld50 on the counts of the blood cells of norway rat, rattus norvegicus and roof rat, rattus rattus from giza and qualyobia governorates was investigated in the laboratory. warfarin toxication caused significantly different blood cell counts in treated rats compared to control ones. warfarin significantly decreased the total erythrocytic count and increased the total leucocytic count of treated rats. but, it caused significant de-crease in neutrophrils, eosinophils, bas ...200718383788
using ninhydrin to detect gravesoil.some death scene investigations commence without knowledge of the location of the body and/or decomposition site. in these cases, it is necessary to locate the remains or the site where the body decomposed prior to movement. we hypothesized that the burial of a mammalian cadaver will result in the release of ninhydrin reactive nitrogen (nrn) into associated soil and that this reaction might have potential as a tool for the identification of clandestine graves. juvenile rat (rattus rattus) cadave ...200818366573
prevalence of hantavirus infection in wild rattus norvegicus and r. rattus populations of buenos aires city, determine the prevalence of infection with hantaviruses in wild rattus norvegicus and r. rattus populations in areas of buenos aires city.200818291001
habitat associations of small mammals in southern brazil and use of regurgitated pellets of birds of prey for inventorying a local fauna.we inventoried terrestrial small mammals in an agricultural area in southern brazil by using trapping and prey consumed by barn owls (tyto alba) and white-tailed kites (elanus leucurus). small mammals were trapped in three habitat types: corn fields, uncultivated fields ("capoeiras"), and native forest fragments. a total of 1,975 small mammal specimens were trapped, another 2,062 identified from the diet of barn owls, and 2,066 from the diet of white-tailed kites. both trapping and prey in the p ...200718278312
murine typhus: an unrecognized suburban vectorborne disease.murine typhus, an acute febrile illness caused by rickettsia typhi, is distributed worldwide. mainly transmitted by the fleas of rodents, it is associated with cities and ports where urban rats (rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus) are abundant. in the united states, cases are concentrated in suburban areas of texas and california. contrary to the classic rat-flea-rat cycle, the most important reservoirs of infection in these areas are opossums and cats. the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis, has ...200818260783
serologic evidence of a rickettsia akari-like infection among wild-caught rodents in orange county and humans in los angeles county, california.we detected antibodies reactive with rickettsia akari, the etiologic agent of rickettsialpox in humans and in 83 of 359 (23%) rodents belonging to several species, collected in orange county, ca. reciprocal antibody titers >1:16 to r. akari were detected in native mice and rats (peromyscus maniculatus, p. eremicus, and neotoma fuscipes) and in old world mice and rats (mus musculus, rattus rattus, and r. norvegicus), representing the first time that antibodies reactive with this agent have been d ...200718260508
severity of the effects of invasive rats on seabirds: a global review.invasive rats are some of the largest contributors to seabird extinction and endangerment worldwide. we conducted a meta-analysis of studies on seabird-rat interactions to examine which seabird phylogenetic, morphological, behavioral, and life history characteristics affect their susceptibility to invasive rats and to identify which rat species have had the largest impact on seabird mortality. we examined 94 manuscripts that demonstrated rat effects on seabirds. all studies combined resulted in ...200818254849
[johannes jacobus van loghem, editor-in-chief of the dutch journal of medicine 1947-1949 and 1954].johannes jacobus van loghem (1878-1968) had a multifaceted career in which he combined microbiology, immunology, genetics, epidemiology and hygiene. he first became a professor of tropical hygiene and later a professor of hygiene and medical enforcement. he discovered the role of house rats in the dissemination of the plague, which contributed to the fight against an epidemic on java, then the netherlands' east indies, in 1911. he was rector of the university of amsterdam at the outbreak of the ...200718225796
the dependence of interspecific differences in the histoenzymatic parameters of skin glands between norway (rattus norvegicus) and black (rattus rattus) rats on their social behavior. 200718047020
the role of roof rats ( rattus rattus) in the spread of salmonella enteritidis and s. infantis contamination in layer farms in eastern japan.the prevalence of salmonella in four layer farms in eastern japan was investigated between 2004 and 2006 to determine the role of roof rats (rattus rattus) in the epizootology of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis (s. enteritidis). persistent s. enteritidis and s. infantis contamination of the environment and pooled egg samples were detected in three out of four layer farms. a total of 113 (13.3%) and 158 (18.6%) out of 851 rats examined were positive for s. enteritidis and ...200817988423
efficiency of three anti-coagulant rodenticides on commensal rodents.susceptibiliy level to bromadilone, difencoum and coumtertraly anticoagulants were studied in different species of norway rat rattus norvegicus and roof rat rattus rattus trapped from el-qualyobia governorate in which the anticoagulant rodenticides were used to control rodents for long periods in some rural regions at qualyobia. complete mortality was showed for both species and sex within a standard feeding period (6 days) indicated to be susceptible to the three anticoagulant rodenticides. the ...200717926811
interference competition between introduced black rats and endemic galápagos rice rats.replicated field experiments were used to quantify and to describe the mechanism of competition between the introduced black rat rattus rattus and the endemic santiago rice rat nesoryzomys swarthi on santiago island, galápagos islands, ecuador. the removal of r. rattus significantly slowed the rate of seasonal population decline in n. swarthi. this effect was particularly evident for female, relative to male, n. swarthi and appeared to be driven solely by enhanced immigration; no other fitness o ...200717918410
bartonella strains in small mammals from dhaka, bangladesh, related to bartonella in america and europe.ecological and bacteriologic observations of small mammals captured in dhaka, bangladesh, indicated that bartonella infections occurred in high prevalence among lesser bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis), black rats (rattus rattus), and house shrews (suncus murinus). sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene of bartonella isolates showed that small mammals in bangladesh harbored a diverse assemblage of strains. some cultures were genetically related to bartonella elizabethae, a species i ...200717827381
diet variability of mediterranean insular populations of rattus rattus studied by stable isotope analysis.the black rat rattus rattus is a successful colonizer that threatens native species on numerous islands. stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to quantify the rat diet on islands off the southern french coast. samples of rat hair and faeces and their potential food were collected on each island. the nitrogen isotopic values of invertebrates and vegetation on riou (near marseille) differed from the other two islands (hyères archipelago). this was attributed to a large colony of gulls o ...200717786666
a recessive black variety of roof rat. 192317783414
a new variety of the roof rat. 192017747687
seroepidemiological survey of rodents collected at a u.s. military installation, yongsan garrison, seoul, republic of korea.a seroepidemiological study of selected rodent-borne diseases (hantavirus [seoul [seo] virus], scrub typhus [orientia tsutsugamushi], murine typhus [rickettsia typhi], and leptospirosis [leptospira interrogans]), as part of the u.s. military rodent surveillance and control program, was conducted from 2001 through 2005 at yongsan garrison, seoul, republic of korea. rodents were collected to determine the prevalence of rodent-borne diseases at a u.s. military installation in an urban environment. ...200717691691
hosts of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum koch, on southern yorke peninsula, south australia.amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum is assumed to be endemic to south-western western australia (including barrow island), queensland (excluding cape york peninsula), and new south wales, south to dubbo and barham. the species has been recorded on a range of mammalian hosts including macropods and domestic animals. in queensland, a. triguttatum triguttatum is implicated in the epidemiology of q fever. in 2000, the species was detected on southern yorke peninsula in south australia. we aimed to ide ...200717611781
establishing causes of eradication failure based on genetics: case study of ship rat eradication in ste. anne archipelago.determining the causes of a failed eradication of a pest species is important because it enables an argued adjustment of the methodologies used and the improvement of the protocols for future attempts. we examined how molecular monitoring can help distinguish between the two main reasons for an eradication failure (i.e., survival of some individuals vs. recolonization after eradication). we investigated genetic variation in seven microsatellite loci in ship rat (rattus rattus) populations from f ...200717531050
ectoparasite diversity and exposure to vector-borne disease agents in wild rodents in central coastal california.a survey of wild rodents was performed in the morro bay area of central coastal california to determine serological and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum dumler, barbet, bekker, dasch, palmer, ray, rikihisa, and rurangirwa, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner, francisella tularensis mccoy, and yersinia pestis yersin; to describe the ectoparasitic fauna on important vector-borne disease hosts; and to determine whether pathoge ...200717427705
genotoxic effects in wild rodents (rattus rattus and mus musculus) in an open coal mining area.coal is a mixture of a variety of compounds containing mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. exposure to coal is considered as an important non-cellular and cellular source of reactive oxygen species that can induce dna damage. in addition, spontaneous combustion can occur in coal mining areas, further releasing compounds with detrimental effects on the environment. in this study the comet assay was used to investigate potential genotoxic effects of coal mining activities ...200717419090
prevalence and genetic properties of salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium definitive phage type 104 isolated from rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus house rats in yokohama city, japan.salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium was isolated from the intestinal contents of rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus house rats captured at two buildings, designated buildings j and ys, in yokohama city, japan. from october 1997 to september 1998, 52 of 339 (15.3%) house rats were found to carry salmonella serovar typhimurium definitive phage type 104 (dt104). in building j, 26 of 161 (16.1%) house rats carried dt104 over the 1-year study period, compared to 26 of 178 (14.6%) rats in buildin ...200717308195
infection by trypanosomes in marsupials and rodents associated with human dwellings in ecuador.small mammals trapped in domestic and peridomestic environments of rural ecuador were screened for trypanosome infection by direct microscopy and hemoculture. identification of species of trypanosomes was then performed by morphological characteristics and by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays. of 194 animals collected, 15 were positive for infection (7.73%). eight (4.12%) were infected with trypanosoma cruzi (1 of 33 didelphis marsupialis; 7 of 61 rattus rattus). eleven r. rattus (18.03%) h ...200617304802
unit character inheritance of color in the black rat, mus rattus l. 192617246466
genetic differentiation among karyotypic forms of the black rat, rattus rattus.the black rat, rattus rattus, consists of five karyotypic forms-2n = 42 (high c-banding); 2n = 42 (low c-banding); 2n = 40; 2n = 38; 2n = 42 mauritius. here, we use isozyme electrophoresis and microcomplement fixation to elucidate the genetic distance and phylogenetic relationship among each of the various karyotypic forms of r. rattus and r. norvegicus . the results show that (1) the 2n = 42 mauritius black rat (2n = 42mau) is genetically very similar to the 2n = 38 form, suggesting that this i ...198317246185
a comparison of statistical tests for detecting differential expression using affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays.signal quantification and detection of differential expression are critical steps in the analysis of affymetrix microarray data. many methods have been proposed in the literature for each of these steps. the goal of this paper is to evaluate several signal quantification methods (gcrma, rsvd, vsn, mas5, and resolver) and statistical methods for differential expression (t test, cyber-t, sam, lpe, rankproducts, resolver ratiobuild). our particular focus is on the ability to detect differential exp ...200617233564
the potential role of rattus rattus in enzootic cycle of rift valley fever in egypt 2-application of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) in blood samples of rattus rattus.a reverse transcriptase -polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was applied to detect rift valley fever virus (rvf-v) in blood samples of rattus rattus (r. rattus) collected from 3 different governorates of egypt, alexandria, behira and minia governorates (one hundred each). out of 300 blood samples 29(9.67%) were positive for rvf-virus by rt-pcr with higher percent in behira governorate rural areas (16%), followed by minia governorate rural areas (13.85%) while the lowest percent was in alexandria ...200217219894
the potential role of rattus rattus in enzootic cycle of rift valley fever in egypt. 1-detection of rvf antibodies in r. rattus blood samples by both enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (elisa) and immuno-diffusion technique (id).three hundreds of rattus rattus (r. rattus) were trapped from 3 different governorates of egypt (one hundred each), blood samples were withdrawal and subjected for detection of anti-rvf antibodies by both elisa and id techniques. the prevalence rate of antibodies by elisa were 88 (29.33%) positive out of 300 tested blood samples, the highest rate was in behira governorate 36 (36%) and the lowest one was in alexandria governorate 22 (22%) while it was 30 (30%) in minia governorate. but when id te ...200117216936
population distribution and zoonotic potential of gastrointestinal helminths of wild rats rattus rattus and r. norvegicus from jamaica.the population distribution and zoonotic potential of gastrointestinal helminths in a naturally infected population of wild rats (rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus) in jamaica are described. one hundred and thirty (29.7%) of 437 rats captured in the study were infected: 104 (35%) of 297 r. rattus compared with 26 (18.6%) of 140 r. norvegicus. nine species of gastrointestinal helminths were recovered: raillietina sp. (0.2%), trichuris sp. (0.2%), rictularia sp. (0.7%), syphacia obvelata (1.1%), ...200617152943
identification of sex-associated protein in the preputial gland of house rat (a new insight in rodent pest management).our recent findings revealed that the preputial gland of male house rat contains 20 kda protein, however, the role of androgen in the production of this protein is not known. hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the androgen dependency of 20 kda protein in the preputial gland of house rat (rattus rattus) and to compare its presence in female clitoral gland. further, on castration the amount of glandular protein in male was significantly decreased to a certain extent, while testos ...200617063626
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