spontaneour robertsonian fusion leading to karyotype variation in the house mouse - first report form asia.the occurrence of spontaneous robertsonian fusion leading to 2n=39 chromosomes (nf=40) in the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) has been reported for the first time from asia. 3 phenotypically normal female mice collected from 2 distantly located populations of india (tripura and calcutta) show centric fusion in somatic chromosomes between pairs 2 and 16, and 8 and 14 respectively. c-banding analysis revealed that the (sub)metacentric has been originated by fusion between the broken/eroded c ...1977844543
survival curves, reproductive life span and age-related pathology of mus caroli.although mus caroli is being used in a number of laboratories as an experimental animal, basic information concerning its life span, reproductive ability, and age-related pathologies has been unavailable. here we present this basic information, and discuss the similarities to and differences from the laboratory mouse, mus musculus domesticus [strains a/sttrwo and (a/sttrwo x c57bl/6nnia)f1] and, from published data, wild-type mus musculus.19921318441
male meiosis and gametogenesis in wild house mice (mus musculus domesticus) from a chromosomal hybrid zone; a comparison between "simple" robertsonian heterozygotes and homozygotes.wild male house mice mus musculus domesticus were collected from the hybrid zone between the john o'groats race (2n = 32) and the standard race (2n = 40) in northern scotland. meiosis in both homozygotes (2n = 32, 36, and 40) and single robertsonian heterozygotes (2n = 33, 35, and 37) was found to be orderly. at prophase/metaphase i in heterozygotes, a trivalent was formed from the metacentric and two homologous acrocentrics. at pachytene, this trivalent usually had a single side arm at the posi ...19921424812
deficiency of x and y chromosomal pairing at meiotic prophase in spermatocytes of sterile interspecific hybrids between laboratory mice (mus domesticus) and mus spretus.the normal association between the x and y chromosomes at metaphase i of meiosis, as seen in air-dried light microscope preparations of mouse spermatocytes, is frequently lacking in the spermatocytes of the sterile interspecific hybrid between the laboratory mouse strains c57bl/6 and mus spretus. the purpose of this work is to determine whether the separate x and y chromosomes in the hybrid are asynaptic, caused by failure to pair, or desynaptic, caused by precocious dissociation. unpaired x-y c ...19921424992
evolution of the major histocompatibility complex: a hundred-fold amplification of mhc class i genes in the african pigmy mouse nannomys setulosus.the genome of the african murine rodent nannomys setulosus was found to harbor several thousand major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i genes instead of the 30-40 genes found in conventional laboratory mice, which are mostly of mus musculus domesticus origin. other genes of n. setulosus, either functionally or physically linked to class i genes, are not amplified. amplified genes derive from as few as three ancestors and amplification has likely occurred after the divergence of the two na ...19921428009
polymorphisms distinguishing different mouse species and t haplotypes.three anonymous chromosome 17 dna markers, d17tu36, d17tu43, and d17le66b, differentiate between house mouse species and/or between t chromosomes. the d17tu36 probe, which maps near the fu locus and to the in(17)4 on t chromosomes, identifies at least 15 haplotypes, each haplotype characterized by a particular combination of dna fragments obtained after digestion with the taq i restriction endonuclease. ten of these haplotypes occur in mus domesticus, while the remaining five occur in m. musculu ...19921452014
communal nesting patterns in mice implicate mhc genes in kin mice (mus musculus domesticus) form communal nests and appear to nurse each other's pups indiscriminately. communal nesting probably functions to reduce infanticide, but it also makes females vulnerable to exploitation if nursing partners fail to provide their fair share of care. kinship theory predicts that females will preferentially form communal nests with relatives to minimize exploitation and further increase inclusive fitness. here we provide evidence from seminatural populations th ...19921461279
life history and bioeconomy of the house mouse.1. more is known about the western european house mouse, mus (musculus) domesticus than any other non-human mammal. if laboratory and field information is combined, an extremely valuable understanding of the species' bioeconomy could be obtained. 2. the seven stages of mouse life-history are surveyed (up to birth, nest life, sex life, social structure, population statics and stability, senescence, and death), and the interactions between the changing phenotype and the environment are described. ...19921463810
time and sex in the male mouse: temporal regulation of infanticide and parental behavior.infanticide is a violent but successful reproductive strategy found in many mammals, particularly rodents. in male house mice (mus domesticus and m. musculus), the act of ejaculation provides a reliable neural signal for timing the birth of their offspring. however, a unique chronobiological aspect of this phenomenon is the extraordinary temporal latency that can occur between the stimulus (coital ejaculation) and its adaptive neural response (male mice cease killing pups and behave parentally t ...19921473195
inverted repeat structure of the sry locus in mice.the testis-determining gene sry is located on the short arm of the mouse y chromosome in a region known to have undergone duplications and rearrangements in comparison with the equivalent portion of the human y chromosome. detailed analysis of the sry genomic locus reveals a further difference in that the mouse sry open reading frame lies within 2.8 kilobases of unique sequence at the center of a large inverted repeat. this repeat, which is found in both mus musculus musculus and mus musculus do ...19921518820
segregation and fertility in mus musculus domesticus (wild mice) heterozygous for the rb(4.12) translocation.analysis of the progeny of wild mice heterozygous for the rb(4.12) shows that fertility and segregation are normal. this study, and others with similar results, suggests that our view of the chromosomal evolution of the house mouse should be revised.19921548141
an amino acid change in the dna-binding region of sry, found in mus musculus domesticus and other species, does not explain c57bl/6j-ydom sex-reversal.sry is the testes determining factor gene located on the y chromosome. we have performed dideoxy sequencing or restriction enzyme digestion of sry sequences amplified by pcr from a variety of inbred strains and species of mice. a nonconservative replacement of thr for isoleu at position 61 was found in sry from the y chromosome of mus musculus domesticus, mus spretus, and mus caroli. we demonstrate that this variation is not sufficient to explain the gradiation in the sex-reversal seen when diff ...19921599466
true hermaphrodites: an experimental model in the mouse.when the y chromosome from the mus musculus domesticus mouse strain is placed onto the c57bl/6j mouse background ovarian and testicular components develop in half of the xy progeny (b6.ydom), providing an excellent model of true hermaphroditism. we examined the correlation between gonadal sex and development of the internal genital tract in the b6.ydom mouse at puberty. of 55 mice examined 20 had bilateral testes, 33 were true hermaphrodites and 2 had mixed gonadal dysgenesis. in all mice with b ...19921640543
high-density molecular map of the central span of the mouse x chromosome.a total of 17 linking clones previously sublocalized to the central span of the mouse x chromosome have been ordered by detailed analysis through interspecific mus spretus/mus musculus domesticus backcross progeny. these probes have been positioned with respect to existing dna markers utilizing a new interspecific backcross segregating for the tabby (ta) locus. the density of clones within this 11.5-cm interval is now, on average, one clone every 1000 kb. this high-density map provides probes in ...19911675191
a hybrid zone comprising staggered chromosomal clines in the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus).in the vicinity of john o'groats (caithness, scotland) there is a small karyotypic race of the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) characterized by a diploid number of 32 chromosomes, including the metacentrics 4.10, 9.12, 6.13 and 11.14. this race forms a hybrid zone with the standard british race (fully acrocentric chromosomes, 2n = 40). although hybrid zones normally consist of several (or many) narrow character clines at the same position, this zone is unusual in that the chromosomal cline ...19911684667
determination of a molecular map position for hyp using a new interspecific backcross produced by in vitro fertilization.we have established a mus spretus/mus musculus domesticus interspecific backcross segregating for two x-linked mutant genes, ta and hyp, using in vitro fertilization. the haplotype of the recombinant x chromosome of each of 241 backcross progeny has been established using the x-linked anchor loci otc, hprt, dmd, pgk-1, and amg and the additional probes dxsmh43 and cbx-rs1. the hyp locus (putative homologue of the human disease gene hypophosphatemic rickets, hyp) has been incorporated into the mo ...19911685478
the origin of a double insertion of homogeneously staining regions in the house mouse (mus musculus musculus).a high resolution analysis of the g-band patterns of normal and aberrant chromosomes 1, bearing two linked insertions of homogeneously staining regions (hsrs) in the house mouse (mus musculus musculus) reveals the inverted pattern of the euchromatic region between the hsrs. on the basis of this analysis a hypothesis on the origin of the aberrant chromosome is put forward: the double insertion is a result of an inversion of the chromosome 1 of mus musculus domesticus bearing a single insertion of ...19901703140
distribution of acetylcholinesterase in the hippocampal region of the mouse: i. entorhinal area, parasubiculum, retrosplenial area, and presubiculum.the distribution of acetylcholinesterase (ache) was examined in the multilayered posterior part of the hippocampal region of the adult mouse (mus musculus domesticus), namely, the entorhinal area, the parasubiculum, the presubiculum, and those parts of the retrosplenial cortex that extend into the posterior hippocampal region (area retrosplenialis 29d and 29e). a modification of the koelle copper thiocholine method was employed for the histochemical demonstration of ache. the ache staining resul ...19911706733
the geographic distribution and host range of capillaria hepatica (bancroft) (nematoda) in australia.the geographic distribution, host range and prevalence of capillaria hepatica were recorded in 4629 house mice, mus domesticus, 263 black rats, rattus rattus, and 58 norway rats, r. norvegicus. the parasite was found at five localities, all in or near large towns along the coast. the two rattus species appeared to be the primary hosts of c. hepatica in australia. published and unpublished data on helminth infections of australian native mammals from 1162 murids (26 species), 3018 marsupials (67 ...19911787037
in situ analysis of centromeric satellite dna segregating in mus species situ hybridization of biotin-labeled mouse major satellite dna clone pmr196 was applied to mus domesticus and mus spretus chromosomes (chr). the same karyotypes were counterstained with distamycin a-dapi to identify at-rich heterochromatin. chromosomes from the laboratory mouse, c57bl/6ros (bl/6; m. domesticus) were uniformly labeled at the centromere except for the y, while chromosomes from the divergent mus species m. spretus showed little or no hybridization. differences between mus specie ...19911799790
molecular genetic analysis of the ta25h deletion: evidence for additional deleted loci.seventeen linking clones sublocalized to the central region of the mouse x chromosome (chr) were screened against genomic dna from male mice carrying the tabby-25h (ta25h) deletion. two of these linking clones, lambda em131 and lambda em169, were found to be deleted in ta25h/y animals. genetic mapping through mus musculus domesticus/mus spretus interspecific backcross progeny, segregating for the original tabby (ta) gene mutation, was utilized to order these markers and to define nearest flankin ...19911797229
[new robertsonian populations of the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) from north of the alps].new robertsonian (rb) populations of the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) carrying different combinations of centric fusions are reported in france, switzerland, and germany. in alsace (france), the diploid number varied from 2n = 38 to 34; four fusions were present, with rb(4.12) homozygous in all populations whereas rb(5.10), rb(5.7), or rb(10.14) were found to be segregating. in switzerland, only all-acrocentric mice (2n = 40) were present in bern while rb(5.7) and rb(9.16) occurred in b ...19911783304
androgen modulation of dna-binding factors in the mouse kidney.transcription of the rp2 gene in the mouse kidney is induced by androgens. this induction is species specific within the genus mus. for example, the gene responds to androgens in mus domesticus, but is refractory to hormone in the distantly related species m. caroli. in the present report we have characterized dna-binding factors that recognize the 5' flanking region of the rp2 gene. one factor (termed rpbf-1) binds a dna fragment spanning the region between -157 and -311 relative to the transcr ...19911922089
a novel mouse chromosome 17 hybrid sterility locus: implications for the origin of t haplotypes.the effects of heterospecific combinations of mouse chromosome 17 on male fertility and transmission ratio were investigated through a series of breeding studies. animals were bred to carry complete chromosome 17 homologs, or portions thereof, from three different sources-mus domesticus, mus spretus and t haplotypes. these chromosome 17 combinations were analyzed for fertility within the context of a m. domesticus or m. spretus genetic background. two new forms of hybrid sterility were identifie ...19911936961
the mus musculus domesticus tdy allele acts later than the mus musculus musculus tdy allele: a basis for xy sex-reversal in c57bl/6-ypos mice.consomic c57bl/6 males, carrying either the mus musculus musculus-derived c57bl/6 y chromosome or the mus musculus domesticus-derived poschiavinus y chromosome, were outcrossed to females of the inbred strains c3h/bi and cxbh/by and to females of the random bred strain mf1/ola. in a study at 12.5 days post coitum, gonads of xyc57 and xypos fetuses were assessed for the presence of testicular cords. it was found that xypos fetuses had a later onset of testicular development than xyc57 fetuses. li ...19911782876
differences in the organization and chromosomal allocation of satellite dna between the european long tailed house mice mus domesticus and mus musculus.we compared the organization of satellite dna (stdna) and its chromosomal allocation in mus domesticus and in mus musculus. the two stdnas show similar restriction fragment profiles after digestion (probed with m. domesticus stdna) with some endonucleases of which restriction sequences are present in the 230-240 bp repetitive unit of the m. domesticus stdna. in contrast, ecori digestion reveals that m. musculus stdna lacks most of the gaattc restriction sites, particularly at the level of the ha ...19901971208
can the nematode capillaria hepatica regulate abundance in wild house mice? results of enclosure experiments in southeastern australia.the hypothesis that a liver-inhabiting nematode, capillaria hepatica, can regulate abundance of the house mouse (mus domesticus) was tested in enclosures, in southeastern australia. changes in mouse abundance, and the relationship between mortality and host abundance were compared in three treatment and three control populations. any effect of c. hepatica on mouse abundance was masked by an unknown regulating factor(s). this factor(s) caused density-dependent mortality in the control and treatme ...19911780181
mouse chromosome-specific markers generated by pcr and their mapping through interspecific backcrosses.we have utilized an oligonucleotide primer from the 3' end of the mouse l1 repeat element for amplification of mouse-specific inter-repeat pcr products from chinese hamster/mouse somatic cell hybrids. pcr of a chinese hamster/mouse somatic cell hybrid (96az2), containing only mouse chromosome 16, produced a range of mouse-specific bands. two of the mouse-specific pcr products, of 250 and 580 bp, have been confirmed as originating from mouse chromosome 16 by somatic cell hybrid analysis. both the ...19911774069
distribution of acetylcholinesterase and zinc in the visual cortex of the mouse.the distributions of acetylcholinesterase (ache) and zinc-containing boutons and their cells of origin in the visual cortex of the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) are described. the primary visual area is defined by both acetylcholinesterase and zinc staining. the ache staining pattern is dark in upper layer i and layers iv and vi. it is light in layers ii/iii and v. the lack of a densely stained layer iv in the secondary visual cortices defines the borders between primary and secondary ar ...19911741478
low diversity of t haplotypes in the eastern form of the house mouse, mus musculus previous studies, 13 different recessive embryonic lethal genes have been associated with t haplotypes in the wild mice of the species mus domesticus. in this communication we have analyzed five populations of mus musculus for the presence and identity of t haplotypes. the populations occupy geographically distant regions in the soviet union: altai mountains, western and eastern siberia, azerbaijan and turkmenistan. no t haplotypes were found in mice from eastern siberia. in the remaining fou ...19912016041
conservation of position and exclusive expression of mouse xist from the inactive x chromosome.x-chromosome inactivation in mammals is a regulatory phenomenon whereby one of the two x chromosomes in female cells is genetically inactivated, resulting in dosage compensation for x-linked genes between males and females. in both man and mouse, x-chromosome inactivation is thought to proceed from a single cis-acting switch region or inactivation centre (xic/xic). in the human, xic has been mapped to band xq13 (ref. 6) and in the mouse to band xd (ref. 7), and comparative mapping has shown that ...19912034279
distribution of acetylcholinesterase in the hippocampal region of the mouse: ii. subiculum and hippocampus.the distribution of acetylcholinesterase (ache) was examined in the subiculum and hippocampus of the adult mouse (mus musculus domesticus). a distinctly stratified ache pattern was observed in both areas and was compared in detail with cytoarchitectural fields and layers. in the subiculum, the lateral plexiform layer was lightly stained superficially and moderately stained at depth, where it abutted the lateral, moderately stained cell layer. medially, a moderately stained deep plexiform layer s ...19911722222
systematic identification of line-1 repetitive dna sequence differences having species specificity between mus spretus and mus domesticus.line-1 is a family of repetitive dna sequences interspersed among mammalian genes. in the mouse haploid genome there are about 100,000 line-1 copies. we asked if the subspecies mus spretus and mus domesticus have developed species-specific line-1 subfamilies. sequences from 14 m. spretus line-1 elements were obtained and compared to m. domesticus line-1 sequences. using a molecular phylogenetic tree we identified several differences shared among a subset of young repeats in one or the other spec ...19912056531
characterization of the molecular defects in the mouse e beta f and e beta q genes. implications for the origin of mhc polymorphism.the e beta f and e beta q genes have been isolated and sequenced to investigate the molecular basis for their defective expression. a previous study from this laboratory, which characterized the expression of these genes at the rna level, showed both genes to have defects in posttranscriptional rna processing. in this paper, the defect in the e beta q gene from the inbred mouse strain b10.g (mus musculus domesticus) is shown to be a single base insertion in the rna donor splice site of the first ...19902106558
mapping of mouse carbonic anhydrase-3, car-3: another locus in the homologous region of mouse chromosome 3 and human chromosome least six separate genes determining tissue- and organelle-specific isoforms of carbonic anhydrase are known. we have determined the chromosome location of one of these genes, carbonic anhydrase-3 (car-3), in the mouse and carried out a linkage analysis of car-1, car-2, and car-3. car-3 has been assigned to band 3a2 by in situ hybridization. we identified a psti restriction fragment length polymorphism between mus spretus and mus mus domesticus and, by using an interspecific backcross, showed ...19902111277
seasonal variation in fertility, fecundity and litter sex ratio in laboratory and wild stocks of house mice (mus domesticus)data compilations were made for three parameters pertaining to reproduction in a domestic strain (14 years) and a wild stock (4 years) of commensal house mice: (a) the percentage of females mated that produced litters; (b) the average number of pups per litter; and (c) the sex ratio of the pups in the litters. fecundity and fertility varied seasonally in both domestic and wild mice. more females become pregnant and litter sizes were larger in the spring, summer, and fall months than during the w ...19902162984
construction and analysis of linking libraries from the mouse x chromosome.a hybrid cell line containing the mouse x chromosome on a human background has been used to construct linking libraries from the mouse x chromosome, and approximately 250 unique eagi and noti clones have been identified. seventy-three clones have been sublocalized onto the x chromosome using interspecific mus spretus/mus domesticus crosses and a panel of somatic cell hybrids carrying one-half of reciprocal x-autosome translocations. the average spacing of the linking clones mapped to date is abo ...19902167288
delay of testicular differentiation in the b6.ydom ovotestis demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining for müllerian inhibiting has been found that when the y chromosome from mus musculus domesticus (ydom) is placed onto the c57bl/6j (b6) mouse background, the xy progeny (b6.ydom) develop ovaries or ovotestes but not normal testes during fetal life. we examined the ontogeny of the abnormal testicular differentiation in the b6.ydom ovotestis by immunocytochemical staining for müllerian inhibiting substance (mis). we found that the b6.ydom ovotestis initiated testicular differentiation later in development than did the ...19911713865
a mouse model of the aniridia-wilms tumor deletion syndrome.deletion of chromosome 11p13 in humans produces the wagr syndrome, consisting of aniridia (an absence or malformation of the iris), wilms tumor (nephroblastoma), genitourinary malformations, and mental retardation. an interspecies backcross between mus musculus/domesticus and mus spretus was made in order to map the homologous chromosomal region in the mouse genome and to define an animal model of this syndrome. nine evolutionarily conserved dna clones from proximal human 11p were localized on m ...19902173141
the role of helminths in the biological control of mammals.biological control of invertebrates has been successful while that of vertebrates has been, with the exception of myxomatosis in rabbits, unsuccessful; reasons for this are discussed. demographic studies of small mammals suggest that population regulation occurs by several different mechanisms, more than one of which may be acting at the same time. coevolution is an important phenomenon in host-parasite associations, nevertheless parasites may limit host population abundance. the basis of the re ...19902210947
[the causes of appearance of a double insertion of homogeneously staining regions in the chromosome 1 of house mouse (mus musculus musculus)].a high resolution analysis of g-band pattern of normal and aberrant chromosome 1 bearing two linked insertions of homogeneously staining regions (hsrs) in the house mouse (mus musculus musculus) reveals an inverted pattern of the euchromatic region between the hsrs. on the basis of this analysis, a hypothesis on the causes for appearance of the aberrant chromosome was put forward: the double insertion is a result of inversion of the chromosome 1 of mus musculus domesticus bearing a single long i ...19901693902
antibody repertoire against culture filtrate antigens in wild house mice infected with mycobacterium bovis bcg.wild house mice (mus domesticus) captured in a flemish pigsty were infected intravenously with 4 x 10(6) variable units of mycobacterium bovis bcg and examined by western blot analysis for igg secretion against bcg culture filtrate (cf) antigens. wild mice showed a marked individual variation in antibody pattern when tested 4, 6 and 8 weeks after infection. some animals reacted to a wide range of antigens and others only to a limited number. most wild mice recognized preferentially antigens with ...19902242617
introduction of a brachylaima species (digenea: brachylaimidae) to australia.a brachylaima species recorded previously from the house mouse (mus domesticus) in south australia is shown to use the introduced european snails cernuella virgata and cochlicella barbara as first intermediate hosts, and the same two species and theba pisana as second intermediate hosts. the life cycle is typical of brachylaima species. the parasite is capable of infecting at least two species of native australian rodent, rattus fuscipes and leporillus conditor. because of the intermediate hosts ...19902242962
chemistry of male dominance in the house mouse, mus domesticus.two terpenic constituents, e,e,-alpha-farnesene and e-beta-farnesene, were found to be elevated in dominant male urine when compared to subordinate or control males. these two urinary compounds were absent in the bladder urine of males; however, they were the most prominent constituents of the perputial gland's aliquots. the results of a two-choice preference test, conducted on icr/alb subordinate males, gave a strong indication that these two terpenic constituents introduced into the previously ...19902298278
[a high level of introgression of the genes of mus domesticus in a mus musculus s. str. population of transcaucasia]. 19902369869
chronic multifocal osteomyelitis, a new recessive mutation on chromosome 18 of the mouse.mice with tail kinks and deformities in their lower extremities were observed in a litter of c.d2-qa-2+n6f15 mice. a mutant line that exhibits this phenotype in 100% of its offspring was established by subsequent breeding. the abnormalities resembled to some degree those found in a human syndrome termed chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (crmo). accordingly, we name the new mutation chronic multifocal osteomyelitis (cmo). breeding analysis showed that the defect was determined by a singl ...19911686018
a comparative study of different populations of mus musculus domesticus: emotivity as an index of adaptation to commensalism.1. emotivity is assessed by the amplitude of the corticoadrenal response to a novelty stress at three different seasons. 2. commensal and outdoor populations of the house mouse are compared. 3. outdoor mice display on one hand, lower mean levels of standard corticosterone, and on the other higher amplitude of response to the novelty stress when compared with the commensal mice. 4. results are discussed in terms of divergent adaptive strategies of mice in respect with their social environment. 5. ...19911679690
low h-2 polymorphism in some israeli wild mouse populations.two populations of the wild house mouse, mus domesticus, found living close to each other (one inhabited a chicken coop and the other an open field at the educational farm of the hebrew university of jerusalem, east talpiot, jerusalem) were studied for their h-2 polymorphism. these two populations were selected because they are well characterized in terms of their ecological parameters; they have been under continuous surveillance for several years. twenty-seven h-2 homozygous lines were produce ...19862432002
genetic differences in the histochemically defined structure of oligosaccharides in mice.a wide range of tissues from three interfertile species of mice and an interspecific hybrid was examined with lectins conjugated to peroxidase to localize specifically glycoconjugates containing terminal alpha-n-acetylgalactosamine, alpha-galactose, and alpha-fucose, and the terminal disaccharide galactose-(beta 1----3)-n-acetylgalactosamine. this battery of lectins disclosed marked heterogeneity of glycoconjugates in different histological sites in a given animal and even between cells in a pre ...19872443557
a molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 18, including spm, grl-1, fim-2/c-fms, and mbp.restriction endonuclease fragment length variations (rflv) were detected in mice with dna probes for myelin basic protein (mbp), glucocorticoid receptor-1 (grl-1), and friend mulv integration site-2 (fim-2). rflv of the mbp gene were found in saci restriction patterns, rflv of the grl-1 gene were found in ecorv patterns, and rflv of the fim-2 were found in bglii patterns. a three-point backcross was carried out by the backcross mating (c57bl/ksj-spm/spm x mol-mit)f1 males x c57bl/ksj-spm/spm; sp ...19911679325
construction of a detailed molecular map of the mouse x chromosome by microcloning and interspecific crosses.a large number of microclones obtained by microdissection of the mouse x chromosome have been mapped using an interspecific mus domesticus/mus spretus cross. clones displaying close linkage to a number of loci of known phenotype but unknown gene product, such as mdx (x-linked muscular dystrophy), have been obtained. over a central 30 cm span of the mouse x chromosome, 17 clones have been mapped and ordered at a sufficient density to contemplate the complete physical mapping of this region that w ...19872448136
mouse carbonic anhydrase iii: nucleotide sequence and expression studies.a cdna for the mouse carbonic anhydrase, caiii, has been isolated from a lambda gt11 expression library. the cloned cdna contains all of the coding region (777 bp) and both 5' untranslated (86-bp) and 3' untranslated (217-bp) sequences. the coding sequence shows 87% homology at the nucleotide level and 91% homology, when amino acid residues are compared, with human caiii. protein and mrna analyses show that caiii is present at low levels in cultured myoblasts and is abundant in adult skeletal mu ...19892496681
evolution of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (igh-v) locus in the genus mus.the evolution of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (igh-v) locus was investigated by the comprehensive analysis of variable region (vh) gene family content and restriction fragment polymorphism in the genus mus. the examination of natural mus domesticus populations suggests an important role for recombination in the generation of the considerable restriction fragment polymorphism found at the igh-v locus. although the sizes of individual vh gene families vary widely both withi ...19892509340
a genomic clone of zfy-1 from a ydom mouse strain detects post-meiotic gene expression of zfy in order to obtain a genomic clone of zfy-1 from a y chromosome of mus musculus domesticus (ydom) origin, we cloned size-fractionated sjl/j dna in embl-4 and selected colonies which hybridized to pdp1007, a human zinc finger y clone. the specificity of the clone in hybridizations to mouse and human dna and partial sequencing confirmed that the clone (subcloned as pgzfy1d) was of zfy-1 origin. studies on the expression during testicular development of mrnas hybridizing to the clone suggested that ...19892514683
the multipoint genetic mapping of mouse chromosome 16.utilizing a mus spretus/mus domesticus (c57bl/10) interspecific backcross, we have constructed a multipoint genetic map of mouse chromosome 16 that extends 43.2 cm from the proximal prm-1 locus to the distal ets-2 locus. the genetic map incorporates three new markers: d16smh6, a random genomic clone; pgk-1ps1, a phosphoglycerate kinase pseudogene; and the growth-associated protein gap43. the map position of gap43 indicates the presence, on mouse chromosome 16, of a significant-size conserved lin ...19911672298
development and fertility of ovaries in the b6.ydom sex-reversed female mouse.when the y chromosome of mus musculus domesticus (ydom) was introduced onto the c57bl/6 (b6) mouse background, half of the xy progeny (b6.ydom) developed bilateral ovaries and female internal and external genitalia. we examined the fertility of the b6.ydom sex-reversed female mouse. the chromosomal sex of the individual mouse was identified by dot hybridization with mouse y chromosome-specific dna probes. the results indicated that all xy females lacked regular estrous cyclicity although most we ...19892534072
specific sequence deletions in two classes of murine leukemia virus-related proviruses in the mouse genome.characteristic long terminal repeats (ltr) of approximately 700 and 750 bp were found, respectively, in the two classes (polytropic and modified polytropic) of murine leukemia virus (mulv)-related nonecotropic nonxenotropic proviral sequences in eight individual molecular clones of rfm/un mouse chromosomal dna fragments. three proviral clones, two polytropic and one modified polytropic, contained sequence deletions in the viral structural genes. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that 7-bp di ...19892536981
y chromosome evolution in the subgenus mus (genus mus).a 305 base pair dna sequence isolated from the y chromosome of the inbred mouse strain c57bl/10 was used to investigate the pattern and tempo of evolution of y chromosome dna sequences for five species in the subgenus mus, including mus spretus, mus hortulanus, mus abbotti, mus musculus and mus domesticus. variation in hybridization patterns between species was characterized by differences in fragment lengths of both intensely and faintly hybridizing fragments, whereas variation in hybridization ...19892543607
the mouse igh-1a and igh-1b h chain constant regions are derived from two distinct isotypic genes.genetic and structural analyses of the mouse genes encoding constant region of immunoglobulin subclass (igh-c) have shown that recombination is rare within this cluster which is inherited as a set designated the igh haplotype. recent molecular analyses have demonstrated that either dna exchanges or gene duplications have probably occurred during the evolution of this set of genes. in order to assess the generality of the duplication processes, the presence and expression of two allelic forms of ...19892563358
sequence of the protease inhibitor domain of the a4 amyloid protein precursor of mus domesticus. 19892569710
cdna sequence and chromosomal localization of the mouse parvalbumin gene, the homozygous condition, the mutation adr (arrested development of righting response) of the mouse causes a myotonia and a drastic reduction of the ca2+-binding protein parvalbumin (pv) in fast muscles. using a rat pv probe, a mouse cdna clone was isolated from a lambda gt11 wild-type fast-muscle library and its nucleotide sequence was determined. the protein coding and the 3' nontranslated regions of the mouse gene show extensive homology with the rat pv gene. the result of southern blot hy ...19892572511
two types of mouse (mus musculus domesticus) y chromosomes in quebec.a y chromosomal repetitive sequence identified two types of y chromosomes in mice (mus musculus domesticus) caught near ste. anne de bellevue, quebec. one type is apparently identical to the y chromosome found in maryland, delaware, and california, whereas the other type is similar, but not identical, to the y chromosome present in m.m. poschiavinus, an alpine race of m.m. domesticus. these findings suggest that the domesticus y chromosome is highly polymorphic and thus useful for elucidating th ...19921624134
polymorphisms revealed by pcr with single, short-sized, arbitrary primers are reliable markers for mouse and rat gene mapping.ten single, arbitrarily designed oligodeoxynucleotide primers, with 50-70% (g+c) content, were used to amplify by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) sequences with dna templates from several mouse species (mus spretus, mus musculus musculus, and mus musculus domesticus), as well as dna from the laboratory rat (rattus norvegicus). eight of these ten primers, used either individually or associated in pairs, generated a total of 13 polymorphic products which were used as genetic markers. all of these ...19921617216
structure and expression of mouse alpha 1-acid glycoprotein gene-3 (agp-3).the genome of mus domesticus has multiple genes of the alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (agp). two cdna clones were identified corresponding to agp-1 and agp-2. moreover, two alleles of agp-1 exist in inbred mice. the genomic dna of the agp-2 gene has been cloned and studied. here we report the genomic organization of three m. domesticus agp genes, the sequence analysis of the agp-3 genomic dna, and the expression of the agp-3 gene. the major structural differences between agp-2 and agp-3 genes are loc ...19921605854
genetic mapping of two dna markers, d16ros1 and d16ros2, flanking the mutation site in the chakragati mouse, a transgenic insertional mutant.we present here the genetic mapping of two novel loci, d16ros1 and d16ros2, to mouse chromosome (chr) 16. the probes for these loci were genomic fragments isolated from the chakragati mouse, a behavioral mutant resulting from insertional mutagenesis during the course of making transgenic mice. d16ros1 and d16ros2 were first mapped by recombinant inbred (ri) strain analysis and subsequently by the analysis of 145 progeny of two interspecific backcrosses between mus domesticus and mus spretus. the ...19921581634
an ephemeral sex pheromone in the urine of female house mice (mus domesticus).from previous research, the ultrasonic vocalizations of male mice (mus domesticus) to female mouse urine were hypothesized to be learned as a result of classical conditioning during adult heterosexual encounters. according to this interpretation, a previously neutral conditioned stimulus in female urine comes to elicit vocalizations as a result of its association with some other unknown unconditioned stimulus associated with adult females. however, the research from which this hypothesis was der ...19921456933
restriction fragment length variations and chromosome mapping of two mouse metallothionein genes, mt-1 and mt-2.restriction endonuclease fragment length variations (rflvs) were found through the use of cdna probes for metallothionein genes 1 (mt-1) and 2 (mt-2) in the mouse. rflvs were detected in restriction patterns generated by bglii and xbai in the mt-1 gene and by pvuii in the mt-2 gene. all laboratory strains carry the mt-1a and mt-2a alleles. among strains of wild origin, some western european subspecies (mus mus domesticus and m. m. brevirostris) also carry the mt-1a and mt-2a alleles. in contrast ...19892576352
sex ratio manipulation in wild house mice: the effect of fetal resorption in relation to the mode of reproduction.first generation laboratory-born descendants of wild-caught house mice (mus musculus domesticus rutty) were bred to produce litters of primipares and of dams that had conceived a second litter either after lactational anestrus or within the postpartum estrus. at the day of birth, pups were sexed and the number of implanted and resorbed embryos was determined to evaluate the influence of mode of reproduction on litter gender composition and its relation to fetal resorption. no significant deviati ...19921391340
a molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 10, including the myb, s100b, pah, sl, and ifg genes.restriction endonuclease fragment length variations (rflv) on mouse chromosome 10 were detected in four genes, namely, the myb protooncogene (myb) and the genes for s100 beta protein (s100b), phenylalanine hydroxylase (pah), and interferon-gamma (ifg). rflv were found in restriction patterns generated with bamhi for myb, in those generated with bglii for s100b, in those generated with ecorv for pah, and in those generated with taqi for ifg. a multipoint backcross was carried out by the mating (1 ...19921359872
molecular genetics of androgen-inducible rp2 gene transcription in the mouse kidney.androgen control of the rp2 gene in the mouse kidney has been modified during evolution. in inbred mice (mus domesticus), the concentrations of mrnas encoded by rp2 undergo a 10- to 12-fold induction in response to testosterone; in other mus species (e.g., mus hortulanus and mus caroli), induction ranges from none to about two- to fourfold. in this communication, we show that androgens induced rp2 transcription in m. domesticus, although this induction may not have fully accounted for the increa ...19892710112
the musculus-type y chromosome of the laboratory mouse is of asian origin.mus musculus domesticus, m.m. bactrianus, m.m. musculus, m.m. castaneus, and m.m. molossinus wild mice were investigated for polymorphisms of the y chromosome (chr) genes zinc finger-y (zfy) and sex-determining region-y (sry). zfy divided the y chrs of these mice into domesticus- (domesticus) and musculus-types (musculus, castaneus, molossinus). m.m. bactrianus specimens had both y chrs, possibly owing to the introgression of a musculus-type y into this population. sry identified a subpopulation ...19921352158
nucleotide sequence of mouse sry gene is different between y chromosome originating from mus musculus musculus and mus musculus domesticus. 19921349578
licl aversive conditioning has transitory effects on pheromonal responsiveness in male house mice (mus domesticus).appetitive and aversive experiences influence whether odors elicit precopulatory behavior from male rodents. a role for aversive experience in odor-elicited reproductive behaviors had been demonstrated for hamsters and rats, but similar work on house mice had not been performed. four experiments examined whether lithium chloride (licl) aversive conditioning would alter two precopulatory behaviors (ultrasonic vocalizations and olfactory preference) that male house mice normally exhibit to female ...19921326774
identification of two murine loci homologous to the v-cbl oncogene.the virally transduced oncogene v-cbl transforms fibroblasts in vitro and induces early b-cell-lineage lymphomas in vivo. a series of probes derived from a molecular clone of v-cbl were used to map related sequences in the mouse genome. analyses of chinese hamster x mouse somatic-cell hybrids showed that two related genes, cbl-1 and cbl-2, were located on chromosomes 6 and 9, respectively. restriction enzyme studies of dna from hybrid cells containing either chromosome 6 or 9 suggested that cbl- ...19892760978
dominant expression of a distinctive v14+ t-cell antigen receptor alpha chain in mice.a distinctive variable region 14-positive (v14+) alpha chain (v alpha 14+) of the t-cell antigen receptor is predominantly expressed in multiple mouse subspecies. the v alpha 14 family has two members, v alpha 14.1 and v alpha 14.2, which differ by only three amino acids at positions 50-52. based on the ecori restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding v alpha 14, mice can be divided into three groups: type i with an 11.2-kilobase (kb) fragment, type ii with a 2.0-kb fragment, ...19911881891
mating patterns in seminatural populations of mice influenced by mhc genotype.because of the central role of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genes in immune recognition, it is often assumed that parasite-driven selection maintains the unprecendented genetic diversity of these genes. but associations between mhc genotype and specific infectious diseases have been difficult to identify with a few exceptions such as marek's disease and malaria. alternatively, mhc-related reproductive mechanisms such as selective abortion and mating preferences could be responsible for ...19911865924
inhibition of infanticide in male swiss mice: behavioral polymorphism in response to multiple mediating factors.the socio-sexual factors mediating the inhibition of pup-killing in previously infanticidal swiss webster male mice (mus domesticus) were examined. as reported in other studies, postmating co-habitation (i.e., physical contact) with a female during pregnancy suppress pup-killing but the present experiments also showed that several factors are implicated in this phenomenon, namely: 1) postcopulatory sensory contact (i.e., behind a wire-mesh partition) with the pregnant mate was sufficient to inhi ...19911881986
evolution of the iga heavy chain gene in the genus examine questions of immunoglobulin gene evolution, the iga alpha heavy chain gene from mus pahari, an evolutionarily distant relative to mus musculus domesticus, was cloned and sequenced. the sequence, when compared to the iga gene of balb/c or human, demonstrated that the iga gene is evolving in a mosaic fashion with the hinge region accumulating mutations most rapidly and the third domain at a considerably lower frequency. in spite of this pronounced accumulation of mutations, the hinge re ...19882842228
possible derivation of the laboratory mouse genome from multiple wild mus species.laboratory strains of mice are thought to be derived from wild populations of mus domesticus. many instances of non-domesticus genetic information fixed in these strains have been described, however, and the amount of strain-to-strain genetic variation exceeds that found in wild domesticus populations. in order to estimate the extent of the non-domesticus contribution to laboratory mouse genomes, and to determine whether it could account for observed variation, we have used computer simulations ...19862879770
establishment of the mouse chromosome 7 region with homology to the myotonic dystrophy region of human chromosome 19q.a number of genetic markers, including atp1a3, tgfb, ckmm, and prkcg, define the genetic region on human chromosome 19 containing the myotonic dystrophy locus. these and a number of other dna probes have been mapped to mouse chromosome 7 utilizing a mouse mus domesticus/mus spretus interspecific backcross segregating for the genetic markers pink-eye dilution (p) and chinchilla (cch). the establishment of a highly syntenic group conserved between mouse chromosome 7 and human chromosome 19q indica ...19901970795
myc-1 is centromeric to the linkage group ly-6--sis--gdc-1 on mouse chromosome 15.a survey of wild mouse dna with a c-myc exon 1 probe revealed a taq i restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) among mus species. as a result of this taq i rflp, a cross between mus musculus domesticus and balb/cj permitted the positioning of myc-1 on chromosome 15 with respect to ly-6, sis, and gdc-1. compilation of the recombination frequency generated from this cross with published cytogenetic and plasma-cytoma somatic cell hybrid data suggests the following chromosome 15 orientation: ...19882892786
molecular evidence for the rapid propagation of mouse t haplotypes from a single, recent, ancestral chromosome.mouse t haplotypes are variant forms of chromosome 17 that exist at high frequencies in worldwide populations of two species of commensal mice. to determine both the relationship of t haplotypes to each other and the species within which they exist, 35 representative t haplotypes were analyzed by means of 10 independent molecular probes, including five dna clones and five polypeptide spots identified by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. all of the tested haplotypes were found to shar ...19872897062
chromosomal mapping of the structural gene coding for the mouse cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin.the gene coding for the mouse cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin has been mapped to chromosome 8. uvomorulin cdna clone f5h3 identified restriction fragment length polymorphisms in southern blots of genomic dna from mouse species mus musculus domesticus and mus spretus. by analyzing the segregation pattern of the gene in 75 offspring from an interspecific backcross a single genetic locus, um, was defined on chromosome 8. recombination frequency between um and the co-segregating loci serum esteras ...19882897121
empty and occupied insertion site of the truncated line-1 repeat located in the mouse serum albumin-encoding gene.taking advantage of the polymorphism created by the presence or the absence of a line-1 repeat in intron 12 of the mouse serum albumin-encoding gene, we sequenced the repeat (alb-l1md), as well as the flanking regions in balb/c dna. the empty insertion site in a wild-type mouse of the same species mus domesticus was amplified using pcr and sequenced. the alb-l1md was truncated at its 5' end and bordered by two 14-bp repeats, which represented the duplication of the empty insertion site. the abse ...19901971802
genetic mapping in the region of the mouse x-inactivation center.the mouse x-inactivation center lies just distal to the t16h breakpoint. utilizing pedigree analysis of backcross progeny from a mus domesticus/mus spretus interspecific cross, we have mapped a number of genetic loci, gene probes, microclones, and eagi linking clones distal to the t16h breakpoint. the genetic analysis provides a detailed genetic map in the vicinity of the mouse x-inactivation center. comparative mapping data from the human x chromosome indicate that the most probable location of ...19901974879
autosomal genes involved in mammalian primary sex determination.beginning with findings made during the late 1950s and early 1960s, evidence continues to accumulate in support of the hypothesis that the mammalian y chromosome carries a gene that induces the undifferentiated foetal gonad in xy individuals to develop as a testis. recently a dna sequence has been isolated from the human y chromosome that appears to be the hypothesized y-linked testis-determining gene, and advances have also been made toward identifying genes that interact with the y-linked test ...19882907793
molecular analysis of aprt deficiency in mouse p19 teratocarcinoma stem cell line.we have used four gene probes specific for mouse chromosome 8, including adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt), to demonstrate that the p19 teratocarcinoma stem cell line contains two distinct chromosome 8 homologs. one represents the common laboratory mouse c3h (mus musculus domesticus) homolog while the second homolog was presumably contributed by a feral mus musculus musculus animal. six cell lines with aprt heterozygous deficiencies were isolated from p19 subclones. a molecular analysis o ...19912011791
duplicated region of the mouse genome containing a cytoplasmic gamma-actin processed pseudogene associated with long interspersed repetitive elements.the structures of two cloned recombinants of bacteriophage lambda and mouse genomic dna (lambda ma14 and lambda ma36) were compared by electron microscopic analysis of various heteroduplex dnas, restriction endonuclease mapping and nucleotide sequence determination. each clone was shown to be derived from a distinct region of the mouse genome, but the two exhibited structural similarity over a region of at least 11,000 bases which included a cytoskeletal gamma-actin processed pseudogene of appro ...19882974886
a multilocus linkage map of mouse chromosome 8.we present a genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 8 that spans 53 cm and includes eight cloned loci. this map was derived from analysis of 100 progeny of an interspecific backcross between mus spretus and mus musculus domesticus. genes that were mapped in this analysis include l7, plat, lpl, ucp, es, mt-1, um, and tat. this analysis positions a new extremely proximal marker on chromosome 8, which is discussed as a potential candidate gene for the nervous locus. these linkage data will be usef ...19912037298
retroviral spongiform polioencephalomyelopathy.aging wild mice (mus musculus domesticus) from several different trapping areas in southern california are uniquely prone to a naturally occurring hind-leg paralytic disease and/or lymphoma. both conditions are caused by an indigenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus (mulv). these mice have a lifelong persistent viremia with total immunologic tolerance to the virus. the characteristic pathologic features are centered on the anterior-lateral horns of the lumbosacral spinal cord and consist primari ...19852984760
most classical mus musculus domesticus laboratory mouse strains carry a mus musculus musculus y chromosome.restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflps) of maternally inherited mitochondrial dna have revealed that genetic exchanges can occur between populations, subspecies or even species. from the point of view of population genetics the mammalian y chromosome represents a genomic analogue of the mitochondrion; it is inherited only paternally and remains perpetually monosomic, showing little meiotic recombination with other chromosomes. using a y-specific genomic dna probe obtained from a flow-s ...19852986012
differential distribution of long and short interspersed element sequences in the mouse genome: chromosome karyotyping by fluorescence in situ hybridization.fluorescence in situ hybridization has been used to demonstrate the differential distribution of interspersed repetitive elements in the genome of mus musculus domesticus. hybridization with a mouse long interspersed element sequence results in a sharp, highly reproducible banding pattern on metaphase chromosomes, which is quite similar to giemsa banding for all chromosomes except 7 and x. the families of short interspersed elements, b1 and b2, preferentially cluster in the r, or reverse, bands. ...19902170987
analysis of wild-derived mice for fv-1 and fv-2 murine leukemia virus restriction loci: a novel wild mouse fv-1 allele responsible for lack of host range restriction.wild-derived mice originally obtained from asia, africa, north america, and europe were typed for in vitro sensitivity to ecotropic murine leukemia viruses and for susceptibility to friend virus-induced disease. cell cultures established from some wild mouse populations were generally less sensitive to exogenous virus than were cell cultures from laboratory mice. wild mice also differed from inbred strains in their in vitro sensitivity to the host range subgroups defined by restriction at the fv ...19852991555
transposition of a long member of the l1 major interspersed dna family into the mouse beta globin gene locus.a long member of the highly repeated long interspersed dna family l1md (for l1 in mus domesticus) has integrated by transposition into a target site which lies between the two adult beta globin genes of mouse. dna hybridization and nucleotide sequence analysis show that this target site, which is part of the single copy dna flanking the globin genes, is interrupted by the l1 element in one chromosome but is uninterrupted in both allelic and ancestral chromosomes. other large dna rearrangements o ...19852991851
segregation of restriction fragment length polymorphism in an interspecies cross of laboratory and wild mice indicates tight linkage of the murine ifn-beta gene to the murine ifn-alpha genes.southern blot analysis with murine (mu) interferon (ifn)-alpha cdna of restricted genomic dna of three inbred strains of mice belonging to the species mus musculus domesticus (balb/c, c57bl/6, and dba/2) revealed only a limited degree of polymorphism. for example, with hindiii there were only two polymorphic bands out of 14 hybridizing fragments. with mu ifn-beta cdna there was no polymorphism at all between balb/c and c57bl/6 in dna restricted with seven different enzymes. in contrast, hindiii- ...19852993652
mys, a family of mammalian transposable elements isolated by phylogenetic has recently been demonstrated both emperically and mathematically that transposable elements may spread rapidly throughout a population once introduced even when they dramatically reduce the fitness of individuals that carry them. such events result in pronounced differences in the phylogenetic distribution of genetic elements capable of rapid genome invasion. using a simple and general procedure to screen the genome of the white-footed mouse peromyscus leucopus, we have isolated a family of ...19852993916
endogenous mmtv proviral genomes in feral mus musculus domesticus. 19863015501
chromosomal localization of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes in the mouse.the chromosomal localization of the genes encoding the four subunits of muscle nicotinic receptor was determined by analyzing restriction fragment length polymorphisms between two mouse species mus musculus domesticus (dba/2) and mus spretus (spe). analysis of the progeny of the interspecies mouse backcross (dba/2 x spe) x dba/2 showed that the alpha-subunit gene cosegregates with the alpha-cardiac actin gene on chromosome 17, that the beta-subunit gene is located on chromosome 11, and that the ...19863022377
lipoprotein-associated oncornavirus-inactivating factor in the genus mus: effects on murine leukemia viruses of laboratory and exotic mice.high titers of oncornavirus-inactivating factor (oif) were found previously in sera of laboratory mice. oif is highly active against mouse xenotropic and polytropic envelope recombinant murine leukemia viruses (mulvs) but not against ecotropic mulvs. of the 20 different mouse species or subspecies currently tested, that represent 4 subgenera, no oif was found in the 3 subgenera more distant to the laboratory mouse. in the subgenus mus, 7 of the 8 most distant species had no oif, whereas all the ...19873026614
molecular characterization of the akvr-1 restriction gene: a defective endogenous retrovirus-borne gene identical to fv-4r.a dominant restriction allele, akvr-1r, from california wild mice (mus musculus domesticus) confers resistance to exogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus (mulv) infection. the presence of an ecotropic mulv envelope-related glycoprotein in uninfected virus-resistant cells suggests that viral interference is a possible mechanism for this resistance. we molecularly cloned the ecotropic mulv envelope-related sequence from the genomic dna of a wild mouse homozygous for the akvr-1r locus. the cloned ...19873027362
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