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subunit structure and isozymic forms of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase is associated with the membranes of a number of epithelial and lymphoid cells. when the enzyme is isolated from rat kidney by a method involving detergent extraction and affinity chromatography, an aggregate of molecular weight greater than 200,000 (heavy form) is obtained. treatment of the heavy form with bromelain yields a light form of the enzyme (molecular weight of approximately 68,000), which is separable by isoelectric focusing into 12 enzymatically active is ...19768776
food protein sources.work on food, planned by the u.m. (use and management) section of the u.k. committe, was limited to sources of protein because we agreed that more problems calling for research were likely to arise in getting adequate supplies of protein than of other types of food. deer meat can be produced on land too rough and exposed for sheep; parts of the work on their metabolism and food requirements necessitated building a mobile laboratory. the manner in which the nutritive value of maize is affected by ...19768803
general survey of the present distribution of helminths in iran and comparison with those of past years.in this paper the literature on helminthiasis in iran is reviewed and the distribution, prevalence and intensity of infections caused by helminths are discussed. a comparison of prevalence and intensity of infections was accomplished in the recent 10 years by the author. hookworm infections are found mostly in the north along the caspian sea, but its prevalence is declining. trichostrongylus are found in iran with a high prevalence in central country. schistosoma haematobium is found in one prov ...19768977
circulatory response to atropine in sheep fetus.atropine was given to the semichronic sheep fetus intravenously. fetal heart rate, fetal perfusion pressure, and carotid blood flow increased. cerebral blood flow was measured with the radioactive microsphere technique. atropine was capable of increasing the cerebral blood flow. elevation of carbon dioxide also caused an increase in cerebral blood flow, adding to the effect of atropine.19768987
comparative rheology of cornea. 19769252
rapid transfer of oxygens from inorganic phosphate to glutamine catalyzed by escherichia coli glutamine synthetase.measurements are reported on certain isotopic fluxes during the net conversion of glutamine, adp and pi to glutamate, nh3, and atp by escherichia coli glutamine synthetase (adenylylated form, mn2+ activated) in presence of a hexokinase/glucose trap to remove the atp formed during the reaction. the results show that the transfer of oxygens from pi to glutamine is the most rapid of the measured isotopic interchanges, over five oxygens from pi being transferred to glutamine for each glutamate forme ...19769391
a stereochemical method for detection of atp terminal phosphate transfer in enzymatic reactions. glutamine synthetase.an isotope scrambling method is described for the detection of transient enz:adp:p-x formation from 18oatp in atp-coupled enzyme reactions. the method makes use of torsional symmetry of the newly formed (see article) group in adp. 18 oatp labeled in the betagama bridge oxygen was incubated with enzyme and reversible cleavage of the pbetao -- pgamma bond was detected by the appearance of 18o in the beta nonbridge oxygens of the atp pool. experiments with sheep brain and escherichia coli glutamine ...19769406
fetal blood sampling and gas exchange. 19769427
electrical stimulation of rabbit and lamb carcasses. 19769718
a stable antibody-sensitized erythrocyte diagnostic preparation for detection of rhinovirus type 17 and its antibody.a diagnostic preparation was obtained by sensitization of formalinized sheep erythrocytes with antibody to rhinovirus type 17. this preparation was agglutinated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of type 17 but not other types of rhinovirus. it could also be used for detection of antibody to rhinovirus type 17 in the antigen neutralization test, the antibody levels determined in this way being similar to those found by conventional virus neutralization tests in cell cultures.19769804
ruminal histamine, lactate and animal performance. 197610270
factors affecting the uptake and metabolism of soluble carbohydrates by the rumen ciliate dasytricha ruminantium isolated from ovine rumen contents by filtration.a filtration technique is described whereby metabolically-active suspensions of dasytricha ruminantium can be isolated from rumen contents with negligible contamination by bacteria or other protozoa. the effects of environmental factors and of the diurnal cycle of the rumen on the uptake and metabolism of soluble carbohydrates by these isolated cells were examined. the principal contribution of the protozoan metabolic end-products to the host ruminant is the supply of lactic, acetic and butyric ...197610343
some aspects of foetal and uteroplacental metabolism in cows with indwelling umbilical and uterine vascular catheters.1. the experiments were carried out on conscious pregnant jersey cows with intravascular catheters implanted during late gestation in umbilical and uterine vessels. all but three of fifteen animals delivered live healthy calves. 2. rountine daily analyses were made of blood gas tensions, ph and packed cell volume in foetal and maternal blood; plasma concentrations of glucose, fructose, lactate and urea were also determined. measurements of plasma free fatty acids and blood acetate concentrations ...197610434
rumen function in red deer, hill sheep and reindeer in the scottish highlands.red deer, sheep and reindeer grazing on their normal hill ranges were examined at intervals over a period of four years. samples from the digestive tract were taken at different seasons and processed in the field. the red deer and reindeer were killed before samples were taken; rumen samples from the sheep were taken by stomach tube, but a number of animals were also killed at different seasons to correlate stomach tube and whole rumen samples. the animals sampled were representative of the gene ...197610575
motility of the ruminoreticulum. v. motor activity of the ruminoreticulum, eructation, rumination and hydrogen-ion concentration in the ruminoreticulum in sheep in the course of 24 hours after eating a defined ration. 197610704
on the behaviour of murine lymphocytes after in vitro treatment with acid mucoproteins from human serum.seromucoproteins from human serum were isolated by perchloric acid extraction followed by deae-sephadex a-50 ion exchange chromatography. the in vitro pretreatment of spleen leukocytes with this fraction caused a dose-dependent inhibition of graft-versus-host reaction as well as an increase of their electrophoretic mobility, the viability being maintained. on contrary, the pretreatment of mice (prospective spleen cell donors of recipients of sheep red blood cells) with human seromucoproteins had ...197610709
glutamine synthetase and glutamyltransferase in the kidney of man, dog, and rat.glutamine synthetase (gs) is known to exist in the kidney of the rat, guinea pig, rabbit, and sheep but not in that of the dog, pig, cat, or pigeon. no data is available in man. assay of histologically normal renal tissue obtained in human subjects during surgery for abdominal vascular disease failed to demonstrate significant gs activity. in addition, l-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase (gt) activity was also very low. the same results were observed in the dog, in which both gs and gt activit ...197610736
alkalin titrations of human somatotropin, human choriomammotropin and ovine prolactin by circular dichroism and fluorescence.structural transitions occurring during the alkalin titration of human somatotropin, human choriomammotropin, and ovine prolactin have been investigated by means of circular dichroism and fluorescence emission spectra. human somatotropin exhibited an isodichroic point at 287 nm, with all spectral changes being reversed upon back titration from ph 12.50 to ph 8.0. fluorescence quenching as a function of ph produced a simple sigmoidal curve. human choriomammotropin exhibited an isodichroic point a ...197610979
analysis of immunosuppression generated by the graft-versus-host reaction. ii. characterization of the suppression cell and its mechanism of action.spleen cells from (cba x c57/bl) f1 mice undergoing graft-versus-host (gvh) reaction induced by injection of parental cells 7-14 days previously are capable of suppressing an immune response by normal or primed f1 spleen cells to chicken erythrocytes and levan in vivo and sheep erythrocytes in vitro. the cells in these gvh spleens which were responsible for the suppression were sensitive to treatment with anti-0 serum, resistant to 900 rad irradiation in vivo and not retained by anti-immunoglobu ...197611181
ph-dependent binding of immunoglobulins to intestinal cells of the neonatal rat.rat and rabbit igg immunoglobulins conjugated to horseradiah peroxidase as a histochemical marker bind at 0 degrees c to the luminal surface of absorptive cells in isolated segments of jejunum from 10-12-day old rats. binding is observed at ph 6.0, near the normal luminal ph of the duodenum and jejunum at this age, but not at ph 7.4. furthermore, no binding occurs when cells are exposed at ph 6.0 to either free peroxidase or peroxidase conjugated to chicken or sheep igg immunoglobulins or bovine ...197611223
effect of dietary fats on ovine adipose tissue metabolism.the effects of different dietary fats on ovine adipose tissue metabolism have been investigated. six-month old sheep were fed for 6 weeks a control diet or diets supplemented with either tallow or a mixture of sunflower seed oil and soybean oil, treated to protect the fats from hydrolysis and hydrogenation in the rumen, or with maize oil. the rates of fatty acid, glyceride glycerol, and co2 formation were measured in perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissue slices by following the incorporation ...197611390
developmental changes of sugar transport in the ovine small intestine.intestinal monosaccharide transport was studied in young lambs (age: up to 1 week) and in older lambs (age: 2.5-4 months) with well developed forestomach system employing everted sacs of small intestine. both glucose and galactose were transported against a high concentration gradient from the mucosal to the serosal side of the intestinal wall in young lambs. in the older lambs glucose was transported only against a small concentration gradient, when intestinal glucose metabolism was diminished ...197611443
effect of oxygen saturation on h+ and cl- distribution across the red cell membrane in human and ruminant blood.alterations of red cell ph (phc) and distribution ratios of h+ (gammah+) and cl (gammacl-) between plasma and red blood cells with oxygenation of blood were studied in human blood (audult and fetal) and ruminant blood (bovine, goat and sheep). the experiments were carried out at a plasma ph of 7.0 to 7.7 and at 37 degrees c. in human blood phc of fully oxygenated blood was 0.035 ph lower than that of fully deoxygenated blood in all ranges of plasma ph studied. in ruminant blood, however, the dif ...197611446
lipid peroxides in spermatozoa; formation, rôle of plasmalogen, and physiological significance. 197611467
the evolution of plants and animals under domestication: the contribution of studies at the molecular level.protein molecules are essential catalysts in life processes and also form much of the substance of living material. their three dimensional structures determine their biological function. their biosynthesis is primarily determined by arrays of nucleic acid macromolecules (dna and rna), and the amino acid sequences that constitute their long spatially organized peptide-chain molecules reflect at one remove this dna coding system, and thus record a step-by-step history of some of the viable geneti ...197611513
azo- and nitro-reductases of the cestode moniezia expansa. substrate specificity, reaction products and the effects of flavins and other compounds.1. the effects of various inhibitors and activators on the azo- and nitro-reductases of moniezia expansa have been studied. both reductions were partially inhibited by fad, fmn, riboflavin, allopurinol, dicoumarol, 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde, azide and cyanide at 1 mm. both reactions were stimulated by hypoxanthine. menadione, nitrofurantoin, skf 525-a (2-diethylaminoethyl 2,2-diphenylvalerate) and fluoride were without effect. 2. xanthine- and aldehyde-oxidase activities were not detected in the enz ...197611614
a study of the relationship between the electrocardiogram and hemodynamics in the fetal lamb during asphyxia.progressive changes in the s-t interval of the fetal ecg were studied in 22 lamb fetuses, acutely exteriorized and submitted to graded hypoxia. the ecg changes were studied in order to correlate them with cardiovascular function, as measured by heart rate, mean arterial pressure, end diastolic pressure and combined cardiac output, estimated by the thermodilution method, as well as with blood gases and acid-base status. close correlations were obtained between pao2, ph and base deficit and the se ...197611642
stable erythrocyte diagnostic preparation for passive haemagglutination test with herpes simplex virus antigen.a method for the preparation of stable suspensions of erythrocytes sensitized with herpes simplex virus (hsv) antigen and for their use in the passive haemagglutination test (phat) was developed. formolized sheep erythrocytes were treated with tannin and sensitized with hsv antigen prepared from infected chick embryo cell culture by ultrasonication and virus extraction with alkaline glycine buffer. antibody titres determined in the phat were higher than titres of neutralizing antibody. the speci ...197611670
effect of ritodrine on uterine activity, heart rate, and blood pressure in the pregnant sheep: combined use of alpha or beta blockade.ritodrine hydrochloride was administered parenterally to pregnant ewes during spontaneous or oxytocin-induced uterine activity. the effects of ritodrine on the uterus and cardiovasculature were assessed both with and without simultaneous administration of either alpha or beta blockade. ritodrine was found to be an effective inhibitor of both spontaneous and induced uterine activity. ritodrine did cause maternal tachycardia but no significant hypotension. alpha-adrenergic blockade did not influen ...197611690
effect of propranolol infusion on the umbilical and uterine circulations of pregnant sheep.propranolol was infused intravenously for 60 minutes to five ewes (4 mug per kilogram per minute) or five fetal sheep (10 mug per kilogram per minute). the umbilical blood flow was significantly decreased by 18 per cent from control at 60 minutes with either maternal or fetal propranolol infusion. uterine blood flow and maternal and fetal mean arterial pressure did not significantly change. maternal and fetal heart rates decreased 18 and 9 per cent from control, respectively, during maternal pro ...197611691
glucose and insulin responses in sheep subjected to a second episode of hemorrhagic shock.these studies indicated that the responses of the sheep beta cell parallel mnay of those seen in man. regulation by ph, potassium, and epinephrine and suggested, as is the existence of a two-pool system for insulin synthesis and release which is responsive to glucose. differences in glucose and insulin responses following a second episode of shock are noted. it is shown that the addition of hypertonic glucose to a resuscitation regimen is associated with a response to a second episode of shock t ...197611730
cardiac function and metabolism following hemorrhage in the newborn lamb.cardiac performance was assessed in 33 lambs less than 1 to 5 days of age by means of left ventricular function curves. performance was quantified by determining stroke volume ejected at end diastolic pressure 10 cm h2o (sv10) with constant afterload. coronary flow, myocardial o2 consumption (mvo2), blood gas tensions and ph were determined. measurements were obtained before and at 30 min intervals following hemorrhage to 30 mm hg arterial pressure, and in controls (arterial pressure 75 mm hg). ...197611755
competitive binding of iron by transferrins from different vertebrates.1. a competitive dialysis technique has been used to study the relative affinities of the two iron-binding sites on transferrin molecules and the relative binding strengths of transferrins isolated from plasma of different species. 2. the comparisons were extended to include desialylated human transferrin, ovotransferrin, and a cyanogen bromide fragment of the latter. 3. although the results of bilateral experiments could generally be accounted for in terms of the theory of independent sites, th ...197611826
the effect of trichinella spiralis on graft-versus-host reaction, transplantation immunity and antibody formation.the effect of trichinella spiralis in different phases of infection on transplantation immunity, the ability of lymphocytes to induce graft-versus-host reaction, on antibody and plaque-forming cell production was studied. in certain phases of trichinella spiralis beginhing from the first days of infection and during 40 days significant suppression of transplantation immunity was observed. thus, on the 24th day of infection skin allograft necrosis occurred much later (26.2 days) as compared with ...197611851
circular dichroism studies of sheep beta-lipotropic hormone.the far ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra of sheep beta-lipotropic hormone (beta-lph) were recorded under different conditions of ph, temperature, salt concentration, and solvent composition. results confirm the stability of the hormone in strong basic or acidic solutions; moreover, temperatures up to 50 degrees c do not seem to affect noticeably the conformation of beta-lph. however, increasing the nac1 concentration or addition of dioxane in the solution brings about a conformational tran ...197611882
further evidence implicating e-type prostaglandins in the patency of the lamb ductus arteriosus.a blocker of prostaglandin (pg) snythesis, indomethacin, given to pregnant ewes near term produces constriction of the lamb ductus arteriosus in utero. the result supports the hypothesis formulated previously that e-type prostaglandins, which are potent relaxant on the ductus, are responsible for maintaining the patency of the vessel during foetal life.197511997
measurements of arteriovenous differences in the study of substrate supply to the brain. 197612034
completed pregnancy following vascularized heterotopic autotransplantation of the fallopian tube in the ewe.transplantation of the fallopian tube is a technically feasible operation. previous authors have reported pregnancies following turbo-ovarian transplants, but there appears to be no record of gestation following transplantation of the isolated oviduct. this communication illustrates the method that we have used to perform fallopian tube transplants in the ewe and documents our first full-term pregnancy following this operation. it provides further evidence of the technical feasibility of fallopi ...197612117
post-proline cleaving enzyme. purification of this endopeptidase by affinity chromatography.the endopeptidase, post-proline cleaving enzyme, has been purified 10,500-fold in an overall yield of 18% from lamb kidney. the enzyme possesses a specific activity of 45 mumol/mg/min as tested with the substrate z-gly-pro-leu-gly (km = 6.0 x 10(-5)), has a molecular weight of 115,000, is comprised of two subunits with a molecular weight of 57,000, and exhibits maximal activity at ph 7.5 to 8.0. with the exception of the -pro-pro linkage, the -pro-x-peptide bond (x equals l- and d-amino acid res ...197612173
physicochemical characteristics of the tracheobronchial mucous secretion of lambs. modification by a new mucolytic agent (brovanexine ur-389). 197612589
insoluble human plasma protein immunoadsorbents. large-scale production and storage.methods for producing and preserving large volumes of insoluble immunoadsorbents (for removing unwated antibodies to serum proteins) from surplus blood bank plasma by glutaraldehyde were evaluated by quantitative and qualitative means using radioactive 125i and immunoelectrophoresis, respectively. some of the factors affecting the desired physical characteristics and antibody-absorbing properties of the imjunoadsorbent studied were: plasma acidification, varying concentrations of glutaraldehyde, ...197712895
gonadotropin secretion in cryptorchid and castrate rams and the acute effects of exogenous steroid treatment.gonadotropin secretion in cryptorchid and castrate rams and the acutve been determined. rams made cryptorchid at 6 weeks of age had increased serum levels of luteinizing hormone (lh) and follicle stimulating hormone (fsh) when determined at 9 months of age. these levels approached those of the castrate animal; and yet serum levels of testosterone (t) were unchanged. even though mean serum lh concentrations were elevated sixfold to eightfold over those of intact ram levels, a temporal relationshi ...197712931
on the optical activity of ionized tyrosyl residues in ovine lutropin.the effect of alkali on the circular dichroic (cd) spectra of ovine lutropin and its subunits has been studied. mild alkaline ph induces the appearance of a new optically active band in the 250-nm region of the spectra of lutropin without any detectable alteration in the secondary structure of the protein. this change is reversible and can be correlated with ionization of 2--3 exposed tyrosyl residues in the intact hormone. in a previous report from this laboratory it was concluded that the thre ...197712975
smallpox vaccine, then and now. from the "cow lymphe" to the cell-culture vaccine.there have been few changes in the preparation of smallpox vaccine since eduard jenner described his method of preventive inoculation in 1798. jenner's vaccine, "the matter", was maintained in man by arm to arm passage. the only major achievement in production methods was the introduction of an animal host for virus propagation. the skin of living calves or sheep was inoculated with seed virus and the "pulp" harvested three to four days later. the disadvantages of this procedure are evident: mas ...197713033
gastrointestinal tract ph and starch in feces of ruminants. 197713057
interaction of erythrocytes with human serum proteins. i. analysis of the effect of ph and ionic strength of the medium.the effect of ionic parameters of the medium (ph and ionic strength) on the processes of interaction of tannin-treated erythrocytes and the protein fractions of human serum (macroglobulins, microglobulins and albumin) was studied in factorial experiments. complex effect of these parametres on the processes under investigation and optimum conditions of erythrocyte sensitization were established. subsequent fixation of antibodies by the erythrocyte diagnostic and their agglutinating activity are m ...197613124
direct measurement of the intracellular ph of mammalian cardiac muscle.1. the intracellular ph (phi) of sheep heart purkinje fibres and rat, ferret and guinea-pig ventricle has been measured using recessed-tip ph-sensitive micro-electrodes. 2. in the absence of co2 the phi was approximately 7-2 in all the preparations used. in 5% co2 the mean phi was 7-14 in rat and ferret ventricle and 7-02 in sheep purkinje fibres. 3. the phi response to an increase or a decrease in the co2 level (at constant external ph) was biphasic with a large transient change followed by a p ...197613205
anaesthesia for caesarean section in the ewe: a comparison of local and general anaesthesia and the relationship between maternal and foetal values. 197613332
towards a pill for men. 197613377
pulmonary function in premature lambs during the first few hours of life.this study establishes the mean values, variations, and trend of pulmonary function during the first few hours of life in premature lambs. measurements of intraesophaheal and tracheal pressure, air flow, tidal volume, and functional residual capacity enabled calculations of lung compliance, specific lung compliance, and inspiratory and expiratory resistance of the lungs. arterial carbon dioxide tension and ph were maintained within a physiologic range. mean arterial oxygen tension (po2) at eleva ...197613470
phenothiazine-induced alterations of immune response in experimental tick-borne encephalitis: morphological model analysis of events.the depressive effect of trifluoperazine (tfp), a phenothiazine derivative, on the morphology of the development of immune response (ir) (humoral and cell-mediated component) was studied in mice given tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus, sheep red blood cells (srbc) or the bcg vaccine. this effect was manifested by a decrease in the mitotic activity of lymphocytes and in the number of blastic transformations after antigenic stimulation. in virus-infected and tfp-given mice, lowered levels of spe ...197613643
fetal breathing and adaptation to maternal hemorrhage in the sheep.the effect of maternal hemorrhage in chronic preparations was studied on fetal lambs in the last month of gestation. fourteen to 20 per cent of maternal blood was estimated to have been removed within 30 minutes, which resulted in a drop of 30 per cent of mean maternal arterial pressure. a fetal bradycardia started 28 +/- 13 minutes after the beginning of maternal hemorrhage. it lasted 30 +/- 15 minutes and was concomitant with a rise in fetal arterial pressure. it was followed by a long-lasting ...197713657
action of histamine and h1 and h2 blockers on the cardiopulmonary circulation.systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic responses to histamine were investigated inchronically instrumented unanesthetized nonpregnant ewes. histamine was administered intravenously and into the pulmonary artery. the effects of the same doses of histamine were assessed following h1 and h2 receptor blockade. the effects ocular changes were also monitored. results indicate that intravenous histamine produces tachycardia, systemic hypotension, pulmonary hypertension, and reduced cardiac output. the pulm ...197713663
control of breathing using an extracorporeal membrane lung.various amounts of carbon dioxide were removed through an extracorporeal membrane lung in spontaneously breathing lambs. the decrease in alveolar ventilation was proportional to the fraction of total carbon dioxide removed by the membrane lung. when extracorporeal co2 removal approximated co2 production (vco2), alveolar ventilation almost ceased. pulmonary ventilation can be controlled by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal.197713683
effect of sera from immunologically altered mice on phytohemagglutinin-induced mouse lymphocyte transformation.the dna-synthetic response of mouse spleen cells to phytohemagglutinin in vitro is depressed by the addition of normal mouse serum. the effects of sera from mice that had been modified immunologically were examined. increased depressive activity was found in sera from nude mice and from mice recently treated with anti-thymocyte globulin, but no change was found in sera from thymectomized, irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted mice, nor from lethally or sublethally irradiated or cyclophosphamide- ...197613697
glutathione peroxidase: inhibition by cyanide and release of selenium. 197713794
elevated erythrocyte glutathione associated with elevated substrate in high- and low-glutathione sheep.erythrocyte glutathione concentration increases dramatically in sheep when they become anemic. to determine the mechanism of this change in glutathione control, we measured the enzymes and substrates necessary for glutathione control, we measured the enzymes and substrates necessary for glutathione synthesis after acute blood loss in both low- (gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase deficient) and high-glutathione sheep. erythrocyte glutamate, atp, and glycine increased dramatically in all sheep. ery ...197713866
amino acid composition of casein isolated from the milks of different species. 197713923
effects of alveolar hypoxia on lung fluid and protein transport in unanesthetized sheep.to determine whether hypoxia directly affects pulmonary microvascular filtration of fluid or permeability to plasma proteins, we measured steady state lung lymph flow and protein transport in eight unanesthetized sheep breathing 10% o2 in n2 for 4 hours. we also studied three sheep breathing the same gas mixture for 48 hours. we surgically prepared the sheep to isolate and collect lung lymph and to measure average pulmonary arterial (ppa) and left atrial (pla) pressures. we placed a balloon cath ...197713942
immune competence of splenic lymphocytes following graft-vs-host disease in mouse allogeneic radiation chimeras.the abnormal immune response of long-term mouse allogeneic chimeras is reflected by qualitative deficiencies in either t or b lymphocytes. the present study was undertaken to determine if a relationship existed between the severity of graft-vs-host disease (gvhd) that these animals had experienced and a functional defect in either the t or b cell population. the in vitro pfc response of chimera spleen cells to sheep red blood cells (srbc) was evaluated in the presence of normal t or b lymphocyte ...197714214
the effect of vasopressin on renal calcium excretion in sheep: a possible explanation proceedings. 197614252
pharmacological and biochemical properties of a toxin containing material from the jellyfish, cyanea capillata. 197714424
food digestibility and n-metabolism in sheep fed concentrated feed at varying frequencies. 197614457
salicylate pulmonary edema: the mechanism in sheep and review of the clinical literature.several clinical reports of salicylate-induced pulmonary edema led us to investigate the mechanism in a chronic unanesthetized sheep preparation. we infused an aspirin-buffer solution intravenously at rates up to 1,200 mg of aspirin per hour and compared effects on lung lymph flow and lymph protein concentration to those seen after mechanical elevation of pulmonary vascular pressures. aspirin had little effect on lung vascular pressures but caused lung lymph flow to increase an average of greate ...197714576
erythrocyte gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. 197714752
suppression of antibody-mediated and cell-mediated murine immunity by the carcinogen n-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolylacetamide.n-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolylacetamide (nfta) administered at 1000 ppm in diet to mice for 12 weeks induced a high incidence of lymphocytic leukemia. effects of nfta on antibody-mediated immunity and cell-mediated immunity of balb/c mice were studied using the spleen plaque assay for detection of immunoglobulin m-producing cells and the graft-versus-host (gvh) reaction, respectively. nfta suppressed both responses. with the spleen plaque assay, the number of antibody-forming cells (afc) to s ...197714783
autonomic control of cardiovascular functions during neonatal development and in adult sheep.we studied the autonomic control of resting heart rate of systemic and pulmonary vascular blood pressures (bp) in chronically instrumented neonatal lambs 1-8 weeks of age. the maximum response to ganglionic blockade and sympathetic and parasympathetic antagonists was taken as an index of the magnitude of the total neural, adrenergic, and cholinergic tones. the reactivity of the circulatory parameters to adrenergic and cholinergic agonists also was investigated. all findings were compared with th ...197714791
basal and stimulated serum growth hormone concentrations in inflammatory bowel disease.patients with inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) manifest growth failure which may antecede abdominal symptoms by some years. eight of ten children with documented ibd had records of decreasing growth velocities. investigation of growth hormone reserves showed excessive rather than impaired responses. mean basal gh level was 6.2 +/- 0.75 (sem) ng/ml. during sleep, the mean gh level rose to 26.0 +/- 4.7 ng/ml and following propranolol-glucagon stimulation, to 46.0 +/- 4.5 ng/ml. all values were sig ...197714969
lipopolysaccharide-induced suppression of the primary immune response to a thymus-dependent antigen.the immune response to a thymus-dependent antigen was depressed in vivo and in vitro in spleen cells from mice injected with lps i.p. a few days before challenge with the antigen. spleen cells from lps-injected mice could, however, respond with increase dna synthesis after activation with polyclonal b and t cell activators in vitro. the lps-activated spleen cells could actively suppress normal cells in their response to the antigen sheep red blood cells. the suppressor cells contained in the lps ...197715030
heterologous antigenic stimulation in induction of delayed hypersensitivity.an influence of a delayed hypersensitive reaction to a primary antigen on the induction of delayed hypersensitivity to a second unrelated antigen was observed in guinea pigs immunized with azobenzenearsonate-n-acetyl-l-tyrosine (abat), and injected intradermally 3 weeks later with a mixture of abat and secondary antigen. animals so treated developed delayed hypersensitivity to sheep red blood cells (srbc) or type ii pneumococcal polysaccharide as secondary antigens, as measured by skin test reac ...197715031
cell lines from old immunodeficient donors give normal responses in young recipients.two different immune responses were compared in spleen cells obtained from old and young cba/ht6j mice. spleen cells from old mice (23 to 33 months) responded about half as well as did spleen cells from young mice (4 to 10 months) in the adoptive transfer anti-sheep red blood cell (srbc) plague-forming assay, and caused slightly less than half the uptake of tritiated thymidine in response to phytohemagglutinin (pha) in vitro. marrow stem cell from some of the old and young mice whose splenic imm ...197715033
acth, alpha-msh and beta-lph: pituitary hormones with similar activity in an amnesia test in rats. 197715055
complement-independent nephrotoxic nephritis in the guinea pig.immunologic mechanisms of proteinuria were investigated in guinea pigs (gp) injected with sheep antiserum (nts) to gp glomerular basement membrane (gbm). linear deposition of sheep gamma 1 and gamma 2 igg led to a prompt but transient (36 hr) increase in albumin excretion from control values of 0.026 +/- 0.013 mg/hr to maximal values of 26+/-12.1 mg/rh at six hours without detectable histologic or electron microscopic changes except for decreased staining for glomerular polyanion and epithelial ...197715157
pathogenic factors in viral diseases of the central nervous system.the possible immunological significance of the different kinds of cells participating in the inflammatory reaction in cerebrospinal infections is to be considered. presence of plasma cells and occasional perivenous microglial seams in early stages of the neurotropic virus diseases must be regarded as immunological manifestations. the brainstem nuclei are sites of predilection both in entero- and in arbovirus diseases. the aetiologically different neurotropic virus diseases obtain their individua ...197515392
vaccination of naturally infected ewes against q-fever. 197715446
effects of electroanesthesia and a phenothiazine tranquilizer on thermoregulation in the sheep.the effects of giving propiopromazine alone and of electroanesthesia-propiopromazine treatment on thermoregulation (body temperature regulation) were studied in 3 sheep at ambient temperatures of 5, 25, and 35 c. measures of thermoregulation during a 120-minute treatment and 120-treatment recovery period included rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, respiratory evaporative heat loss, metabolic heat production, multiple skin temperatures, and shivering. during cold exposure (5 c), both the ...197715489
gastrointestinal motility in the ruminant: influence of the nature of feed. 197615493
isolation and characterization of sheep pepsin.sheep pepsin was isolated (approx. 120-fold purification) from aqueous abomasal homogenates by (1) ph fractionation, (2) chromatography on sepharose 4b-poly-l-lysine columns and (3) gel filtration on sephadex g-100. the enzyme had mol.wt. approx. 34000, n-terminal valine and c-terminal alanine. the amino acid composition of sheep pepsin was generally similar to that of pig and ox pepsins, with a very low content of basic residues and a high content of acidic and hydroxy-amino acids. the ph optim ...197715546
an examination of potential matrices for the affinity chromatography of nadp+-linked dehydrogenases with special reference to 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase.1. 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from sheep liver has been purified 350-fold by affinity chromatography with a final specific activity of 18 micronmol of nadp+/reduced min per mg of protein and an overall yield of greater than 40%. 2. a systematic investigation of potential ligands has been carried out: these included 6-phosphogluconate and nadp+, pyridoxal phosphate and several immobilized nucleotides. the results indicate that nadp+ is the most suitable ligand for the purification of 6-phos ...197715550
effect of fat supplementation on voluntary food intake and rumen metabolism in sheep.1. in an experiment in which a high-fat supplement was given in the dry form to lambs offered dried grass ad lib., both the voluntary intake and digestibility of the dried grass were reduced. when the high-fat supplement was given in a liquid suspension so that the rumen was by-passed, the voluntary intake and digestibility of the dried grass were not significantly altered. 2. the effect of injecting an emulsion of tallow into the rumen of sheep on rumen metabolism was studied in another experim ...197715583
allosteric and non-allosteric phosphofructokinases from lactobacilli. purification and properties of phosphofructokinases from l. plantarum and l. acidophilus.phosphofructokinase (atp : d-fructose-6-phosphate 1 phosphotransferase, ec 2.7.1.11) from two different lactobacilli, lactobacillus plantarum and lactobacillus acidophilus were isolated and purified. both enzymes have a molecular weight of 154 000 and consist of four subunits of identical size. antisera from sheep immunized against the purified phosphofructokinase from l. plantarum showed immunologic cross reaction with the enzyme from l. acidophilus. in spite of the close molecular relationship ...197715608
effect of adrenergic blocking drugs on secretion of luteinizing hormone in the ovariectomized ewe.the effects of the adrenergic blocking drugs phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine, and pimozide on basal luteinizing hormone (lh) levels and on estrogen-induced lh release were tested in ovariectomized ewes. phentolamine was given at a dose of 10 mg/kg; phenoxybenzamine was given at a dose of 8 mg/kg; and pimozide was given at a dose of 800 mcg/kg. estradiol benzoate (eb) was given at a dose of 50 mcg/animal. sera were assayed for lh levels by double-antibody radioimmunoassay. phenoxybenzamine g ...197715666
glutamine synthetase. ix. purification and characterization of the enzyme from sheep spleen.glutamine synthetase (l-glutamate: ammonia ligase (adp-forming), ec 6.3.1.2) has been purified about 550-fold from sheep spleen. the subunit weight of the enzyme is estimated to be 48 000. sedimentation coefficient determination by density gradient centrifugation gives a value of 15.0 s. the approximate molecular weight calculated from the s value is 378500. in addition, electron micrographs of the enzyme show an "h" shape. hence, the protein appears to have eight subunits. in sheep spleen, the ...197715707
factors affecting gallbladder motility in sheep. 197715772
activity of mammalian serium esterases towards malaoxon, fenitroxon and paraoxon. 197715778
fetal heart rate variability during labor. 197715788
effect of dimedrol, diazoline, diprazin and ethysine on formation of the primary immune response.tests were conducted on mice of the cba line, immunized through a single intraperitoneal administration of 0.5 ml of a 5% sheep erythrocytes suspension. antihistaminic agents were introduced by the intraperitoneal route in a dose of 5 mg/kg, first at one time and then repeatedly at various intervals with respect to the initial immunization benadryl and diazoline, when administered in a single dose to mice 24 hours after immunization activated the primary immune response to sheep erythrocytes, wh ...197615855
disappearance of para-amino-hippurate from amniotic fluid.eight pregnant women and three pregnant sheep received 400 mg of para-amino-hippurate (pah) intraaminotically. serial samples of amniotic fluid and maternal blood were obtained. in sheep samples of fetal blood were also withdrawn. pah appeared in maternal plasma in all the cases. in all pregnant women pah disappeared slowly from amniotic fluid (50% in 4 hours). in one ewe the study was performed as in humans and showed the same pattern of disappearance. in the other two, fetal urine was drained ...197615889
epidemiological studies of streptococcus pneumoniae in infants: methods of isolating pneumococci.a prospective study of the natural history of pneumococcal infection, which involves serial culture studies in healthy infants from 6 weeks of age onward, is in progress in our laboratory. this report describes results of a comparison of several methods for the isolation and identification of streptococcus pneumoniae from the nasopharynges and throats of these infants. sheep blood agar, sheep blood agar with gentamicin sulfate (gentamicin agar), and mouse inoculation with 4-h broth cultures were ...197716032
detection of pneumococci in respiratory secretions: clinical evaluation of gentamicin blood agar.the use of sheep blood agar containing 5 microng of gentamicin per ml has been suggested as a means of selectively isolating streptococcus pneumoniae from respiratory secretions. we have tested this method, in parallel with standard methods, on 844 respiratory specimens in a clinical laboratory and have confirmed that the yield of pneumococci can be increased approximately 40% by using agar containing gentamicin. however, since the antibiotic suppresses the growth of staphylococci, group a strep ...197716034
development of haemonchus contortus in vitro and the stimulus from the host.infective larvae of haemonchus contortus which have been exposed for about 9 hr to relatively high partial pressures of carbon dioxide at near-neutral ph, as they might be in the rumen, develop slowly to the fourth stage or not at all. but following this treatment, exposure to lower partial pressures of carbon dioxide and higher concentrations of hydrogen ions, such as might be encountered in the abomasal mucosa, brings about development at a rate comparable with that in the sheep.197716106
the development of some metabolic responses to hypoxia in the foetal sheep.1. foetal and maternal plasma metabolite and catecholamine concentrations have been measured in chronically catheterized sheep, 95-145 days pregnant. 2. with increasing gestational age there was rise in foetal plasma lactate, free fatty acid and ketone body concentration and in maternal plasma in free fatty acid and ketone body concentration. with the exception of alpha-amino nitrogen none of the plasma metabolites showed any correlation with foetal blood gas or ph values; alpha-amino n was inve ...197716124
new aspects in diagnosis and therapy of placental insufficiency. placental perfusion measurements; placental perfusion test (ppt) and betamimetic long term treatment (clinical and experimental data (authors transl).the rate of utero-placental blood flow depends on functional components (perfusion pressure and flow resistance within the area of the vascular bed of the placenta), as well as on morphological factors (regressive changes in the placenta). different primary maternal conditions and diseases may lower the rate of placental flow, leading to placental insufficiency; the highest percentage, by far, of placental dysfunction is found in patients suffering from gestosis. hypocirculation initially presen ...197716407
effect of fenoterol (th1165a) infusion on uterine and umbilical blood flow in pregnant sheep.the effect of fenoterol (th1165a) upon uterine artery blood flow (utbf) and umbilical vein blood flow (umbf) was investigated in near-term, nonlaboring chronic sheep preparations. during intravenous fenoterol infusions to the ewe in either incremental doses from 0.025 to 0.200 microng per kilogram per minute or constant infusions of 0.025 microng per kilogram per minute for 120 minutes. utbf and umbf did not change significantly. dose-related maternal tachycardia, hyperglycemia, and relative aci ...197716493
the effect of umbilical vein occlusion on fetal oxygenation, cardiovascular parameters, and fetal electroencephalogram.in 11 fetal sheep experiments, the blood pressure in the fetal aorta (fa) and in the umbilical vein (uv) was measured following umbilical vein occlusion (uvo), as was the fetal heart rate (fhr), ph, pco2, and oxygen saturation (so2) in both fetal vessels, and umbilical blood flow (qumb) of the common uv. the fetal electroencephalogram was recorded continuously throughout the experiment. the results (no. = 17) were grouped according to the response of fa so2 into moderate (so2greater than40 per c ...197716494
cardiovascular effects of fever in the ewe and fetal lamb.ewes carrying fetuses with permanently implanted cannulas developed fevers following intravenous injections of bacterial pyrogen (1 microng). during the rising phase of the fever, maternal heart rate increased, but no consistent changes in mean arterial blood pressure (mabp), arterial ph, po2, or pco2 were observed during the course of the fever. fetal temperature, which was initially 0.3 to 0.8 degrees c. higher than maternal temperature rose in parallel with the ewe's temperature. during the m ...197716495
graft vs host reaction in reciprocal combinations of mouse strains differing by the h-2 complex of histocompatibility.intraperitoneal transplantation of 0.5 x 10(7), 1 x 10(7) or 2 x 10(7) spleen cells from the c57bl mice to newborn cba recipients induced an acute form or runt disease which resulted in the death of 43%, 86% or 95% of the recipient mice, respectively, in the course of 2--3 weeks after the cell transfer. preliminary immunization of c57bl donors with cba isoantigens led to a marked enhancement, and immunization with foreign antigens (sheep red blood cells)--to weakening the reaction. in reverse co ...197616675
fasciola hepatica and fasciola gigantica: total cholinesterase, characteristics, and effects of specific inhibitors. 197716762
ventilatory response in the fetal lamb following peripheral chemodenervation.carotid infusions of sodium cyanide solution and perfusions of hypoxemic or hypercapnic fetal blood were done before and after peripheral chemoreceptor denervation. step changes in pao2 ranged from -11 to -22 torr; step changes in paco2 ranged from +17 to +42 torr. the cyanide dose was 0.2 mg/kg per loop system. control perfusions consisted of 25 ml of fetal blood without changes in ph and blood gases. a ventilatory response occurred in the majority of all experimental perfusions regardless of i ...197716861
manganese- and magnesium-dependent activities of soluble and particulate guanylate cyclase from sheep kidney outer medulla. 197716928
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