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in vitro response of mouse spleen cells to the solid phase immunogen dnp-o-bio-gel.the in virto immunogenicity of the solid-phase hapten, dinitrophenyl-ornithine-bio-gel (dnp-o-bio-gel), was investigated in cultures of mouse spleen cells. appropriate combinations of cells and immobilized hapten were determined. large numbers of direct anti-hapten plaque-forming cells (pfc) were generated when 1 times 10-7 c57bl/6 or c57bl/10 spleen cells were cultured with 4 times 10-3 dnp-o-bio-gel beads. specificity studies of the responses of cultured spleen cells to dnp-o-bio-gel yielded t ...197547361
a hemolytic plaque assay for the detection of direct and indirect antibody-forming cells to keyhole limpet hemocyanin.a procedure is described for the in vitro enumeration of individual lymphoid cells producing antibody against keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh) by a modification of the hemolytic plaque technique. optimal conditions for the coupling of klh to sheep erythrocytes by chromic chloride are described. plaque-forming cells are detected in a liquid monolayer slide chamber assay system. the kinetics of the in vivo primary and secondary pfc responses of both rabbit popliteal lymph node cells and mouse splee ...197547369
immunologic studies in hypersensitivity pneumonitis--quantitative precipitins and complement-fixing antibodies in symptomatic and asymptomatic pigeon breeders.quantitative precipitation and complement fixation tests were performed on sera from a group of patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (pigeon breeders' disease). their antibody levels were compared to a selected group of similarly exposed but asymptomatic subjects. the quantity of precipitating antibodies was generally greater in serum from symptomatic breeders, although quantities in the serum from some of the asymptomatic subjects were greater than that seen in ill breeders. complement-fi ...197547374
slow encephalopathies, inflammatory responses and arachis oil.there is much interest in the possibility that diets rich in some plant oils may be of prophylactic and curative value in certain clinical conditions. this is generally attributed to the immunosuppressive effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. arachis (peanut) oil injections can increase the incubation period of experimental scrapie in mice. in the late 1950s several workers showed that arachis and some other oils contained very potent anti-inflammatory components quite apart from the polyunsat ...197547424
the role of lipid in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.an experimental model of atherosclerosis sheep veins identical to the human disease indicates (i) that ingestion of an atherogenic diet is not a prerequistie in atherosclerosis and (ii) that haemodynamic stress must be the dominant aetiological factor in atherosclerosis. ultrastructural studies reveal that the early lipid deposition in spontaneous human atherosclerosis and in haemodynamically induced atherosclerosis is related to the trasnformation of extracellular vesicular debris into closely ...197547486
letter: age-related changes in t and b cells. 197547552
systemic protection against radiation. i. effect of an elemental diet on hematopoietic and immunologic systems in the rat. 197547640
immunological interference with fertilization.rabbit antisera against mouse and hamster ovaries and sheep antisera against rabbit ovary have been used to demonstrate ovary specific antigens in these three species of mammals. that one or more of the specific antigens are located in the zona pellucida which surrounds the egg was indicated in immunofluorescence studies and by the effects antibodies have on the zona. after exposure to the antibody a precipitate forms on the zonae of preovulatory, unfertilized and fertilized eggs and all embryon ...197547685
immunocytological methods for the identification and localization of antigens.immunocytologic techniques allow the study of antigenic cellular constituents by optical or electron microscopy, antibodies labelled with tracers such as fluorochromes, enzymes, radioactive isotopes, or large electron-dense molecules form the basis of these techniques. the immunochemical procedures involved in the preparation of such conjugates are well defined. satisfactory results, however, also depend upon the proper preparation and processing of the tissue or cell suspension being studied.197547687
neural control of the posterior pituitary. 197547736
exposure of histone antigenic determinants in chromatin.the exposure of antigenic determinants of histones present in "native" chromatin was studied by: (1) testing their ability to elicit anti-histone antibodies and (2) measuring their ability to interact with anti-histone sera. to this end, antisera specific to purified histone fractions and to purified rat liver chromatin were elicited in rabbits. the anti-chromatin sera did not react with pure histone fractions and pure histone fractions f2b, f3, f2a1, and f2a2 failed to inhibit the complement fi ...197547758
the in vitro induction of specific unresponsiveness against the 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl determinant. ii. prevention and reversal of the unresponsive state. 197547787
carrier and hapten functions in immune deviation. ii. role of hapten and carrier on the helper functions of the t cells.the kinetics of haemagglutinating and haemolytic antibody synthesis to the hapten and to the carrier determinants were studied in guinea-pigs injected intravenously with large doses of the carrier, or of the hapten conjugated to an homogous or heterologous protein carrier and subsquently immunized with the hapten-carrier conjugate in freund's complete adjuvant. the animals treated with the heterologous conjugates exhibited enhanced reactions to the hapten and supressed reactions to the carrier, ...197547838
expression of virus-associated antigens and immune cell functions during spontaneous regression of the friend viral murine leukemia.spontaneous regression and/or remission of friend virus (fv)-induced splenic erythroblastic leukemia was observed in cd-1 mice infected with several isolates of fv. regression of splenic tumor was accompanied by the loss of both specific fv-induced cell membrane antigen (fvma) and virus group-specific antigens (gsa) from the spleen cells. the frequency (percentage) of immunoglobulin-positive cells (b) and thetapositive cells (t) in the spleen was markedly decreased during leukemia progression, b ...197547847
staining of gastrin cells with lead-haematoxylin.fixation of fragments of human antral mucosa with helly's fluid allows gastrin-containing cells to be identified by an immunofluorescence technique. lead-haematoxylin staining carried out on the same sections shows selective reactivity of the immunofluorescent cells. these findings support the identification of gastrin cells with g cells, known from previous studies to react with lead-haematoxylin.197547853
south-to-north gradient in distribution of the r determinant of hepatitis b surface antigen in japan.a total of 2.305 sera positive for hepatitis b surface antigen were obtained from asymptomatic carriers throughout japan and subtyped for the d, y, w, and r specificities by the hemagglutination inhibition method. determinant d prevailed in japan (d, 99.1%; y, 0.9%), and there was no regional variation in its occurrence. in sharp contrast, there was a marked variation in the distribution of the w and r determinants, forming an apparent south-to-north gradient of r. the percentage of r determinan ...197547883
the membrane attack mechanism of complement. isolation and subunit composition of the c5b-9 complex.isolation of the c5b-9 complex from inulin-activated whole human serum was effected by molecular sieve column chromatography employing biogel a-15 m, preparative pevikon block electrophoresis, and removal of low density beta-lipoproteins by flotation in cscl. the final product was homogeneous upon cellulose acetate strip electrophoresis and analytical ultracentrifugation. ouchterlony analyses indicated that the complex reacted with antisera to c5, c6, c7, c8, and c9 to form a continuous, circula ...197547885
separation of antigen-specific lymphocytes. i. enrichment of antigen-binding cells.normal mouse spleen cells were fractionated in dishes coated with thin layers of dnp-gelatin or nip-gelatin, which were insoluble at 4 degrees c. highly viable cells were recovered from the dishes by melting the gel at 37 degrees c. nip3- gelatin layers bound approximately 0.1% and dnp4-gelatin layers 0.5% of normal spleen cells. increasing numbers of low affinity cells were bound with increasing dnp density of the adsorbent. the binding to insoluble dnp-gelatin was hapten-specific since it was ...197547891
editorial: the methylfolate-trap hypothesis. 197548063
editorial: nonsurgical palliation of congenital heart malformations. 197548193
forssman antigen and phase specific fetal antigens: an evaluation of their role in sv40 tumor immunity.forssman heterophile antigen was detected on hamster fetal cells which had been previously shown to be capable of eliciting transplantation resistance to syngeneic hamster sv40 tumors. the expression of forssman antigen continued throughout fetal development and could be detected postpartum in the tissues of neonate hamsters. in contrast, fetal antigen(s) evoking immunity to sv40 tumors was also present on early fetal cells but, unlike forssman antigen, was not expressed after the tenth day of g ...197548262
heterophile antigens and antibodies in transplantation and tumors. 197548298
[an immunologic study of hyaluronidase of different animal origin].studied was the antigenic relatedness of hyaluronidase contained in the semen of breeder animals of homologic and heterologic species. the experiments were carried out by means of the immunodiffusion and the immunoelectrophoretic methods. the results obtained showed that the seminal hyaluronidase of bulls, rams and bucks is antigenically related, and that of stallions, boars and rabbits does not exhibit antigenic relatedness. stallion semen is closely related antigenically with the above-mention ...197548305
effect of thymic factors on the differentiation of human marrow cells into t-lympnocytes in vitro in normals and patients with immunodeficiencies. 197548353
factors influencing activation of b-cells in immunity.the hypotheses so far advanced for b-cell activation by antigen are based on the assumption that the interaction between antigen and the ig receptors delivers at least the initial triggering signal. there are few, if any, experimental findings to support this assumption. on the contrary, a variety of findings indicate that the ig receptors do not deliver any signal to the cells, whereas activation can be regularly achieved without participation ofig receptors. the available evidence forces us to ...197548356
mercaptoethanol-resistant human serum antibodies reacting with endotoxin from neisseria gonorrhoeae.sera from fifty patients with gonorrhoea, thirty with non-specific urethritis, and eighty blood donors were treated with mercaptoethanol (me) and examined by the indirect haemagglutination test for antibodies against endotoxin from gonococci. erythrocytes sensitized with determinant a of endotoxin from strains 8551, v, and vii, or determinant b from strain v were used. the percentage of sera active in the haemagglutination test was much higher in the gonorrhoea group than in the controls. the ge ...197548404
inhibition by serum of encephalitogenic activity of myelin basic protein.basic protein of myelin from bovine brain (b-bpm) in freund's complete adjuvant (fca) is highly encephalitogenic for the guinea pig. however, when b-bpm is mixed with serum from various species it loses its encephalitogenic effect but not its immunogenic properties. when the synthetic tryptophan peptide matching residue 115-126 of human bpm is mixed with normal human serum it loses both its encephalitogenic and immunogenic effects. the time of exposure to serum necessary for complete inhibition ...197548507
modulation of the immune response by passive antibodies. i. anti-hapten antibodies enhanced delayed hypersensitivity to the carrier and depressed antibody synthesis to the hapten.the modulating effects of passive antibodies on both delayed hypersensitivity to the carrier and antibody synthesis to carrier and hapten determinants were studied in guinea pigs. animals were injected with antibodies directed against either the carrier or the hapten prior to immunization with the hapten-carrier conjugate in freund's complete adjuvant. anti-hapten antibodies have been shown to have an enhancing effect on delayed hypersensitivity to the carrier and a suppressive effect on antibod ...197548508
influence of antigen dose on antibody production of intact and splenectomised xenopus laevis.antigen persistence and serum antibody production in intact xenopus were monitored using human gamma globulin (hgg), in adjuvant, in various immunisation schedules. retention of hgg in spleen and serum was directly related to the quantity injected. however, antibody responses to a dose range between 1 mu-g-6 mg antigen were similar in intensity. these were detected in the serum two weeks after injection and at this stage were exclusively mercapto-ethanol (me) sensitive; me-resistant antibodies h ...197548536
augmented uptake of neuraminidase-treated sheep red blood cells: participation of opsonic factors.neuraminidase from vibrio cholerae (vcn) was used to treat sheep red blood cells (srbc) which were then incubated in vitro with murine peritoneal macrophages. the uptake of vcn-treated srbc by macrophages was greater than the uptake of srbc not treated with vcn. srbc opsonized with normal mouse serum (nms) were taken up to a greater extent than untreated srbc. srbc treated with vcn and opsonized with nms were phagocytosed to a greater extent than untreated srbc, vcn-treated srbc, or opsonized sr ...197548553
thymosin-induced reduction of "null cells" in peripheral-blood lymphocytes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.although thymosin, a thymic hormone, has been shown to restore cellular immunity in nzb/nzw mice, its effect in human systemic lupus erythematosus (s.l.e.) and other auto-immune disorders has not been tested. the present study shows for the first time that the proportion of "null cells" in peripheral-blood lymphocytes of patients with active s.l.e. is significantly decreased after in-vitro thymosin treatment. thymosin has no effect on the percentages of t cells, b cells, and "null" cells in peri ...197548612
letter: in-vitro resotration by levamisole of thymus-derived lymphocyte function in hodgkin's disease. 197548661
letter: in vitro inhibition of e rosettes by human amniotic fluid. 197549021
mechanism of b-lymphocyte activation: failure to obtain evidence of a direct role of the ig receptors in the triggering process.experiments were designed to test two hypotheses of b-cell activation by antigen: the cross-linking concept, postulating that a suitable degree of antigen-induced cross-linking of the ig receptors is sufficient for immunocyte triggering, and the two-signal hypothesis, suggesting that a first signal delivered by antigen interacting with the ig receptors followed by a second signal given by, for example, a polyclonal b-cell activator is necessary for activation. the results did not support either ...197549077
a sensitive primary immunoassay procedure for assessing the antibody response to antilymphocyte gamma-globulin in renal transplant recipients. 197549108
decreased antigenicity of mouse blastocysts after activation for implantation from experimental delay.the antigenicity of mouse blastocysts in experimentally delayed implantation and after activation from delay by estradiol administration were determined by two different methods. cba blastocysts were incubated in c57bl/6j anti-cba serum, and the amount of antibodies bound to the blastocysts was traced by -125-i-conjugated sheep antimouse gamma-globulin (isotope antiglobulin technique) and sensitized sheep red cells (mixed haemadsorption technique). with both techniques it was possible to demonst ...197549109
[t and b lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and hodgkin's disease. electron microscopic and immunologic studies].the number of lymphocytes forming spontaneous rosettes with sheep erythrocytes, a property of thymus-dependent (t) cells, and the number of lymphocytes bearing surface immunoglobulins, a characteristic feature of bone marrow-dependent (b) cells, were determined in the peripheral blood of normals and of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (cll) and hodgkin's disease. as compared with normal individuals cll patients had an increased percentage of lymphocytes with membrane-bound immunoglobu ...197549138
regional and cellular localization of glycosyltransferases in rat small intestine. changes in enzymes with differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells.optimal assay conditions were determined for four glycosyltransferases in rat small intestinal mucosal homogenates and the regional distribution and cellular localization of these enzymes was studied. for each glycosyltransferase, similar levels of activity were found in duodenal, proximal jejunal and distal ileal segments; activities of the galactosyltransferases were lower in the distal jejunal-proximal ileal segment. planar section studies indicated that the undifferentiated crypt cells had s ...197549196
isolation and characterization of a basic encephalitogenic protein from the central nervous system of sheep.a basic protein has been purified from sheep brain. the purified protein sedimented in the analytical centrifuge at 56,000 r.p.m. as an homogenous product. this protein induced an allergic encephalitis when injected into guinea pigs. some physiochemical properties of the protein were studied: the sedimentation coefficient was 1.52 and the molecular weight was 20,000 +/- 2,000, as estimated by electrophoresis in acrylamide gels containing sds and urea; the specific extinction coefficient (see art ...197549199
specificity of human serum antibodies against endotoxin from n. gonorrhoeae.sera from patients with gonorrhoea were used to study the specificity of human antibodies against determinant a of endotoxin from gonococcal strains 8551, v, and vii. the sera were tested by an indirect haemagglutination technique before and after absorption with endotoxin from the same strains. the sera were used untreated and treated with mercaptoethanol (me). the untreated and me-treated sera showed antibody activity against all the a determinants when examined unabsorbed. after absorption wi ...197549207
effects of anti-beta-2 microglobulin antibodies on human lymphocytes. 197549221
enhancement of t-lymphocyte differentiation in vitro by thymic extracts after bone marrow transplantation in severe combined immunodeficiencies. 197549234
specific fetal serum proteins of thirteen mammalian species. 197549249
incomplete antibodies and immunoglobulin characterization in adult urodeles, pleurodeles waltlii michah. and triturus alpestris laur.humoral immunoglobulin synthesis has been studied in two adult urodeles, pleurodeles waltlii michah. and triturus alpestris laur. following srbc immunization. the specific antibody response is detected after a long period of immunization and is due exclusively to 'incomplete' antibodies which are unable to induce agglutination. the antibody titre is essentially dependent on the number of stimulations rather than on the dose or nature of the antigen (papainized or normal erythrocytes). antibodies ...197549296
human antibodies to bovine alpha-globulin.antibodies to bovine gamma-globulin (anti-bgg antibodies) were detectable by a radio-immunoassay in 70% of healthy blood donors but, generally, the titres were low. significantly increased concentrations of anti-bgg antibodies were found in patients lacking iga but not in patients with allergic disorders. the anti-bgg antibodies were shown to give rise to falsely high ige values in the radio-immunosorbent test for ige determination (rist) when a sheep anti-ige antiserum was used. furthermore, fa ...197549305
a radioimmunoassay of cellular surface antigens on living cells using iodinated soluble protein a from staphylococcus aureus.soluble protein a from staphylococcus aureus does carry great promise as a marker for cellular surface determinants, due to its specific reaction with, and high affinity for, most subclasses of mammalian igg. in this article we present the different parameters involved in a radioimmunoassay using 125-i-labelled protein a. using such an approach the actual technical procedures involved are reported in detail together with tests for mammalian alloantigens, including hl-a in the human, h-2 in the m ...197549379
anti-immunoglobulin-induced histamine secretion by rat peritoneal mast cells studied by immunoferritin electron microscopy.we have used ferritin-conjugated divalent and monovalent anti-ig antibodies to study simultaneously, histamine secretion and the ultrastructural distribution and redistribution of ig receptors on rat peritoneal mast cells. we conclude that (a) divalent anti-ig is required for both receptor redistribution and for calcium-dependent degranulation and histamine release, (b) divalent anti-ig induces patching and pinocytosis but not capping of ig molecules, (c) neither capping nor pinocytosis are req ...197549387
depressed immune response in the magnesium-deficient rat.the effects of dietary magnesium on growth, food efficiency, organ development, splenic nucleic acids, and serum antibody were studied in two experiments with male wistar rats. diets containing 30% protein from casein were fed ad libitum. rats were immunized intravenously with sheep red blood cells. blood was obtained 5 and 9 days after immunization. in experiment 1, a group of weanling rats was fed 10 ppm mg for 8 days, followed by 142 ppm for 37 days. group 2 (controls) was fed 480 ppm mg for ...197549413
autoantibodies to prolactin-secreting cells of human pituitary.a new autoantibody which reacted with anterior-pituitary tissue was deteected by immunofluorescent staining. of 287 patients having one or more autoimmune endocrine diseases, sera from 19 reacted with pituitary glands obtained at hypophysectomy for breast cancer. using specific rabbit antibodies to each of the six pituitary hormones and rhodamine-labelled goat-anti-rabbit-immunoglobulin (ig) followed on the same unfixed cryostat section by a patients's serum counterstained with fluorescein-conju ...197549739
induction of histamine release and densensitization in human leukocytes.protein a from staphylococcus aureus has been found to react with all human leukocyte preparations tested. in 70 percent of the experiments the reaction leads to histamine release. furthermore, protein a treatment of cells at 37 degrees c, both in complete and ca-2+-free medium, results in the inhibition of anti-ige-induced histamine release in all cell preparations, indicating that protein a and anti-ige antibodies release histamine from the same cells. this inhibition seems to be due to the bl ...197549918
b-cell mitogenic effects on human lymphocytes of rabbit anti-human beta 2-microglobulin.rabbit ig against human beta2-microglobulin was found to be mitogenic for human peripheral lymphocytes, tonsil lymphocytes, and appendix and spleen cells. anti-beta2-m gave increased dna synthesis, with peak responses on day 3 or 4 and showed a dose-response effect when diluted. the effect was seen in both serum-free and serum-containing culture medium. anti-beta2-m, as well as lipopolysaccharide, induced polyclonal antibody production and intracellular immunoglobulin synthesis in blast cells, w ...197549920
use of a giemsa stain to detect changes in acrosomes of frozen ram spermatozoa.acrosomal structures of ram spermatozoa were prominently stained when air dried smears of diluted semen were fixed for 15 minutes in buffered formal saline and stained for 90 minutes in a 6 per cent (v/v) buffered solution of giemsa stain. progressive disruption of the acrosomes was demonstrated during chilling and deep-freezing of the spermatozoa, and the degree of damage was systematically scored. a rapid and repeatable estimate of the state of the acrosomes in a sample could be made from the ...197549974
plasma proteins and immunoglobulins in penguins (pygoscelis adeliae).total and fractionated proteins were evaluated in the serum of normal penguins. four proteins with antibody activity, determined by passive haemagglutination, were isolated by sephadex g-200 filtration and deae-cellulose chromatography, from the serum of penguins (pygoscelis adeliae) inoculated with dinitrophenylated human gamma-globulin. immunoelectrophoresis and immunodiffusion showed that all these proteins exhibited both their own and shared antigenic determinants. on account of their electr ...197550086
b lymphocytes lacking surface ig in patients with immune deficiency: initiation of ig synthesis in culture in cells of a patient with thymoma.a 64-year-old woman with a syndrome of thymoma, severe hypogammaglobulinemia, seemingly normal cell-mediated immunity and aplastic anemia, was found to have virtually no immunoglobulin- (ig) bearing peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl). however, 7.8 +/- 3.4% of the pbl were positive for another b-cell marker, the receptor for aggregated igg, while the remaining cells bound sheep erythrocytes. those cells which were aggregate-reactive appeared to be immature or incomplete b cells. cultures of perip ...197550098
[the cellular reticular structures induced by baculovirus in the lepidoptera galleria mellonella].induction of filamentous nuclear structures by baculoviruses are observed in the hemocytes of galleria mellonella larvae. modalities of detection of these virus-induced structures by means of sheep or rabbit globulines labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate are described.197550151
identification of the cell population involved in viral-specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity in man: evidence for t cell specificity.the nature of the cell population involved in lymphocyte mediated cytotoxicity to baby-hamster-kidney (bhk-21) target cells persistently infected with rubella virus was investigated by a 51cr-release microassay. after depletion of the t cell population with an antiserum to human0thymus-lymphoid tissue antigen (htla), the purified b cell population showed a decrease in e-rosette formation (9.0 +/- 2.2% compared to 69.6 +/- 9.1% before treatment) and an insignificant degree of cytotoxic activity a ...197550349
receptors for antigen on lymphoid cells. ii. the nature of the molecule responsible for plaque-forming cell adherence.the nature of specific adherence of rat anti-tnp pfc to tnp-grbc has been investigated with pll-fixed antigen monolayers as cellular immunoadsorbents and as plaque indicators. the immunoglobulin nature of the molecule responsible for pfc adherence is suggested by the fact that pretreatment of the pfc with rabbit anti-rat ig antisera, but not anti-histocompatibility antisera, inhibits adherence. removal of the adherence capacity of early pfc with the proteolytic enzymes papain and pronase, or by ...197550360
macrophage-lymphocyte interaction: antigen-independent binding of guinea pig lymph node lymphocytes by macrophages.the antigen independent binding of guinea pig lymph node lymphocytes by glass-adherent macrophages was investigated. binding was found to be mediated by a trypsin digestible, divalent cation-dependent, temperature-sensitive macrophage receptor mechanism that was not competitively inhibited by excess immunoglobulin. data are presented to indicate that in the absence of antigen, macrophages were capable of binding both thymus-derived and bone marrow-derived lymphocytes without apparent selectivity ...197550361
immunochemical analysis of a smith-like antigen isolated from two human strains of staphylococcus aureus.a surface antigen consisting of aminoglucuronic acid and n-acetyl-l-alanine was isolated from the culture filtrates of two human strains of staphylococcus aureus. double diffusion analysis in agar suggested that the antigen is immunologically similar to the alanyl-aminoglucuronic acid capsule of the smith strain of s. aureus. quantitative precipitin inhibition studies indicated that n-acetyl-l-alanine is the immunodominant determinant of the acidic antigen. in addition, conjugates consisting of ...197550368
determination of antibody avidity at the cellular level by the plaque inhibition technique: effect of valence of the inhibitor.inhibition of plaque formation by multivalent and univalent ligands was compared as an assay of avidity of antibody produced by pfc. multivalent ligands are much more effective as inhibitors and their use tends to impart an appearance of lack of heterogeneity and high avidity to the pfc populations being studied. it is thus probably generally advisable to employ univalent ligands in such studies.197550381
the effect of oestrogen administered during the progestational phase of the cycle on transport of spermatozoa in ewes.two split-plot factorial experiments are described, the first with 72 entire cyclic ewes and the second with 80. the pattern of transport of spermatozoa through the reproductive tract was studied, following treatments with progestagen and oestrogen or with oestrogen alone during 2 weeks preceding insemination. a daily dose of 25 mug oestradiol-17 beta administered to ewes for 14 days preceeding oestrus had a deleterious effect on the passage of spermatozoa through the cervix into the uterus with ...197550446
[surface receptors in human lymphocytes]. 197550596
secretory and structural changes in the parotid salivary gland of sheep and lambs after parasympathetic denervation.the effect of the parasympathetic nerve supply on the development of the parotid gland in the immature lamb and its maintenance in the adult sheep has been investigated by unilateral postganglionic denervation. seventy-seven to ninety-three days after denervation secretory activity of the gland was examined and material taken for histological examination. the adult denervated glands secreted at lower rates than the innervated and their atropine-resistant secretory flow was reduced to as low as o ...197550604
[does lead contribute to the pathogenesis of spine disease?].statistical data of a public insurance office of west germany show a drastic increase of the carriage impairments in juveniles. a plausible explanation of this phenomenon is presented by the lead quantities in auto exhaust. present levels of environmentall lead produce a measurable biochemical alteration in the population of industrialized countries (inhibition of the activity of the enzyme alad). by disturbing the synthesis of nucleics acids and porteins lead impairs fundamental processes of ...197550674
presence of "receptors" for growth hormone on membranes of rat thymocytes.growth hormone conjugated to sepharose-4 b was found to mimic the action of the free hormone in the stimulation of the uptake and incorporation of radioactive uridine into rna in thymocytes in vitro. the integrity of the cellular structure was essential for the stimulating effect of the hormone. the bonding of the immunologically reactive determinants of the hormone on membranes of thymocytes was demonstrated by electron micrographs of preparations incubated sequentially with rabbit antigrowth ...197550701
studies on polysaccharide c of staphylococcus epidermidis. 2. antigenic properties.the antigenic properties of polysaccharide c (poly c) of s. epidermidis strongly support the analytical indications that it is an n-acetylglucosaminylglycerol teichoic acid with 1:3-phosphodiester linkages. the major antigenic determinant is n-acetyglucosamine, predominantly present in the beta-configuration. also anti-glycerophosphate antibodies are produced, apparently dependent on the degree of glycosylation. purified poly c was unable to sensitize either normal or tanned sheep erythrocytes f ...197550716
haemophilus somnus complex: antigenicity and specificity of fractions of haemophilus somnus.five haemophilus somnus type 8025 preparations (whole cell, sonicate, crude polysaccharide, purified polysaccharide, and protein) were produced for studies of their antigenicity in rabbits. bacterial agglutination and passive hemagglutination tests were used to assess the level of antibody produced in rabbits inoculated with the different antigenic preparations. cross-reactions were seen between the antiserums against the h sumnus 8025 antigens and a variety of related and unrelated bovine patho ...197550755
[bacterial cytostimulation by specific antibodies (author's transl)].antibodies bound to the surface of escherichia coli cells stimulate the rate of growth of these bacteria in proportion to their quantity. this "cytostimulation" of the bacteria is confirmed by (1) the increase in optical density, (2) colony counts and (3) increase in the beta-galactosidase activity of a constitutive strain. this action can be amplified by overlaying the antibodies bound to the bacteria, with anti-antibodies. the cytostimulation is accompanied by an increase of the ratio in phosp ...197550758
precommitment of normal mouse peritoneal cells by erythrocyte antigens in relation to auto-antibody production. 197551479
antigen-dependent b-lymphocyte differentiation. a comparison of the electrophoretic mobilities of afc-progenitors, induced afc and background afc specific for several antigens. 197551616
immunochemical studies of organ and tumor lipids xxi. sensitivity and specificity of the cytolipin f - sheep erythrocyte system.the sensitivity and specificity of the sheep erythrocyte - anti-sheep erythrocyte system to inhibition by pure cytolipin f has been studied with 5 antisera, in order to compare it with the rat erythrocyte-anti-rat lymphosarcoma system and its inhibition by pure cytolipin r. the cytolipin f - sheep erythrocyte system is much more sensitive than the cytolipin r - rat erythrocyte system, inhibition of hemolysis of 6 x 10(6) sheep cells being produced by 10 ng of cytolipin f (combined with a four-fo ...197551702
intravaginal rings for contraceptive use: an editorial comment.the utilization of intravaginal rings as vehicles for the administration of steroid hormones is discussed. it is well known that the vaginal mucosa effectively absorbs various drugs. subdermal polysiloxane capsules containing gestagens have effectively reduced the incidence of heat in rats and ewes. the rate of passage of the steroid from its resorvoir is determined by the surface area and thickness of the capsule walls. intravaginal polysiloxane rings, impregnated with as little as 50 mg of ...197551703
inhibition of t- and b-lymphocyte functions by normal immunosuppressive protein.normal immunosuppressive protein (nip) isolated from human plasma was studied in two well defined systems. (1) spontaneous rosettes of sheep red blood cells with human peripheral blood lymphocytes and pha-induced lymphocyte cytotoxicity as indicators for t-cell function. (2) rosette formation tests of human lymphocytes with antibody-coated erythrocytes or erythrocytes coated with antibody and complement as well as antibody-induced lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity represented non-t-cell activity. ...197551828
specificity of cell-mediated cytotoxicity against human melanoma lines: evidence for "non-specific" killing by activated t-cells.the specificity of cell-mediated cytotoxicity against melanoma cells in vitro has been analyzed in a large number of studies with cells both from normal and melanoma subjects. as in a number of other, recent, similar human studies, no evidence for tumour specificity was found. effector cells in peripheral blood responsible for the cytotoxic raction were examined by cell separation methods based on red cell rosette formation and separation through hypaque-ficoll mixtures. the evidence suggests th ...197551832
g-band identification of the chromosomes of sheep.peripheral blood cultures were made on 20 dorset sheep including 16 ewes and 4 rams. photomicrographs of 100 cells were examined for trypsin-induced g-bands, and the length of each chromosome was measured. the banding patterns of each of the 27 pairs of chromosomes were identified and described, and the results observed in this study were compared with those previously reported. measurements of all chromosomes in which both members of a homologous pair were identifiable were used to calculate me ...197551867
the properties of plaque-forming cells from autoimmune and normal strains of mice with specificity for autologous erythrocyte antigens.treatment of mouse erythrocytes with the proteolytic enzymes, bromelain, reveals antigenic determinants not normally exposed on the erythrocyte surface. it was found that not only nzb mice, a known autoimmune strain, but also several normal strains of mice contain cells in small numbers in their spleens and in larger numbers in their peritoneal cavities which will form plaques against bromelain-treated mrbc. during in vitro culture the number of anti-br-mrbc pfc increases slightly in the spleen ...197551884
the xenogeneic effect. i. antigen and mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes produce a non-antigen-specific factor which reconstitutes the antibody response of t cell-deficient mouse spleen cells.modified marbrook culture vessels with two chambers separated by a 0.2-mu porosity membrane have been utilized to show that antigen-stimulated human lymphocytes produce a soluble factor(s) which restores the ability of thymectomized, irradiated, and bone marrow-protected mice to mount a primary igm plaque-forming cell response in vitro. in the initial experiments, the human lymphocytes plus antigen (sheep erythrocytes) were cultured in the lower chambers of the marbrook vessels and the t cell-de ...197551888
antigen-binding t cells as helper cells. separation of helper cells by immune rosette formation.the spleen t cells from mice immunized 6 days earlier with either chicken gamma globulin (cgg) or with donkey erythrocytes (drc) were rosetted with cgg-coated sheep erythrocytes or with drc. the immune rosettes (rfc) (antigen-binding cells) were separated from the bulk of nonrosette-forming cells (non-rfc) by 1-g velocity sedimentation and the rfc and non-rfc tested for helper activity in cooperative antihapten responses in vitro. rfc or non-rfc were mixed with normal or hapten-primed spleen cel ...197551900
collaboration of histoincompatible t and b lymphocytes using cells from tetraparental bone marrow chimeras.t-b collaboration has been studied in a secondary response to sheep erythrocytes using either syngeneic or allogeneic t- and b-cell combinations. t cells prepared from tetraparental bone marrow chimeras (tbmc), carrying h-2 determinants of one parental strain only, cooperated with syngeneic, as well as with allogeneic b cells carrying the alloantigens to which the t cells had been tolerized in the chimeric environment. when tbmc-derived cells of a single h-2 specificity were transferred with a m ...197551901
[biochemical properties of alpha-fetoprotein (author's transl)]. 197551943
the effect of lipopolysaccharide on the primary immune response to the hapten nnp.we have studied the effects of lipopolysaccharide (lps) on the primary in vivo immune response to the hapten (4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrophenyl)acetyl (nnp), with special reference to the avidity and affinity of the early appearing 19s and 7s antibodies. comparisons were made of the immune response to nnp in groups of mice given either antigen alone, lps alone, or antigen plus lps. the avidity of antibodies induced by lps plus antigen were similar to that found after injection of antigen alone, in spi ...197552184
studies on antibody formation with enzyme markers. 197552309
recent progress in the peroxidase-labeled antibody method. 197552310
detection by immunofluorescence of antibodies to parasitic agents. use of class-specific conjugates. 197552314
microfluorometric evaluation of conjugate-specificity with the defined antigen substrate spheres (dass) system.six fluorescent antihuman ig preparations were tested for their ig class specificity by reacting them with highly purified igg, igm, iga, and ova coupled covalently to sepharose beads. ova was used as a measure for nonimmunologic binding. bead fluorescence was determined by microfluorometry. the amounts of uss and nss were expressed quantitatively. these data were compared with the performance of these particular conjugates in a biologic system, namely, monoclonal bone marrow cells. five of the ...197552328
properties of bispecific rosette-forming cells. ii. --rosette formation by "educated" t-lymphocytes.normal thymus cells transferred into thymectomized and lethally irradiated syngeneic mice responded to stimulation with sheep erythrocytes by rosette formation with these erythrocytes. this response reached a peak on the 7th day and was not associated with any production of circulating antibodies. rosettes produced by "educated" t-cells were inhibited by anti-theta serum as well as by anti-mouse fab serum. simultaneous stimulation of transferred thymocytes with sheep and pigeon erythrocytes prov ...197552333
comparative ability of hybrid and homozygous resistant larvae of lucilia cuprina to cause strikes under experimental conditions.the intervals between the jetting of sheep with dieldrin or bhc, and the inducement of flystrike by implants of hybrid and homozygous bhc/dieldrin resistant larvae of lucilia cuprina, were compared. flystrikes soon established with homozygous resistant larvae, but considerable protection was afforded against hybrid larvae, the interval being longer with bhc than with dieldrin. dieldrin was shown to have a residual effect on rr larvae in a mixed population 9 weeks after jetting. it is suggested t ...197552354
accelerated cytodifferentiation of antibody-secreting cells in guinea-pig lymph nodes stimulated by sheep erythrocytes and lymphokines.lymphokines, produced in response to structurally unrelated antigens, altered the course of a primary anti-sheep erythrocyte plaque-forming cell response within the regional lymph nodes of normal guinea-pigs. intralymphatic injection of a small dose of lymphokines (0-5-8 mug) 1 day after antigen priming accelerated the rate of indirect plaque-forming cell cytodifferentiation between the 5th and the 9th days of the response. this effect was not related to changes in the level of antigen trapping ...197552424
[immunosuppression mediated by antibodies (author's transl)].until quite recently, it was generally believed that antibody-mediated immunosuppression is purely effected by virtue of covering up antigenic determinants in the periphery of the immune system, thus preventing any contact of the antigen with immunologically competent cells within the central parts of the immune system. but this conception was not able to give a plausible explanation of experimental data obtained during the last years. it was therefore repeatedly postulated that the passively ad ...197552589
contact sensitivity in mice measured with thymidine labeled lymphocytes.an ear assay was used to detect delayed responses in mice. animals were sensitized and subsequently injected with 3h thyminedeoxyryribose to label antigen sensitive cells. each animal was given a control and a test ear challenge and the respective responses were assessed by scintillation counting of 3h in cells which had accumulated at the reaction site. delayed responses were consistently observed in animals sensitized to dinitrochlorobenzene (dncb) but not in animals sensitized to sheep red bl ...197552610
influence of molecular structure on the tolerogenicity of bacterial dextrans. i. the alpha1--6-linked epitope of dextran b512.native dextran b512 is a near-linear glucose polymer with 96 per cent alpha1--6 and 4 per cent alpha1--3 linkages and a molecular weight (mol. wt) of 8 x 10(7). sheep rbc sensitized with its o-stearoyl derivative (prepared by a modified method) have been used satisfactorily in direct pfc assays. b512 immunizes balb/c mice optimally with doses of 1--10 mug and produces b-cell tolerance with 1 mg upwards. the specificity of the response determined by pfc inhibition analysis, is directed towards an ...197552612
influence of molecular structure on the tolerogenicity of bacterial dextrans. ii. the alpha1--3-linked epitope of dextran b1355.dextran b1355 is a branched glucose polymer containing 57 per cent alpha1--6, 35 per cent alpha1--3 and 8 per cent alpha1--2/1--4 linkages. direct pfc responses to b1355 can be measured with sheep rbc sensitized with its o-stearoyl or palmitoyl derivative, and, as shown by inhibition analysis, are specific for an eptiope which is dependent on alpha1--3 linkages. b1355 is a potent immunogen in balb/c mice producing peak pfc levels which approach 10(6) per spleen following an optimal dose of 1 mg. ...197552613
the potentiality of antibody-producing cells. ii. evidence for two antibody molecules of different specificities secreted by micromanipulated bispecific mouse spleen cells.bispecific pfc appearing on the 4th day after immunization of mice with sheep erythrocytes conjugated with trinitrophenyl hapten (tnp-srbc) were identified by their capacity to lyse native srbc and tnp-conjugated horse erythrocytes (tnp--horbc) simultaneously in an open carboxymethylcellulose medium. individual pfc thus detected, were micromanipulated into two successive media containing the indicators srbc and tnp--horbc. out of 103 transferred double cells ninety-two (89 per cent) remained dou ...197552617
influence of surface hapten density of sheep red blood cells on the hemolytic or blocking activity of igg antibodies.the hapten density on the surface of sheep red cells, coated with benzylpenicilloic acid (bpo) was determined. this was achieved by comparison of the inhibitory capacity of the test cells with that of a standard cell preparation of known antigen density. igg-induced hemolysis was much more affected by the recution of haptenic sites/cell than igm-induced hemolysis. it was concluded that more than 18,000 protein islets on the sheep red cell surface bearing at least four haptenic sites were necessa ...197552624
localization of t and b cells and alpha fetoprotein in hepatic biopsies from patients with liver disease.peripheral blood and hepatic tissue t- and b-lymphocyte distributions, serum alpha fetoprotein (afp) concentrations, and hepatic afp were studied in 46 patients undergoing diagnostic percutaneous liver biopsy. the patients included 26 with alcoholic liver disease, 13 with nonalcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis, and 7 with either normal histology or minor nonspecific changes. serum afp was determined by radioimmunoassay and hepatic tissue afp by indirect immunofluorescence. peripheral blood t lympho ...197552655
collaboration of allogeneic t and b lymphocytes in the primary antibody response to sheep erythrocytes in vitro.this study provides a direct quantitative comparison of the helper effects of allogeneic and syngeneic rat t cells in the production of direct srbc plaque-forming cell (pfc) responses by b cells in culture. in syngeneic t-b combinations, log-log plots of the number of pfc generated after 5.5 days in culture vs. the number of t cells employed as helpers showed a linear response between 10(4) and 2.5 times 10(5) t cells added. allogeneic t-b combinations, in which the t cells possess the capacity ...197552686
b lymphocytes, t lymphocytes and phytohaemagglutinin responsiveness in atopic dermatitis.the spontaneous binding of sheep erythrocytes to human lymphocytes with the formation of rosettes was used as a measure of thymus-derived lymphocytes and the rosette formation with complement-coated sheep erythrocytes as a measure of bursa-dependent lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients with atopic dermatitis. both percentage proportion and the absolute number of thymus-derived lymphocytes were slightly but significantly reduced. in a few patients with atopic dermatitis the percentage ...197552969
hepatitis b surface antigen and human serum proteins.the purification of hbs ag is briefly discussed with emphasis on the immunochemical characterization of the resulting preparations. results of experimental work in various laboratories aimed at establishing presence or absence of human serum proteins as integral parts of (highly purified) hbs ag particles do not yet allow definite conclusions.197553009
the mechanism of unresponsiveness in lymphocytes specifically selected by antigen in normal rats.the immunological potentialities of populations of thoracic duct lymphocytes collected from rats recently challenged with sheep erythrocytes were compared with those of lymphocytes from rats immunologically tolerant of this antigen. both "selected" and tolerant populations fail to mount immune responses to sheep erythrocytes in irradiated syngeneic hosts but can do so if transferred to semi-allogeneic recipients. if co-cultivated with normal lymphocytes in irradiated hosts, both types of populat ...197553048
[immunologic comparison between some wolbachiae and research of antigentic community with other members of the order of rickettsiales].the antigenic relationship between some rickettsiae of arthropods, which do not transmit germs pathogenic to vertebrates was investigated by agglutination and immunofluorescence techniques. the comparison of r. melolonthae, r. tipulae, r. cetonidarum, r. grylli and of the rickettsiae of the scorpion buthus occitanus shows that the wolbachiae are divided into three serological groups. the insect crystallogen rickettsiae belong to the first group, r. grylli and the scorpion rickettsia are antigeni ...197553109
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