PMID(sorted descending)
urinary lipocalin protein in a female rodent with correlation to phases in the estrous cycle: an experimental study accompanied by in silico analysis.male urinary lipocalin family proteins, practically odorant-binding proteins but also could be pheromones by themselves, in rodents act as a shuttle for chemosignal communication and facilitate delivery of the signals for access to congeners. however, presence of this protein in urine of female rodents has not yet been reported. therefore, the present investigation was carried out to find if lipocalin family protein is present in the urine of female house rat and, if so, to find whether its expr ...201323967199
biodiversity and macroparasitic distribution of the wild rat population of carey island, klang.a study to determine the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites and endoparasites infesting wild rat population of carey island was carried out from june to december 2010. a total of 81 rats were captured from various locations on carey island. four rat species were identified namely, rattus tiomanicus (45.7%), rattus rattus diardii (25.9%), rattus argentiventer (16%) and rattus norvegicus (12.3%). low diversity of ecto and endoparasites were observed infecting the rodent population with 8 ...201323959485
molecular characterization of leishmania spp. in reservoir hosts in endemic foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in iran.zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (zcl) is an expanding disease and a public health issue in iran. in the present study, rate of natural infection of rodent populations with leishmania was investigated in six endemic foci including 28 villages in golestan, esfahan, yazd, fars, khuzestan and ilam provinces. a total of 593 rodents were captured and identified as rhombomys opimus (n = 325), meriones libycus (n = 171), meriones persicus (n = 27), tatera indica (n = 37), nesokia indica (n = 12), rattu ...201323951928
angiostrongylus cantonensis and rat lungworm disease in brazil.the metastrongyloid nematode genus angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, angiostrongylus costaricensis and angiostrongylus cantonensis. the first was described from costa rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the americas, including in brazil. angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from canton, china, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. the natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the ...201323901376
small mammals as hosts of leishmania spp. in a highly endemic area for zoonotic leishmaniasis in north-eastern brazil.leishmania parasites cause leishmaniasis in humans and animals worldwide. these parasites are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, which become infected upon feeding on an infected mammalian host. we assessed the occurrence of leishmania infection in small mammals in an area of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis endemicity.201323868744
development of eimeria nieschulzi (coccidia, apicomplexa) gamonts and oocysts in primary fetal rat cells.the in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some eimeria species. for several mammalian eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. this study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the bla ...201323862053
calodium hepaticum (nematoda: capillariidae) in synanthropic rodents (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) in eastern amazonia.calodium hepaticum (syn. capillaria hepatica) is a trichurid nematode that parasitizes the hepatic parenchyma of rodents and other mammals. infections in humans are rare, although they have been reported worldwide. a number of factors contribute to the distribution of this zoonosis, particularly the presence of dense populations of rodents associated with relatively poor urban environments, such as those found in parts of the northern brazilian city of belém in the eastern amazon basin. this stu ...201323856730
toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in urban rodents: a survey in niamey, niger.a serological survey of toxoplasma gondii was conducted on 766 domestic and peridomestic rodents from 46 trapping sites throughout the city of niamey, niger. a low seroprevalence was found over the whole town with only 1.96% of the rodents found seropositive. however, differences between species were important, ranging from less than 2% in truly commensal mastomys natalensis, rattus rattus and mus musculus, while garden-associated arvicanthis niloticus displayed 9.1% of seropositive individuals. ...201323828008
detection of enzootic plague foci in peninsular india.a continuous serological and bacteriological surveillance in rodents was carried out in peninsular india i.e. andhra pradesh, karnataka and tamil nadu to detect the role of different species of rodents in the maintenance of active enzootic plague foci. live rodents were collected from wild and ruderal/peri-domestic situations by digging and trapping for sera and organ samples. during 1989 to 2007 serological evidence of plague was detected in different species of rodents in peninsular india. pla ...201123781629
plague circulation and population genetics of the reservoir rattus rattus: the influence of topographic relief on the distribution of the disease within the madagascan focus.landscape may affect the distribution of infectious diseases by influencing the population density and dispersal of hosts and vectors. plague (yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent, re-emerging disease, the ecology of which has been scarcely studied in africa. human seroprevalence data for the major plague focus of madagascar suggest that plague spreads heterogeneously across the landscape as a function of the relief. plague is primarily a disease of rodents. we therefore investigated ...201323755317
prevalence and diversity of bartonella species in commensal rodents and ectoparasites from nigeria, west africa.bartonellae are fastidious bacteria causing persistent bacteremia in humans and a wide variety of animals. in recent years there is an increasing interest in mammalian bartonelloses in general and in rodent bartonelloses in particular. to date, no studies investigating the presence of bartonella spp. in rodents and ectoparasites from nigeria were carried out.201323738028
gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites biodiversity of rattus rattus trapped from khan younis and jabalia in gaza strip, palestine.this study identified the zoonotic endo-parasites and ecto-parasites of rattus rattus. a total of 41 rats of house (black) rat and norway (brown) rat were trapped from two regions of gaza strip. after dissection, isolated protozoa, nematodes and cestodes were identified respectively according standard keys. the results showed that prevalence of intestinal parasites among rats was 24/41 (58.5%) and males were infected more than females. a high prevalence of protozoa was in autumn compared to othe ...201323697031
odour cues influence predation risk at artificial bat roosts in urban bushland.odours that accumulate from roosting can attract predators and increase predation risk. consequently, selection should favour strategies that allow prey to evade detection by predators, including changing roosts. insectivorous bats that roost in tree hollows regularly switch roosts and roost in different sized groups, strategies that would alter the accumulation of roost odours and are hypothesized to reduce predation risk. we experimentally manipulated the amount and refresh rate of roosting od ...201323637390
metal contaminated soil from mining area caused metal accumulation and biological responses in order to assess the effects of metal contamination on wildlife, we collected wild black rats (rattus sp.) from mining areas (kabwe and chingola) and a control area (lusaka) in zambia and compared metal and metallothionein (mt) levels in their tissues. furthermore, we exposed metal-contaminated soil from kabwe to laboratory wistar rats (rattus norvegicus) for one year in order to determine the accumulation factors and effects of metals caused by soil exposure. results of both the field and lab ...201323631162
high prevalence of rat hepatitis e virus in wild rats in china.serum samples from a total of 713 wild rats captured in zhanjiang city in china from december 2011 to september 2012 were investigated for the prevalence of rat hepatitis e virus (hev) by exploring rat hev-specific antibodies and rna. by an elisa based on recombinant rat hev-like particles (hev-lps), 23.3% (166/713) of the rats were positive for anti-hev igg, and 8.3% (59/713) were positive for anti-hev igm. the igg-positive rates in rattus norvegicus, bandicota indica, rattus flavipectus, rattu ...201323623690
preservation of rna and dna from mammal samples under field conditions.ecological and conservation genetics require sampling of organisms in the wild. appropriate preservation of the collected samples, usually by cryostorage, is key to the quality of the genetic data obtained. nevertheless, cryopreservation in the field to ensure rna and dna stability is not always possible. we compared several nucleic acid preservation solutions appropriate for field sampling and tested them on rat (rattus rattus) blood, ear and tail tip, liver, brain and muscle. we compared the e ...201323617785
rats, cities, people, and pathogens: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of literature regarding the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses in urban centers.urban norway and black rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) are the source of a number of pathogens responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. these pathogens include zoonotic bacteria (leptospira interrogans, yersina pestis, rickettsia typhi, bartonella spp., streptobacillus moniliformis), viruses (seoul hantavirus), and parasites (angiostrongylus cantonensis). a more complete understanding of the ecology of these pathogens in people and rats is ...201323590323
prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in humans and rodents in the caribbean region of colombia determined using araraquara and maciel virus antigens.we tested sera from 286 agricultural workers and 322 rodents in the department of córdoba, northeastern colombia, for antibodies against two hantaviruses. the sera were analysed by indirect elisa using the lysate of vero e6 cells infected with maciel virus (macv) or the n protein of araraquara virus (arav) as antigens for the detection of antibodies against hantaviruses. twenty-four human sera were igg positive using one or both antigens. we detected anti-macv igg antibodies in 10 sera (3.5%) an ...201323579795
establishment of a molecular tool for blood meal identification in establish a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique based on cytochrome b (cytb) gene of mitochondria dna (mtdna) for blood meal identification.201223569902
leptospirosis risk increases with changes in species composition of rat populations.rats are major reservoirs of leptospirosis and considered as a main threat to biodiversity. a recent introduction of rattus rattus to the island of futuna (western polynesia) provided the opportunity to test if a possible change in species composition of rat populations would increase the risk of leptospirosis to humans. we trapped rodents on wallis and futuna and assessed leptospira carriage in 357 rodents (rattus norvegicus, r. rattus, rattus exulans, and mus domesticus) from 2008 to 2012. whi ...201323535996
spotted fever group rickettsia in small rodents from areas of low endemicity for brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of minas gerais state, brazil.we investigated the humoral immune response against different species of rickettsia in serum samples from small rodents collected in two areas of a silent focus for brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of minas gerais state, brazil. sera samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antigens from rickettsia species of the spotted fever, ancestral, and transition groups. titers ≥ 1:64 were considered positive. in santa cruz do escalvado, 94% (30 of 32) of the samples c ...201323509125
perfluoroalkyl substances in the blood of wild rats and mice from 47 prefectures in japan: use of samples from nationwide specimen bank.numerous studies have reported on the global distribution, persistence, fate, and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (pfass). however, studies on pfass in terrestrial mammals are scarce. rats can be good sentinels of human exposure to toxicants because of their habitat, which is in close proximity to humans. furthermore, exposure data measured for rats can be directly applied for risk assessment because many toxicological studies use rodent models. in this study, a nationw ...201323494483
analysis of gamasid mites (acari: mesostigmata) associated with the asian house rat, rattus tanezumi (rodentia: muridae) in yunnan province, southwest china.during a survey lasting from 1990 to 2008, we captured 4,113 asian house rats, rattus tanezumi temminck 1844 (rodentia: muridae) from 28 counties of yunnan province in southwestern china. from these rats, a total of 19,304 gamasid mites (acari: mesostigmata) were collected and identified as comprising 50 different species. the species diversity of gamasid mites from this single rat species is higher than that reported previously from multiple hosts within a given geographical region. of the 50 m ...201323471780
[association of the morphophysiology and the ectoparasite load found in two rat populations (rattus sp.) in la habana province].some physioecological responses from rodents may be registered through the study of morphological indexes, which is an important factor for the control of rodents.201323424799
isolation and molecular characterization of leptospira interrogans and leptospira borgpetersenii isolates from the urban rat populations of kuala lumpur, malaysia.rats are considered the principal maintenance hosts of leptospira. the objectives of this study were isolation and identification of leptospira serovars circulating among urban rat populations in kuala lumpur. three hundred urban rats (73% rattus rattus and 27% r. norvegicus) from three different sites were trapped. twenty cultures were positive for leptospira using dark-field microscopy. r. rattus was the dominant carrier (70%). polymerase chain reaction (pcr) confirmed that all isolates were p ...201323358635
body composition and amino acid concentrations of select birds and mammals consumed by cats in northern and central california.the diet of the feral domestic cat consists of primarily birds and small mammals, but the nutritional composition is relatively unknown. because of the increasing popularity of natural diets for cats and other wild captive carnivores, the purpose of this study was to describe the body composition and aa concentrations of select birds and small mammals in northern and central california: wild-caught mice (n = 7), norway rats (n = 2), roof rats (n = 2), voles (n = 4), moles (n = 2), gophers (n = 3 ...201323348686
serologic evidence for circulating orthopoxviruses in peridomestic rodents from rural uganda.the prevalence of orthopoxviruses (opxv) among wildlife, including monkeypox virus (mpxv), remains largely unknown. outbreaks of human monkeypox in central africa have been associated with hunting, butchering, and consuming infected forest animals, primarily rodents and primates. monkeypox cases have not been reported in east africa, where human contact with wildlife is more limited. whether this lack of human disease is due to the absence of mpxv in rodents is unknown. however, testing of wildl ...201323307378
cytonuclear discordance among southeast asian black rats (rattus rattus complex).black rats are major invasive vertebrate pests with severe ecological, economic and health impacts. remarkably, their evolutionary history has received little attention, and there is no firm agreement on how many species should be recognized within the black rat complex. this species complex is native to india and southeast asia. according to current taxonomic classification, there are three taxa living in sympatry in several parts of thailand, cambodia and lao people's democratic republic, wher ...201323278980
feed-through insecticides for the control of the sand fly phlebotomus argentipes.three rodent feed-through studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides to control phlebotomus argentipes (diptera: psychodidae). the initial test evaluated diflubenzuron, eprinomectin, fipronil and ivermectin as feed-through treatments in rattus rattus (rodentia: muridae). in the preliminary trial, all four insecticides yielded 100% mortality of p. argentipes larvae within 20 days of exposure to treated rodent faeces. based upon the initial results, fipronil was evaluated furt ...201223278322
seasonal abundance and epidemiological indices of potential plague vectors dinopsyllus lypusus (siphonaptera: hystrichopsyllidae) and ctenophthalmus calceatus (siphonaptera: ctenophthalmidae) on rodents captured from three habitat types of hatcliffe and dzivarasekwa suburbs of harare, zimbabwe.the seasonal abundance of dinopsyllus lypusus jordan and rothschild and ctenophthalmus calceatus waterson (potential vectors of plague in southern africa) were studied on rodent hosts captured in selected habitat types of two periurban suburbs of harare, zimbabwe. removal trapping was used to capture the rodents, from which fleas were collected and identified. prevalence (proportion of animals infested) and specific flea index (sfi = number of fleas per animal) were calculated for each species o ...201223270175
prevalence of schistosoma japonicum in wild rodents in five islands of the west dongting lake, estimate the prevalence of schistosoma japonicum in field rodents, we conducted surveys of s. japonicum infection on 5 islands in the west dongting lake, china: julinyuan, jiangjiazui, longwangmiao, goutouzhou, and niujiaojian. thirty-five rattus flavipectus, 43 rattus norvegicus, 42 rattus rattus , and 48 microtus fortis were captured and examined from july to august 2011. schistosoma japonicum was found in the 3 rat species but not in the vole m. fortis . no statistically significant differ ...201323259921
beyond an aflp genome scan towards the identification of immune genes involved in plague resistance in rattus rattus from madagascar.genome scans using amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) markers became popular in nonmodel species within the last 10 years, but few studies have tried to characterize the anonymous outliers identified. this study follows on from an aflp genome scan in the black rat (rattus rattus), the reservoir of plague (yersinia pestis infection) in madagascar. we successfully sequenced 17 of the 22 markers previously shown to be potentially affected by plague-mediated selection and associated with ...201323237097
anthropogenic subsidies mitigate environmental variability for insular rodents.the exogenous input of nutrients and energy into island systems fuels a large array of consumers and drives bottom-up trophic cascades in island communities. the input of anthropogenic resources has increased on islands and particularly supplemented non-native consumers with extra resources. we test the hypothesis that the anthropogenic establishments of super-abundant gulls and invasive iceplants carpobrotus spp. have both altered the dynamics of an introduced black rat rattus rattus population ...201323223862
influence of risk factors on renal leptospiral load in naturally infected wild black 2009, a survey was conducted in reunion island to determine the renal leptospiral load in black rats trapped in the field. the concentration of leptospires in kidney tissue was calculated using qpcr. our results showed high inter-individual variations of renal bacterial load in naturally infected black rats (mean=8.27 ± 4.72 log-genome copies per mg kidney tissue). the objective of this study was to model the renal leptospiral load in 50 naturally infected black rats as a function of sex, age ...201323220230
invasion genetics of the introduced black rat (rattus rattus) in senegal, west understanding of the evolutionary history and dynamics of invasive species is required for the construction of predictive models of future spread and the design of biological management measures. the black rat (rattus rattus) is a major vertebrate invader with a worldwide distribution. despite the severe ecological, economic and health impacts of this species, its evolutionary history has been little studied. we carried out extensive specimen sampling in senegal, west africa, and used microsa ...201323206272
prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in kuala lumpur, malaysia.a survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in urban area of kuala lumpur, malaysia. a total of 137 stool and blood samples were collected from wild rats from sentul and chow kit areas. five species of rats were captured and supplied by kuala lumpur city hall. the most common was rattus rattus diardii (malayan black rat), 67%, followed by rattus norvegicus (norway rat), 10%, rattus argentiventer (rice-field rat), 10%, rattus tiomanicus ...201223202599
xenopsylla spp. (siphonaptera: pulicidae) in murid rodents from the canary islands: an update.the geographical and host distributions of xenopsylla fleas parasitizing murid rodents on the canary islands have been reported. three xenopsylla species, x. cheopis, x. brasiliensis and x. guancha, have been detected on two rodents species, mus musculus and rattus rattus. x. guancha has been the most prevalent species detected, specifically on m. musculus, the most abundant rodent, but it has been detected only on three eastern islands, where the species is endemic. x. cheopis has been shown to ...201223193528
validation of a poisson-distributed limiting dilution assay (lda) for a rapid and accurate resolution of multiclonal infections in natural trypanosoma cruzi populations.trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of american trypanosomiasis, a complex zoonotic disease that affects more than 10million people in the americas. strains of this parasite possess a significant amount of genetic variability and hence can be divided into at least six discrete typing units (dtus). the life cycle of this protist suggests that multiclonal infections may emerge due to the likelihood of contact of triatomine insects with more than 100 mammal species. to date, there have been a ...201323159798
cross-sectional study of leptospira seroprevalence in humans, rats, mice, and dogs in a main tropical sea-port city.samples were collected from 128 symptomatic humans, 83 dogs, 49 mice, and 20 rats (rattus rattus: 16; rattus norvegicus: 4) in neighborhoods where human leptospirosis have been reported within the principal sea-port city of colombia. seroprevalences were assessed against 19 pathogenic, 1 intermediate pathogenic, and 1 saprophytic leptospira serogroups. pathogenic leptospira were confirmed using conventional leptospira-specific polymerase chain-reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analys ...201323149584
verification of natural infection of peridomestic rodents by pcv2 on commercial swine farms.the porcine circovirus-2 (pcv2) is the main agent responsible for porcine circovirus associated diseases (pcvad). few studies have been done regarding pcv2 infection in other species. the purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of pcv2 infection in the peridomestic rodent species mus musculus and rattus rattus on commercial pig farms in brazil. immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated pcv2 in the spleen, lung and kidney. viral dna was detected in tissues by nested pcr assay. parti ...201323141170
improving pcr detection of prey in molecular diet studies: importance of group-specific primer set selection and extraction protocol performances.while the morphological identification of prey remains in predators' faeces is the most commonly used method to study trophic interactions, many studies indicate that this method does not detect all consumed prey. polymerase chain reaction-based methods are increasingly used to detect prey dna in the predator food bolus and have proven efficient, delivering highly accurate results. when studying complex diet samples, the extraction of total dna is a critical step, as polymerase chain reaction (p ...201323134438
southern plains woodrats (neotoma micropus) from southern texas are important reservoirs of two genotypes of trypanosoma cruzi and host of a putative novel trypanosoma species.trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of chagas' disease, is an important public health and veterinary pathogen. although human cases are rare in the united states, infections in wildlife, and in some areas domestic dogs, are common. in 2008 and 2010, we investigated t. cruzi prevalence in possible vertebrate reservoirs in southern texas, with an emphasis on southern plains woodrats (neotoma micropus). infection status was determined using a combination of culture isolation, polymerase chain re ...201323127189
body temperatures of selected amphibian and reptile species.ectothermic vertebrates are a diverse group of animals that rely on external sources to maintain a preferred body temperature. amphibians and reptiles have a preferred optimal temperature zone that allows for optimal biological function. physiologic processes in ectotherms are influenced by temperature; these animals have capabilities in which they make use of behavioral and physiologic mechanisms to thermoregulate. core body, ambient air, body surface, and surface/water temperatures were obtain ...201223082515
endemic angiostrongyliasis in the brazilian amazon: natural parasitism of angiostrongylus cantonensis in rattus rattus and r. norvegicus, and sympatric giant african land snails, achatina fulica.angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is one etiological agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. this zoonosis is frequently found in asia and, more recently, in north america, caribbean island and northeastern of south america. until now, research of a. cantonensis in southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of brazil has been found natural infections only terrestrial and freshwater intermediate snail hosts (achatina fulica, sarasinula marginata, subulina octona, br ...201323072946
exploiting olfactory learning in alien rats to protect birds' eggs.predators must ignore unhelpful background "noise" within information-rich environments and focus on useful cues of prey activity to forage efficiently. learning to disregard unrewarding cues should happen quickly, weakening future interest in the cue. prey odor, which is rapidly investigated by predators, may be particularly appropriate for testing whether consistently unrewarded cues are ignored, and whether such behavior can be exploited to benefit prey. using wild free-ranging populations of ...201223071301
accumulation and biological effects of metals in wild rats in mining areas of zambia.the lead-zinc (pb-zn) mine in kabwe city and the copper-cobalt (cu-co) mine in the copperbelt province are major mining areas in zambia. to examine the effects of metal pollution on wildlife, wild black rats (rattus rattus and rattus tanezumi) were captured in kabwe and chingola (in the copperbelt province), and in lusaka (a noncontaminated site). wild black rats in kabwe accumulated significantly higher concentrations of pb and cd in various organs than rats from lusaka. in chingola, significan ...201323054276
effects of spatially extensive control of invasive rats on abundance of native invertebrates in mainland new zealand forests.predation on native fauna by non-native invasive mammals is widely documented, but effects of predation at the population level are rarely measured. eradication of invasive mammals from islands has led to recovery of native biota, but the benefits of controlling invasive mammal populations in settings where eradication is not feasible are less understood. we used various combinations of aerially delivered toxic bait and control measures on the ground to reduce abundances of invasive rats (rattus ...201323020670
frequent detection and characterization of hepatitis e virus variants in wild rats (rattus rattus) in hundred sixteen rats (rattus rattus) captured in indonesia from 2011 to 2012 were investigated for the prevalence of hepatitis e virus (hev)-specific antibodies and hev rna. using an elisa based on hev genotype 4 with an ad hoc cutoff value of 0.500, 18.1 % of the rats tested positive for anti-hev igg. by nested rt-pcr, 14.7 % of the rats had rat hev rna, and none were positive for hev genotype 1-4. a high hev prevalence among rats was associated with lower sanitary conditions in areas with ...201322983110
isotopic niche mirrors trophic niche in a vertebrate island invader.caution for the indiscriminate conversion of the isotopic niche into ecologic niche was recently advised. we tested the utility of the isotopic niche to answer ecological questions on oceanic islands. we compared the isotopic niches of black rats (rattus rattus) on two islands in the gulf of california, mexico: farrallón de san ignacio (fsi) and san pedro mártir (spm). both islands maintained several species of marine birds, but fsi is devoid of terrestrial vegetation and spm has several species ...201322886039
a mathematical epidemiological model of gram-negative bartonella bacteria: does differential ectoparasite load fully explain the differences in infection prevalence of rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus?we postulate that the large difference in infection prevalence, 24% versus 5%, in r. norvegicus and r. rattus, respectively, between these two co-occurring host species may be due to differences in ectoparasite and potential vector infestation rates. a compartmental model, representative of an infectious system containing these two rattus species and two ectoparasite vectors, was constructed and the coefficients of the forces of infection determined mathematically. the maximum difference obtaine ...201222873616
hantavirus infection among wild small mammals in vellore, south india.wild indigenous small mammals including 83 rodents (bandicoot and black rats, and house mice) and a shrew captured from multiple sites in vellore, south india, were tested for serological and molecular evidence of hantavirus infection. indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) using hantaan virus (htnv) antigen indicated hantavirus-reactive antibodies in 16 (19.3%) of 83 rodents (bandicoot and black rats). western blot (wb) using thailand virus (thaiv) antigen confirmed hantavirus-reactive antibod ...201322856552
transmission and shedding patterns of salmonella in naturally infected captive wild roof rats (rattus rattus) from a salmonella-contaminated layer farm.rodents play a major role in the transmission and maintenance of salmonella contamination cycles in poultry facilities. however, very limited field data are available regarding the transmission routes, infection cycle, and shedding patterns of salmonella by naturally infected wild rodents from commercial layer farms. in this study, a total of 128 resident wild roof rats (rattus ratus) were captured from a salmonella-contaminated layer facility. all roof rats were divided into 51 laboratory cages ...201222856184
evolution of nesting height in an endangered hawaiian forest bird in response to a non-native predator.the majority of bird extinctions since 1800 have occurred on islands, and non-native predators have been the greatest threat to the persistence of island birds. island endemic species often lack life-history traits and behaviors that reduce the probability of predation and they can become evolutionarily trapped if they are unable to adapt, but few studies have examined the ability of island species to respond to novel predators. the greatest threat to the persistence of the oahu elepaio (chasiem ...201222830652
presence of stenoponia tripectinata (tiraboschi, 1902) (siphonaptera, ctenophtalmidae) in murine (rodentia) from the canary islands.this article reports the geographical and host distribution of the flea stenoponia tripectinata on the canary islands. s. tripectinata is widely distributed throughout the mediterranean and north africa as a parasite of muridae rodents. to date, gran canaria is the only island of the archipelago where s. tripectinata had been found. in this report, s. tripectinata has appeared parasitizing 116 specimens of mus musculus out of a total of 660, and only 2 rattus rattus of 215 captured. all the trap ...201222807056
parasite fauna of rodents (murinae) from el hierro (canary islands, spain): a multidisciplinary approach.the parasite fauna (protozoa, helminths and insects) of the two most widespread murinae rodents in el hierro (canary islands, spain), the black rat (rattus rattus) and the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) was studied. faunistic, ecological, ecotoxicological data, as well as information on the biology of some nematode parasites of r. rattus are provided. the present work is unprecedented in the canary islands, and provides the first data on the parasite biodiversity in murinae from the archi ...201222807054
assessing spatial variation and overall density of aerially broadcast toxic bait during a rat eradication on palmyra atoll.baits containing brodifacoum rodenticide were aerially applied to eradicate invasive black rats from palmyra atoll, an important biodiversity center. bait application must be sufficient to be effective, while minimizing environmental hazards by not exceeding designated label rates, prompting our bait density assessments for two aerial drops. with few physical or human resources on this remote, uninhabited atoll, assessments were particularly challenging, requiring observations within 30 min of a ...201322773308
similarities in leptospira serogroup and species distribution in animals and humans in the indian ocean island of mayotte.our objective was to identify local animal reservoirs of leptospirosis to explain the unusual features of leptospira strains recently described among patients on the island of mayotte. by means of a microscopic agglutination test using local clinical isolates, we found that 11.2% of black rats were seropositive to leptospira, whereas 10.2% of flying foxes, 2% of lemurs, 93.1% of domestic dogs, and 87.5% of stray dogs were seropositive. as observed in humans, mini was the main serogroup circulati ...201222764304
immune responses to plague infection in wild rattus rattus, in madagascar: a role in foci persistence?plague is endemic within the central highlands of madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, rattus rattus. typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. however, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. immunity against plague a ...201222719908
novel murine norovirus-like genes in wild rodents in japan.novel murine norovirus (mnv)-like sequences were detected in 7 (14.9%) of 47 fecal and intestinal samples obtained from wild rodents in japan. sequencing and genetic analyses of the 7 mnv-like genes, 6 derived from apodemus speciosus and 1 from rattus rattus, suggested that these sequences form a cluster distinct from known mnv within genogroup v and differed even among clusters of wild rodents. considering these results, mnv might be genetically diverse depending on the host species or distribu ...201222673564
multiple cryptosporidium genotypes detected in wild black rats (rattus rattus) from northern part of a broader investigation into the potential role of black rats (rattus rattus) as disease vectors into native small mammal populations of northern australia, blood and faecal samples from wild black rats were screened by molecular methods, for piroplasms (babesia and theileria), trypanosomes and the enteric parasite cryptosporidium. while piroplasms and trypanosomes were not detected in the blood of these animals, the overall prevalence of cryptosporidium 18s rdna in faecal samples was ...201222659228
bait aggregation to reduce cost and toxin use in aerial 1080 baiting of small mammal pests in new zealand.the metabolic toxin sodium fluoroacetate ('compound 1080') is widely used for controlling introduced mammalian pests in new zealand. for large-scale operations, 1080 is distributed aerially in bait to kill brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula kerr) and ship rats (rattus rattus l.). while usually successful in reducing pest populations by > 80%, widespread distribution of toxic bait is relatively expensive and raises concerns from some members of the public. here, trials with spatial aggregat ...201222615267
invasion facilitates hybridization with introgression in the rattus rattus species complex.biological invasions result in novel species interactions, which can have significant evolutionary impacts on both native and invading taxa. one evolutionary concern with invasions is hybridization among lineages that were previously isolated, but make secondary contact in their invaded range(s). black rats, consisting of several morphologically very similar but genetically distinct taxa that collectively have invaded six continents, are arguably the most successful mammalian invaders on the pla ...201222607228
genetic characterization of okinawan black rats showing coat color polymorphisms of white spotting and melanism.we examined pelage color variation in wild populations of black rats (the rattus rattus species complex) in the yambaru forest area, northern okinawa island, ryukyu archipelago, japan. our field study revealed that 8.7% (38/438) and 0.2% (4/2500) of rats exhibited two types of coat color: white spotting and melanism, respectively. using 34 representative animals, the phylogeography of the population was inferred using a nuclear gene marker, i.e., sequences (954 bp) of the melanocortin-1 receptor ...201222531792
a new chronotype of schistosoma mansoni: adaptive optimise host-to-host transmission, digenean trematodes (parasites) synchronize their cercarial emission patterns with the aquatic activities of their vertebrate hosts. schistosoma mansoni has a strictly diurnal shedding pattern involving two circadian chronotypes: an early shedding pattern with a mean peak occurring at 11:00 h and a late pattern with a mean peak occurring at 16:00 h. we analysed the cercarial emergence pattern of three schistosome populations from oman where s. mansoni is re ...201222512397
the role of wild mammals in the maintenance of rift valley fever virus.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting primarily domestic ruminants and humans. numerous vector species are known or implicated in the transmission of rvfv. the role of mammals in the maintenance of rvfv, and the existence of a wild mammal reservoir in the epidemiologic cycle of rvfv, remain largely unknown. our objective is to present a detailed review of studies undertaken on rvfv, often associated with wild mammals, with the aim of focusing future research on potenti ...201222493102
contrasted patterns of selection on mhc-linked microsatellites in natural populations of the malagasy plague reservoir.plague (yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent rodent disease that persists in many natural ecosystems. the black rat (rattus rattus) is the main host involved in the plague focus of the central highlands of madagascar. black rat populations from this area are highly resistant to plague, whereas those from areas in which the disease is absent (low altitude zones of madagascar) are susceptible. various lines of evidence suggest a role for the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) in pla ...201222403713
helminth communities from two urban rat populations in kuala lumpur, malaysia.the prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection.201222397763
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from the fernando de noronha, brazil.abstract fernando de noronha is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the atlantic ocean, state of pernambuco, brazil, and has a varied biodiversity, including alien species or sinantropic animals. the objective here was to determine seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from fernando de noronha archipelago, brazil. between july 2007 to may 2010, blood samples were collected from 764 animals (533 domestic and 231 wild animals). sera were tested by the indirect f ...201122150091
Investigation of Chagas disease in four periurban areas in northeastern Brazil: epidemiologic survey in man, vectors, non-human hosts and reservoirs.Chagas disease was investigated in four periurban areas of Ceará state, northeastern Brazil, through serological, parasitological and molecular methods in humans, reservoirs and vectors. A cross-sectional survey revealed a seroprevalence rate of 1.2% (13/1076 residents, six also proving positive through PCR). Trypanosoma cruzi infection was not detected in children under 10 years old. Triatoma pseudomaculata prevailed in the peridomiciles: 63 specimens, 69% (34/49) infected with trypanosomatids. ...201122136953
seroprevalence of angiostrongylus cantonensis in wild rodents from the canary islands.angiostrongylus cantonensis is a lungworm of rats (muridae) that is the causative agent of human cerebral angiostrongyliasis. the life cycle of a. cantonensis involves rats and mollusks as the definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. this study was designed to increase the knowledge about the occurrence and distribution of a. cantonensis in its definitive host in the canary islands, using parasitological and serological analysis in different areas and age groups.201122110752
invasive rats and recent colonist birds partially compensate for the loss of endemic new zealand pollinators.reported declines of pollinator populations around the world have led to increasing concerns about the consequences for pollination as a critical ecosystem function and service. pollination could be maintained through compensation if remaining pollinators increase their contribution or if novel species are recruited as pollinators, but empirical evidence of this compensation is so far lacking. using a natural experiment in new zealand where endemic vertebrate pollinators still occur on one offsh ...201122090388
multiple geographic origins of commensalism and complex dispersal history of black rats.the black rat (rattus rattus) spread out of asia to become one of the world's worst agricultural and urban pests, and a reservoir or vector of numerous zoonotic diseases, including the devastating plague. despite the global scale and inestimable cost of their impacts on both human livelihoods and natural ecosystems, little is known of the global genetic diversity of black rats, the timing and directions of their historical dispersals, and the risks associated with contemporary movements. we surv ...201122073158
epidemiological factors related to the transmission risk of trypanosoma cruzi in a quilombola community, state of mato grosso do sul, brazil.this work was an epidemiological investigation of the risk of trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the rural quilombola community of furnas do dionízio, state of mato grosso do sul, brazil.201122031072
Evaluating the anti-fertility potential of a-chlorohydrin on testis and spermatozoa in the adult male wild Indian house rat (Rattus rattus).To examine the effects of a-chlorohydrin on testis and cauda epididymis in the male house rat (Rattus rattus), 24 adult male rats were segregated into two groups. Group I rats were force-fed daily by intragastric intubation with a-chlorohydrin at a single dose of 1.0 mg/100 g body weight/d for 5, 15, and 45 days. Another group was fed with distilled water, which served as the control. The treated male rats were paired with 24 adult proestrus female rats for 5 days after the last oral treatment a ...201121967454
distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the canary islands (spain).in the canary islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (cestoda) of rodents. in order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 rattus rattus, 13 rattus norvegicus and 655 mus musculus domesticus) was carried out in the whole archipelago. molecular studies based on nuclear its1 and mitochondrial coi loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation.201121943096
phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of yersinia pestis in madagascar.plague was introduced to madagascar in 1898 and continues to be a significant human health problem. it exists mainly in the central highlands, but in the 1990s was reintroduced to the port city of mahajanga, where it caused extensive human outbreaks. despite its prevalence, the phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of y. pestis in madagascar has been difficult to study due to the great genetic similarity among isolates. we examine island-wide geographic-genetic patterns based upon whole-geno ...201121931876
survey of angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and giant african land snails in phitsanulok province, survey the angiostrongylus cantonensis (a. cantonensis) or the rat lungworm in a rat, definitive host, and in a giant african land snail (achatina fulica), the intermediate host, in phitsanulok, thailand.201121914534
origin of agouti-melanistic polymorphism in wild black rats (rattus rattus) inferred from mc1r gene sequences.we examined nucleotide changes that underlie coat color variation in black rats (the rattus rattus species complex), which show polymorphism in dorsal fur color, including either grayish brown (agouti) or black (melanistic) forms. we examined the full coding sequence of a gene known to produce melanism in other vertebrates-melanocortin-1-receptor gene mc1r (954 bp) -using samples of both r. rattus (with 2n = 38) and its close relative asian black rat (r. tanezumi; 2n = 42). we used 61 specimens ...201121800996
a survey of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infection in urban rodents from brazil.abstract toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects humans and other warm blooded animals; it uses feral and domestic cats as the definitive hosts. neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals whose life cycle is very similar to t. gondii, but uses canids as definitive hosts. small rodents play an important role in the life cycle of t. gondii and a few findings indicated that they may be natural intermediate hosts for n. caninum. the present study was aimed at identifying infe ...201121790367
the influence of spatio-temporal resource fluctuations on insular rat population dynamics.local spatio-temporal resource variations can strongly influence the population dynamics of small mammals. this is particularly true on islands which are bottom-up driven systems, lacking higher order predators and with high variability in resource subsidies. the influence of resource fluctuations on animal survival may be mediated by individual movement among habitat patches, but simultaneously analysing survival, resource availability and habitat selection requires sophisticated analytical met ...201121775327
genetic impacts of anacapa deer mice reintroductions following rat eradication.the anacapa deer mouse is an endemic subspecies that inhabits anacapa island, part of channel islands national park, california. we used mitochondrial dna cytochrome c oxidase subunit ii gene (coii) and 10 microsatellite loci to evaluate the levels of genetic differentiation and variation in ôê+1400 anacapa deer mice sampled before and for 4ôçâyears after a black rat (rattus rattus) eradication campaign that included trapping, captive holding and reintroduction of deer mice. both mitochondrial a ...201121711403
the island syndrome and population dynamics of introduced rats.the island syndrome predicts directional changes in the morphology and demography of insular vertebrates, due to changes in trophic complexity and migration rates caused by island size and isolation. however, the high rate of human-mediated species introductions to some islands also increases trophic complexity, and this will reduce the perceived insularity on any such island. we test four hypotheses on the role of increased trophic complexity on the island syndrome, using introduced black rats ...201121643994
coxiella burnetii (q fever) in rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus at livestock farms and urban locations in the netherlands; could rattus spp. represent reservoirs for (re)introduction?the q fever outbreak in the netherlands in 2007-2010 prompted government interventions to reduce the human incidence by reduction of q fever shedding at dairy goat farms. mandatory hygiene measures were taken, including the control of animal reservoirs. it has been postulated that brown rats, through their commensal nature, form an important factor in the persistent dissemination of endemic circulating coxiella burnetii in nature to domestic animals, livestock and humans. here, the occurrence of ...201121640416
the current status of fleas according to environmental changes in some governorates in egypt.a preliminary survey of domestic rodent and their fleas was carried out in different environmental governorates (ismailia, dakahlia, el-fayoum, north sinai and matrouh), egypt. flea index (number of flea/rodent) and percentage frequency of different flea species were recorded in spring (2009- 2010). the main rodent species found were the norway rat, rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellied rat, rattus rattus alexandrinus, the white- bellied rat, rattus rattus frugivorus, the house mouse, mus musculus ...201121634253
chromosomal polymorphism of rattus rattus (linnaeus, 1758) (rodentia: muridae) in central this study, conventionally stained, c- and ag-nor banded karyotypes of rattus rattus from central anatolia are presented. the karyotype of the specimens from ankara and (cankiri provinces consist of 2n = 38, nf = 60 and nfa = 58 while the karyotype of kirikkale specimens consist of 2n = 38 and nfa = 59 due to a heteromorphic autosome pair. the x is a large to medium sized acrocentric and the y chromosome is a small acrocentric in all examined specimens. constitutive heterochromatin is located ...201121614964
detection of rickettsia felis and rickettsia typhi and seasonal prevalence of fleas collected from small mammals at gyeonggi province in the republic of korea.abstract fleas were collected from live-captured small mammals to identify flea-borne pathogens, host associations, and seasonal prevalence of flea species, as part of the 65th medical brigade rodent-borne disease surveillance program at 20 military installations and training sites, gyeonggi province, republic of korea, 2005-2007. a total of 1251 fleas were recovered from 2833 small mammals. apodemus agrarius, the striped field mouse, accounted for 93.1% (2,637/2,833) of all small mammals captur ...201121612536
[artyfechinostomum sufratyfex lane, 1915 (trematoda:echinostomatidae), a parasite of mammals in southern vietnam].trematoda artyfechinostomumn sufratyfex lane, 1915 was found in different mammal species of southern vietnam. original measurements of this species from domestic pig, black rat, and asian palm civet are given.201121598669
isolation and characterization of microsatellites in rattus rattus.we isolated and characterized 10 microsatellite loci in the black rat rattus rattus (muridae, rodentia), a widespread invasive species largely known to cause serious problems in agriculture and human health. polymorphism was studied in two populations, one from madagascar and one from senegal. it ranged from three to 12 alleles in madagascar, and from two to five alleles in senegal. together with the loci previously adapted from rattus norvegicus, this set of markers should allow the conduct of ...200821585929
[on the history of the spread of the black rat (rattus rattus l., 1758) in northwestern russia].data on the first reliable findings of subfossil remains of the black rat in north-western russia (vologda and vladimir oblasts) are given. the burying of the remains dates to the twelfth to thirteenth centuries. it is assumed that the spread of the black rat in the european part of russia in the middle ages was associated first of all with the development of trade.201121509989
some laelapine mites (acari: laelapidae) ectoparasitic on small mammals in the galapagos islands, including a new species of gigantolaelaps from aegialomys galapagoensis.abstract abstract: a collection of laelapine mites from small mammals in the galapagos islands is identified and their host distributions reviewed. two species of native rodents, aegialomys galapagoensis and nesoryzomys narboroughii, were infested only with laelapine species typical of neotropical oryzomyine rodents; rattus rattus was infested with laelaps nuttalli, a host-specific ectoparasite endemic to old world rattus. a synopsis of gigantolaelaps fonseca is provided and we describe a new la ...201121506821
surveys of rodent-borne disease in thailand with a focus on scrub typhus assessment.the epidemiology of many rodent-borne diseases in south-east asia remains ill-defined. scrub typhus and lep-tospirosis are common and medically significant, while other zoonotic diseases, such as spotted fever group rickettsiae have been identified, but their overall medical significance is unknown. rodent surveillance was conducted from june 2002 to july 2004 in 18 provinces from thailand. traps were set up for one to three nights. blood and serum samples and animal tissue samples (liver, splee ...200821396076
rodents as reservoirs of parasites in india.we monitored the prevalence of endoparasitic infections of rodents in punjab state, india, between january 2004 and december 2005. three species of wild rodents, namely the house rat, rattus rattus (n= 42), the lesser bandicoot rat, bandicota bengalensis (n= 34) and the indian gerbil, tatera indica (n= 15), were live-captured from houses and crop fields. examination of various organs revealed that the highest rates of endoparasitic infection occurred in r. rattus (40.5%), followed by b. bengalen ...200821396047
factors explaining the abundance of rodents in the city of luang prabang, lao pdr, as revealed by field and household surveys.a field and a household survey, the latter of which included inspections and interviews with the residents of a total of 1370 properties, were conducted in 2004 in 30 villages of the city of luang prabang, lao pdr, in order to assess the degree of rodent infestation and to identify potential factors influencing infestations. roof rats, rattus rattus, and the polynesian rat, rattus exulans, were the only rodents found in the city, and trapping results showed a clear dominance of roof rats (80-90% ...200821396046
development of a new humane toxin for predator control in new zealand.the endemic fauna of new zealand evolved in the absence of mammalian predators and their introduction has been responsible for many extinctions and declines. introduced species including possums (trichosurus vulpecula kerr), ship rats (rattus rattus l.) and stoats (mustela erminea l.) are targeted to protect native birds. control methodologies currently rely largely on labor-intensive trapping or the use of increasingly unpopular poisons, or poisons that are linked with low welfare standards. he ...201021392319
parasites of the nile rat in rural and urban regions of this investigation on endoparasites (helminths) and ectoparasites of the nile rat (arvicanthis niloticus desmarest, 1822), a total of 220 nile rats were trapped from different regions of sudan during the period january 2003-january 2006. examination of different tissues, identification of parasites, effect of these parasites on the organs, the prevalence and intensity of infestation of the parasites and their relation to the habitat of the host, and sex-related infestations were considered. r ...200921392288
cross-species surveillance of leptospira in domestic and peri-domestic animals in mahalla city, gharbeya governorate, egypt.a survey of 179 animals (black rats, dogs, sheep, buffaloes, cattle, donkeys, weasels, and cats) for leptospira infection was conducted in mahalla city (lower egypt). blood, urine, and kidney were collected and tested by culture, microscopic agglutination test (mat), and/or polymerase chain reaction (pcr). among rats, 26% were positive by pcr, including 7% that were also positive by culture for l. interrogans serovars grippotyphosa, pyrogenes, and icterohaemorrhagiae. l. borpetersenii serovar po ...201121363980
occurrence of ectoparasites on rodents in sukhothai province, northern thailand.a survey of ectoparasites on rodents was carried out bimonthly from april 2008 to march 2009 in 3 districts of sukhothai province, northern thailand. a total of 130 rodents comprising 8 species of hosts were captured and examined for ectoparasites. the hosts examined were bandicota indica, bandicota savilei, rattus losea, rattus rattus, rattus exulans, rattus norvegicus, menetes berdmorei and tamiops mcclellandii. ninety-seven ectoparasites were collected: 1 species of tick (hemaphysalis bandico ...201021329306
genetic monitoring detects an overlooked cryptic species and reveals the diversity and distribution of three invasive rattus congeners in south africa.south africa's long and extensive trade activity has ensured ample opportunities for exotic species introduction. whereas the rich biodiversity of endemic southern african fauna has been the focus of many studies, invasive vertebrates are generally overlooked despite potential impacts on biodiversity, health and agriculture. genetic monitoring of commensal rodents in south africa which uncovered the presence of rattus tanezumi, a south-east asian endemic not previously known to occur in africa, ...201121324204
epidemiological survey of angiostrongylus cantonensis in the west-central region of guangdong province, china.the study was to understand the angiostrongylus cantonensis infectious situation of rodent definitive host, snail intermediate host, and local residents in the west-central region of guangdong province in china. the snails achatina fulica and pomacea canaliculata collected from the survey place were digested with artificial gastric juice, and the third-stage larvae of a. cantonensis in the snails were examined under microscope. the heart and lung of rats captured from the survey place were taken ...201121301874
response of predominant rodent borne diseases to difethialone anticoagulant rodenticide under laboratory conditions.susceptibility level to difethialone 0.0025% anticoagulant rodenticide by bioassay method were studied (during 2009 & 2010) to the norway rat rattus norvegicus and the roof rat rattus rattus trapped from giza and menoufia governorates (g) where anticoagulant rodenticides were used to control rodents for long periods. complete mortality was obtained for both species at two governorates within 3 days no-choice feeding test period, indicated to be susceptible to difethialone. the bait consumption a ...201021268533
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