PMID(sorted descending)
rodent-borne orthohantaviruses in vietnam, madagascar and japan.hantaviruses are harbored by multiple small mammal species in asia, europe, africa, and the americas. to ascertain the geographic distribution and virus-host relationships of rodent-borne hantaviruses in japan, vietnam, myanmar, and madagascar, rnalater™-preserved lung tissues of 981 rodents representing 40 species, collected in 2011-2017, were analyzed for hantavirus rna by rt-pcr. our data showed hantaan orthohantavirus da bie shan strain in the chinese white-bellied rat (niviventer confucianu ...202134372549
social distancing measures differentially affected rats in north america and tokyo.because rats are commensal organisms that depend on human activities for food, shifts in human behavior will have pronounced effects on local rat populations. in the spring of 2020, social distancing measures were implemented globally to curtail the spread of sars-cov-2. this presented a unique opportunity to obtain information regarding the immediate effects of shifts in human behavior on rat populations in a variety of countries. in response to increased sightings of rats in the usa that were ...202134248453
black rats (rattus rattus) as potential reservoir hosts for rift valley fever phlebovirus: experimental infection results in viral replication and shedding without clinical manifestation.rift valley fever phlebovirus (rvfv) is an arthropod-borne virus that can cause severe disease in ruminants and humans. epidemics occur mainly after heavy rainfall, which leads to a significant increase in the occurrence of rvfv-transmitting mosquitoes. during inter-epidemic periods, the virus is assumed to be maintained between mosquitoes, susceptible livestock and yet unknown wildlife. the widespread rodent rattus rattus (black rat) has been suspected to be involved in rvfv maintenance. in ord ...202133794070
complete genome sequences of two rat pegivirus strains in indonesia.the entire genome sequences of two pegivirus strains recovered from serum samples of wild rats (rattus rattus) in indonesia were determined. they possessed 11,013 to 11,014 nucleotides and differed from the reported rodent pegivirus strains within the pegivirus j species of the genus pegivirus by 12.7% to 40.9% in the near-entire coding region sequences.202133737352
structural analysis of covid-19 spike protein in recognizing the ace2 receptor of different mammalian species and its susceptibility to viral infection.the pandemic covid-19 was caused by a novel coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2) that infects humans through the binding of glycosylated sars-cov-2 spike 2 protein to the glycosylated ace2 receptor. the spike 2 protein recognizes the n-terminal helices of the glycosylated metalloprotease domain in the human ace2 receptor. to understand the susceptibility of animals for infection and transmission, we did sequence and structure-based molecular interaction analysis of 16 ace2 receptors from different mammali ...202133552834
molecular characterization of encephalomyocarditis virus strains isolated from an african elephant and rats in a french november 2013, a fatal encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) case in a captive african elephant (loxodonta africana) occurred at the réserve africaine de sigean, a zoo in the south of france. here we report the molecular characterization of the emcv strains isolated from samples collected from the dead elephant and from 3 rats (rattus rattus) captured in the zoo at the same time. the emcv infection was confirmed by reverse-transcription real-time pcr (rt-rtpcr) and genome sequencing. complete gen ...202033292091
population increase and changes in behavior and morphology in the critically endangered redonda ground lizard (pholidoscelis atratus) following the successful removal of alien rats and goats.redonda is a small volcanic caribbean island that is home to at least four endemic lizard species, including the critically endangered ground lizard, pholidoscelis atratus. black rats (rattus rattus) and domestic goats (capra hircus) were introduced to the island at some time after its discovery by europeans in the late 1500s. they had a devastating effect on the island, resulting in the loss of nearly all trees and most of the ground vegetation. point count surveys of p. atratus in 2012 indicat ...202033166046
differential immune gene expression associated with contemporary range expansion in two invasive rodents in senegal.biological invasions are major anthropogenic changes associated with threats to biodiversity and health. however, what determines the successful establishment and spread of introduced populations remains unclear. here, we explore several hypotheses linking invasion success and immune phenotype traits, including those based on the evolution of increased competitive ability concept. we compared gene expression profiles between anciently and recently established populations of two major invading sp ...202033106535
wild black rats (rattus rattus linnaeus, 1758) as zoomonitor of genotoxicity and systemic toxicity induced by hazardous emissions from abule egba unsanitary landfill, lagos, nigeria.wild black rats (rattus rattus) inhabiting abule egba landfill (ael) were used as zoomonitor to assess health risk associated with exposure to hazardous chemicals from landfills. twenty five r. rattus (16♂ and 9♀) captured within ael and 15 (9♂ and 6♀) (control) caught from iyano ipaja (10 km away from ael) were examined for bone marrow micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mnpce) and polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (pce/nce) ratio, abnormal sperm morphology, alterati ...202033098559
helminth fauna of small mammals from public parks and urban areas in bangkok metropolitan with emphasis on community ecology of infection in synanthropic 2018, extensive field studies of diversity and prevalence of helminth infection in synanthropic rodents and non-rodent small mammals from public parks and citified areas in the bangkok metropolitan were conducted. rattus rattus complex was the dominant small mammal in public parks. of the 197 animals, 147 individuals were infected with one or more species of helminths, yielding an infection prevalence of 74.6%. twenty-five species of helminths were recovered during necropsy. pterygodermatites ...202033001253
climate oscillation and the invasion of alien species influence the oceanic distribution of seabirds.spatial and temporal distribution of seabird transiting and foraging at sea is an important consideration for marine conservation planning. using at-sea observations of seabirds (n = 317), collected during the breeding season from 2012 to 2016, we built boosted regression tree (brt) models to identify relationships between numerically dominant seabird species (red-footed booby, brown noddy, white tern, and wedge-tailed shearwater), geomorphology, oceanographic variability, and climate oscillatio ...202032953065
visceral leishmaniasis in saudi arabia: from hundreds of cases to zero.the kingdom of saudi arabia (ksa) has succeeded in bringing the reported numbers of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) cases from hundreds during the 1980s and 1990s to zero case in 2019. the endemicity of vl has been confined mainly to the southwest regions, namely jazan and aseer regions. leishmania donovani species have been identified as the causative species of vl, while l. infantum have been isolated only from dogs in the endemic areas. many species of sand flies were caught in southwest, but p. ...202032950481
seoul orthohantavirus in wild black rats, senegal, 2012-2013.hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever in humans worldwide. however, few hantavirus surveillance campaigns occur in africa. we detected seoul orthohantavirus in black rats in senegal, although we did not find serologic evidence of this disease in humans. these findings highlight the need for increased surveillance of hantaviruses in this region.202032946728
redescription and molecular characterization of sarcocysts of sarcocystis cymruensis from norway rats (rattus norvegicus) and sarcocystis ratti from black rats (r. rattus) in the present study, sarcocysts of sarcocystis cymruensis were found in four of 42 (9.5%) norway rats and those of s. ratti were observed in six of 60 (10%) black rats in china. with light microscopy, the sarcocysts of the two parasites were microscopic, and had smooth, thin cyst walls (≤ 1 μm). ultrastructurally, the sarcocysts of s. cymruensis had small, osmiophilic, bleb-like protrusions, similar to type 1c; those of s. ratti had a cyst wall with regular, short, conical protrusions, similar ...202032944798
efficacy of management and monitoring methods to prevent post-harvest losses caused by rodents.the presence of pest rodents around food production and storage sites is one of many underlying problems contributing to food contamination and loss, particularly influencing food and nutrition security in low-income countries. by reducing both pre- and post-harvest losses by rodents, millions of food-insecure people would benefit. as there are limited quantitative data on post-harvest rice losses due to rodents, our objectives were to assess stored rice losses in local households from eight rur ...202032917037
diversity of cryptosporidium spp. in wild rodents from the canary islands, spain.cryptosporidium spp. are worldwide protozoan parasites which include species that can lead to cryptosporidiosis in humans. different animal species can serve as reservoirs and sources of dissemination of the disease, such as rodent species due their potential in transmitting zoonotic pathogens to humans and other animals. in the canary islands (spain), cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium hominis have been identified in patients with diarrhea. however, the occurrence of cryptosporidium spp ...202032887646
trypanosoma cruzi infection in domestic and synanthropic mammals such as potential risk of sylvatic transmission in a rural area from north of antioquia, colombia, dogs and opossum are the most important mammals in domestic and sylvatic t. cruzi transmission. however, the role of both species has not been evaluated in areas where both species converge in the peridomestic area. to evaluate the infection status of domestic and wild mammals in peridomestic habitats of puerto valdivia, antioquia department. the infection of domestic dogs and small wild mammals was performed by hemoculture, molecular and serological methods. additionally, the infec ...202032875129
an investigation of potential health risks from zoonotic bacterial pathogens associated with farm rats.the 21st century has seen a wide range of diseases resulting from zoonotic infections, of which bacterial infections have led to outbreaks of food-borne diseases.202032874093
multilocus sequence typing reveals diverse known and novel genotypes of leptospira spp. circulating in sri lanka.leptospirosis has gained much attention in sri lanka since its large outbreak in 2008. however, most of the cases were clinically diagnosed and information on leptospira genotypes and serotypes currently prevailing in the country is lacking.202032841248
molecular survey of bartonella spp. in rodents and fleas from chile.the aim of this study was to molecularly survey bartonella spp. in rodents from the valdivia province, southern chile and from wild black rat-fleas in guafo island, chilean patagonia. thrity-three spleens from synanthropic (mus musculus, rattus novergicus and rattus rattus) and wild (abrothrix longipilis, oligoryzomys longicaudatus, abrothrix sp.) rodents from valdivia and 39 fleas/flea-pools (plocopsylla sp. and nosopsyllus sp.) from r. rattus in guafo island were obtained. all samples were scr ...202032835672
rickettsiae exposure related to habitats of the oriental house rat (rattus tanezumi, temminck, 1844) in salaya suburb, thailand.rickettsial zoonotic diseases, in particular scrub typhus, murine typhus, and tick typhus, are caused by orientia tsutsugamushi, rickettsia typhi, and rickettsia honei infections. rickettsiae exposure is typically related to a rodent host in various habitats of marginal regions, including between rural areas and communities such as the salaya suburb. this allows the oriental house rat (ohr), a highly adaptive species, to live in close proximity to the community and possibly introduce rickettsial ...202032793413
first mtdna sequences and body measurements for rattus norvegicus from the mediterranean island of cyprus.invasive species are the primary driver of island taxa extinctions and, among them, those belonging to the genus rattus are considered as the most damaging. the presence of black rat (rattus rattus) on cyprus has long been established, while that of brown rat (rattus norvegicus) is dubious. this study is the first to provide molecular and morphological data to document the occurrence of r. norvegicus in the island of cyprus. a total of 223 black rats and 14 brown rats were collected. each sample ...202032764388
a vkorc1-based snp survey of anticoagulant rodenticide resistance in the house mouse, norway rat and roof rat in the usa.we conducted a vitamin k epoxide reductase subcomponent 1 (vkorc1)-based nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nssnp) screen with focus on the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus), but that also considered the norway rat (rattus norvegicus) and roof rat (r. rattus) in the usa.202032687688
molecular characterization of trypanosoma cruzi and leishmania spp. coinfection in mammals of venezuelan coendemic areas.trypanosoma cruzi and leishmania spp. are protozoans that cause american trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, respectively. in endemic foci where both diseases coincide, coinfection can occur. the objective of this work was the characterization of the parasites involved in coinfection in several endemic areas of venezuela.202032655075
baiting location affects anticoagulant rodenticide exposure of non-target small mammals on farms.commensal rodents such as norway rats (rattus norvegicus berk.), black rats (r. rattus l.) and house mice (mus musculus l.) damage stored produce and infrastructure, cause hygienic problems and transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. the management of commensal rodents relies mainly on the use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ars). ars are persistent and bio-accumulative, which can cause exposure of non-target species. we compared the baiting strategies to use brodifacoum (br) in bait boxes indoors ...202032633096
molecular characterization and novel genotypes of enterocytozoon bieneusi in pet snakes in beijing, china.little is known regarding the enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in snakes worldwide. in the present study, a total of 273 fecal samples were collected from pet snakes in beijing, china. they were then tested for the presence of e. bieneusi by pcr amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (its) gene. the overall infection rate of e. bieneusi was 4.4% (12/273), with the highest infection rate (20%, 1/5) of e. bieneusi was found in the black rat snake (pantherophis obsoletus), whereas no pos ...202032612925
helminths of urban rats in developed countries: a systematic review to identify research gaps.although black (rattus rattus) and brown (rattus norvegicus) rats are among the most widespread synanthropic wild rodents, there is a surprising scarcity of knowledge about their ecology in the urban ecosystem. in particular, relatively few studies have investigated their helminth species diversity in such habitat. we followed the prisma (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis) guideline to synthesize the existing published literature regarding the helminth fauna of u ...202032607706
prevalence and detail morphological identification of helminths of murine rodents in dhaka city, bangladesh.rodents are common pests that transmit various deadly pathogens to humans. here we have studied the helminth parasites of rodents from different ecological niches in dhaka city, bangladesh. the gastrointestinal helminths were investigated from a total of 70 rodents, namely bandicota bengalensis (20), rattus rattus (15), rattus norvegicus (25) and mus musculus (10). the rodents were live-captured from houses in the slum areas (20), stationary shops (20), residential buildings (15) and rice fields ...202032592456
molecular survey for cyst-forming coccidia (toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, sarcocystis spp.) in mediterranean periurban micromammals.rodents and other micromammals constitute important reservoirs of infectious diseases; their role in the life cycle of apicomplexan parasites such as toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, and sarcocystis spp. still needs clarification. in the present study, we analyzed by pcr and sanger sequencing methods the presence of specific parasite dna within brain and heart tissues of 313 individuals of five synanthropic small mammal species (apodemus sylvaticus, mus spretus, m. musculus, rattus rattus, a ...202032588173
rapidrat: development, validation and application of a genotyping-by-sequencing panel for rapid biosecurity and invasive species management.invasive alien species (ias) are among the main causes of global biodiversity loss. invasive brown (rattus norvegicus) and black (r. rattus) rats, in particular, are leading drivers of extinction on islands, especially in the case of seabirds where >50% of all extinctions have been attributed to rat predation. eradication is the primary form of invasive rat management, yet this strategy has resulted in a ~10-38% failure rate on islands globally. genetic tools can help inform ias management, but ...202032555734
pathogenic leptospira species in rodents from corsica (france).leptospirosis is a worldwide emerging zoonotic disease caused by leptospira species, that in some patients develop severe forms with high mortality. in france, corsica is the area where the highest incidences have been reported. the present study was focused on the analysis of pathogenic leptospira species in rodents of corsica, as these micromammals are the main natural reservoirs of the bacteria, in order to identify the circulating species and to locate possible risk focuses of transmission, ...202032502160
leishmaniasis in saudi arabia: current situation and future perspectives.leishmaniasis is endemic in saudi arabia with cases reported in many regions. this review refers to publications on leishmaniasis in saudi arabia and discusses issues related to parasite species, clinical manifestation and diagnosis.202032494284
rattus population genomics across the haida gwaii archipelago provides a framework for guiding invasive species management.invasive species have led to precipitous declines in biodiversity, especially in island systems. brown (rattus norvegicus) and black rats (r. rattus) are among the most invasive animals on the planet, with eradication being the primary tool for established island populations. the need for increased research for defining eradication units and monitoring outcomes has been highlighted as a means to maximize success. haida gwaii is an archipelago ~100 km off the northern coast of british columbia, c ...202032431741
molecular characterization of calodium hepaticum in grey dwarf hamster (cricetulus migratorius).calodium hepaticum (bancroft, 1893) moravec, 1982 (syn. capillaria hepatica) is a zoonotic nematode that causes hepatic capillariosis, an uncommon zoonotic infection. the nematode is globally distributed and parasitizes the liver of mammals, mainly muroidea. cricetulus migratorius pallas, 1773 (cricetinae) was rarely reported as a host for c. hepaticum. in turkey, c. hepaticum was recorded in three rodent species; rattus rattus, r. norvegicus, and apodemus flavicollis. in this study, c. migrator ...202032407938
rats as potential reservoirs for neglected zoonotic bartonella species in flanders, belgium.bartonella spp. are vector-borne pathogens transmitted to humans via blood-sucking arthropods. rodents such as the black rat (rattus rattus) and norway rat (r. norvegicus) are thought to be the main reservoirs. an infection with rodent-associated bartonella spp. may cause severe symptoms in humans such as endocarditis and neuroretinitis. the current knowledge of bartonella prevalence in rats from western europe is scarce.202032381113
the expanded role of roof-rats (rattus rattus) in salmonella spp. contamination of a commercial layer farm in east japan.rodents serve as amplifiers of salmonella infections in poultry flocks and can serve as a source of salmonella contamination in the environment even after thorough cleaning and disinfection. this study aims to determine the dynamics of salmonella occurrence in rodents and its relation to salmonella contamination in the layer farm environment, including air dusts and eggs. from 2008 to 2017, roof rats (rattus rattus), environmental swabs, air dusts, and eggs were collected from an intensive comme ...202032267124
zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths in rodent communities in southern guatemala.rodents are reservoirs and hosts of several pathogens around the world, including zoonotic parasite species. this study aimed to determine the occurrence of zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths in rodents captured inside households in a rural community from southern guatemala. sixty-nine rodents were captured in 33% (49/148) of the surveyed households, including rattus rattus, rattus norvegicus, mus musculus, and sigmodon hispidus. thirty-six percent (25/69) of these rodents (3 rattus and 22 mus ...202032227228
forest edges affect ectoparasite infestation patterns of small mammalian hosts in fragmented forests in madagascar.habitat loss and fragmentation drive the worldwide depletion of biodiversity. although it is known that anthropogenic disturbances severely affect host and ecosystem integrity, effects on parasites are largely understudied. this study aims to investigate if and how habitat fragmentation affects the composition of ectoparasite communities on small mammalian hosts in two networks of dry deciduous forest fragments in northwestern madagascar. forest sites differing in size, proportion of edge habita ...202032224123
ship rats and island reptiles: patterns of co-existence in the mediterranean.the western mediterranean archipelagos have a rich endemic fauna, which includes five species of reptiles. most of these archipelagos were colonized since early historic times by anthropochoric fauna, such as ship rats (rattus rattus). here, i evaluated the influence of ship rats on the occurrence of island reptiles, including non-endemic species.202032219035
molecular identification of the trypanosoma (herpetosoma) lewisi clade in black rats (rattus rattus) from australia.invasive rodent species are known hosts for a diverse range of infectious microorganisms and have long been associated with the spread of disease globally. the present study describes molecular evidence for the presence of a trypanosoma sp. from black rats (rattus rattus) in northern sydney, australia. sequences of the 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) locus were obtained in two out of eleven (18%) blood samples with subsequent phylogenetic analysis confirming the identity within the trypanosoma lewisi c ...202032198627
commensal rats and humans: integrating rodent phylogeography and zooarchaeology to highlight connections between human societies.phylogeography and zooarchaeology are largely separate disciplines, yet each interrogates relationships between humans and commensal species. knowledge gained about human history from studies of four commensal rats (rattus rattus, r. tanezumi, r. exulans, and r. norvegicus) is outlined, and open questions about their spread alongside humans are identified. limitations of phylogeographic and zooarchaeological studies are highlighted, then how integration would increase understanding of species' d ...202032173902
gut bacteria of animals living in polluted environments exhibit broad-spectrum antibacterial activities.infectious diseases, in particular bacterial infections, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality posing a global threat to human health. the emergence of antibiotic resistance has exacerbated the problem further. hence, there is a need to search for novel sources of antibacterials. herein, we explored gut bacteria of a variety of animals living in polluted environments for their antibacterial properties against multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria. a variety of species were procured ...202032124096
history, rats, fleas, and opossums: the ascendency of flea-borne typhus in the united states, 1910-1944.flea-borne typhus, due to rickettsiatyphi and rickettsiafelis, is an infection causing fever, headache, rash, hepatitis, thrombocytopenia, and diverse organ manifestations. although most cases are self-limited, 26%-28% have complications and up to one-third require intensive care. flea-borne typhus was recognized as an illness similar to epidemic typhus, but having a milder course, in the southeastern united states and tx from 1913 into the 1920s. kenneth maxcy of the us public health service (u ...202032121541
tick-borne pathogens in dogs, wild small mammals and their ectoparasites in the semi-arid caatinga biome, northeastern brazil.caatinga is a biome exclusive to the semiarid zone of brazil, where studies on ticks and tick-borne diseases are scarce. herein, we investigated the occurrence of rickettsia, ehrlichia, and coxiella in wild mammals, domestic dogs and their ectoparasites using molecular and serological techniques. during 2014-2016, blood samples and ectoparasites were collected from 70 small mammals (51 rodents, 18 marsupials, 1 wild canid) and 147 domestic dogs in three areas of the caatinga. through serological ...202032111546
bartonella kosoyi sp. nov. and bartonella krasnovii sp. nov., two novel species closely related to the zoonotic bartonella elizabethae, isolated from black rats and wild desert rodent-fleas.the genus bartonella (family: bartonellaceae; order: rhizobiales; class: alphaproteobacteria) comprises facultative intracellular gram-negative, haemotropic, slow-growing, vector-borne bacteria. wild rodents and their fleas harbor a great diversity of species and strains of the genus bartonella, including several zoonotic ones. this genetic diversity coupled with a fastidious nature of the organism results in a taxonomic challenge that has led to a massive collection of uncharacterized strains. ...202032100689
detection of rodent-borne parasitic pathogens of wild rats in serdang, selangor, malaysia: a potential threat to human health.rodent species, such as rattus rattus diardii and rattus norvegicus are invasive species of wild rats that serve as potential reservoirs of important human's pathogens. parasitic zoonosis accounts for over 60% of all human infectious diseases worldwide. this situation arises from the recent changes in the global climate and ecosystem composition, which led to the spread of rodents and rodent-borne pathogens globally. the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of rodent's parasites and ...202032099788
rapid host expansion of an introduced parasite, the spiny rat louse polyplax spinulosa (psocodea: phthiraptera: polyplacidae), among endemic rodents in australia.historical european exploration and colonization resulted in the introduction of four species of rodents to the australian continent from eurasia: the brown rat, rattus norvegicus, the black rat, r. rattus, the pacific rat, r. exulans, and the house mouse, mus musculus. the spread of these rodents created opportunities for their co-introduced sucking lice to parasitize and adapt to endemic rodents in australia.202032070404
the mitochondrial genome of angiostrongylus mackerrasae is distinct from a. cantonensis and a. malaysiensis.the native rat lungworm (angiostrongylus mackerrasae) and the invasive rat lungworm (angiostrongylus cantonensis) occur in eastern australia. the species identity of a. mackerrasae remained unquestioned until relatively recently, when compilation of mtdna data indicated that a. mackerrasae sensu aghazadeh et al. (2015b) clusters within a. cantonensis based on their mitochondrial genomes (mtdna). to re-evaluate the species identity of a. mackerrasae, we sought material that would be morphological ...202032052727
synanthropic rodents as virus reservoirs and transmitters.this review focuses on reports of hepatitis e virus, hantavirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, and arenavirus in synanthropic rodents (rattus rattus, rattus norvegicus, and mus musculus) within urban environments. despite their potential impact on human health, relatively few studies have addressed the monitoring of these viruses in rodents. comprehensive control and preventive activities should include actions such as the elimination or reduction of rat and mouse populations, sanitary education, redu ...202032049206
immunolocalization of aromatase p450 in the epididymis of podarcis sicula and rattus rattus.the goal of this study was to evaluate p450 aromatase localization in the epididymis of two different vertebrates: the lizard podarcis sicula, a seasonal breeder, and rattus rattus, a continuous breeder. p450 aromatase is a key enzyme involved in the local control of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis and we proved for the first time that this enzyme is represented in the epididymis of both p. sicula and r. rattus. in details, p450 aromatase was well represented in epithelial and myoid cells an ...202031988532
leptospiral agglutinins in the cayo santiago macaques.the colony of free-ranging rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta) on cayo santiago, puerto rico, was surveyed for leptospiral agglutinins. only 5 (3%) of 169 monkeys (25% of the population) were seropositive (titers of ⩾ 1:100). an additional 29 animals (17%) had titers ⩽1:50. the proportions of seropositive males and females were 22% and 18%, respectively, and twice as many adult as immature animals (32% vs. 15%) were positive. in most seropositive monkeys a single serogroup predominated, icterohaemor ...198831968916
small mammalian remains from the late holocene deposits on ishigaki and yonaguni islands, southwestern japan.yuichiro nishioka, ryohei nakagawa, shin nunami, and satoshi hirasawa (2016) small mammalian remains were newly discovered from the late quaternary sediments of the yaeyama region (ishigaki and yonaguni islands) in the southwestern-most part of japan. we examined these materials based on taxonomical and chronological approaches, in order to reconstruct the past fauna in this region. accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating indicates that the mammalian assemblages from ishigaki and yonagu ...201631966150
an evaluation of the flea index as a predictor of plague epizootics in the west nile region of uganda.plague is a low incidence flea-borne zoonosis that is often fatal if treatment is delayed or inadequate. outbreaks occur sporadically and human cases are often preceded by epizootics among rodents. early recognition of epizootics coupled with appropriate prevention measures should reduce plague morbidity and mortality. for nearly a century, the flea index (a measure of fleas per host) has been used as a measure of risk for epizootic spread and human plague case occurrence, yet the practicality a ...202031891169
morphological and molecular identification of hymenolepidid cestodes in children and synanthropic rodents from rural mexico.hymenolepidid cestodes of synanthropic rodents represent a risk for public health. in order to describe the occurrence of hymenolepidids in children and the role of rodents as a potential source of infection, we conducted a morphological and molecular survey on cestodes in two rural villages from yucatan, mexico. one hundred and thirty-five stool samples from children (64 from paraíso and 71 from xkalakdzonot), 233 mus musculus (159 from paraíso and 74 from xkalakdzonot) and 125 rattus rattus (7 ...202031862425
genetic diversity and lack of molecular evidence for hemoplasma cross-species transmission between wild and synanthropic mammals from central-western brazil.globally, hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) comprise an emerging or remerging bacteria group that attaches to red blood cells of several mammal's species and in some cases, causing hemolytic anemia. herein, we assessed the occurrence, genetic diversity, the factors coupled to mammals infection, and the phylogeographic distribution of hemoplasmas in sylvatic and synanthropic mammals and their associated ectoparasites from brazil. we collected spleen and/or blood samples from synanthropic roden ...202031857081
low frequency of antibodies anti-neospora caninum in rodents in fernando de noronha island, brazil.this study aimed to evaluate the frequency of neospora caninum antibodies in rodents from the island of fernando de noronha, brazil, and to contribute to epidemiological data on neosporosis in this region. blood samples were collected from 154 black-rats (rattus rattus) and 12 rock-cavies (kerodon rupestris). the search for anti-n. caninum antibodies was made using the nat technique, with a cut-off of 1:20. the frequency of positive mice was 5.19% (8/154 - 1:20 titer) and all rock-cavies were ne ...201931800709
development and evaluation of a duplex taqman qpcr assay for detection and quantification of trypanosoma cruzi infection in domestic and sylvatic reservoir hosts.a question of epidemiological relevance in chagas disease studies is to understand trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles and trace the origins of (re)emerging cases in areas under vector or disease surveillance. conventional parasitological methods lack sensitivity whereas molecular approaches can fill in this gap, provided that an adequate sample can be collected and processed and a nucleic acid amplification method can be developed and standardized. we developed a duplex qpcr assay for accurat ...201931783770
ectoparasites of brown rats (rattus norvegicus) in grenada, west indies.arthropod ectoparasites (mites, lice, ticks, and fleas) on common house rats or brown rats (rattus norvegicus) are known to transmit zoonotic pathogens and diminish rat health. to the best of our knowledge, there is no published information regarding the prevalence of ectoparasites on r. norvegicus in grenada. this study aimed to determine the prevalence and types of ectoparasites present on brown rats from grenada.201931749572
molecular detection of leptospira spp. in rodents trapped in the mozambique island city, nampula province, mozambique.leptospirosis is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by a bacteria of the genus leptospira. in africa it is frequently mistaken for frequently occurring conditions such as malaria. the aim of this study was to identify rodent species involved in the transmission of the disease, the prevalence of pathogenic leptospira spp. in selected rodent species and risk factors for human leptospirosis.201831681910
sera/organ lysates of selected animals living in polluted environments exhibit cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines.species of crocodiles and cockroaches can withstand high radiation, reside in unsanitary conditions, thrive on germ-infested feed, and are exposed to heavy metals, yet they are not reported to develop cancer. it has been postulated that such species have mechanisms to defend themselves against developing cancer. here, selected species have been tested for potential cytotoxicity against selected cancer cell lines.201931660845
reservoirs of porcine circoviruses: a mini review.porcine circovirus (pcv) is one of the smallest known dna viruses in mammals. at present, pcvs are divided into three species, pcv1, pcv2, and pcv3. pcv1 and pcv2 were found in the 1970s and the 1990s, respectively, whereas pcv3 was discovered recently in 2016. pcv1 does not cause diseases in pigs. however, pcv3, similar to pcv2, is reported to be associated with several swine diseases, including porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (pdns) and reproductive failure. pcvs are very common in ...201931616677
molecular detection and genetic characterization of bartonella species from rodents and their associated ectoparasites from northern tanzania.bartonellae are intracellular bacteria, which can cause persistent bacteraemia in humans and a variety of animals. several rodent-associated bartonella species are human pathogens but data on their global distribution and epidemiology are limited. the aims of the study were to: 1) determine the prevalence of bartonella infection in rodents and fleas; 2) identify risk factors for bartonella infection in rodents; and 3) characterize the bartonella genotypes present in these rodent and flea populat ...201931613914
ecological fragmentation effects in mouse lemurs and small mammals in northwestern madagascar.habitat loss and fragmentation are major ecological forces threatening animal communities across the globe. these issues are especially true in madagascar, where forest loss is ongoing. we examined the effects of forest fragmentation on the distribution and abundance of sympatric, endemic gray, and golden-brown mouse lemurs (microcebus murinus and microcebus ravelobensis), the endemic western tuft-tailed rat (eliurus myoxinus), and the invasive black rat (rattus rattus) in two regions in northwe ...202031608491
detection of hepatitis e virus rna in rats caught in pig farms from northern italy.hepatitis e virus (hev) strains belonging to the orthohepevirus genus are divided into four species (a-d). hev strains included in the orthohepevirus a species infect humans and several other mammals. among them, the hev-3 and hev-4 genotypes are zoonotic and infect both humans and animals, of which, pigs and wild boar are the main reservoirs. viruses belonging to the orthohepevirus c species (hev-c) have been considered to infect rats of different species and carnivores. recently, two studies r ...202031592576
zoonotic trypanosomes in rats and fleas of venezuelan slums.rattus spp. are reservoirs of many human zoonoses, but their role in domestic transmission cycles of human trypanosomiasis is underestimated. in this study, we report trypanosome-infected rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus in human dwellings in slums neighboring maracay, a large city near caracas, the capital of venezuela. blood samples of r. norvegicus and r. rattus examined by pcr and fflb (fluorescent fragment length barcoding) revealed a prevalence of 6.3% / 31.1% for trypanosoma lewisi (ag ...201931583491
identification of antibacterial molecule(s) from animals living in polluted environments.snakes feed on germ-infested rodents, while water monitor lizards thrive on rotten matter in unhygienic conditions. we hypothesize that such creatures survive the assault of superbugs and are able to fend off disease by producing antimicrobial substances. in this study, we investigated the potential antibacterial activity of sera/lysates of animals living in polluted environments.202031577204
toxoplasma gondii in invasive animals on the island of fernando de noronha in brazil: molecular characterization and mouse virulence studies of new genotypes.this study aimed to genetically characterize and to determine virulence from toxoplasma gondii samples from invasive animals in the island of fernando de noronha, brazil. blood samples were collected from 21 tegu-lizard (salvator merianae), 12 rock-cavies (kerodon rupestris) and 154 black-rats (rattus rattus) from the island and mat (cutoff 1:25) detected anti-t. gondii antibodies in 0% of the tegus (0/21); 58.3% of the rock-cavies (7/12) and 22.7% of rats (35/154). tissue samples (brain, heart, ...201931546127
resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in martinique could lead to inefficient rodent control in a context of endemic leptospirosis.leptospirosis is a re-emergent worldwide zoonosis. it is endemic in martinique where transmission conditions are favourable. humans are usually infected through contact with water contaminated with urine of rodents. recent human leptospirosis outbreaks in martinique require today effective rodent management to prevent leptospirosis transmission. nowadays, use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ar) is the main method implemented to control rodent populations. nevertheless, intensive use of these ar h ...201931530819
histopathological study in cardiac tissue of rodents infected with trypanosoma cruzi, captured in suburbs of mérida, méxicointroduction: trypanosoma cruzi is the causal agent of the american trypanosomiasis, an endemic disease in méxico. the commensal rodents mus musculus and rattus rattus are reservoirs of this parasite, which invades cardiac fibers and develops parasite nests causing various lesions. histopathological studies in naturally infected rodents are scarce.objective: to describe the types and frequencies of microscopic lesions in cardiac tissue of m. musculus and r. rattus infected with t. cruzi captured ...201931529832
angiostrongylus (parastrongylus) cantonensis on intermediate and definitive hosts in ecuador, 2014-2017introduction: angiostrongylus cantonensis is a serious public health problem and is widely distributed in the country. when the parasite infects the snails, it becomes deeply embedded in their interior and accidentally, it can infect people and other mammals.objective: to establish the geographical distribution of a. cantonensis intermediate hosts (achatina fulica) and definitive hosts (rattus spp.) in ecuador from 2014 to 2017.materials and methods: we collected 2,908 a. fulica specimens in 16 ...201931529823
long-term retrospective observation reveals stabilities and variations of hantavirus infection in hebei, china.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is an emerging zoonotic infectious disease caused by hantaviruses which circulate worldwide. so far, it was still considered as one of serious public health problems in china. the present study aimed to reveal the stabilities and variations of hantavirus infection in hebei province located in north china through a long-term retrospective observation.201931477045
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) levels in rat livers collected from a malaria vector control region.dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) is an organochlorine insecticide that has been used for indoor residual spraying for the control of mosquito-borne diseases including malaria. however, due to its toxicity and environmental persistence, there are concerns about its potential deleterious effects in humans and wildlife. therefore, the current study aimed to monitor and estimate the level of ddts in human communities. the accumulation of ddt and its metabolites was evaluated in house rat (as se ...201931447459
rodents as reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens coxiella burnetii and toxoplasma gondii in corsica (france).coxiella burnetii and toxoplasma gondii are intracellular pathogens that cause important reproductive disorders in humans and animals worldwide, which translates into high economic losses. the aim of this study was to analyze the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of c. burnetii and t. gondii in the mediterranean island of corsica, by the analysis of the seroprevalence in rodents. our results showed a wide distribution of c. burnetii and t. gondii in ...201931407951
leptospira infection in rats: a literature review of global prevalence and distribution.the role of rodents in leptospira epidemiology and transmission is well known worldwide. rats are known to carry different pathogenic serovars of leptospira spp. capable of causing disease in humans and animals. wild rats (rattus spp.), especially the norway/brown rat (rattus norvegicus) and the black rat (r. rattus), are the most important sources of leptospira infection, as they are abundant in urban and peridomestic environments. in this study, we compiled and summarized available data in the ...201931398190
fleas of black rats (rattus rattus) as reservoir host of bartonella spp. in chile.rattus rattus is a widely distributed, invasive species that presents an important role in disease transmission, either directly or through vector arthropods such as fleas. these black rats can transmit a wide variety of pathogens, including bacteria of the genus bartonella, which can cause diseases in humans and animals. in chile, no data are available identifying fleas from synanthropic rodents as bartonella vectors. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bartonella spp. in ...201931396444
spatio-temporal survey of small mammal-borne trypanosoma lewisi in cotonou, benin, and the potential risk of human infection.human trypanosomoses are the sleeping sickness in africa and chagas disease in latin america. however, atypical human infections by animal trypanosomes have been described, but poorly investigated. among them, the supposed rat-specific t. lewisi was shown to be responsible for a few severe cases. in africa, the scarcity of data and the null awareness about the atypical human trypanosomoses suggest that the number of cases may be higher that currently thought. furthermore, t. lewisi is resistant ...201931344489
evidence of toxoplasma gondii in rodents from bangladesh.rodents contribute to the life cycle of the protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii as an intermediate host and key prey animal of cats, the definitive host. as there is limited scientific knowledge available about the incidence and prevalence of t. gondii in commensal rodents in many asian countries, we tested rodents from a commercial rice mill and eight local villages in bangladesh for the presence of t. gondii dna using rodent brain material preserved in ethanol. overall, 10 of 296 (3.4%) roden ...201931343397
serological evidence of thailand orthohantavirus or antigenically related virus infection among rodents in a chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology endemic area, girandurukotte, sri lanka.we have reported high seroprevalence to thailand orthohantavirus (thaiv) or thaiv-related orthohantavirus (trhv) among patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in girandurukotte, sri lanka. thaiv or trhv infection is considered to be transmitted by rodent hosts in this area, but its reservoir rodents have not yet been identified. hence, 116 rodents were captured, and seroprevalences were examined by indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (immunofluorescence assay [ifa]) using ...201931339833
cryptosporidium spp. in wild rats (rattus spp.) from the hainan province, china: molecular detection, species/genotype identification and implications for public health.wild rats (rattus spp.) carry many zoonotic pathogens including cryptosporidium. due to the close proximity of rats to humans in urban environments, the potential for disease transmission is high. cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite which when ingested causes serious human illness. despite its importance, genetic characterization of cryptosporidium in wild rats in the hainan province of china has not been performed. in this study, we analyzed the occurrence and genetics of cryptosporidium in ...201931338292
morphological and molecular description of sarcocystis ratti n. sp. from the black rat (rattus rattus) in latvia.rodents have been widely studied as intermediate hosts of sarcocystis; however, only a few reports on these parasites in the black rat (rattus rattus) are known. having examined 13 black rats captured in latvia, sarcocysts were found in skeletal muscles of two mammals and were described as sarcocystis ratti n. sp. under a light microscope, sarcocysts were ribbon-shaped, 0.9-1.3 × 0.09-0.14 mm in size and had a thin (0.8-1.3 μm) and smooth cyst wall. the lancet-shaped bradyzoites were 8.3 × 4.3 ( ...201931297600
epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis outbreak in corsica (france): are animal reservoir hosts implicated in local transmission?environmental and anthropogenic changes are expected to promote emergence and spread of pathogens worldwide. since 2013, human urogenital schistosomiasis is established in corsica island (france). schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting both humans and animals. the parasite involved in the corsican outbreak is a hybrid form between schistosoma haematobium, a human parasite, and schistosoma bovis, a livestock parasite. s. bovis has been detected in corsican livestock few decades ago rais ...201931233502
the application of naked dna plasmid (drzp3) and recombinant adenovirus (ad-rzp3) in rat animal model to determine comparative efficacy of zp3-immunocontraceptive vaccines.the common physical and chemical methods for controlling rat pest are less than satisfactory and inhumane. immunocontraception approach has been considered more humane and it can be accomplished by inducing the relevant host immune response that block further development of reproductive gametes. zp3 proteins are known to play very important role during sperm-ovum fertilization. it is a self-antigen and only localized in female ovaries. therefore, an immunization with zp3 protein elsewhere will i ...201931163251
genetic characterization of toxoplasma gondii from wild rodents in sichuan province, southwestern china.wild rodents are the intermediate hosts of toxoplasma gondii. the distribution of genetic diversity of t. gondii in wild rodents is of importance to understand the transmission of this parasite. this study aimed to genetically characterize t. gondii isolates from wild rodents in sichuan province, southwestern china in 2013.202031123474
using molecular diet analysis to inform invasive species management: a case study of introduced rats consuming endemic new zealand frogs.the decline of amphibians has been of international concern for more than two decades, and the global spread of introduced fauna is a major factor in this decline. conservation management decisions to implement control of introduced fauna are often based on diet studies. one of the most common metrics to report in diet studies is frequency of occurrence (fo), but this can be difficult to interpret, as it does not include a temporal perspective. here, we examine the potential for fo data derived ...201931110660
the prevalence of leptospira among invasive small mammals on puerto rican cattle farms.leptospirosis, an emerging infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus leptospira, is thought to be the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world. a first step in preventing the spread of leptospira is delineating the animal reservoirs that maintain and disperse the bacteria. quantitative pcr (qpcr) methods targeting the lipl32 gene were used to analyze kidney samples from 124 house mice (mus musculus), 94 black rats (rattus rattus), 5 norway rats (r. norvegicus), and 89 small indian ...201931107872
[first report on leptospira interrogans in the sigmodontine rodent scapteromys aquaticusprimeiro relato da presença de leptospira interrogans em roedores sigmodontíneos scapteromys aquaticus].leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonosis that can be transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine or tissues of infected animals. in argentina, leptospirosis is endemic in the province of santa fe and epidemic outbreaks occur during floods. however, very little is known about the role that wild rodents play in the spread of the disease in argentina. the objective of this study was to identify the host species of pathogenic leptospira among rodents in a riverine settlemen ...201831093111
seroprevalence of rodent pathogens in wild rats from the island of st. kitts, west indies.a pilot seroprevalence study was conducted to document exposure to selected pathogens in wild rats inhabiting the caribbean island of st. kitts. serum samples collected from 22 captured wild rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) were tested for the presence of antibodies to various rodent pathogens using a rat mfi2 serology panel. the samples were positive for cilia-associated respiratory bacillus (13/22; 59.1%), clostridium piliforme (4/22; 18.2%), mycoplasma pulmonis (4/22; 18.2%), pneumo ...201931083284
prevalence and genotype identification of toxoplasma gondii in suburban rodents collected at waste disposal assess the prevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in native and commensal rodents as indicators of environmental pollution, we analyzed brain tissue from small mammals collected on legal and illegal waste sites in the slovenian and croatian parts of istria. a total of 136 animals and five species of the family muridae were analyzed: black rat (rattus rattus), domestic mouse (mus musculus), wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), striped field mouse (apodemus agrarius), and yellow-necked mouse (a ...201931041898
molecular diagnosis of trypanosoma cruzi/leishmania spp. coinfection in domestic, peridomestic and wild mammals of venezuelan co-endemic areas.american trypanosomiasis and leishmaniases are diseases caused by protozoans of the trypanosomatidae family. in venezuela, although several endemic foci of both diseases coincide, there are no reports of coinfection in mammals. the molecular diagnosis of the coinfection t. cruzi-leishmania spp. was done in 527 blood samples collected on filter paper of several species of mammals (canis familiaris, equus asinus, didelphis marsupialis, equus mulus, rattus rattus, equus caballus, artibeus fratercul ...201831014717
investigations into the role of rats as intermediate hosts for neospora caninum in chennai, india.attempts were made to detect neospora caninum in rats (rattus rattus) in and around chennai, india. during the study, 112 feral rats were trapped and blood, brain, heart, lungs and diaphragm samples were collected for serological, parasitological and molecular identification of n. caninum. out of 112 rats, cyst-like structures were identified in 16 brain squash samples. however, the identity of the cysts could not be confirmed as n. caninum. a total of 12 sera samples were positive for n. caninu ...201731014654
the third plague pandemic in europe.plague has a long history on the european continent, with evidence of the disease dating back to the stone age. plague epidemics in europe during the first and second pandemics, including the black death, are infamous for their widespread mortality and lasting social and economic impact. yet, europe still experienced plague outbreaks during the third pandemic, which began in china and spread globally at the end of the nineteenth century. the digitization of international records of notifiable di ...201930991930
clostridium difficile in wild rodents and insectivores in the netherlands.with wild rodents and insectivores being present around humans and their living, working and food production environments, it is important to gain knowledge of the zoonotic pathogens present in these animals. the enteropathogen clostridium difficile, an opportunistic anaerobic bacteria, can be carried by both animals and humans, and is distributed globally. it is known that there is genetic overlap between human and animal sources of c. difficile. in this study, the aim was to assess the presenc ...201930958895
bacterial isolation from internal organs of rats (rattus rattus) captured in baghdad city of iraq.rats are accused in disseminating many zoonotic diseases. this study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria from internal organs of rats captured in baghdad city, iraq.201930936664
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in synanthropic rodents from argentina.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are closely related coccidian parasites (phylum apicomplexa). this is the first study from urban synanthropic rodent species that involved serological and molecular diagnosis of t. gondii and n. caninum infection, and genotyping of t. gondii in argentina. a total of 127 rodent samples were trap captured: mus musculus (n = 78), rattus norvegicus (n = 26) and rattus rattus (n = 23). antibodies against t. gondii and n. caninum were detected by ifat in 32.8% (4 ...201930916257
peri-urban black rats host a rich assembly of ticks and healthier rats have more ticks.the black rat rattus rattus has a distribution that includes much of earth's terrestrial surface, and has adapted to exploit both habitats extensively modified by humans and rural habitats. despite the fact that r. rattus are nearly ubiquitous, few studies have investigated urban or peri-urban r. rattus as potential hosts for ticks. in this study, we identified the species of ticks that parasitize r. rattus in a remnant bush area within sydney, australia. we then examined the relationship betwee ...201930894289
alterations in the mitochondrial physiology of biomphalaria glabrata (mollusca: gastropoda) after experimental infection by angiostrongylus cantonensis (nematoda: metastrongylidae).angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongylid nematode that has a heteroxenous cycle, where snails act as intermediate hosts and the rodents rattus rattus and rattus novergicus are the definitive hosts. however, humans may act as accidental hosts presenting an atypical form of parasitism. this fact has motivated research to better understand systems of relationships involving a. cantonensis, targeting the control of species of gastropods that act as intermediary hosts.201930887270
host-parasite life-histories of the diurnal vs. nocturnal chronotypes of schistosoma mansoni: adaptive optimise host-to-host transmission, digenean trematodes (parasites) synchronise their cercarial emission patterns with the aquatic activities of their vertebrate hosts. schistosoma mansoni has two different circadian chronotypes: a diurnal shedding pattern with a mean peak occurring at 11:00 h, and a nocturnal shedding pattern with a mean peak occurring at 20:00 h. we analysed the life-history variations between these two chronotypes at the levels of the parasite and its hosts.201930851235
increasing predation risk with light reduces speed, exploration and visit duration of invasive ship rats (rattus rattus).exploiting predation cues to deter pests remains an untapped management tool for conservationists. we examined foraging and movement patterns of 20 wild ship rats (rattus rattus) within a large, outdoor 'u maze' that was either illuminated or dark to assess if light (an indirect predation cue) could deter rodents from ecologically vulnerable locations. light did not alter rats' foraging behaviour (latency to approach seed tray, visits to seed tray, time per visit to seed tray, total foraging dur ...201930842448
rat-borne diseases at the horizon. a systematic review on infectious agents carried by rats in europe investigate the spectrum of rat-borne pathogens circulating in europe a systematic review spanning across 55 european countries during the years 1995-2016 was performed. the study surveyed viruses, bacteria, macroparasites and unicellular eukaryotes (protozoa). fifty-three different infectious agents, all with zoonotic potential, were reported to be carried by commensal rats; 48 by the brown rat (rattus norvegicus) and 20 by the black rat (r. rattus). there was a tendency for rural areas to h ...201930834071
association of rodent-borne leptospira spp. with urban environments in malaysian borneo.although leptospirosis is traditionally considered a disease of rural, agricultural and flooded environments, leptospira spp. are found in a range of habitats and infect numerous host species, with rodents among the most significant reservoirs and vectors. to explore the local ecology of leptospira spp. in a city experiencing rapid urbanization, we assessed leptospira prevalence in rodents from three locations in malaysian borneo with differing levels of anthropogenic influence: 1) high but stab ...201930811387
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