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detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis st6-vanb2 and e. faecium st915-vana in faecal samples of wild rattus rattus in spain.the detection of vancomycin-resistant-enterococci (vre) among wild animals represents a worrisome public health concern. the objectives of the study were to determine the possible presence of vre in faecal samples of wild small mammals in spain, to characterize the vancomycin resistance mechanisms and genetic lineages of recovered isolates and to know the diversity of enterococcal species in these animals. a total of 155 faecal samples from small mammals were inoculated in slanetz-bartley agar s ...201525795517
leishmania infantum in wild rodents: reservoirs or just irrelevant incidental hosts?wild rodents constitute a very large biomass of potential reservoirs for leishmania spp. therefore, an epidemiological study was carried out in a well-known focus of canine leishmaniasis from southern spain, with the objective of detecting and characterizing leishmania infantum infection in wild rodents. blood, liver, spleen, bone marrow, and skin from 37 rodents (24 apodemus sylvaticus, 9 rattus rattus, and 4 mus musculus) were analyzed by optical microscopy, culture, and two different polymera ...201525797596
physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling of immune, reproductive and carcinogenic effects from contaminant exposure in polar bears (ursus maritimus) across the arctic.polar bears (ursus maritimus) consume large quantities of seal blubber and other high trophic marine mammals and consequently have some of the highest tissue concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (ohcs) among arctic biota. in the present paper we carried out a risk quotient (rq) evaluation on ohc-exposed polar bears harvested from 1999 to 2008 and from 11 circumpolar subpopulations spanning from alaska to svalbard in order to evaluate the risk of ohc-mediated reproductive effects (embryot ...201525825130
evidence of a target resistance to antivitamin k rodenticides in the roof rat rattus rattus: identification and characterisation of a novel y25f mutation in the vkorc1 gene.in spite of intensive use of bromadiolone, rodent control was inefficient on a farm infested by rats in zaragoza, spain. while metabolic resistance was previously described in this rodent species, the observation of a target resistance to antivitamin k rodenticides had been poorly documented in rattus rattus.201625847836
identification of phlebotomine sand fly blood meals by real-time pcr.phlebotomine sand flies are blood-feeding insects of great medical and veterinary significance acting as vectors of leishmania parasites. studying the blood-feeding pattern of these insects may help in the understanding of their interactions with potential reservoir hosts of leishmania parasites. in this study, we developed real time pcr assays for the identification of sand fly blood meal.201525889289
a survey of zoonotic pathogens carried by non-indigenous rodents at the interface of the wet tropics of north queensland, australia.in 1964, brucella was isolated from rodents trapped in wooroonooran national park (wnp), in northern queensland, australia. genotyping of bacterial isolates in 2008 determined that they were a novel brucella species. this study attempted to reisolate this species of brucella from rodents living in the boundary area adjacent to wnp and to establish which endo- and ecto-parasites and bacterial agents were being carried by non-indigenous rodents at this interface. seventy non-indigenous rodents wer ...201725906923
detection of angiostrongylus cantonensis in the blood and peripheral tissues of wild hawaiian rats (rattus rattus) by a quantitative pcr (qpcr) assay.the nematode angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rat lungworm, a zoonotic pathogen that causes human eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis characteristic of rat lungworm (rlw) disease. definitive diagnosis is made by finding and identifying a. cantonensis larvae in the cerebral spinal fluid or by using a custom immunological or molecular test. this study was conducted to determine if genomic dna from a. cantonensis is detectable by qpcr in the blood or tissues of experimentally infe ...201525910229
rickettsia typhi in rodents and r. felis in fleas in yucatán as a possible causal agent of undefined febrile cases.rickettsia typhi is the causal agent of murine typhus; a worldwide zoonotic and vector-borne infectious disease, commonly associated with the presence of domestic and wild rodents. human cases of murine typhus in the state of yucatán are frequent. however, there is no evidence of the presence of rickettsia typhi in mammals or vectors in yucatán. the presence of rickettsia in rodents and their ectoparasites was evaluated in a small municipality of yucatán using the conventional polymerase chain r ...025923891
is the oriental house rat (rattus tanezumi) a potential reservoir for trypanosoma evansi in thailand?trypanosoma evansi is a protozoan blood parasite and etiologic agent of "surra," a disease affecting a wide range of domestic and wild mammals, some identified as potential reservoirs. although t. evansi has been detected in several small wild rodent species, their role in the epidemiology of surra is unclear. there is molecular evidence of t. evansi in wild rodents in asia, but it is not known whether they can carry the parasite for sufficient time to significantly contribute to the epidemiolog ...201525932666
prevalence and characteristics of escherichia coli and salmonella spp. in the feces of wild urban norway and black rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) from an inner-city neighborhood of vancouver, canada.although rat feces are widely suspected to be a source of pathogenic bacteria, few investigators have studied fecal pathogens in rats. we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of escherichia coli and salmonella spp. in norway and black rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus, respectively) from an urban neighborhood of vancouver, canada, collected september 2011-august 2012. colon content was cultured for e. coli and salmonella spp. and screened for the seven most-common enteropathog ...201525932669
feeding habits of introduced black rats, rattus rattus, in nesting colonies of galapagos petrel on san cristóbal island, galapagos.introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. in the galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the galapagos petrel (pterodroma phaeopygia) in its nesting zones. understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in th ...201525984724
environmental enrichment reduces anxiety by differentially activating serotonergic and neuropeptide y (npy)-ergic system in indian field mouse (mus booduga): an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder.exposure to a predator elicits an innate fear response and mimics several behavioral disorders related to post-traumatic stress disorder (ptsd). the protective role of an enriched condition (ec) against psychogenic stressors in various animal models has been well documented. however, this condition has not been tested in field mice in the context of ptsd. in this study, we show that field mice (mus booduga) housed under ec exhibit predominantly proactive and less reactive behavior compared with ...201526016844
barriers to seed and seedling survival of once-common hawaiian palms: the role of invasive rats and ungulates.mammalian herbivores can limit plant recruitment and affect forest composition. loulu palms (pritchardia spp.) once dominated many lowland ecosystems in hawai'i, and non-native rats (rattus spp.), ungulates (e.g. pigs sus scrofa, goats capra hircus) and humans have been proposed as major causes of their decline. in lowland wet forest, we experimentally determined the vulnerability of seeds and seedlings of two species of pritchardia, p. maideniana and p. hillebrandii, by measuring their removal ...201526019231
rats: if you can't beat them eat them! (tricks of the trade observed among the adi and other north-east indian tribals).since outside the tribal areas of north-east india it is not widely known, neither in the world nor in india itself, that rats are considered a delicious food item, this was one of several reasons why we decided to present this ethnographic account of rat procurement and preparation (together with some additional comments on the cultural role that rats have especially amongst members of the adi tribe). consumption of rats by humans as a biological control method far superior to the use of rodent ...201526024664
recent evolution in rattus norvegicus is shaped by declining effective population size.the brown rat, rattus norvegicus, is both a notorious pest and a frequently used model in biomedical research. by analyzing genome sequences of 12 wild-caught brown rats from their presumed ancestral range in ne china, along with the sequence of a black rat, rattus rattus, we investigate the selective and demographic forces shaping variation in the genome. we estimate that the recent effective population size (ne) of this species = [formula: see text], based on silent site diversity. we compare ...201526037536
ameloblastoma in a wild black rat snake (pantherophis alleghaniensis).reports of neoplasia in captive reptiles are becoming more frequent; however, there is still scarce knowledge of the occurrence of neoplasia in wild reptiles. a wild black rat snake (pantherophis alleghaniensis) was presented to the zoological medicine service of the university of georgia's veterinary teaching hospital with a 3 cm in diameter solid mandibular mass that was partially ulcerated. radiographically, the mass was radiopaque with small bone spicules and partial osteolysis of the adjace ...201526077548
molecular survey on detection of leishmania infection in rodent reservoirs in jahrom district, southern iran.zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (zcl) is endemic in many parts of iran. recently its incidence is considerable in different parts of jahrom district, in fars province, southern iran. the aims of our study were to investigate the prevalence of leishmania infection, and identify and characterize the leishmania species present, among the rodents by molecular methods in a new endemic focus of zcl, in an urban and rural area of the jahrom district, fars province, southern iran.201426114127
molecular phylogenetic characterization of common murine rodents from manipur, northeast india.the indian subcontinent and southeast asia are hotspots of murine biodiversity, but no species from the arakan mountain system that demarcates the border between the two areas has been subjected to molecular phylogenetic analyses. we examined the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences in six murine species (the rattus rattus species complex, r. norvegicus, r. nitidus, berylmys manipulus, niviventer sp. and mus musculus) from manipur, which is located at the western foot of the mountain range. ...201526119663
characterization of leishmania (leishmania) waltoni n.sp. (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae), the parasite responsible for diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in the dominican republic.leishmania parasites isolated, between 1979 and 1988 by the late bryce walton, from dominican republic (dr) patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, were characterized using a panel of 12 isoenzymes, 23 monoclonal antibodies, small subunit ribosomal dna (ssu rdna), and multilocus sequence analysis (mlsa). the isoenzyme and monoclonal antibody profiles and the mlsa results showed that the dominican republic parasites were distinct from other described leishmania species. this new species be ...201526149864
respiratory pathology and pathogens in wild urban rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus).norway (rattus norvegicus) and black rats (rattus rattus) are common peridomestic species, yet little is known about wild rat ecology, including their natural diseases. we describe gross and histological lesions in the respiratory tract of a sample of 711 wild urban rats. a subset was examined for 19 distinct categories of histological lesions in the respiratory tract. testing for known respiratory pathogens included serology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) of lung samples. grossly evident l ...201526169386
a survey of angiostrongylus species in definitive hosts in queensland.despite the recent sporadic reports of angiostrongyliasis in humans, dogs and wildlife in eastern australia there has been no systematic study to explore the epidemiology of angiostrongylus spp. in definitive and intermediate hosts in the region. little is known about the epidemiology of angiostrongylus species in the definitive host in southeast queensland, since the only survey conducted in this region was performed in the late 1960s. in this study, free-living populations of rattus spp. were ...201526236633
serological survey of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and coxiella burnetii in rodents in north-western african islands (canary islands and cape verde).coxiella burnetii and toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. the aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of c. burnetii and t. gondii in the north-western african archipelagos of the canary islands and cape verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. between 2 ...201526244685
caloric restriction and formalin-induced inflammation: an experimental study in rat model.acute and chronic inflammations are difficult to control. using chemical anti-inflammatory medications along with their complications considerably limit their use. according to traditional iranian medicine (tim), there is an important relation between inflammation and imtila (food and blood accumulation in the body); food reduction or its more modern equivalent caloric restriction (cr) may act against both imtila and inflammation.201526421173
what is your diagnosis? a soft tissue mass in a black rat snake. 201526427028
streptobacillus notomytis sp. nov., isolated from a spinifex hopping mouse (notomys alexis thomas, 1922), and emended description of streptobacillus levaditi et al. 1925, eisenberg et al. 2015 emend.a pleomorphic, gram-negative, rod-shaped, indole-, oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium was isolated in 1979 from the heart of a spinifex hopping mouse (notomys alexis thomas, 1922) with septicaemia and stored as streptobacillus moniliformis in the strain collection of the animal health laboratory, south perth, western australia (ahl 370-1), as well as under ccug 12425. on the basis of 16srrna gene sequence analyses, the strain was assigned to the genus strepto ...201526438009
infectiousness of sylvatic and synanthropic small rodents implicates a multi-host reservoir of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis.the possibility that a multi-host wildlife reservoir is responsible for maintaining transmission of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis causing human cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is tested by comparative analysis of infection progression and infectiousness to sandflies in rodent host species previously shown to have high natural infection prevalences in both sylvatic or/and peridomestic habitats in close proximity to humans in northeast brazil.201526448187
prevalence of calodium hepaticum and cysticercus fasciolaris in urban rats and their histopathological reaction in the livers.humans can get infected with several zoonotic diseases from being in close contact with rats. this study was aimed at determining the prevalence and histopathological changes caused by calodium hepaticum and cysticercus fasciolaris in infected livers of wild caught urban rats. of the 98 urban rats (rattus rattus diardii and rattus norvegicus) autopsied, 64.3% were infected; 44.9% were infected with caladium hepatica, 39.3% were infected with cysticercus fasciolaris, and 20.4% were infected with ...201426464920
the distribution and diversity of bartonella species in rodents and their ectoparasites across thailand.our study highlights the surveillance of bartonella species among rodents and their associated ectoparasites (ticks, fleas, lice, and mites) in several regions across thailand. a total of 619 rodents and 554 pooled ectoparasites (287 mite pools, 62 flea pools, 35 louse pools, and 170 tick pools) were collected from 8 provinces within 4 regions of thailand. bandicota indica (279), rattus rattus (163), and r. exulans (96) were the most prevalent species of rats collected in this study. real-time p ...201526484537
correlation of host specificity, environmental factors and oriental rat flea abundance.fleas are the vectors of many communicable diseases that are normally found in oriental rats. climate and environmental changes influence the habitat and migration patterns of vectors. in this study, the oriental rat flea abundance, represented as total flea index, was determined in correlation to host specificity and various environmental factors. the number of hosts and fleas calculated from 3 specific habitats (shipping area, decayed area, and market area) from july 2010 to june 2011. the res ...201526513922
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in rodents from various locations in peninsular malaysia.numerous studies have reported the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among malaysians and various domestic animals; but there is paucity of information on its prevalence among rodents which could potentially contribute to the transmission of toxoplasma gondii in both domestic and sylvatic fauna. five hundred twenty-six rodents were captured from six locations in malaysia and identified to species. serum samples were collected from these rodents and tested for t.gondii antibodies using an immunofluores ...201526521512
intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation of gongylonema pulchrum and two rodent gongylonema spp. (g. aegypti and g. neoplasticum), with the proposal of g. nepalensis n. sp. for the isolate in water buffaloes from nepal.the gullet worm (gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide. in an earlier study, we demonstrated two separate transmission cycles in cattle (bos taurus) and wild mammals in japan based on nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal rna gene (rdna) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (cox-1) region of mitochondrial dna of multiple isolates of different origins. our earlier study additionally demonstrated two major cox-1 haplotypes of g. pulchrum prevalent in cattle in j ...201626531300
serologic evidence of flavivirus infections in peridomestic rodents in merida, mexico.we conducted surveillance for flavivirus infection in peridomestic rodents in merida, mexico in 2011-12. we captured 161 rodents inside private residences, using sherman traps, including 86 house mice (mus musculus) and 75 black rats (rattus rattus). serum from each animal was assayed by plaque reduction neutralization test (prnt) using two vertebrate-specific flaviviruses (apoi and modoc viruses) and five mosquito-borne flaviviruses (dengue 2, dengue 4, st. louis encephalitis virus, west nile, ...201626540177
plague in tanzania: an overview.human plague remains a public health concern in tanzania despite its quiescence in most foci for years, considering the recurrence nature of the disease. despite the long-standing history of this problem, there have not been recent reviews of the current knowledge on plague in tanzania. this work aimed at providing a current overview of plague in tanzania in terms of its introduction, potential reservoirs, possible causes of plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in the country. plague is bel ...201326591701
factors associated with flea infestation among the different rodent species in mbulu and karatu districts, northern tanzania.flea infection with the bacterium, yersinia pestis is acquired from reservoirs which include several rodents and other small mammals. in areas that are endemic of plague, reservoirs of y. pestis and various flea vectors are responsible for perpetuating existence of the disease. the objective of this cross sectional study was to investigate the magnitude and factors associated with flea infestation among different rodent species of northern tanzania, where outbreaks of plague have been recently r ...201326591705
ectoparasites of rodents captured in hamedan, western iran.rodents with a population greater than the entire population of other mammals on earth are the source of economic losses and health conflicts. one of the major health problems with the rodents is their role as reservoir hosts of zoonotic diseases. the aim of this study was to assess the infestation of commensal rodents with ectoparasites in hamedan city, western iran.201526623438
functional ultrastructure of eggs and cellular organization of hexacanths of the cyclophyllidean cestode thysanotaenia congolensis: a phylogenetic implication of obtained results.the functional ultrastructure of eggs and cellular organization of hexacanths from gravid proglottids of thysanotaenia congolensis, from black rats from cape verde, were examined by transmission electron microscopy. mature eggs with fully formed hexacanths are grouped within parenchymatous capsules of gravid proglottids. oncospheral envelopes surrounding mature hexacanths are reduced to a very thin membranous embryophore as their protective function is taken over by the parenchymatous capsules o ...201626689933
streptobacillus ratti sp. nov., isolated from a black rat (rattus rattus).an indole-, oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-motile bacterium, strain ogs16t, was isolated from an oral swab of a feral black rat (rattus rattus) in 2007 in japan. it stained gram-negative and had pleomorphic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming cells. based on 16s rrna gene sequence analyses, strain ogs16t was assigned to the genus streptobacillus, with 16s rrna gene sequence similarities of 99.3, 99.0, 98.6 and 95.5% to the type strains of streptobacillus moniliformis, streptobacillus notomytis, ...201626705259
experimental infection of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses to chickens, ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats for the evaluation of their roles in virus transmission.highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (hpaivs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds. determining transmission routes of these viruses during an outbreak is essential for the control of avian influenza. it has been widely postulated that migratory ducks play crucial roles in the widespread dissemination of hpaivs in poultry by carrying viruses along with their migrations; however close contacts between wild migratory ducks and poultry are less likely in modern industrial poultry farming ...201626711036
evaluating the risk of pathogen transmission from wild animals to domestic pigs in australia.wild animals contribute to endemic infection in livestock as well as the introduction, reintroduction and maintenance of pathogens. the source of introduction of endemic diseases to a piggery is often unknown and the extent of wildlife contribution to such local spread is largely unexplored. the aim of the current study was to quantitatively assess the probability of domestic pigs being exposed to different pathogens from wild animals commonly found around commercial piggeries in australia. spec ...201626711303
rat breeding parameters according to floor space available in cage.the cage floor space recommended for a female rat with a litter is greater in the 8th edition of the guide for the care and use of laboratory animals than in previous editions. as a result, research institutions using commonly available cages to house rats may not offer the recommended amount of space for a breeding pair and litter housed in the same cage. we evaluated breeding parameters in rats housed in cages with 143 in(2) (922.6 cm(2)) compared with 210 in(2) (1355 cm(2)) of floor space. gi ...201626817975
bartonella species identified in rodent and feline hosts from island and mainland western australia.bacteria of the genus bartonella have been described in multiple mammalian hosts with many species capable of causing disease in humans. cats and various species of rats have been reported to play a role as vertebrate hosts to a number of bartonella spp. this study aimed to identify bartonella spp. in western australia, dirk hartog island (dhi), and christmas island (ci) and to investigate the presence of potential arthropod vectors. feral cats were collected from ci (n = 35), dhi (n = 23) and s ...201626900749
bartonella spp. in small mammals, benin.this study aimed to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of bartonella organisms in small mammals in cotonou, benin. we captured 163 rodents and 12 insectivores and successfully detected bartonella dna from 13 of the 175 small mammal individuals. bartonella spp., identical or closely related to bartonella elizabethae, bartonella tribocorum, and bartonella rochalimae, was detected. a potential new bartonella species, proposed as candidatus bartonella mastomydis, was found in three mas ...201626910412
first histopathological study in kidneys of rodents naturally infected with leptospira pathogenic species from yucatan, mexico.to report the renal histological lesions in synanthropic rodents, mus musculus and rattus rattus, naturally infected with leptospira spp., captured in a rural community in yucatan, mexico.201626919944
determination of leptospira borgpetersenii serovar javanica and leptospira interrogans serovar bataviae as the persistent leptospira serovars circulating in the urban rat populations in peninsular malaysia.leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease of global significance, and is endemic in tropical countries, including malaysia. over the last decade, a dramatic increase of human cases was reported; however, information on the primary vector, the rat, and the leptospira serovars circulating among the rat population is limited. therefore, the present study was undertaken to isolate leptospira and characterise the serovars circulating in the urban rat populations from selected main cities in pen ...201626927873
first isolates of leptospira spp., from rodents captured in angola.rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic leptospira spp. however, in angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. regarding this gap, we captured rodents in luanda and huambo provinces to identify circulating leptospira spp. rodent kidney tissue was cultured and dna amplified and sequenced. culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (pcr) a ...201626928840
discovery of hantavirus circulating among rattus rattus in french mayotte island, indian ocean.hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses that cause human diseases. in this study, sera from 642 mammals from la réunion and mayotte islands (indian ocean) were screened for the presence of hantaviruses by molecular analysis. none of the mammals from la réunion island was positive, but hantavirus genomic rna was discovered in 29/160 (18‚ÄČ%) rattus rattus from mayotte island. the nucleoprotein coding region was sequenced from the liver and spleen of all positive individuals allowing epidemiologi ...201626932442
diet analysis of small mammal pests: a comparison of molecular and microhistological methods.knowledge of what pest species are eating is important to determine their impact on stored food products and to plan management strategies accordingly. in this study, we investigated the food habits of 2 rodents, rattus rattus (ship rat) and mus musculus castaneus (house mouse) as well as an insectivore, suncus murinus (shrew), present in human dwellings. both a microhistological approach and a dna barcoding approach were used in the present study. following dna extraction, amplification was per ...201627001489
record of tropical rat mite, ornithonyssus bacoti (acari: mesostigmata: macronyssidae) from domestic and peridomestic rodents (rattus rattus) in nilgiris, tamil nadu, india.tropical rat mite (ornithonyssus bacoti) is reported from many parts of the world and is considered important in transmitting rickettsial pathogens. there have been scanty reports on prevalence of this parasite from india. following a recent report of o. bacoti infestation in a laboratory mice colony from nilgiris, tamil nadu, india, attempts were made to detect the parasite in its natural reservoir, ie the domestic and peridomestic rats (rattus rattus).201527047977
post-harvest impacts of rodents in myanmar; how much rice do they eat and damage?we undertook studies on post-harvest losses by rodents in two townships in the ayeyarwady delta, myanmar. farmers harvest their monsoon rice crop and then stack it on levee banks to await threshing 4-6 weeks later. after threshing and drying, paddy rice is stored in granaries. the amount of grain stored in burrows was collected 4 weeks after harvest by excavating burrows. in grain stores, we quantified the weight of grain consumed by rodents for 3-6 months post-harvest.201727061129
tooth wear patterns in black rats (rattus rattus) of madagascar differ more in relation to human impact than to differences in natural habitats.dietary characteristics and environmental variables are important selective factors directing ecological diversification in rodents. on madagascar, the introductions and spread of the commensal black rat (rattus rattus) can be seen as example cases to study dietary niche occupation and dietary adaptation in an insular environment. we investigate how tooth wear as a measure of dietary adaptation of black rats differs between four distinct habitats (village, manioc fields, spiny forest, and rainfo ...201627069577
musserellus gen. nov., and five new species of fleas (siphonaptera: stivaliidae) from murid rodents in sulawesi and west papua, indonesia.a new stivaliid flea genus, musserellus, and five new species are described. the new genus is compared with its closest morphological relatives, the genera rectidigitus holland and metastivalius holland. musserellus vanpeeneni sp. nov., musserellus wattsi sp. nov., musserellus whitei sp. nov., and musserellus marshalli sp. nov. are described from endemic murid rodents in sulawesi, indonesia, while musserellus dunneti sp. nov. is described from rattus rattus in west papua, indonesia. host associa ...201627073227
isolation and genotyping of toxoplasma gondii in seronegative urban rats and presence of antibodies in communicating dogs in brazil.the role of rodents in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis was investigated in londrina, paraná state, brazil. one hundred and eighty-one rattus rattus and one mus musculus were caught in 37 places. blood and tissues were collected and submitted to the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) and the bioassay. serum samples from 61 contacting dogs were also collected. sixteen rats (8.8%) were positive for toxoplasma gondii, but just two of them were positive by serology and bioassay test. antibo ...201627074322
spermatozoon ultrastructure of thysanotaenia congolensis (cyclophyllidea, anoplocephalidae, inermicapsiferinae): phylogenetic implications.the mature spermatozoon of thysanotaenia congolensis, an intestinal parasite of black rat rattus rattus from cape verde, is described by means of transmission electron microscopy. the ultrastructural organization of the sperm cell of t. congolensis follows levron et al.'s type vii of the eucestoda. it corresponds to a uniflagellate spermatozoon that presents crested bodies, periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus spiralled around the axoneme. t ...201627083191
vkorc1 sequencing suggests anticoagulant resistance in rats in new zealand.anticoagulant toxins are used globally to control rats. resistance of rattus species to these toxins now occurs in at least 18 countries in europe, america and asia. resistance is often associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) in the vkorc1 gene. this study gives a first overview of the distribution and frequency of vkorc1 snps in rats in new zealand. new zealand is unusual in having no native rodents but three species of introduced rattus - norvegicus berk., rattus l. and exulans ...201727117082
disease-induced decline of an apex predator drives invasive dominated states and threatens biodiversity.apex predators are important in protecting biodiversity through top-down influence on food webs. their loss is linked with competitive release of invasive mesopredators and species extinctions. the tasmanian devil (sarcophilus harrisii) has experienced severe declines over a 15-yr period as a novel transmissible cancer has spread across its current geographic range. we surveyed the mammalian community, using hair traps, across the spatial extent of the devil's progressive population decline. we ...201627145614
whole-genome sequencing reveals genetic variation in the asian house rat.whole-genome sequencing of wild-derived rat species can provide novel genomic resources, which may help decipher the genetics underlying complex phenotypes. as a notorious pest, reservoir of human pathogens, and colonizer, the asian house rat, rattus tanezumi, is successfully adapted to its habitat. however, little is known regarding genetic variation in this species. in this study, we identified over 41,000,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, plus insertions and deletions, through whole-genome ...201627172215
helminth parasites in black rats (rattus rattus) and brown rats (rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the netherlands.rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode trichinella spiralis to farm animals. we aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health.201627193418
coxiella burnetii genotypes in iberian wildlife.to investigate if coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of q fever, genotypes circulating in wildlife are associated with those infecting livestock and humans, multiple-locus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (mlva-6-marker) was carried out over c. burnetii obtained from red deer (cervus elaphus), eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa), european wild rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), black rat (rattus rattus), and wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus). mlva typing was performed by using six variable loc ...201627216529
cryptic diversity in black rats rattus rattus of the galápagos islands, ecuador.human activity has facilitated the introduction of a number of alien mammal species to the galápagos archipelago. understanding the phylogeographic history and population genetics of invasive species on the archipelago is an important step in predicting future spread and designing effective management strategies. in this study, we describe the invasion pathway of rattus rattus across the galápagos using microsatellite data, coupled with historical knowledge. microsatellite genotypes were generat ...201627231528
survey of house rat intestinal parasites from surabaya district, east java, indonesia that can cause opportunistic infections in humans.the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from surabaya district, east java, indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. house rat fecal samples were collected from an area of surabaya district with a dense rat population during may 2015. intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with lugol's iodine and modified ziehl-neelsen stains. the fecal samples were a ...201627244955
review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.we have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. anthraquinone (aq) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. avian repellent research with aq began in the 1940s. in the context of pest management, aq is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. criteria for evaluation of e ...201627252044
nest predation by commensal rodents in urban bushland remnants.exotic predators are a major threat to native wildlife in many parts of the world. developing and implementing effective strategies to mitigate their effects requires robust quantitative data so that management can be evidence-based, yet in many ecosystems this is missing. birds in particular have been severely impacted by exotic mammalian predators, and a plethora of studies on islands record predation of bird eggs, fledglings and adults by exotic species such as rodents, stoats and cats. by co ...201627295091
an epidemiological study of a. cantonensis in jamaica subsequent to an outbreak of human cases of eosinophilic meningitis in 2000.the infection status of angiostrongylosis in jamaica was assessed in wild rats and molluscs in the 5 years following the major outbreak of eosinophilic meningitis (em) in 2000. parasitological analyses of 297 rattus rattus and 140 rattus norvegicus, and 777 terrestrial molluscs from all 14 parishes on the island revealed angiostrongylus cantonensis in 32·0% of the rats and in 12·5% of the molluscs. multivariate analyses confirmed that a. cantonensis occurred significantly more frequently in r. r ...201627350332
surveillance of trypanosoma spp of rodents and studies in their transmission probability by fleas in some rural egyptian areas.a new public health problem arises from animal trypanosomes that afflict human by a disease called atypical human trypanosomiasis. although humans have an innate protection against most trypanosoma species, nineteen cases of atypical human trypanosomiasis caused by the animal trypanosome as t. b. brucei, t. vivax, t. congolense, t. evansi and t. lewisi have been recorded. some of theserecorded cases were transient, six required trypanocidal treatments however two patients died. rodent trypanosom ...201627363052
deadly intentions: naïve introduced foxes show rapid attraction to odour cues of an unfamiliar native prey.introduced predators have caused declines and extinctions of native species worldwide, seemingly able to find and hunt new, unfamiliar prey from the time of their introduction. yet, just as native species are often naïve to introduced predators, in theory, introduced predators should initially be naïve in their response to novel native prey. here we examine the response of free-living introduced red foxes (vulpes vulpes) to their first encounter with the odour cues of a novel native prey, the lo ...201627416966
leptospira interrogans in rodents from cape verde.leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonotic disease that can infect both animals and humans. in most cases, leptospirosis is a nonspecific self-limiting illness, but some patients can develop a severe form with a high mortality. this study was carried out in santiago island, cape verde, in 2012-2013. a total of 62 wild rodents (rattus rattus and mus domesticus) were analyzed. the lipl32 gene, present only in pathogenic leptospira spp., was amplified by pcr, and 16 samples were positive (25. ...201627482622
identification of tenrec ecaudatus, a wild mammal introduced to mayotte island, as a reservoir of the newly identified human pathogenic leptospira mayottensis.leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis of major concern on tropical islands. human populations on western indian ocean islands are strongly affected by the disease although each archipelago shows contrasting epidemiology. for instance, mayotte, part of the comoros archipelago, differs from the other neighbouring islands by a high diversity of leptospira species infecting humans that includes leptospira mayottensis, a species thought to be unique to this island. using bacterial culture, molecular ...201627574792
disease, models, variants and altered pathways-journeying rgd through the magnifying glass.understanding the pathogenesis of disease is instrumental in delineating its progression mechanisms and for envisioning ways to counteract it. in the process, animal models represent invaluable tools for identifying disease-related loci and their genetic components. amongst them, the laboratory rat is used extensively in the study of many conditions and disorders. the rat genome database (rgd-http://rgd.mcw.edu) has been established to house rat genetic, genomic and phenotypic data. since its in ...201627602200
detection of a yersinia pestis gene homologue in rodent samples.a homologue to a widely used genetic marker, pla, for yersinia pestis has been identified in tissue samples of two species of rat (rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus) and of mice (mus musculus and apodemus sylvaticus) using a microarray based platform to screen for zoonotic pathogens of interest. samples were from urban locations in the uk (liverpool) and canada (vancouver). the results indicate the presence of an unknown bacterium that shares a homologue for the pla gene of yersinia pestis, so ...201627602258
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in synanthropic rodents in two rural communities of yucatán, méxico.lyme disease is a multisystemic zoonotic disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. this spirochete circulates in an enzootic cycle between the primary vertebrate reservoir and its tick vectors. different species of rodents are known to be efficient natural reservoirs for b. burgdorferi s.l.201627622631
identification of bartonella species isolated from rodents from yucatan, mexico, and isolation of bartonella vinsonii subsp. yucatanensis subsp. nov.bartonella species are highly endemic among wild rodents in many parts of the world. blood and/or blood clot cultures from 38 rodents, including 27 yucatan deer mouse (peromyscus yucatanicus), 7 gaumer's spiny pocket mouse (heteromys gaumeri), 2 black rats (rattus rattus) and 2 big-eared climbing rats (ototylomys phyllotis) captured near merida, yucatan, mexico, led to the isolation in 3-4 days of small gram-negative bacilli, which were identified as bartonella spp. based on colony morphology. d ...201627626126
from human geography to biological invasions: the black rat distribution in the changing southeastern of senegal.in the contemporary context of zoonosis emergence and spread, invasive species are a major issue since they represent potential pathogen hosts. even though many progresses have been done to understand and predict spatial patterns of invasive species, the challenge to identify the underlying determinants of their distribution remains a central question in invasion biology. this is particularly exacerbated in the case of commensal species that strictly depend on humankind for dispersal and perenni ...201727661619
comparative genome and evolutionary analysis of naturally occurring beilong virus in brown and black rats.recently, we reported the presence of beilong virus in spleen and kidney samples of brown rats and black rats, suggesting that these rodents could be natural reservoirs of beilong virus. in this study, four genomes of beilong virus from brown rats and black rats were sequenced. similar to the beilong virus genome sequenced from kidney mesangial cell line culture, those of j-virus from house mouse and tailam virus from sikkim rats, these four genomes from naturally occurring beilong virus also co ...201627663719
magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of neurometabolite changes in the developing rat brain at 7t.we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate the metabolic profile of the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex of the developing rat brain from postnatal days 14-70. measured metabolite concentrations were modeled using linear, exponential, or logarithmic functions and the time point at which the data reached plateau (i.e. when the portion of the data could be fit to horizontal line) was estimated and was interpreted as the time when the brain has reached maturity with res ...201627663970
parasites and invasions: changes in gastrointestinal helminth assemblages in invasive and native rodents in senegal.understanding why some exotic species become widespread and abundant in their colonised range is a fundamental issue that still needs to be addressed. among many hypotheses, newly established host populations may benefit from a parasite loss ("enemy release" hypothesis) through impoverishment of their original parasite communities or reduced infection levels. moreover, the fitness of competing native hosts may be negatively affected by the acquisition of exotic taxa from invaders ("parasite spil ...201627670366
fleas and trypanosomes of peridomestic small mammals in sub-saharan mali.fleas are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites and vectors of several bacterial zoonotic pathogens as well as trypanosomes that parasitize rodents and other small mammals. during investigations of tick- and rodent-borne diseases in mali, west africa, we included fleas and rodent-borne trypanosomes, both of which are poorly known in this country, but are attracting greater public health interest.201627724960
identification of novel rosavirus species that infects diverse rodent species and causes multisystemic dissemination in mouse model.while novel picornaviruses are being discovered in rodents, their host range and pathogenicity are largely unknown. we identified two novel picornaviruses, rosavirus b from the street rat, norway rat, and rosavirus c from five different wild rat species (chestnut spiny rat, greater bandicoot rat, indochinese forest rat, roof rat and coxing's white-bellied rat) in china. analysis of 13 complete genome sequences showed that "rosavirus b" and "rosavirus c" represent two potentially novel picornavir ...201627737017
global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (rattus norvegicus).native to china and mongolia, the brown rat (rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. while black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a response to relatively recent increases in global trade. we inferred the global phylogeography of brown rats using 32 k snps, and detected 13 evolutionary clusters within five expansion routes. one clus ...201627798305
16s rrna amplicon sequencing for epidemiological surveys of bacteria in wildlife.the human impact on natural habitats is increasing the complexity of human-wildlife interactions and leading to the emergence of infectious diseases worldwide. highly successful synanthropic wildlife species, such as rodents, will undoubtedly play an increasingly important role in transmitting zoonotic diseases. we investigated the potential for recent developments in 16s rrna amplicon sequencing to facilitate the multiplexing of the large numbers of samples needed to improve our understanding o ...201627822541
gastrointestinal helminth fauna of rodents from cambodia: emphasizing the community ecology of host-parasite associations.extensive field surveys of rodents were conducted in cambodia from 2008 to 2014 to study the diversity and ecology of helminth infection in wild rodent populations. gastrointestinal helminths were isolated from 14 species of rodents (569 individuals) trapped from different habitats (forest, dry land, rain-fed land and human settlements) in four provinces of cambodia (krong preah sihanouk, mondolkiri, pursat and steung treng). the average prevalence of parasitic infection was 58.5% (range, 16.0-6 ...201627905270
novel revelation of warfarin resistant mechanism in roof rats (rattus rattus) using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis.roof rats (rattus rattus) live mainly in human habitats. heavy use of rodenticides, such as warfarin, has led to the development of drug resistance, making pest control difficult. there have been many reports regarding mutations of vitamin k epoxide reductase (vkor), the target enzyme of warfarin, in resistant rats. however, it has been suggested there are other mechanisms of warfarin resistance. to confirm these possibilities, closed colonies of warfarin-susceptible roof rats (s) and resistant ...201627914534
control of invasive rats on islands and priorities for future action.invasive rats are one of the world's most successful animal groups that cause native species extinctions and ecosystem change, particularly on islands. on large islands, rat eradication is often impossible and population control, defined as the local limitation of rat abundance, is now routinely performed on many of the world's islands as an alternative management tool. however, a synthesis of the motivations, techniques, costs, and outcomes of such rat-control projects is lacking. we reviewed t ...201727982493
exploiting interspecific olfactory communication to monitor predators.olfaction is the primary sense of many mammals and subordinate predators use this sense to detect dominant species, thereby reducing the risk of an encounter and facilitating coexistence. chemical signals can act as repellents or attractants and may therefore have applications for wildlife management. we devised a field experiment to investigate whether dominant predator (ferret mustela furo) body odor would alter the behavior of three common mesopredators: stoats (mustela erminea), hedgehogs (e ...201727983773
leishmaniasis in thailand: a review of causative agents and situations.before 1999, leishmaniasis was considered an imported disease in thailand. since then, autochthonous leishmaniasis was reported in both immmunocompetent and immmunocompromised patients especially in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). a new species was identified and named as leishmania siamensis consisting of two lineages, that is, lineages tr and pg. analysis of isoenzymes has clarified the more commonly detected l. siamensis lineage pg as leishmania m ...201728093539
effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against xenopsylla cheopis (siphonaptera: pulicidae) in madagascar.fipronil was evaluated as a systemic control agent for the rat flea xenopsylla cheopis (rothschild), the main vector of yersinia pestis (yersin), the causative agent of plague, in madagascar. the effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against x. cheopis was assessed by determining the toxicity values of the "lethal dose 50" (ld50). two techniques were used to evaluate the systemic action of the insecticide on the vector: 1) an artificial feeding device filled with blood-fipronil m ...201728122816
using effect size benchmarks to assess when alien impacts are actually alien.alien predators have on average twice the impact on native prey populations than do native predators, and are a severe threat to wildlife globally. manipulation experiments can be used to quantify the impact of an alien predator on its prey population/s, but unless the results are compared to benchmarks, it is unclear whether this impact is indeed greater than that of a native predator. here we use the australian garden skink lampropholis delicata and alien black rat rattus rattus to test if bla ...201728128305
at home with mastomys and rattus: human-rodent interactions and potential for primary transmission of lassa virus in domestic spaces.the multimammate mouse (mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir for lassa virus (lasv). zoonotic transmission occurs when humans are directly or indirectly exposed to fluids of the multimammate mouse, such as urine, saliva, and blood. housing characteristics and domestic organization affect rodent density in and around households and villages, and are likely to be a risk factor for lassa fever in humans where the reservoir exists. we use semi-structured interviews (n = 51), a quantitative survey ( ...201728167603
leishmania in synanthropic rodents (rattus rattus): new evidence for the urbanization of leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis.this study aimed to detect parasites from leishmania genus, to determine the prevalence of anti-leishmania spp. antibodies, to identify circulating species of the parasite, and to determine epidemiological variables associated with infection in rats caught in urban area of londrina, paraná, brazil. animal capture was carried out from may to december 2006, serological and molecular methods were performed. dna was extracted from total blood, and nested-pcr, targeting ssu rrna from leishmania genus ...201728177041
visualizations for genetic assignment analyses using the saddlepoint approximation method.we propose a method for visualizing genetic assignment data by characterizing the distribution of genetic profiles for each candidate source population. this method enhances the assignment method of rannala and mountain (1997) by calculating appropriate graph positions for individuals for which some genetic data are missing. an individual with missing data is positioned in the distributions of genetic profiles for a population according to its estimated quantile based on its available data. the ...201728182851
two strains of roof rats as effective models for assessing new-object reaction.wild animals generally avoid even small and harmless novel objects and/or familiar objects moved to a novel position, which is termed "new-object reaction". although new-object reaction appears to be a biologically important characteristic for animals, little progress has been made in understanding the neural mechanisms underlying new-object reaction. one reason might be the lack of effective experimental animals. two strains of roof rats (sj and og strains) were established from wild roof rats ...201728202879
rodent species distribution and hantavirus seroprevalence in residential and forested areas of sarawak, malaysia.rodents belong to the order rodentia, which consists of three families in borneo (i.e., muridae, sciuridae and hystricidae). these include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. they are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (family: bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in peninsular malaysia in the early 1980s, i ...201728228923
serological survey of antibodies to <i>toxoplasma gondii</i> and <i>coxiella burnetii</i> in rodents in north-western african islands (canary islands and cape verde).coxiella burnetii and toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. the aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of c. burnetii and t. gondii in the north-western african archipelagos of the canary islands and cape verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. between 2 ...201528235262
molecular and serological evidence of flea-associated typhus group and spotted fever group rickettsial infections in madagascar.rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for many febrile syndromes around the world, including in sub-saharan africa. vectors of these pathogens include ticks, lice, mites and fleas. in order to assess exposure to flea-associated rickettsia species in madagascar, human and small mammal samples from an urban and a rural area, and their associated fleas were tested.201728259176
community structure and demography of small-mammal populations in insular montane forests in southern india.small mammals were studied in insular montane forest patches in the upper nilgiris in southern india from february 1994 to september 1996. nine patches were selected at two sites, one with a single large 600-ha patch, the other with several small patches ranging in size from 0.2 to 60 ha. the population characteristics and community structure of small mammals were studied in relation to patch size and habitat structure within the patches. the two most abundant species were rattus rattus (2-36 in ...199828308532
finch numbers, owl predation and plant dispersal on isla daphne major, galápagos.populations of 4 geospizine finches were studied on isla daphne major in april and december 1973. finches were captured, banded, measured and released in both months, and censused in december. 1640±711 finches were estimated to be present in december, of which probably more than 1000 belonged to geospiza fortis. g. fortis were 4 times more numerous than g. scandens. the overal density at this time was 27-54/ha. this is the first quantitative estimate of finch population sizes for a whole island ...197528309237
condition factor and organosomatic indices of parasitized rattus rattus as indicators of host health.this study describes the influence of parasitism (trypanosoma lewisi and cysticercus fasciolaris) on the condition factor, hepato and splenosomatic indices of the common house rat, rattus rattus linnaeus, 1758 from rohilkhand, uttar pradesh, india. examination of r. rattus (n = 389) revealed t. lewisi (prevalence 12.40 %; intensity14 parasites/1000 rbc) from the blood and c. fasciolaris (larval taenia taeniaeformis) (prevalence 46.70 %; intensity 2-4 par/host) from the liver. condition factor (k ...201728316383
consistent individual differences in standard exploration tasks in the black rat (rattus rattus).in a fluctuating environment, the optimal level of exploratory behavior depends on the proportion of current risks and benefits. the exploratory behavior is, therefore, often subjected to heterogenous selection. in populations of commensal rodents living in close proximity of humans, this pressure is further increased by pest management. we hypothesize that the black rat (rattus rattus) responds to this pressure by either high behavioral flexibility or by development of personality types. the ai ...201728318291
elucidating transmission dynamics and host-parasite-vector relationships for rodent-borne bartonella spp. in madagascar.bartonella spp. are erythrocytic bacteria transmitted via arthropod vectors, which infect a broad range of vertebrate hosts, including humans. we investigated transmission dynamics and host-parasite-vector relationships for potentially zoonotic bartonella spp. in invasive rattus rattus hosts and associated arthropod ectoparasites in madagascar. we identified five distinct species of bartonella (b. elizabethae 1, b. elizabethae 2, b. phoceensis 1, b. rattimassiliensis 1, and b. tribocorum 1) infe ...201728351673
rodent-borne trypanosoma from cities and villages of niger and nigeria: a special role for the invasive genus rattus?although they are known to sometimes infect humans, atypical trypanosomes are very poorly documented, especially in africa where one lethal case has yet been described. here we conducted a survey of rodent-borne trypanosoma in 19 towns and villages of niger and nigeria, with a special emphasis on niamey, the capital city of niger. the 1,298 rodents that were captured yielded 189 qpcr-positive animals from 14 localities, thus corresponding to a 14.6% overall prevalence. rats, especially black rat ...201728373037
broad and flexible stable isotope niches in invasive non-native rattus spp. in anthropogenic and natural habitats of central eastern madagascar.rodents of the genus rattus are among the most pervasive and successful invasive species, causing major vicissitudes in native ecological communities. a broad and flexible generalist diet has been suggested as key to the invasion success of rattus spp. here, we use an indirect approach to better understand foraging niche width, plasticity, and overlap within and between introduced rattus spp. in anthropogenic habitats and natural humid forests of madagascar.201728412938
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