PMID(sorted ascending)
lectin staining studies on follicular atresia in house rat (rattus rattus).topographic distribution of terminal and intercalary carbohydrate moieties were studied using horseradish peroxidase conjugated glycine max (gma), arachis hypogea (pna), lotus tetragonolobus (lta), bandirarea simplicifolia (bsa), and dolichos biflorus (dba) agglutinins. n-gal nac, alpha-d-gal, alpha-l-fuc, d-gal (beta-1-3)-d-gal nac, and alpha-beta-d gal nac linked glyco-conjugates were exposed during follicular atresia in oocyte, zona pellucida and granulosa cells. theca interna and interstitia ...19921365769
genetic evidence for an androgen-regulated epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase whose transcript does not contain a selenocysteine codon.epididymal glutathione peroxidase (gpx) has been suggested as a major factor in combating loss of fertility of spermatozoa due to lipid peroxidation. we report here the isolation and sequence of putative gpx cdnas from rat (rattus rattus) and cynomolgus-monkey (macaca fascicularis) epididymis, which exhibit marked sequence identity with known gpxs. in both species the cdnas encode predicted preproteins containing 221 amino acid residues. unlike other characterized gpx sequences, epididymal gpx m ...19921386734
prevalence, biotypes, plasmid profile and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter isolated from wild and domestic animals from northeast portugal.the incidence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in wild and producing animals has been studied to evaluate their importance as potential reservoirs of campylobacter infection. these organisms were isolated from: 59 chicken (60.2%), 65 swine (59.1%), 31 black rats (57.4%), 61 sparrows (45.5%), 21 ducks (40.5%), 32 cows (19.5%) and 27 sheep (15.3%). biotypes, plasmid and resistance profiles were studied in order to characterize the isolates. biotypes i and ii of c. jejuni were predomi ...19921429305
studies on flea fauna in el fayoum governorate, egypt.this paper dealt with the studies of flea fauna as collected on the rodent hosts over one year. the collected rodents (499) in a descending order of abundance in the collection were rattus rattus, r. norvegicus, mus musculus, gerbillus pyramidum and arvicanthis niloticus. the collected fleas in a descending order in the collection were x. cheopis, p. irritans, n. jasciatus, c. felis, l. segnis and e. gallinacea. the total flea index reached the maximum (0.76) in may and it was zero in december a ...19921431297
plague in lushoto district, tanzania, 1980-1988.rodents were live-trapped in selected plague-inflicted villages from june 1980 to march 1988. flea infestation rates were determined and the animals were serologically tested for plague. clinically suspected and clinically healthy people in the affected areas were similarly tested for plague antibodies. of 1596 rodent sera tested, 91 (5.7%) were positive for plague. these were mostly from rattus rattus, mastomys natalensis, otomys spp. and pelomys fallax. a total of 1772 fleas, of which dinopsyl ...19921440831
xenopsylla bantorum is an east african subspecies of x. cheopis (siphonaptera: pulicidae).the geographic distribution, host association, and male genital morphology of xenopsylla bantorum jordan were examined and compared with the nilotic and oriental "strains" of xenopsylla cheopis (rothschild). the more acute shape of the ninth sternite separates x. bantorum from all types of x. cheopis; however, the length of the first process of the male's clasper and the number of setae on this process are significantly different among all three groups; the nilotic strain of x. cheopis is interm ...19921460630
leishmania infecting man and wild animals in saudi arabia. 9. the black rat (rattus rattus) a probable reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis in gizan province, south-west saudi arabia.twenty-two black rats (rattus rattus) were captured in houses where parasitologically confirmed cases of human visceral leishmaniasis had been recorded in al-arda emara, gizan province, south-west saudi arabia. four of the rats were found to be infected with leishmania; isoenzyme characterization showed that 3 were infected with l. donovani sensu lato zymodeme lon42 and the fourth with l. infantum zymodeme lon49. l. donovani s.l. lon42 has also been isolated from human visceral leishmaniasis pat ...19921475818
first report of ixodes (ixodes) minor neumann (acari: ixodidae) from south carolina.previous reports from the literature have indicated the northernmost range of extension of ixodes minor neumann to be southern georgia with the greatest number of collections having been made in the coastal regions of that state. an unpublished record in the u.s. national tick collection indicated that i. minor had been collected as far north as south island, georgetown county, s.c., as early as 1933. i. minor was collected on three separate occasions in charleston county, s.c., between october ...19921495043
reinvestigation of the ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of hymenolepis nana (cestoda, cyclophyllidea), parasite of the small intestine of rattus rattus.spermiogenesis in hymenolepsis nana begins with the formation of a differentiation zone. this is limited at the front by arched membranes, is surrounded by cortical microtubules associated with 12 crested-like bodies, and contains a single centriole made up of doublets. the distal centriole gives rise to a flagellum that grows at the same pace as the cortical microtubules. migration of the nucleus takes place after the formation of the flagellum. it is followed by the separation of the old sperm ...19921510842
possible determination of the vector and reservoir of leishmaniasis in the dominican republic.two species of sand flies were collected by various methods from sites in the dominican republic. lutzomyia cayennensis hispaniolae was the more common of the two. it was found in wooded habitats from sea level to an elevation of 442 m. this species was observed feeding on lizards (anolis sp.) in the wild. in the laboratory, it fed only on lizards and only under lighted conditions. the other species, lu. christophei was only found in the vicinity of seven leishmaniasis case sites. it readily fed ...19921558267
long-term dynamics of natural populations of schistosoma mansoni among rattus rattus in patchy environment.dynamics of natural populations of schistosoma mansoni were studied during 8 consecutive years among rattus rattus populations from 8 transmission sites of the marshy forest focus of guadeloupe (french west indies). the schistosome population is over-dispersed (k = 0.119) within the murine hosts and ecological factors linked to the patchy environment may be responsible for such aggregated distribution. analysis of the spatio-temporal variations in prevalences, intensities and abundances showed l ...19921594292
relocation of schistosoma mansoni in the lungs and resistance to reinfection in rattus rattus.the localization of adult schistosoma mansoni originating from guadeloupe (west indies) was analysed in the natural host rattus rattus in experimental and natural infections. a transfer of schistosomes from the porto-mesenteric system to the lungs occurs between the 4th and the 20th weeks post-infection, with a peak between 4 and 8 weeks; it should be noted that the worms start laying eggs at 4 weeks post-infection. in both experimentally and naturally infected r. rattus the relocation of schist ...19921614740
[intestinal perforation by angiostrongylus costaricensis. a report of 2 cases].two cases of abdominal angiostronylosis with terminal ileum perforation are reported. the first two cases diagnosed in panama of a well established eosinophilic granulomatous process which affects mostly children in costa rica. the parasite angiostrongylus costaricensis has been demonstrated in cases with a geographic range, from mexico down to brazil. the parasite has been found in rodents in panama (sigmodon hispidus and rattus rattus) with an still pending further epidemiological and serologi ...19921620898
leishmaniasis in the caribbean islands. a review.a review is presented of the current knowledge relating to leishmaniasis in the west indies. the only country where an autochthonous focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis has been discovered within the last 20 years is the dominican republic. most of the cases are of the diffuse clinical type, which tend to be anergic to the montenegro skin test, but subclinical or mild cases are apparently common. the responsible agent is a new species of leishmania and the suspected vector is lutzomyia cristophei, ...19921626864
prevalence of listeria (spp.) in wild rats captured in the kanto area of the kanto area a total of 245 wild rats were captured. all rats captured in ikebukuro (110 rats) and 9 out of 41 rats in yokohama were rattus rattus, and all other 126 rats were rattus norvegicus. in kashima and ikebukuro, listeria was isolated from 28 rats (77.8%) and 27 rats (24.5%), respectively, but in the other 4 areas listeria was isolated from 0-7% rats. listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 12 rats (10.9%) captured in ikebukuro and 2 rats in kashima and numazu. the frequent isolati ...19921643170
hantaviral antigens and antibodies in wild rodents in portugal.small rodents of the species rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus have been captured between 1986 and 1988 in several areas of southern portugal. a total of 135 animal specimens were examined for hantaviral antigens in lung sections and 5 have been found positive. some of the rodents were shown to have serum antibodies as detected by immunofluorescence in titres up to 1:256. this investigation proves for the first time the presence of hantavirus in wild rodent populations of portugal.19911683135
ectoparasites of commensal rodents in sulawesi utara, indonesia, with notes on species of medical importance.ectoparasite records are presented for four species of commensal murid rodents (rattus rattus palelae miller & hollister, r. argentiventer (robinson & kloss), r. exulans (peale) and mus musculus castaneus waterhouse) in sulawesi utara, with particular reference to the potential for these arthropods to bite and transmit pathogens to humans. the flea, xenopsylla cheopis (rothschild), was most common on r.r. palelae and is capable of transmitting plague and other pathogens to humans although no cur ...19911768888
the geographic distribution and host range of capillaria hepatica (bancroft) (nematoda) in australia.the geographic distribution, host range and prevalence of capillaria hepatica were recorded in 4629 house mice, mus domesticus, 263 black rats, rattus rattus, and 58 norway rats, r. norvegicus. the parasite was found at five localities, all in or near large towns along the coast. the two rattus species appeared to be the primary hosts of c. hepatica in australia. published and unpublished data on helminth infections of australian native mammals from 1162 murids (26 species), 3018 marsupials (67 ...19911787037
isolation of listeria monocytogenes from roof rats (rattus rattus) in buildings in tokyo. 19911832043
lung and hearth nematodes in some spanish mammals.thirteen host species belonging to the orders rodentia, insectivora and carnivora from various localities in galicia (nw spain) were examined for heart and lung parasites. the following species were found: parastrongylus dujardini (5.5%) in apodemus sylvaticus, crenosoma striatum in erinaceus europaeus (83%), angiostrongylus vasorum, crenosoma vulpis and eucoleus aerophilus in vulpes vulpes (3, 3.46 and 0.50%, respectively), crenosoma taiga in putorius putorius (100%) and crenosoma sp. in meles ...19911844789
antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in wild rodent sera in egypt.specific antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis (lcm) virus were detected in sera of wild rodents trapped in different regions of egypt. the highest proportion of positive sera (11.5%) was found in sinaa governorate of the asian continent, followed by sharkia governorate (5.6%) adjacent to sinaa and giza governorate (1.8%). in upper egypt, however all 610 rodent sera collected in aswan, red sea pernees and new valley adjacent to sudan were negative. the highest percentage of positive sera wa ...19911880412
[isolation and identification of cryptosporidium from various animals in korea. i. prevalence of cryptosporidium in various animals].cryptosporidium, a coccidian protozoa, commonly causes a self-limiting diarrheal illness in humans and animals. fecal samples from various animals in chonbuk district were observed using sheather's flotation technique, kinyoun's modified acid-fast staining, and osmic acid pre-fixed giemsa staining. the oocysts were detected in 74 cages (29.6%) out of 250 cages of mature mice, 26 (13.3%) out of 195 mature house rats, 75(15.0%) out of 4-week-old 500 fowls, 98(19.9%) out of 6 to 8-month-old 500 pig ...19911954197
glucose disappearance rates into peripheral tissues of adult rabbits (silvilagus floridans), wistar rats (rattus rattus) and sand rats (psammomys obesus) in relation to body weight and blood glucose concentration.1. glucose disappearance rates into peripheral tissues (rd) were measured in vivo in adult eviscerated, nephrectomized and adrenalectomized rabbits, wistar rats and nondiabetic sand rats with physiological insulin concentrations in the blood. 2. the rd of wistar rats was high (7.50 mg/kg/min) in comparison with that of rabbits (2.67 mg/kg/min). in the particular case of sand rats the rd was only 44% of that in wistar rats having about the same body weight. 3. a 2.4-fold elevation of blood glucos ...19901968817
acute familial myositis with a common autoimmune 1986, we diagnosed and treated 4 patients, all members of 1 rural family, who presented simultaneously with a polymyositis-like syndrome, anticytoplasmic antibodies (on hep-2 cells), and precipitating antibodies of anti-jo-1 and anti-pm-scl specificities. serum samples from these patients reacted by immunodiffusion against serum from a rodent that had been caught in the patients' house. the precipitin line showed complete immunologic identity with anti-jo-1. to study the specificity of this s ...19912053920
[ecological aspects of american tegumentary leishmaniasis: 8. evaluation of the enzootic activity of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, in forest and peridomiciliary environments of the ribeira valley region, são paulo state, brazil].the evidence of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in the non-forest environment in the ribeira valley region, são paulo, brazil, has made this epidemiologic four years' study possible, viewing the enzootic activity of l. (v.) braziliensis. furthermore, the natural infection in small mammals and the domestic dog population has been completed in collecting of phlebotomine sandflies in the forest and peridomiciliar environments. positive test-results have only been found in resident dogs (ca ...19902095626
echinostoma revolutum and echinoparyphium recurvatum recovered from house rats in yangyang-gun, kangwon-do.during an investigation on intestinal flukes of house rats in yangyang-gun, kangwon-do, a total of 6 species of trematodes belonging to 3 families; echinostomatidae (echinostoma hortense, e. cinetorchis, e. revolutum and echinoparyphium recurvatum), diplostomidae (fibricola seoulensis) and plagiorchiidae (plagiorchis muris), were recovered from two adult rats. e. revolutum and e. recurvatum were new trematode faunae of rats in korea. e. revolutum had an elongated body, 5.3-6.0 mm long and 1.0-1. ...19902099177
[the effect of ethyl alcohol on the laryngeal mucosa].laryngeal mucous membranes of experimental animals (rattus rattus l. albino) which were given 25% ethyl alcohol for 4, 10 and 20 weeks was investigated using histochemical methods. it was found that tissues were considerably damaged, especially in the areas covered by stratified squamous epithelium.19902099300
group a rotavirus infection in animals from an animal house and in wild-caught monkeys.randomly selected samples from different animal colonies from two laboratory animal houses and from the wild-caught monkeys were tested for the presence of anti-rotavirus antibodies to estimate the rates of infection with group a rotavirus. antibodies to the common group a rotaviral antigen were detected by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using reagents of who elisa rotavirus detection kit. the results of the study showed that white mice, albino rats, and guinea pigs from ...19902122998
distribution and insecticide resistance of the plague flea xenopsylla cheopis in maharashtra state, india.distributions are reported for commensal rat fleas, predominantly xenopsylla cheopis (rothschild), in the state of maharashtra, india, including the city of bombay, during 1965-80. the x.cheopis flea index was high in most parts of maharashtra, but low in bombay. rattus rattus linnaeus is the principal host of x.cheopis, but the host range includes bandicota bengalensis gray, golunda ellioti gray, mus musculus linnaeus, rattus blandfordi thomas, r. norvegicus berkenhout, suncus caerulaeus lerr, ...19902132973
[the black death in norway].the old icelandic annals tell that the black death came to bergen, norway, in 1349 with a ship from england. this was probably at the beginning of september. from bergen the plague spread rapidly northwards and southwards along the coast and over land to eastern norway. the black death remained in norway for approximately six months. the epidemic must have been started by infected black rats and rat fleas in the grain cargo of the ship. the account in the annals, and experiences from other count ...19902197762
acoustic signaling in the black rat (rattus rattus).this study surveyed the vocalization repertoire of descendants of wild-trapped rattus rattus. sound recordings synchronized with behavioral observations were conducted in an animal colony living undisturbed under seminatural conditions. analyses of sound recordings revealed 10 distinct acoustic signals, 5 of which were in the ultrasonic frequency range. the time course and the frequency pattern of the analyzed sounds were similar to those described for r. norvegicus, and they occurred in compara ...19902225759
animals as reservoir hosts for leishmania in qualyobia governorate, egypt.a total of 239 rodents were collected from el-khanka, shebin el-kanater, el-kanater, shoubra el khima, qualiob, tokh, benha and kafr-shokr and identified as mus musculus (30), rattus rattus (78), rattus norvegicus (35), arvicanthus niloticus (62) and acomys cahirinus (34). examination of these rodents showed the presence of cutaneous lesions in two r. rattus, three r. norvegicus and one a. cahirinus which showed no leishmania parasites neither by smear nor by culture. on examination of the liver ...19902230335
rodents and their ectoparasites in sharkia governorate, egypt.rodents serve as reservoir hosts for many parasitic and bacterial diseases which are spread to man and animals by their habits, their droppings or by their arthropod ectoparasites. commensal (semi-domestic) rodents were collected by different methods from sharkia governorate over a period of one year, 1989. the trapped rodents in descending order of prevalence were rattus norvegicus, rattus rattus, mus musculus and gerbillus gerbillus. the ectoparasites were collected and identified as five spec ...19902230340
effects of regional amygdaloid lesions on flight and defensive behaviors of wild black rats (rattus rattus).flight and defensive behaviors of wild black rats (r. rattus) in response to nonpainful threatening stimuli were examined before and after regional amygdaloid lesions. striking disruption of flight was found following damage to all major amygdaloid regions. in contrast, reduced defensiveness was most consistently associated with damage to cortical and, perhaps, central nuclei. the diffuse organization of flight behavior may result from extensive modality-specific cortical afferents to the amygda ...19902236254
the toxicity of yellow oleander (thevetia neriifolia juss) seed kernels to rats.toxic effects of yellow oleander (thevetia neriifolia juss) seed kernels were evaluated against the roof rat (rattus rattus linn). crushed ground seed kernels were fed with bait at 20 and 30% concentrations. the bait was fed up to mortality or for a maximum of 10 d. major signs of poisoning observed were hind limb paralysis, rolling of the body on the long axis, circular flailing of the tail, muscular twitch, tetanic convulsions, tremors, collapse and death. significant reductions in the rats' w ...19902264265
chromosomal complements of five species of indian mammals.the chromosomal complements of five species of mammals, mus musculus (linn.), rattus rattus rattus (linn.), bandicota bengalensis (gray and hardw.), funambulus pennanti (wr.) and lepus ruficaudatus (geoff.) were elaborated. the karyotypes of all the species were compared. the diploid number (2n) in mus is 40, rattus 42, bandicota 42, funambulus 54 and lepus 48. an extra large x-chromosome was observed in one population of male rattus rattus rattus (linn.), which might have been formed as a resul ...19902376151
effects of scopolamine on antipredator defense reactions in wild and laboratory rats.two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of scopolamine hydrobromide (0.25-1.0 mg/kg), and its methyl derivative, on the defensive reactions of rats to nonpainful threat stimuli. in the first experiment, over the dose range studied neither compound significantly altered avoidance, freezing, defensive threat or attack in wild rattus rattus confronted by the experimenter and other predator-related stimuli. scopolamine hydrobromide did, however, produce a dose-dependent increase in ...19902377658
characterization of third beta-chain variant in rattus rattus rufescens.different molecular forms of hemoglobins of locally available murines, represented by rattus rattus rufescens, have been investigated and the probable genetic mechanisms leading to the observed heterogenicity in the hemoglobin phenotypes are discussed. each fraction was isolated in chromatographically pure form, identified and characterised structurally to establish their alpha- and non-alpha-chain constitution. six molecular forms of component hemoglobins were identified from a wild population ...19902387596
ag-nor chromosomal association patterns in rattus rattus (rafinesque, 1814) and rattus norvegicus (berkenhout, 1796) from the southern iberian peninsula.a high frequency of satellite association phenomena in a number of specimens of rattus rattus and r. norvegicus, captured on the coastal fringe of málaga province (southern spain), was found. only ag-nor bearing chromosomes participated in associations in both species. r. rattus is characterized by 14/18 heterologous and r. norvegicus by 5/5 and 13/13 homologous association types.19852419043
intestinal uptake and retention of copper in the suckling rat, rattus rattus--ii. copper accumulation in the ileum and distal jejunum.high concentrations of copper were demonstrated histochemically in the enterocytes lining the ileum and distal jejunum of suckling rats. copper was not detected in cells from the duodenum or proximal jejunum of these rats or from any region of the small intestine of rats in which "closure" had taken place. x-ray microanalysis demonstrated copper, in equi-atomic association with sulphur, within discrete vesicles in the supranuclear cytoplasm of the enterocytes. despite the high concentrations of ...19862423288
loss of androgenic induction of alpha 2u-globulin gene family in the liver of nih black rats.unlike all known strains of rat, the androgen-inducible alpha 2u-globulin gene family is totally silent in the liver of nih black (nb) rats. no endocrinological or reproductive abnormalities are apparent, and the mrna for the androgen-repressible hepatic protein smp-2 is normally regulated in these animals. furthermore, immunoblot analysis shows a normal level of the male-specific cytoplasmic androgen-binding protein. cross-breeding of the nb male and sprague-dawley female shows that the hybrid ...19892474439
seroprevalence of rickettsia typhi and rickettsia conorii infection among rodents and dogs in egypt.a serological survey of 1813 rodent and 549 dog sera, collected from 1979 to 1986 from animals in 16 egyptian governorates were tested for antibody to rickettsia typhi and rickettsia conorii by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. only three of 82 (4%) sera from rattus rattus collected near aswan had antibody to r. conorii. the prevalence of r. typhi antibody in dog sera was only 0.4% (n = 549) while 25% (n = 547) of rattus norvegicus and 11% (n = 1138) of r. rattus had measurable antibodies. ...19892509729
seasonal patterns of rodents, fleas and plague status in the western usambara mountains, tanzania.field and commensal rodents were live-trapped at three villages in an active focus of plague (yersinia pseudotuberculosis pestis) in lushoto district, western usambara mountains, tanga region, tanzania, from december 1983 to november 1984. their flea ectoparasites were collected, identified and counted. the rodent carcasses were serologically examined for specific plague antibodies and antigens, and bacteriologically examined for bipolar staining bacilli. a total of 1758 traps were set during th ...19892519642
infectivity of cryptosporidium muris (strain rn 66) in various laboratory animals.the infectivity of cryptosporidium muris (strain rn 66), originally isolated from the house rat (iseki 1986), to various laboratory animals was studied by transmission experiments. after oral inoculation with 1 x 10(6) oocysts, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, and cats all discharged endogenously produced oocysts in their feces. among these host species, mice and cats were highly susceptible to the parasite. the prepatent period for six 3-week-old specific pathogen-free (spf) mice was 5 days po ...19892523540
the muridae glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family.although only one gene is known to be functional, numerous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) related sequences are scattered throughout mus musculus and rattus rattus genomes. in this report we show that: (1) gapdh pseudogenes are repeated to comparable extents, at least 400 copies, in 12 other muridae species; (2) the complete, or nearly so, sequence of gapdh messenger rna is amplified, and a high proportion, if not all of these copies, are intronless; (3) gapdh pseudogenes are p ...19892550656
study on genetic polymorphism of leishmania infantum through the analysis of restriction enzyme digestion patterns of kinetoplast dna.twenty-nine leishmania infantum strains characterized by different host source, tropism and belonging to 6 zymodemes, were examined by restriction enzyme analysis of kinetoplast dna (kdna) using 15 endonucleases. the enzymes which produced only one fragment revealed full identity between all the strains examined, while those producing many bands gave different electrophoretic patterns. they were interpreted with the aid of numerical analyses (cluster and multifactorial analysis). the results sho ...19892558337
structural analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic 5s rrnas by rnase h.the availabilities of single-stranded 5s rrna regions c, d and d' for base pairing interactions were analyzed by using synthetic dna oligomers. hybrid formation was detected by the endonucleolytical mode of the rna-dna specific action of rnase h. provided that the hybrid interaction involved 6 successive base pairs, 5s rrna loop c nucleotides 42-47 displayed accessibility in escherichia coli, bacillus stearothermophilus and thermus thermophilus 5s rrnas as well as in eukaryotic 5s rrnas from sac ...19892561346
attenuation of defensive threat and attack in wild rats (rattus rattus) by benzodiazepines.a battery of tests designed to elicit reactions to a variety of non-painful threat stimuli was used to study the effects of chlordiazepoxide (5-20 mg/kg), diazepam (1-5 mg/kg) and midazolam (1-10 mg/kg) on the defensive repertoire of wild rattus rattus. the most consistent effect of benzodiazepine treatment, across compounds and tests, was a marked reduction in defensive threat and attack behaviors, with midazolam effective over a wider range of situations. in contrast, effects on freezing and f ...19892566187
leptospirosis in man, in wild and in domestic animals at waste disposal sites in cairo.the authors examined 65 rattus rattus, 28 pigs, 12 donkeys, 67 goats, 5 sheep, 1 cow and 1 dog as well as 196 inhabitants at two settlements on the waste disposal sites at the periphery of cairo. rattus norvegicus were positive in 55.4% for l. ictero-haemorrhagiae, pigs in 14.3% for l. pomona and in 3.6% for l. ictero-haemorrhagiae. 2 out of 12 donkeys were positive for l. pomona, 1 of them for l. pyrogenes and l. icterohaemorrhagiae as well, goats in 1.5% for l. grippotyphosa. human sera reacte ...19892583498
uptake of bacteria by trophozoites of giardia duodenalis (say).rod-like bacteria were found in the cytoplasm of trophozoites of giardia duodenalis (say) in domestic rats (rattus rattus). these structures were always in phagocytic vacuoles without signs of bacteria digestion or degradation of the trophozoite cytoplasm. the uptake of the bacteria was observed from their attachment to the trophozoite membrane until their total incorporation by phagocytosis.19892596903
the toxicity of mexican poppy (argemone mexicana l) seeds to rats.toxicolethal effects of seeds of mexican poppy (argemone mexicana l) were investigated in to roof rat, (rattus rattus l). the argemone seeds were fed at 100% of the diet up to the death or for a maximum of 10 days. observed signs of poisoning were sedation, passiveness, sluggishness, feeble or no muscular jerks, abdominal contractions and increased defecation. also black secretions from the eyes, corneal opacity, erection of hairs, and edema of the hind legs and submandibular space in were noted ...19892617838
inhibition of epidermal growth factor-mediated dna synthesis by a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor in vascular smooth muscle cells of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.aortic vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from spontaneously hypertensive rats (shr) grow nearly twice as fast in vitro as cells isolated from several normotensive control strains of rats. we have previously shown that dna synthesis in shr cells from both young and adult animals in response to epidermal growth factor is selectively enhanced compared with normotensive controls, suggesting that epidermal growth factor may be at least partly responsible for the enhanced growth rate. to determine ...19892632697
plasmodium berghei: malaria infection causes increased cardiac output in rats, rattus rattus.thirty-two 4-week-old male wistar rats were infected with plasmodium berghei malaria. on days 12 through 14, blood volume, arterial blood pressure, right ventricular pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, hematocrit, and vascular resistances were determined. all of the cardiovascular parameters measured, with the exception of calculated pulmonary vascular resistance, changed progressively as the peripheral blood parasitemia increased. with a rising parasitemia, cardiac output incre ...19892649387
[epidemiology of trichinellosis in italy and in neighboring countries].in italy trichinella infection is present only in sylvatic animals, especially the fox. nevertheless, the prevalence of this vulpine infection in northern italy decreased from 32% in 1960 to 4% in 1988. other wild and synanthropic animals also promote the survival of the parasite in nature (in the wolf, bear, stray dog and cat, wild boar, norway and black rats). at present, human infections are caused mostly by wild boar meat (11% of all cases) and by imported horse meat (43%), whereas pork does ...19892698605
new alkyl n,n-dialkyl-substituted amino acetates as transdermal penetration alcohol derivatives of n,n-disubstituted amino acids with a low toxicity have been synthesized and evaluated for their transdermal penetration enhancing effects on the transport of indomethacin from petrolatum ointments across shed skin of black rat snake (elaphe obsoleta). the derivatives show excellent penetration enhancement of indomethacin, as high as 3.8 times that of azone, with decyl n,n-dimethylamino acetate as the lead compound in the series. the release of indomethacin from an oint ...19892748516
omega-hydroxyacid derivatives in the epidermis of several mammalian species.1. omega-hydroxyacids from the acylceramides and acylglucosylceramides of mammalian epidermis were examined by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography to determine their degree of unsaturation and chain-length distributions. the species examined included human (homo sapiens), pig (sus scrofa), mouse (mus musculus) and rat (rattus rattus). 2. within a species, the omega-hydroxyacids from the acylceramide and acylglucosylceramide were essentially identical. 3. the human omega-hydroxyacids proved ...19892776425
brachylaima apoplania n. sp. (digenea: brachylaimidae) from the polynesian rat, rattus exulans (rodentia: muridae), in new zealand: origins and zoogeography.brachylaima apoplania n. sp. is described from the small intestine of the polynesian rat (rattus exulans) on tiritiri matangi island, new zealand. the new species is most similar to brachylaima ratti baugh, 1962, from rattus rattus. the two species differ only in morphometric characters, b. apoplania possessing significantly smaller suckers, pharynx, testes, ovary, and cirrus sac. the close resemblance between b. apoplania and b. ratti, the close relationship between their hosts, and archaeologi ...19892795370
reproduction in common house rat, rattus rattus rufescens (gray), in semi arid region of indian desert.r. r. rufescens litter throughout the year with two peaks. the prevalence of pregnancy was maximum during early summer and postmonsoon seasons. day length and day temperature influenced the breeding pattern which was supplemented by the availability of stored foodgrains in the habitat.19892807417
[sources of infection of the house-rat variety of epidemic hemorrhagic fever]. 19852868794
epidemiological investigations following an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in greece.epidemiological investigations were conducted following an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) which occurred in the state of epirus, northwestern greece, in july and august 1983. a total of 8 patients were hospitalized during the outbreak; 3 were severely ill and 1 died. a serosurvey made in may 1984 sampled 184 of the approximately 400 residents of the village of tsepelovo, where 4 patients resided, and found 12 (6.5%) persons, including convalescent sera from 4 patients, ...19862871769
epidemiological studies of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) related virus infection among urban rats in hokkaido, japan.seroepidemiological studies of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) virus infection were carried out among urban rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) and small field rodents in hokkaido, japan. an urban rat colony that was seropositive to sr-11 strain of hfrs virus (laboratory rat origin) was demonstrated in february 1983 at a dumping ground area of kami-iso town near hakodate port. an hfrs-related virus, named ki-262 strain, was isolated from the lung tissue of a seropositive rat ...19862871823
intestinal uptake and retention of copper in the suckling rat, rattus rattus--i. distribution and binding.the distribution of the heterogeneous copper (cu)-complex in the intestine of the neonatal rat parallels that of total cu and is maximal in the ileum. in the ileum the total cu concentration exceeds 400 micrograms/g wet wt at 14 days of age and then falls to about 20 micrograms/g wet wt in the 20-day-old pup. the apoproteins (apopeptides) of the cu-complex, which are absent from the late-foetal intestine, vary in number and proportion with postnatal age and nutritional status.19862871994
epidemiological studies on hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in china.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) has been reported from greater than 20 provinces in china. the number of reported cases has increased markedly in recent years and surpassed 80,000 human cases in 1983. all of the cases reported before 1981 were from rural areas and were attributed to apodemus rats. in 1981, outbreaks of cases associated with house rats were first reported. cases associated with apodemus agrarius were more severe than those associated with the house rat rattus norvegi ...19862874178
intestinal uptake and retention of copper in the suckling rat, rattus rattus--iii. effects of closure.the ileum of suckling rats contains a high level of copper, most of which is concentrated within cytoplasmic vesicles of the enterocytes. intestinal closure, 20-21 days after birth, results in the replacement of enterocytes by cells devoid of these vesicles and there is a concomitant fall in the level of copper in the ileum. administration of cortisone acetate (0.5 mg/g body wt) to 5-day-old rats results in premature loss of copper-laden ileal enterocytes and an 80-90% decrease in the ileal copp ...19862874948
intestinal uptake and retention of copper in the suckling rat, rattus rattus--iv. mechanisms of intestinal copper accumulation.copper-67, administered either parenterally or via the maternal milk, accumulates principally in the intestine and liver of the 6-day-old pup. most of the 67cu in the soluble fraction of the intestine is associated with the heterogeneous cu-complex, which is located predominantly in the ileum. the rates of uptake and loss of 67cu in the liver and intestine indicate that enterohepatic circulation of cu in the neonate is appreciable. whilst the concentration of cu in the bile of the 13-day-old pup ...19872881716
[polymorphism of schistosoma mansoni eggs in the guadeloupe (french antilles) focus: presence of s. rodhaini-like parasites?].a comparative study of egg morphology of schistosoma mansoni carried out between 9 parasite populations from guadeloupean foci demonstrates the existence of an intraspecific polymorphism. three types of lateral spined eggs have been described and their relative proportions observed between populations are related to the participation of a wild host-reservoir (rattus rattus) in the life cycle of the parasite. eggs of schistosomes originating from urbanized foci where man plays the main role in th ...19862882660
comparative infectivity of a kenyan strain of leishmania donovani amastigotes for rattus rattus and the laboratory white rat.amastigotes of a kenyan strain of leishmania donovani from a previously infected hamster were used to inoculate rattus rattus and the laboratory white rat intracardially. the animals were sampled at 2, 4, 6, and 12 weeks post-inoculation to determine infectivity and total parasite burdens in the liver and spleen. higher parasite burdens were observed in the livers and spleens of r. rattus. parasite culture indicated more generalized parasite dissemination compared to the white rat. demonstration ...19872894131
haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: clinical, virological and epidemiological perspectives.haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is caused by a group of rna viruses within the family of bunyaviridae known as hantaviruses. the classical, severe form of hfrs is characterized by fever, headache, abdominal and lumbar pain, proteinuria, haemorrhagic phenomena, shock and renal failure. the disease is associated with the prototype hantaan virus and occurs in rural areas of korea and china with apodemus mice as reservoir hosts. a clinically less severe form of hfrs, which is caused by ...19872895603
[study on the surveillance of house-rat type epidemic haemorrhagic fever]. 19882905938
morphology and life cycle of schistosoma sinensium pao, 1959, from northwest thailand.schistosoma sinensium pao, 1959, was first isolated from an unidentified snail in szechuan province, china, and was described on the basis of adult worms and eggs recovered from experimentally infected mice. we discovered snails, tricula bollingi davis, and rodents, rattus rattus (l.) and crocidura attenuata milne-edwards, infected with s. sinensium near fang in northwest thailand. adult worms were recovered from small veins immediately adjacent to the small intestine. eggs first appeared in the ...19892918446
in vitro effects of ethanol and ddt on myofibrillar-atpase in cardiac and certain skeletal muscles of pigeon (columba livia) and rat (rattus rattus). 19872969369
dysenzymia induced by hexavalent chromium in rat liver.the alterations in the distribution and activity of certain key enzymes, viz. alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, cholinesterase and lipase, have been determined in the liver of rats (rattus rattus albino) after experimental poisoning with hexavalent chromium. the histochemical and biochemical observations presented herewith provide visual evidence of chromium-induced inhibition of all these enzymes except lipase, which was found to be stimulated insignificantly. the r ...19852999022
conserved restriction sites within the ribosomal rna genes of vertebrates.we have mapped the cleavage sites of four restriction enzymes which recognize six-base sequences within the nuclear ribosomal (rrna) genes of twelve vertebrates, including several placental mammals (homo sapiens, man; bos taurus, cow; equus caballus, horse; sus scofra, pig; ovis aries, sheep; rattus rattus, rat), a marsupial (didelphis marsupialis, opossum), a bird (gallus domesticus, chicken), an amphibian (xenopus laevis), a reptile (alligator mississipiensis), a bony fish (cynoscion nebulosus ...19863004584
[macromutation and evolution: the fixation of goldschmidt's macromutations as species and genus traits. hairlessness mutations in mammals].a brief survey of the development of concepts on the role of macromutations in evolution is given. contrary to iu. a. filipchenko (1926, 1927), who introduced the "micro- and macromutation" terms and believed that regularities of macroevolution could not be reduced to microevolutionary processes, the majority of "synthetists" explained any form of evolution by changes in allele frequencies. from the studies of drosophila homoeotic mutants r. goldschmidt (1940) developed the concept of "hopeful m ...19883049233
a general survey of blood and tissue parasites of some rodents in arbil province, a survey of blood and tissue parasites from 233 mice and rats, consisting of 105 specimens of house mice (mus musculus), 99 black rats (rattus rattus), and 29 norway rats (rattus norvegicus), collected from different localities of arbil province, northern iraq, trypanosoma lewisi was found in 7 (7.07%) of 99 r. rattus and in 5 (17.86%) of 29 r. norvegicus, while trypanosoma musculi was found in 4 (3.80%) of 105 m. musculus and this is the first record of this trypanosome from rodents in iraq. ...19883052538
schistosoma mansoni: comparison of a caribbean and african strain and experimental crossing based on compatibility with intermediate hosts and rattus elucidate changes relative to compatibility with intermediate and definitive hosts affecting schistosoma mansoni since it was introduced to the new world, the compatibility of s. mansoni from africa (the cameroons), from the caribbean (guadeloupe), and those resulting from experimental crosses with the gastropods biomphalaria glabrata and b. pfeifferi has been studied. results show that s. mansoni, regardless of its origin or its usual snail host, always infects b. pfeifferi more successfully ...19863082664
schistosoma mansoni from naturally infected rattus rattus in guadeloupe: identification, prevalence and enzyme enzymatic comparison has been made between isolates of schistosoma mansoni from rats and humans in guadeloupe and a burundi isolate of s. rodhaini. analyses of ldh, mdh, acp, pgm, gpi, g6pdh and hk by isoelectric focusing provided no evidence for the involvement of s. rodhaini in the recent evolution of the schistosomes currently endemic in guadeloupe. no distinction could be made between murine and human isolates of s. mansoni and it is suggested that murine schistosomiasis should not theref ...19863092170
serological investigations in q-fever and listeriosis of wild-living small mammals on the cape verde islands.serological investigations of small mammals had been made on the island santiago (cape verde islands), to clear up how far synantropic, small mammals are reservoir hosts for pathogens, such as coxiella burnetti and listeria monocytogenes. 367 small mammals representing two species (rattus rattus and mus musculus) were trapped. q-fever antibodies were detected in 155 of 350 examined rats and mice (44.29%). 18.89% of all tested sera showed positive results to listeria-antigen, serovar 4bh, 5.48% t ...19883169561
the toxicity of indian calotropis procera rbr latex in the black rat, rattus rattus linn.toxicity studies with latex of calotropis procera rbr were conducted in the black rat, rattus rattus. the latex was fed through bait prepared from wheat flour, ground nut oil and sugar at concentrations of 5, 7.5 or 10% (w/w). the bait was fed up to mortality and for a maximum of 10 days. the signs produced were passivity, sluggishness, sedation, dyspnea, weakness, reduction in weight, anorexia, diarhhea, hematuria, bleeding from nose, eyes and anus, eye lens opacity, mild tetanic convulsions, c ...19883176304
serotypes of erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in australian pigs, small ruminants, poultry, and captive wild birds and animals.serotypes of 93 australian isolates of erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae from diseased domestic animals and poultry and a variety of captive wild birds and animals were determined by double diffusion gel precipitation. two isolates, from the faeces of a swallow were also examined. serotypes 1a, 1b and 2 were isolated from pigs and serotypes 1a, 1b, 2, 5, 15 and 21 from sheep or goats. erysipelas in poultry was attributed to serotypes 1b, 5, 15 and 16. in captive wild birds serotypes 1b, 5, 6, 8, 14, ...19883190592
cochlea in old world mice and rats (muridae).morphometric analysis of the cochlea was performed in wild and laboratory murids: mus musculus, apodemus sylvaticus, rattus rattus, r. norvegicus, nmri mouse, and wistar rat. results are based on light microscopic examination of surface specimens and serial sections and on three-dimensional computer reconstruction. the cochleae have 1.75-2.2 coils. the length of the basilar membrane varies from 6.0 to 12.1 mm. mean density of outer hair cells ranges between 363 and 411, inner hair cells 98 and 1 ...19883221404
the ontogeny of exploratory behavior in the house rat (rattus rattus): the mobility gradient.infants of rats and other mammals respond to a novel environment by becoming immobile, and then showing a process of motorial expansion called "warm-up." starting from immobility, new types of movement are incorporated into the stream of behavior according to rather strict rules of order. once a new type of movement has been performed, the infant reverts to it repeatedly. as a result, the earlier portion of the behavior appears stereotyped, giving the impression of an automatism. later, as new t ...19883234601
'taming' of wild rats (rattus rattus) by 5ht1a agonists buspirone and gepirone.a battery of tests designed to elicit reactions to a variety of nonpainful threat stimuli was used to study the effects of the 5ht1a agonists buspirone (5-20 mg/kg), and gepirone (5-20 mg/kg) on the defensive repertoire of wild rattus rattus. these two compounds produced very similar patterns of results on the test battery, with gepirone generally more effective: both compounds failed to interfere with either spontaneous motor activity or avoidance/flight to an approaching experimenter. however, ...19883244704
the discovery and preliminary characterization of a novel trypanosomatid parasite from rattus norvegicus and stray dogs from alexandria, egypt.a survey of rodents and dogs was carried out in alexandria and its environs to see if an animal reservoir was associated with an outbreak of infantile kala-azar in this area. three rodent species, rattus rattus, rattus norvegicus and mus musculus, were commonly trapped and examined. a flagellate parasite was isolated from the spleens of two r. norvegicus. it was typed serologically by excreted factor serotyping and enzymologically by thick starch electrophoresis of four of its enzymes: gpi, g6pd ...19883257073
morphology of the house rat (rattus rattus) ovary during the oestrous cycle. 19873445664
isolation of members of the haemophilus-pasteurella-actinobacillus group from feral rodents.46 feral rodents, including a common vole (microtus arvalis), house mice (mus musculus), muskrats (ondatra zibetica), house rats (rattus rattus) and brown rats (r. norvegicus) were examined for bacteria of the haemophilus-pasteurella-actinobacillus group. haemophilus spp. (only m. musculus examined) were not obtained. all animal species were found contaminated by p. pneumotropica and/or actinobacillus spp. almost all m. musculus (96%) and most rattus spp. (76%) were contaminated by p. pneumotrop ...19863512906
effect of glyzophrol on fertility of female black rats (rattus rattus).mild degree of fibrosis, dilatation of blood vessels, haemorrhagic reactions in a few places, granulosa cells in stroma and no effect on maturation process of follicles were observed in ovary of 20 mg/kg of glyzophrol treated rats. after 60 mg/kg of glyzophrol treatment, ovary revealed reduction in number of follicles, degenerative changes in existing follicles, frequent proliferation of granulosa cells and fibrosis in stroma along with karyorrhexis, karyolysis and pyknosis in nuclei. haemorrhag ...19863577594
[diagnostic problems of ornithonyssus bacoti (acarida: gamasida: macronyssidae) infestation in humans].we established an infestation with the tropical rat mite in a baby. at the beginning, the infestation was not recognized. later it was found that it had already existed for several months, since the baby's third week. the main symptoms of the infestation were nocturnal restlessness and urticaria-like dermatitis, especially in the joint bends of the extremities. the focus of infestation were house rats (rattus rattus) living in the garret. the ornithonyssus bacoti mites had got into the living-ro ...19873619112
observations on the transmission of angiostrongylus cantonensis from snail to rodent.a survey of angiostrongylus cantonensis was carried out to investigate the mode of transmission from mollusc to rat in a fixed study area of yoron island from 1979 to 1982. rattus rattus was found to be infected with a small number of worms in spite of heavy infection with third-stage larvae in achatina fulica and an abundance of this snail in the area. natural infection and/or susceptibility with a. cantonensis were confirmed in three small snail species. bradybaena circulus, fruticicola despec ...19873668215
differences in biological characteristics of two strains of the cestode hymenolepis diminuta.biological characteristics of infectivity, growth rate and fecundity of hymenolepis diminuta isolated from wild rattus rattus in japan were compared with parasites of texas origin maintained for several generations in this and many other laboratories in laboratory bred rattus norvegicus. the timing of development and maturation was similar in parasites from both sources, but the mean parasite dry weight was less and the mean egg production lower in japanese parasites in both single and multiple ...19873670903
bioecology of the parasites of high altitude homeothermic host-parasite systems. i. influence of season and temperature on infections by strobilocerci of three species of hydatigera in indian house rat.seasonal fluctuations in the infrapopulation size of strobilocerci of hydatigera balaniceps (hall, 1911), h. laticollis (rudolphi, 1819) and h. parva (baer, 1926) infesting liver lobes of indian house rat populations at high altitude (1400 to 1600 m) appear to be correlated with climatic oscillations in temperature. greater susceptibility of rattus rattus to infection was evident at lower temperatures. the distribution of strobilocerci in rodent populations could be described by the poisson mode ...19863701017
bioecology of the parasites of high altitude homeothermic host-parasite systems. ii. infections by strobilocerci of hydatigera balaniceps (hall), h. laticollis (rudolphi) and h. parva (baer) in relation to sex, size and weight of indian house rat.the influence of sex, size and weight of the indian house rat (rattus rattus) on concurrent liver infections with hydatigera balaniceps (hall), h. laticollis (rudolphi) and h. parva (baer) has been discussed. a significant inverse relationship was recorded between cestode infection and rat size. parasitization index and mean worm burden-host weight ratio decreased with increase in rodent weight.19863701018
the response of captive rodents to the migration of ancylostoma caninum larvae.the distribution of the larvae of ancylostoma caninum in tissues of captive wild rodents (rattus rattus) and the leucocytic and behavioural responses of these rodents were studied after experimental oral infection. there was a wide distribution of larvae in tissues with a preponderance of the larvae in the skeletal muscles of the anterior part of the body in older infection. the rats responded by an elevation of total leucocytes and eosinophils in blood, alternation of locomotory activity and be ...19863721358
effect of glyzophrol on fertility of female black rats (rattus rattus).a mild degree of fibrosis, dilatation of blood vessels, haemorrhagic reactions in a few places, granulosa cells in the stroma and no effect on the maturation process of follicles were observed in the ovaries of 20 mg/kg of glyzophrol treated rats. after 60 mg/kg of glyzophrol treatment, the ovary revealed a reduction in the number of follicles, degenerative changes in existing follicles, frequent proliferation of granulosa cells and fibrosis in the stroma, along with karyorrhexis, karyolysis and ...19863739560
the susceptibility of rattus rattus and bandicota bengalensis to a new anticoagulant rodenticide, flocoumafen.the anticoagulant rodenticide flocoumafen was evaluated against rattus rattus and bandicota bengalensis. in no-choice 24 h feeding tests 100% mortality occurred at 0.00125% concentration of the poison in the bait in the case of b. bengalensis and at 0.00375% in r. rattus. feeding of 0.0025% poison bait in 1-day, no-choice and 2-day choice tests resulted in 60% and 75% mortality of r. rattus, respectively, and 100% of b. bengalensis. the differences between the consumption of plain food in the pr ...19863755452
food preference, consumption and efficacy of three rodenticides against rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus frugivorous, in ismailia, egypt. 19863782919
leishmania in the old world: 4. the distribution of l. donovani sensu lato zymodemes.isoenzyme profiles of 67 stocks of leishmania donovani sensu lato from across the old world were compared with those of reference strains of l. donovani sensu stricto, l. infantum, l. major, l. tropica and l. aethiopica using starch-gel electrophoresis of 13 enzymes (gpi, gd, es, pgm, pepd, nh, asat, alat, pk, mpi, 6pgd, sod, mdh). 12 zymodemes were seen. isolates from man, canis familiaris, vulpes vulpes, rattus rattus, arvicanthis sp. and phlebotomus martini were examined. several zymodemes co ...19863798531
[the genus leishmania in italy].seventy-four leishmania isolates collected in italy from six different regions where leishmaniases are endemic, have been typed. parasites have been isolated from: man (vl and cl), dog, black rat (rattus rattus), fox (vulpes vulpes) and geckoes (tarentola mauritanica and cyrtodactylus kotschyi). the isolates have been characterized by starch-gel electrophoresis for 9-16 enzymes whose mobility was compared with that of international reference strains for l. infantum, l. tropica, l. major, l. dono ...19853870639
first report of angiostrongylus cantonensis in puerto rico.from january to april 1984, 63 rattus rattus and 40 r. norvegicus were trapped in northeastern puerto rico and examined for angiostrongylus cantonensis adults. nineteen (47.5%) of the r. norvegicus and 10 (15.9%) of the r. rattus were infected, giving an overall infection rate of 28.2%. four species of terrestrial snails and one species of brown slug were examined for a. cantonensis larvae. two snail species, subulina octona and aquebana belutina, were found infected with third stage larvae of a ...19863953946
fleas on roof rats in six areas of los angeles county, california: their potential role in the transmission of plague and murine typhus to humans.roof rats (rattus rattus) in southern california are rarely involved with plague epizootics and murine typhus. little evidence exists implicating these rodents as sources of human infection. this might be explained by the absence of fleas capable of transmitting these 2 diseases. from february 1981 through january 1982, roof rats were live-trapped and examined for fleas each month in 4 areas of los angeles county. two other areas were trapped for 9 and 3 months respectively. areas sampled were i ...19853985278
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