acid-base equilibrium during acute fetal hypoxia. experimental study.the authors studied the effects of acute hypoxia of short duration in eight pregnant ewes that had been anaesthetised. they showed that during the experiment the e.e.g. as well as the ph and pco and the maternal lactate levels were not changed and that therefore changes that can be found in the fetus are due solely to its own hypoxia and not due to transmission from the mother. in the fetus the trace flattens in about 30 minutes on an average. after this interval a moderate drop in ph occurs at ...197616945
the rumen flagellate piromonas communis: its life-history and invasion of plant material in the rumen.the rumen flagellat piromonas communis is the zoospore of a phycomycete fungus inhabiting the rumen. zoosporogenesis was stimulated by a dietary component (the inducer), and inhibited by compounds affecting membrane structure and function, but not by inhibitors of protein synthesis. the zoospores showed taxis towards the tissues surrounding the inflorescence of lolium perenne l. in the rumen, invading principally the stomata and damaged tissues. the zoospores germinated on this substratum and th ...197716983
tumor growth in the absence of circulating antibodies. 197717034
fetology in 1976. 197717150
effect of influenza virus on the immune responsiveness of animals.infection of mice with a/hong kong/1/68 (h3n2) and a/pr8/34 (h0n1) influenza virus strains resulted in a significant inhibition of the formation of antibody-producing cells in response to administration of sheep erythrocytes and a reduced capacity of spleen cells to induce "graft-versus-host" reaction. the immunosuppression caused by influenza infection was observed for a long period of time post infection (3--6 months). the extent of inhibition of antibody production depended on the dose of vir ...197717278
susceptibility of laboratory and domestic animals to experimental infection with orungo virus.laboratory and domestic animals: mice, hamsters, rabbits, sparrows, chickens and lambs were inoculated with orungo virus to determine their susceptibility as evidenced by clinical response, viraemia and antibody development. mice and hamsters circulated the virus and developed neutralising antibodies; clinical signs of disease included ruffled hair coat, hypersensitivity to sudden noise and hindleg paralysis. there was an age-related susceptibility to infection in these two animals. rabbits and ...197717281
the antiviral activity of dipyridamole.dipyridamole, a coronary vasodilatator, was found to possess antiviral activity against representatives of different families. the antiviral properties were studied in chick embryo, human diplid and fl cell cultures by the agar diffusion plaque inhibition and plaque reduction tests and one-step growth cycle experiments. the inhibition of the virus-induced cytopathic effect was estimated quantitatively. dipyridamole significantly inhibited the yield of members of the viral families picornaviridae ...197717283
fetal and neonatal pulmonary circulation. 197717336
thymic hormones: biochemistry, and biological and clinical activities. 197717354
effects of prolonged infusion of beta-adrenergic agonists on uterine and umbilical blood flow in pregnant sheep.we have extended our evaluation of the effects of three beta-adrenergic agents in near-term pregnant sheep to include a period of infusion three times longer than previously studied. this extension has provided the following information: (1) initial depression of uterine blood flow and mean arterial pressure associated with administration of ritodrine or salbutamol abate with time despite continued drug infusion; (2) the uterine hyperemia associated with salbutamol and fenoterol are drug-related ...197718010
isoelastic prostheses of the shoulder joint. 1. raw materials--instrumentation--prostheses models. 197718053
new techniques to measure blood cholinesterase activity in domesticated animals.a macromethod and a semimicromethod were developed to measure erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity in cattle, sheep, goats, horses, dogs, and swine, and to measure plasma cholinesterase activity in horses, dogs, and swine. comparison of the 2 methods with erythrocytes of sheep, cattle, goats, and horses indicated both methods gave similar results. they can be done in a shorter time and are more sensitive than michel's method. normal deltaph values per minutes, with standard deviations for b ...197718075
effect of n-acetylcysteine on some aspects of cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity and immunosuppression. 197718149
postproline cleaving enzyme: identification as serine protease using active site specific inhibitors. 197718163
feed-related urea poisoning in ruminants. 197718387
the nature of thyroxine binding to a sheep anti-l-thyroxine antibody. 197718401
effects of trypan blue treatment on the immune responses of has been reported that trypan blue treatment decreases the nonspecific resistance of mice to transplanted tumors and inhibits the in vitro cytotoxic activity of activated macrophages. we wished to determine whether this effect of trypan blue could be due to a selective inhibition of certain macrophage functions or whether it reflected a broader form of immunosuppression. we therefore tested the effects of trypan blue on a variety of immunological responses. treatment of mice with trypan blue ...197718403
cytochemical reactions of normal and neoplastic lymphocytes.rosetting and non-rosetting lymphocytes collected from normal individuals were stained for the presence of beta-glucuronidase, periodic-acid schiff activity, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, acid phosphatase, and alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase. lymphocytes which formed rosettes with sheep erythrocytes and non-rosette forming lymphocytes contained cytochemical reaction products for all five stains. beta-glucuronidase (p less than 0-02) and acid phosphatase (p less than 0-01) were more frequently ...197718490
treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tolmetin: a comparison with alclofenac.a double-blind between-patient trial over 6 weeks to compare the effects of 1.6 g tolmetin daily with 4 g alclofenac daily was completed by 37 out of 44 out-patients with rheumatoid arthritis. tolmetin proved as effective as alclofenac in relieving pain and in reducing both the articular index score and the number of inflamed joints. however, alclofenac produced a significantly greater reduction in the duration of morning stiffness, which could have been related to the timing of the initial dail ...197619205
purification and properties of glyoxalase i from sheep liver. 197519241
steady state and equilibrium exchange kinetic studies of the sheep brain glutamine synthetase reaction.the kinetic mechanism of the sheep brain glutamine synthetase has been examined by both initial rate kinetics using the glutamate analog beta-glutamate and by isotope exchange measurements at equilibrium. results of the initial rate studies were compatible with a number of sequential mechanisms but not with a partially or fully ordered rapid equilibrium or a ping-pong mechanism. kinetic parameters at 37 degrees and ph 7.2 were k beta-glu = 16 mm, katp = 0.28 mm, and knh2oh = 1.4 mm. for all equi ...197719464
immune responses during measles infection in immunosuppressed rhesus monkeys.rhesus monkeys immunosuppressed with horse anti-human thymocyte gamma-globulin (atg) were infected with measles and simultaneously inoculated with sheep erythrocytes (srbc), a thymus-dependent antigen, and with pneumococcal polysaccaride type iii (sss-iii), a thymus-independent antigen. atg treatment alone suppressed srbc antibody production, had no effect on sss-iii antibody production, and effectively eliminated circulating t cells compared to nonsuppressed monkeys. atg treatment of measles-in ...197719536
purification and properties of brain alkaline phosphatase. 197719566
the effect of beta-adrenoceptor blockade on the response to hypovolaemic stress in sheep. 197719586
solubilization of neurofilaments from central nervous system myelinated nerve. 197719632
the effects of dietary factors on acid-induced inhibition of reticulo-ruminal motility in sheep. 197719744
thermorespiratory responses of shorn and unshorn sheep to mild heat stress.three 3-year-old ewes with surgically exteriorized carotid loops were twice exposed to ambient temperatures (ta) of 25, 30, 35 and 40 c (at constant 40% relative humidity) for 120 min in the presence (6.6 cm) and absence (less than 0.3 cm) of fleece. thermoregulatory responses were evaluated during the last 30 min of each exposure by measurements of rectal (tre), 6 skin surface temperatures (ts), respiratory frequency (f), oxygen consumption (vo2) and respiratory evaporative heat (er); arterial ...197719832
the metabolism of niclosamide and related compounds by moniezia expansa, ascaris lumbricoides var suum, and mouse- and sheep-liver enzymes.1. niclosamide and related nitro compounds were reduced to the corresponding amines by moniezia expansa, ascaris lumbricoides var suum and by enzymes prepared from these species and by mouse and sheep liver homogenates. the reduction of niclosamide by the helminths required as cofactors nadh2 and glutathione, but was inhibited 50% by 2 x 10(-7) m allopurinol. 2. unlike benzanilide, niclosamide was not hydrolysed by either the helminths, or the mammalian liver preparations. rates of hydrolysis of ...197719884
kinetics of sheep-liver cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase.1. sheep liver cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase showed little ph dependence of v or kcat. some buffer anion effects were noted. 2. the oxidation of aldehydes at ph 7.6 was quantitative but irreversible. the initial velocity data indicated a sequential mechanism for the addition of substrates. inhibition by nadh and the product analogue 2-bromo-2-phenylacetic acid, together with the known tight binding of nadh to the free enzyme, indicated an ordered mechanism with nad+ as leading substrate. 3. ...197720307
uterine secretions in the cow and sheep. 197720367
sites of organic acid production and patterns of digesta movement in the gastrointestinal tract of the rock hyrax.the rock hyrax, smallest of the present day ungulates and a near relative of the elephant, has a gastrointestinal tract of such complex nature that it may be considered ccomparable to both the simple and complex stomach mammals, and also to birds. they have a stomach to body weight capacity equal to that of sheep. but for all its complexity, the passage of ingesta is reasonably rapid. however, there are three major sites of digesta retention and microbial fermentation of the ingested material. t ...197720487
daily changes in the blood of conscious pigs with catheters in foetal and uterine vessels during late gestation.1. catheters were inserted into the foetal carotid artery and maternal middle uterine artery and vein in twenty foetuses from fifteen sows, 91-105 days pregnant. blood samples were collected from foetal and maternal circulations for periods of 7-21 days after surgery.2. blood gas tensions, ph, packed cell volume (pcv) and the levels of glucose, fructose and lactic acid in conscious pigs were followed in foetal and maternal bloods during late pregnancy.3. foetal blood gas tensions, ph, pcv, lacti ...197720500
in vivo immune responses of mice during carcinogenesis by ultraviolet these experiments, we tested in various in vivo assays the immune responses of inbred c3h/hen(mtv-) (c3h-) mice during carcinogenesis by chronic exposure to uv irradiation. although the uv-treated mice were unable to reject syngeneic uv-induced tumor transplants, they rejected h-2-incompatible tumor allografts and h-2-compatible skin allografts. the primary hemagglutinin response to sheep red blood cells was normal in these mice, as were the induction of a local graft-versus-host reaction wit ...197720514
digestion of lactose in the rumen of sheep. 197720634
platelet adhesion to foreign surfaces under controlled conditions of whole blood flow: human vs rabbit, dog, calf, sheep, pig, macaque, and baboon.our results reveal significant differences between mammalian species with respect to platelet adhesion to foreign surfaces exposed to heparinized, flowing blood. in particular, we have demonstrated the following: 1) at a surface shear rate characteristic of shear rates in mammalian arteries, human platelet adhesion (and that of calf, baboon, macaque, hog or sheep) is negligible in comparison to dog or rabbit platelet adhesion after 10 mins of blood flow. 2) the species differences are biomateria ...197720686
suppressive effect of newcastle disease virus on the primary and secondary immune responses of hamsters.the effect of newcastle disease virus (ndv) on the formation of 19 s haemolytic plaque-forming cells (hpfc) in the secondary immune response and on the formation of 7 s hpfc in both primary and secondary immune responses of hamsters to sheep red blood cells (srbc) was studied. the 19 s and the 7 s hpfc in the spleens of hamsters injected with srbc were demonstrated by the direct and indirect jerne's method, repectively. a single intraperitoneal injection of ndv 5 days prior to primary immunizati ...197720763
physical properties of the amino-terminal precursor-specific portion of type i procollagen. 197720926
graft versus host-induced immunosuppression: mechanism of depressed t-cell helper function in vitro. 197721034
enumeration of t rosette-forming cell population in rabbit peripheral blood using human, sheep, guinea-pig, rat, mouse and chicken red blood cells under different experimental conditions.attempts were made to estimate peripheral t-lymphocytes in rabbits by their ability to form rosettes with sheep, human, guinea-pig, rat, mouse and chicken rbc. the reaction was studied under different conditions of ph and temperature. the test was also carried out in the presence or absence of glutaraldehyde. with sheep rbc, lymphocytes from 2 of the 5 rabbits studied formed rosettes to the extent of 1.5% in the system containing glutaraldehyde. these results however were not reproducible when s ...197721220
acid elution of blood group antibodies from intact erythrocytes.human igm and igg antibodies against blood group antigens (a, b, d, c, c, e, e, fya, k), autoantibodies and mouse igm and igg antibodies against sheep erythrocytes have been eluted from intact human and sheep red cells by glycine-hcl buffer, ph 3.0. the yield of human antibodies was higher with acid than with heat and ether elution, and the contamination of hemoglobin in the eluate was negligible. the acid elution method is very simple and rapid and, therefore, highly suitable for experimental a ...197721486
evidence for two-step binding of reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide to aldehyde dehydrogenase.the displacement of nadh from cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ec from sheep liver was studied by using nad+, 1,10-phenanthroline, adp-ribose, deamino-nad+ and pyridine-3-aldehyde-adenine dinucleotide as displacing agents, by following the decrease in fluorescence as a function of time. the data obtained could be fitted by assuming two first-order processes were occurring, a faster process with an apparent rate constant of 0.85 +/- 0.20 s-1 and a relative amplitude of 60 +/- 10% and ...197721657
quinonoid dihydropterin reductase from beef liver.quinonoid dihydropterin reductase has been purified from beef liver. this enzyme has been shown to be indistinguishable from the reductase of sheep liver in molecular weight, subunit composition, and terminal residues. both beef and sheep liver reductases possess acyl isoleucine as the n-terminal residue. use of improved isolation techniques, including general ligand affinity chromatography, has yielded enzyme preparations of much higher specific activity than previously reported. affinity chrom ...197721726
isolation-perfusion of ovine hind limbs. iii. perfusate lysine levels. 197721871
on the induction of zoosporogenesis in the rumen phycomycetes neocallimastix frontalis, piromonas communis and sphaeromonas communis.the plant components inducing zoosporogenesis in the rumen phycomycetes neocallimastix frontalis, sphaeromonas communis and piromonas communis were widely distributed in the plant kingdom with no apparent taxonomic relationship. in lolium perenne l. (perennial rye-grass) and hordeum distichon (barley), the components were principally present in the leaves and aerial tissues. sufficient inducer was present in the normal diet of the host animal to trigger the differentiation and release of the zoo ...197721939
effects of intraruminal administration of zinc on gastric acid secretion in sheep.intraruminal administration of zinc sulphate at 100 and 200 mg zn/kg bodyweight resulted in central and peripheral effects in sheep. feed intake was reduced, ph of the duodenal contents elevated and the secretion of acid from isolated pouches of the abomasum doubled. suggested explanations include a local inhibitory effect of zinc on abomasal acid secretion elevating duodenal ph and a resultant increased release of gastrin stimulating secretion from the pouches.197722116
cholinesterase activity of sperm from rams infected with brucella ovis.studied were the indices of cholinesterase activity of semen taken from 23 normal rams and 23 rams infected with brucella ovis, the latter being positive by the complement-fixation test and showing a varying deterioration of the semen production. the results obtained were processed biometrically. established were dependable differences. the cholinesterase activity of semen of brucellosis-affected rams proved four times higher than that of normal rams' semen: 39.45 +/- 5.49 microleter to2 for 1 h ...197722157
fetal reacting bradycardia.acute and abrupt fetal bradycardia are considered to be vagal in origin. in addition to head compression and funis compression bradycardias, we will report on those acute fetal bradycardias occurring during maternal seizures and maternal voiding, during aortocaval compression, during terminal labor, and during the immediate postpartum period. while certain mechanisms are known which can explain some or parts of these bradycardias, we conclude that in the clinical setting information is insuffici ...197722247
influence of cobra venom (cof) and pneumococcal s iii capsular polysaccharide on immunologic humoral response and visceral distribution of antigens.the immunologic response to sheep erythrocytes was compared in mice treated with cobra venom (cof) and with pneumococcal capsular antigen s iii. suppression of the immunologic response in both cases was attributed to the ability of both tested substances to activate the third component of complement. cof and s iii both changed the organ localization of labeled antigens capable of activating the complement system. no evidence for an alternative pathway by which s iii could activate the complement ...197722318
serum-derived immunosuppressive substances. ii. an evaluation of various sources for an endogenous regulator of lymphocyte activation.four published methods (ion-exchange chromatography, heat, molecular sieving and alcohol fractionation) for the preparation of fractions of normal sera and tissues which possess immunosuppressive activity are compared. human and bovine serum and human, bovine and ovine tissues including spleen, placenta and thymus were investigated as sources of substances which were immunosuppressive when added to mixed lymphocyte cultures and when injected into mice 24 h before antigenic challenge. cohn fracti ...197722495
cerebrocortical necrosis in ruminants: an attempt to identify the source of thiaminase in affected animals. 197722559
a simple method to determine gammaglutamyl-cyclotransferase activity in erythrocytes.a new method for the determination of erythrocyte gammagct is described. the method follows the release of alanine from gammaglutamyl alanine by a series of linked reactions that result in the oxidation of nadh to nad. the ph optimum for human erythrocyte gammagct was found to be 9.0, and the km for gammaglutamyl alanine was found to be 2.3 x 10(-3) m. human erythrocytes had the highest activity of all the species studied (human, rabbit, dog, sheep, cattle, chicken).197822573
a laser light-scattering study of haemoglobin systems. 197722857
a possible transepithelial pathway via endoplasmic reticulum in foetal sheep choroid plexus. 197722861
the passage of nitrogenous compounds through the wall of perfused sheep rumen (author's transl).experiments were performed by the method of the extracorporeal perfusion of sheep rumen lasting 150 minutes. after 60 minutes of perfusion, 20 g of enzymatic casein hydrolyzate were applied to the rumen. ammonia, urea, and total nitrogen were determined in the samples of perfusate, and ammonia and ph were determined in the rumen content. considerable amounts of ammonia accumulated in the perfusate in the course of the experiment. at the end of perfusion, the concentration of nh3-n reached an ave ...197722950
metabolic effects of constant hypertonic glucose infusion in well-oxygenated order to investigate the metabolic effects of a constant hypertonic glucose infusion in well-oxygenated fetuses, ten experiments were carried out in nine long-term experiments in fetal lambs. it appeared that a constant hypertonic glucose infusion did not significantly affect the fetal blood gases, ph, and plasma lactate levels when fetal glucose was kept below 150 mg. per 100 ml. it was also demonstrated that glucose infusions significantly increased the fetal lactate levels and decreased th ...197823007
pre-steady-state kinetic studies on cytoplasmic sheep liver aldehyde dehydrogenase.stopped-flow experiments in which sheep liver cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ec was rapidly mixed with nad(+) and aldehyde showed a burst of nadh formation, followed by a slower steady-state turnover. the kinetic data obtained when the relative concentrations and orders of mixing of nad(+) and propionaldehyde with the enzyme were varied were fitted to the following mechanism: formula: see text where the release of nadh is slow. by monitoring the quenching of protein fluorescence on ...197723112
inhibition of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase by cystamine: an approach to a therapy of 5-oxoprolinuria (pyroglutamic aciduria). 197723121
an in vitro study of functional maturation of murine thymus cells.critical time of onset of thymus cell functions in ontogeny was studied in vitro. collaborative function in an antibody response and ability to induce a graft-versus-host (gvh) response by murine thymocytes from different stages of ontogeny were investigated. thymocytes from as early as 16-day mouse embryos were capable of collaborating in the antibody response to sheep-erythrocyte-antigen in vitro following 24 h of pretreatment with concanavalin a (con a). by contrast, maturation of thymus cell ...197723333
fetal hypertension and the development of increased pulmonary vascular smooth muscle: a possible mechanism for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn infant.chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension was produced in six fetal lambs. in four (126 to 139 days' gestation) unilateral fetal renal artery constriction caused systemic arterial mean blood pressure elevations. in another fetus, constriction of the umbilical artery caused a systemic mean blood pressure elevation; in the sixth, partial occlusion of the ductus arteriosus caused isolated pulmonary arterial hypertension. the right lung of each fetus was perfused with fixative at the in vivo mean arte ...197823421
the effect of alkali and urea on ground and pelleted all-straw diets for sheep. 197723538
the effect of level of feeding on the extent of digestion and mean retention time of alkali-treated straw given as part of a complete diet to sheep. 197723540
molecular mechanism of active calcium transport by sarcoplasmic reticulum. 197823557
acid-base indices in ovine blood and cerebrospinal means of the astrup apparatus (blood microsystem bms 2) acid-base indices in blood and cerebro-spinal fluid of clinically healthy merino sheep at the age of one year (15 head) and of two or three years (41 head) were determined. blood collected anaerobically from v. jugularis and liquor collected by means of the suboccipital punction in heparinized syringes and/or caplaris and liquor collected by means of the suboccipital punction in heparinized syringes and/or capillaries were examined immed ...197723602
drugs affecting the release of rheumatoid factor in a plaque-forming cell assay.addition of propranolol to the agarose phase of a plaque-forming cell (pfc) assay for rheumatoid factor (rf) caused reduction in the number of plaques seen. this reduction in rheumatoid factor plaque-forming cell (rf pfc) did not depend upon an effect at the beta-adrenergic receptor, since d- and 1-propranolol reduced equally well. furthermore, in a series of polycyclic compounds with varying beta-receptor blocking capabilities there was no agreement between plaque reduction and blocking. when p ...197823788
purification and partial characterization of rat brain acid proteinase (isorenin).1. isorenin was purified 2000-fold from rat brain by a simple 3-step procedure involving affinity chromatography on pepstatinyl-sepharose, the preparation appears as a homogenous protein in analytical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis indicated an apparent molecular weight of 45 000. isoelectric focusing separated isoenzymes with isoelectric points at ph 5.45, 5.87, 6.16 and 7.05. 2. the enzyme generates antiotensin i from tetradecapeptide (ph optimum ...197823850
studies of the androgen binding protein in the rete testis fluid of the ram and its relation to sexual androgen binding protein (abp) with an electrophoretic mobility (rf) of 0.56 is present in the rete testis fluid of adult rams. its steroid specificity was found to be in the following order: 5alpha-dht, testosterone, oestradiol-17 beta, dehydroepiandrosterone 5beta-dht, androstenedione, cyproterone, cyproterone acetate, cortisol and progesterone. the characteristics of the abp are similar to those found for the abp of the testis and the epididymis of the rat and the rabbit. the concentration ...197823974
gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. determination of specificity in the presence of multiple amino acid acceptors. 197824054
inhibition of hydrochloric acid and pepsin secretion from gastric pouches by antral pouch acidification in sheep.1. secretion of acid and pepsin from separated pouches of the body of the abomasum was studied in sheep during perfusion of antral pouches with acid solutions. 2. resting secretion of acid and pepsin was reduced by acidification of antral pouches to ph 2.7 or less. 3. increases in the secretion of hcl and pepsin normally obtained on feeding were reduced or abolished by perfusion of antral pouches with solutions at ph 1.3--2.0. 4. perfusion of antral pouches with acetylcholine at ph 2.5 failed to ...197724114
activities of ketone body utilising enzymes in tissues of fed and fasted sheep.the activities of 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, 3-ketoacid coa-transferase and acetyl-coa acetyltransferase have been measured in the kidney, heart and brain of fed and four-day fasted ewes. the results indicate tha there is a decrease in the capacity of these organs to catabolise ketone bodies in fasting ketosis.197824243
the efficiency of diamphenethide in controlling natural infestations of fasciola hepatica in lambs.the activity of diamphenethide against natural infestations of fasciola hepatica in fattening lambs was assessed on a farm with a noted history of fascioliasis. the main experimental groups, two treated and one control, grazed known contaminated pastures for a twelve week period after which they were removed to fluke-free areas to await slaughter. three groups of four tracer lambs were each grazed for three successive four week periods with the main flock to determine continuity of infection. a ...197824284
development of neurohumoral control of fetal, neonatal, and adult cardiovascular functions.neurohumoral control of fetal, neonatal, and adult cardiovascular functions have been reviewed. resting fetal heart rate remains fairly constant but neonatal heart rate declines progressively, reaching adult levels within six to eight weeks; systemic arterial pressure rises while pulmonary pressure falls to adult levels within the first week after birth. sympathetic and parasympathetic control of circulatory functions matures at different rates during fetal and neonatal development; the sympathe ...197724341
purification and properties of an nadph-dependent 21-oxo-20-hydroxysteroid reductase (17beta-aldol reductase) from sheep liver. isolation of the 20beta-glycol product.this investigation was undertaken to test the hypothesis that steroidal 20-hydroxy-21-aldehydes are intermediates in an alternative pathway of corticosteroid metabolism leading to steroidal 20,21-diols. a nadph-dependent 21-oxo-20-hydroxysteroid reductase which catalyzed the reduction of 11beta,17,20beta-trihydroxy-3-keto-4-pregnen-21-al (isocortisol) to 11beta,17,20beta,21-tetrahydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (reichstein's compound e) was prepared from sheep liver. other steroidal 17-aldols were also g ...197824635
chloride conductance of the amphiuma red cell most other red cells, the giant erythrocytes of amphiuma means possess a system for rapid exchange of chloride across the membrane. also, there are indications that the net transport of chloride in these cells is slow. the size of amphiuma erythrocytes allows direct measurements of membrane potential with microelectrodes. the present work exploits the possibility that such measurements can be used to give a quantitative estimate of the chloride conductance (gcl) of the amphiuma red cell mem ...197824748
intensity of acid-base reactions of the blood and cerebrospinal fluid in sheep after intraluminal stress induced by urea and acetic acid.acid-base indices of the blood and cerebro-spinal fluid were studied on astrup apparatus (bms 2) in an experiment with twelve, two- to three-year-old merino sheep, being in the first half of the gravidity period, under clinical conditions after the administration of 0.8 g urea per 1 kg live weight followed by, in half an hour, the administration of acetic acid (8% vinegar, a dose of 2 ml per 1 kg live weight). heparinized syringes were used to take blood samples anaerobically before the beginnin ...197824917
results of a preliminary seroepidemiological survey for crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in egypt. 197825013
cytochemical localization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in human spermatozoa--ii. significance of the coenzyme. 197725136
synthesis and biological activity of ovine beta-lipotropin-(41--91)-henkaipentekontapeptide.the 51-residue peptide ovine beta-lipotropin-(41--91) has been synthesized by the solid-phase method in about 5% overall yield. the synthetic product was characterized by partition chromatography on agarose gel, thin-layer chromatography in two solvent systems, paper electrophoresis at two ph values, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid analyses of acid and enzymic hydrolysates, and bioassay for lipolytic and melanotropic activities. the synthetic peptide is about 5.4 times as active o ...197825245
effect of diamfenetide on experimental infections of fasciola hepatica in lambs: anthelmintic and clinical investigations.the activity of diamfenetide (n,n'-oxybis(2,1-ethan diyloxy-4,1-phenylene) bis acetamide) was studied in lambs experimentally inoculated with fasciola hepatica. the drug was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/kg either 1,3,5,7, or 9 weeks postinoculation. it was 100% effective 1, 3, and 5 weeks postinoculation, 73% effective 7 weeks postinoculation, and 57% effective 9 weeks postinoculation. serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity remained normal in all lambs for 5 weeks after infection ...197825319
effect of liver microsome enzyme-inducing drugs on blood serum pentobarbital clearance and sleep time in sheep and rabbits.sheep were administered phenobarbital, diphenylhydantoin, chlorcyclizine, or phenylbutazone over 27 days. rabbits were administered phenobarbital, diphenylhydantoin, or chlorcyclizine for 15 days. after the last treatment, pentobarbital was administered intravenously, and measurements were made of sleep time and blood serum pentobarbital concentrations over a 2-hour period. treatment of ewes with phenobarbital or phenylbutazone increased the rate of pentobarbital clearance from the circulation a ...197825602
cytochemical demonstration of esterases in peripheral blood leukocytes.cytochemical methods for alpha naphthyl acetate esterase and chloroacetate esterase have been used to identify human monocytes and granulocytes. in this study, a standard procedure for staining alpha naphthyl acetate and chloroacetate esterase activities was modified by extending the range of ph of the incubation mixture and the duration of staining and was applied to cat, dog, goat, guinea pig, hamster, human, pig, rabbit, rat, and sheep leukocytes. the results for both enzymes showed (1) incub ...197825603
activity of gamma-glutamyl transferase of sheep cerebral cortex with respect to amino acids and glutathione.gamma-glutamyl transferase fron sheep brain cortex capillaries was studied from the point of view of transport of aminoacids across blood brain barrier. excess substrate inhibition was competitive and observed both with donor (glutathione) and various acceptors (methionine, alanine, tryptophan) but not with arginine. excess glutathione inhibition of transfer reaction is concomitant with an increase of total reaction (transfer + hydrolysis + autotranspeptidation). with regard to aminoacids, the g ...197825678
24-hour rhythms in uterine and umbilical blood flows of conscious pregnant sheep.the possibility that 24-hour rhythms exist in uterine blood flow (utbf) and umbilical blood (umbf) was investigated in 5 days postoperative chronically instrumented near-term pregnant sheep acclimated to a controlled environment. utbf, umbf and pressure measurements were made at 15-min intervals over 24 h beginning at 0800 h. each data series was examined for the presence of significant rhythms of a 24-hour period using a method of fourier analysis. utbf 24-hour rhythms were found in all ewes; u ...197725831
evidence for two types of non-specific suppressor cells activated by the graft-versus-host reaction in vitro experiments were carried out to investigate the immunosuppressive efect of different populations of spleen cells obtained from animal experiencing a graft-versus-host reaction (gvhr). to induce the gvhr, parental lymphoid cells were injected into adult f1 hybrid mice. gvhr-activated spleen cells (gvh-sc) taken at different times post-gvhr induction were separated into adherent and non-adherent fractions and treated with anti-theta serum plus complement. the different types of gvh-sc wer ...197826111
deacylation of acetyl-coenzyme a and acetylcarnitine by liver preparations.the breakdown of acetylcarnitine catalysed by extracts of rat and sheep liver was completely abolished by sephadex g-25 gel filtration, whereas the hydrolysis of acetyl-coa was unaffected. acetyl-coa and coa acted catalytically in restoring the ability of sephadex-treated extracts to break down acetylcarnitine, which was therefore not due to an acetylcarnitine hydrolase but to the sequential action of carnitine acetyltransferase and acetyl-coa hydrolase. some 75% of the acetyl-coa hydrolase acti ...197826333
lipoxygenation activity of purified prostaglandin-forming cyclooxygenase.purified cyclooxygenase, a single enzyme which catalyzes the formation of endoperoxide from arachidonic acid (20:4) in a bis(dioxygenase) reaction, is capable of oxygenating eicosadienoic acid (20:2) at c-11 in a single dioxygenase reaction. the partial oxygenation of 20:2 resembles the formation of prostaglandin from 20:4, with both oxygenation reactions exhibiting similar ph optima, substrate km values, and cofactor effects including a need for peroxide and an absolute requirement for heme. in ...197826389
gentamicin-blood agar for isolation of streptococcus pneumoniae from respiratory secretions.previous studies have suggested that the yield of streptococcus pneumoniae from respiratory secretions can be increased by using a 5% sheep blood agar plate supplemented with 5 microgram of gentamicin (gba) per ml. we report our experience with 245 lower respiratory specimens in which this method was compared with 5% sheep blood agar (sba) alone. of 35 specimens with growth of s. pneumoniae on either plate, 21 were detected exclusively on sba, whereas only 3 were detected on gba alone (p less th ...197826693
resistance to haemonchus contortus in sheep given repeated daily doses of 10 000 infective larvae. 197826700
gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in sheep serum: normal values and an evaluation of its potential for detecting liver involvement in experimental lupinosis.a brief survey of the literature on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-gt) activity is included in this study. the levels of activity in the serum of normal merino sheep (13,6-32,4 mi.u/ml) were ascertained as a preliminary to following the activity through the entire course of experimentally induced ovine lupinosis, a hepatotoxicosis caused by phomopsis leptostromiformis (kühn) bubák. the response of the serum level of gamma-gt activity to the course of the disease was compared with that of g ...197726901
the metabolic profile of adult fasciola hepatica obtained from rafoxanide-treated sheep.sheep infected with adult fasciola hepatica were drenched with rafoxanide. at 4, 8, 16 and 24 h after drenching the sheep were killed and the flukes removed, washed and rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen. the content of key metabolites in the fermentation pathway were determined and compared with those in control f. hepatica, whose hosts were not treated with rafoxanide. rafoxanide decreased glycogen, malate, nadh and atp levels. the level of other metabolites in the pathway increased for the fir ...197826902
oxygen transport in chicken embryos under hypothermal exposure.fertile hens' eggs incubated for 16 days at 38 degrees c were abruptly exposed to a temperature of 30 degrees c for 2 h and then determinations of blood gas parameters and the o2 dissociation curve were performed. in addition, o2 uptake was measured. under hypothermal exposure the o2 dissociation curve showed a marked leftward shift in accordance with the increase in ph. the o2 saturation in arterialized blood of the allantoic vein reached almost 100%, and the blood s(o2) of the allantoic artery ...197826946
study of hemosensitization characteristics for the purpose of standardizing erythrocyte flagellin diagnostica.the work is devoted to the study of conditions required for the purpose of creation of standard and the most active preparations of erythrocytic h-diagnostic agents. the dependence of binding of the h-antigen by erythrocytes on the ph and the ionic power of the medium was investigated. it was demonstrated that in the process of erythrocyte sensitization with flagellin of great importance were electrostatic, hydrogen, and hydrophobic powers.197827048
measurement of cerebral blood flow in the fetal lamb with a note on the flow-distribution.the cerebral blood flow was measured in the acutely exteriorized fetal lamb by 133xenon washout and microsphere distribution techniques. the measurements were performed at different blood gas levels. regional cerebral blood flow was calculated from the microsphere distribution for five different parts of the brain. this gave estimates for blood flow in both the grey and white matter of the hemispheres, which were in close agreement with the cerebral blood flow estimated by the 133xe washout tech ...197827060
placental transfer of lidocaine: effects of fetal investigate whether fetal acidosis increases the placental transfer of lidocaine, resulting in higher fetal blood levels of the drug, lidocaine was infused intravenously into ten pregnant ewes to maintain plasma levels of 2-4 microgram/ml. after maternal-fetal equilibrium was reached, the fetus was made acidotic by infusing lactic acid intravenously. fetal blood ph decreased from 7.35 to 7.10. with fetal acidemia, fetal blood lidocaine levels increased significantly from 1.60 +/- 0.11 microgr ...197827131
deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest: effect on cerebrospinal fluid electrolytes in newborn lambs. 197827332
red cell oxygen affinity in fetal sheep: role of 2,3-dpg and adult hemoglobin.studies were carried out during fetal life in sheep to determine the relationship of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (dpg), the intracellular red cell and extracellular ph, and the switchover to adult hemoglobin synthesis in regulating the position of the fetal red cell oxygen-affinity curve in utero. adult hemoglobin first appeared near 120 days of gestation. the mean oxygen tension at which hemoglobin is half saturated (p50) prior to 120 days of gestation remained constant at 13.9 +/- 0.3 (sd) torr and ...197827486
serum gamma-glutamyltransferase as a measure of sporidesmin-induced liver damage in sheep. 197827740
intracellular the quantification of buffering the distinct roles of bicarbonate and of other buffers must be taken into account. the determination of the total non-bicarbonate buffer value, betaa, in intact tissues is complicated by active ph regulation and by heterogeneity of cytoplasm with respect to betaa, while heterogeneity with respect to ph in vivo could cause errors in estimates made with homogenates. available estimates of betaa are discussed, as are the individual contributions of proteins, dipep ...197827854
renal response of fetal lamb to complete occlusion of umbilical cord.the renal response of the fetal lamb to repeated complete occlusion of the umbilical cord was studied in nine chronically instrumented animals. five episodes of occlusion of the umbilical cord, each lasting for two minutes, produced a twofold rise in fetal urine osmolality and sodium, chloride, and potassium concentrations. output of urine and glomerular filtration rate remained essentially unchanged while free water clearance decreased from a control of +0.10 to -0.02 ml. per kilogram per minut ...197827986
beta blocking agents during pregnancy. 197828101
sympathetic and parasympathetic control of heart rate in unanaesthetized fetal and newborn lambs.development of autonomic nervous control of basal heart rate was studied in unanesthetized fetal lambs (93 days to term) and newborn lambs (2--29 days), using atropine and/or propranolol blockade. fetal lambs showed a progressive increase in parasympathetic restraint of heart rate; vagal influence in the newborn lamb was similar to the term fetus. sympathetic stimulation of fetal heart rate declined toward term, possibly due to the strongly increasing parasympathetic influence. sympathetic influ ...197828158
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