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progress in brucella vaccine development.brucella spp. are zoonotic, facultative intracellular pathogens, which cause animal and human disease. animal disease results in abortion of fetuses; in humans, it manifests flu-like symptoms with an undulant fever, with osteoarthritis as a common complication of infection. antibiotic regimens for human brucellosis patients may last several months and are not always completely effective. while there are no vaccines for humans, several licensed live brucella vaccines are available for use in live ...023730309
spatial variation in host feeding patterns of culex tarsalis and the culex pipiens complex (diptera: culicidae) in california.west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) is now endemic in california across a variety of ecological regions that support a wide diversity of potential avian and mammalian host species. because different avian hosts have varying competence for wnv, determining the blood-feeding patterns of culex (diptera: culicidae) vectors is a key component in understanding the maintenance and amplification of the virus as well as tangential transmission to humans and horses. we investigate ...022897051
disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems.the rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for humans and biodiversity. human populations show robust annual rhythms in health and well-being, and the birth month can have lasting effects that persist throughout life. this review emphasizes the need fo ...026468242
rickettsia raoultii-like bacteria in dermacentor spp. ticks, tibet, china. 022931966
using the dfci gene index databases for biological discovery.the dfci gene index web pages provide access to analyses of ests and gene sequences for nearly 114 species, as well as a number of resources derived from these. each species-specific database is presented using a common format with a home page. a variety of methods exist that allow users to search each species-specific database. methods implemented currently include nucleotide or protein sequence queries using wu-blast, text-based searches using various sequence identifiers, searches by gene, ti ...020205187
unusual horizontal transfer of a long interspersed nuclear element between distant vertebrate classes.we have shown previously by southern blot analysis that bov-b long interspersed nuclear elements (lines) are present in different viperidae snake species. to address the question as to whether bov-b lines really have been transmitted horizontally between vertebrate classes, the analysis has been extended to a larger number of vertebrate, invertebrate, and plant species. in this paper, the evolutionary origin of bov-b lines is shown unequivocally to be in squamata. the previously proposed horizon ...09724768
genetic and ecologic variability among anaplasma phagocytophilum strains, northern italy. 024855911
the evolution of female ornaments and weaponry: social selection, sexual selection and ecological competition.ornaments, weapons and aggressive behaviours may evolve in female animals by mate choice and intrasexual competition for mating opportunities-the standard forms of sexual selection in males. however, a growing body of evidence suggests that selection tends to operate in different ways in males and females, with female traits more often mediating competition for ecological resources, rather than mate acquisition. two main solutions have been proposed to accommodate this disparity. one is to expan ...022777016
identifying sources of tick blood meals using unidentified tandem mass spectral libraries.rapid and reliable identification of the vertebrate species on which a disease vector previously parasitized is imperative to study ecological factors that affect pathogen distribution and can aid the development of public health programs. here we describe a proteome profiling technique designed to identify the source of blood meals of haematophagous arthropods. this method employs direct spectral matching and thus does not require a priori knowledge of any genetic or protein sequence informatio ...023612287
longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.the world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric co2 concentration in the next decades. rise in atmospheric co2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °c-5.8 °c by that time. a survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric co2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mos ...026981200
crystal structure of the dopamine n-acetyltransferase-acetyl-coa complex provides insights into the catalytic mechanism.the daily cycle of melatonin biosynthesis in mammals is regulated by aanat (arylalkylamine n-acetyltransferase; ec 2.3.1.87), making it an attractive target for therapeutic control of abnormal melatonin production in mood and sleep disorders. drosophila melanogaster dat (dopamine n-acetyltransferase) is an aanat. until the present study, no insect dat structure had been solved, and, consequently, the structural basis for its acetyl-transfer activity was not well understood. we report in the pres ...022716280
the physiological costs of reproduction in small mammals.life-history trade-offs between components of fitness arise because reproduction entails both gains and costs. costs of reproduction can be divided into ecological and physiological costs. the latter have been rarely studied yet are probably a dominant component of the effect. a deeper understanding of life-history evolution will only come about once these physiological costs are better understood. physiological costs may be direct or indirect. direct costs include the energy and nutrient demand ...017686735
genetic architecture of body size in mammals.much of the heritability for human stature is caused by mutations of small-to-medium effect. this is because detrimental pleiotropy restricts large-effect mutations to very low frequencies.022546202
mechanical influences on suture development and patency.in addition to their role in skull growth, sutures are sites of flexibility between the more rigid bones. depending on the suture, predominant loading during life may be either tensile or compressive. loads are transmitted across sutures via collagenous fibers and a fluid-rich extracellular matrix and can be quasi-static (growth of neighboring tissues) or intermittent (mastication). the mechanical properties of sutures, while always viscoelastic, are therefore quite different for tensile versus ...018391494
toxoplasmosis in mexico: epidemiological situation in humans and animals.toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. in mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, ...025923887
lz complexity distance of dna sequences and its application in phylogenetic tree reconstruction.dna sequences can be treated as finite-length symbol strings over a four-letter alphabet (a, c, t, g). as a universal and computable complexity measure, lz complexity is valid to describe the complexity of dna sequences. in this study, a concept of conditional lz complexity between two sequences is proposed according to the principle of lz complexity measure. an lz complexity distance metric between two nonnull sequences is defined by utilizing conditional lz complexity. based on lz complexity d ...016689687
[the genus tunga jarocki, 1838 (siphonaptera: tungidae). i: taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology and pathogenicity].this is the first review of the taxonomy and geographical range of the 12 known species of the genus tunga. their biology and pathogenic roles are considered, with particular emphasis on their phylogeny, chorology, phenology, sex-ratio, and dermecos.023193514
partitioning of tissue expression accompanies multiple duplications of the na+/k+ atpase alpha subunit gene.vertebrate genomes contain multiple copies of related genes that arose through gene duplication. in the past it has been proposed that these duplicated genes were retained because of acquisition of novel beneficial functions. a more recent model, the duplication-degeneration-complementation hypothesis (ddc), posits that the functions of a single gene may become separately allocated among the duplicated genes, rendering both duplicates essential. thus far, empirical evidence for this model has be ...011591639
gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in the teleost haplochromis burtoni: structure, location, and function.gnrh acts via gnrh receptors (gnrh-r) in the pituitary to cause the release of gonadotropins that regulate vertebrate reproduction. in the teleost fish, haplochromis burtoni, reproduction is socially regulated through the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, making the pituitary gnrh-r a likely site of action for this control. as a first step toward understanding the role of gnrh-r in the social control of reproduction, we cloned and sequenced candidate gnrh-r complementary dnas from h. burtoni ...011316736
modelling population persistence on islands: mammal introductions in the new zealand archipelago.islands are likely to differ in their susceptibility to colonization or invasion due to variation in factors that affect population persistence, including island area, climatic severity and habitat modification. we tested the importance of these factors in explaining the persistence of 164 introductions of six mammal species to 85 islands in the new zealand archipelago using survival analysis and model selection techniques. as predicted by the theory of stochastic population growth, extinction r ...017015359
quantitative pcr method for sensitive detection of ruminant fecal pollution in freshwater and evaluation of this method in alpine karstic regions.a quantitative taqman minor-groove binder real-time pcr assay was developed for the sensitive detection of a ruminant-specific genetic marker in fecal members of the phylum bacteroidetes. the qualitative and quantitative detection limits determined were 6 and 20 marker copies per pcr, respectively. tested ruminant feces contained an average of 4.1 x 10(9) marker equivalents per g, allowing the detection of 1.7 ng of feces per filter in fecal suspensions. the marker was detected in water samples ...016885315
cloning and sequence analysis of wild argali isg15 cdna.the complete coding sequence of wild argali isg15 cdna was generated by rapid amplification of cdna ends. the isg15 cdna was 642 bp with an open reading frame of 474 bp, which encoded a 17.47 kda protein composed of 157 amino acids. its amino acid sequence shared 97.9%, 80.8%, 91.4%, 94.3%, 78.3% identity with those of isg15cdna from ovis aries (accession no. nm001009735.1), capra hircus (accession no. hq329186.1), bos taurus (accession no. bc102318.1), bubalus bubalis (accession no. hm543269.1) ...025049988
domestication and the mitochondrial genome: comparing patterns and rates of molecular evolution in domesticated mammals and birds and their wild relatives.studies of domesticated animals have led to the suggestion that domestication could have significant effects on patterns of molecular evolution. in particular, analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences from domestic dogs and yaks have yielded higher ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions in the domesticated lineages than in their wild relatives. these results are important because they imply that changes to selection or population size operating over a short timescale can cause si ...024459286
bright light exposure reduces th-positive dopamine neurons: implications of light pollution in parkinson's disease epidemiology.this study explores the effect of continuous exposure to bright light on neuromelanin formation and dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra. twenty-one days after birth, sprague-dawley albino rats were divided into groups and raised under different conditions of light exposure. at the end of the irradiation period, rats were sacrificed and assayed for neuromelanin formation and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (th)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. the rats exposed to bright light ...023462874
discordant and chameleon sequences: their distribution and implications for amyloidogenicity.identification of ambiguous encoding in protein secondary structure is paramount to develop an understanding of key protein segments underlying amyloid diseases. we investigate two types of structurally ambivalent peptides, which were hypothesized in the literature as indicators of amyloidogenic proteins: discordant α-helices and chameleon sequences. chameleon sequences are peptides discovered experimentally in different secondary-structure types. discordant α-helices are α-helical stretches wit ...021432934
in silico investigation of lactoferrin protein characterizations for the prediction of anti-microbial properties.lactoferrin (lf) is an iron-binding multi-functional glycoprotein which has numerous physiological functions such as iron transportation, anti-microbial activity and immune response. in this study, different in silico approaches were exploited to investigate lf protein properties in a number of mammalian species. results showed that the iron-binding site, dna and rna-binding sites, signal peptides and transferrin motifs in the lf structure were highly conserved. examined sequences showed three c ...027843978
an evolutionary relationship between stearoyl-coa desaturase (scd) protein sequences involved in fatty acid metabolism.stearoyl-coa desaturase (scd) is a key enzyme that converts saturated fatty acids (sfas) to monounsaturated fatty acids (mufas) in fat biosynthesis. despite being crucial for interpreting scds' roles across species, the evolutionary relationship of scd proteins across species has yet to be elucidated. this study aims to present this evolutionary relationship based on amino acid sequences.026989730
an iranian familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pedigree with p.val48phe causing mutation in sod1: a genetic and clinical report.amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (als), a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common motor neuron disease in european populations. approximately 10% of als cases are familial (fals) and the other patients are considered as sporadic als (sals). among many als causing genes that have been identified, mutations in sod1 and c9orf72 are the most common genetic causes of the disease. in iranian patients, it has been shown that sod1, as compared to c9orf72, plays a much more prominen ...025729540
the effects of sequence length and oligonucleotide mismatches on 5' exonuclease assay efficiency.although increasingly used for dna quantification, little is known of the dynamics of the 5' exonuclease assay, particularly in relation to amplicon length and mismatches at oligonucleotide binding sites. in this study we used seven assays targeting the c-myc proto-oncogene to examine the effects of sequence length, and report a marked reduction in efficiency with increasing fragment length. three of the assays were further tested on 15 mammalian species to gauge the effect of sequence differenc ...012384613
evolution of klk4 and enamel maturation in eutherians.kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (klk4) is a secreted serine protease that degrades residual enamel proteins to facilitate their removal by ameloblasts, which increases mineralization and hardens the enamel. mutations in human klk4 cause hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. enamel formed by klk4 null mice is normal in thickness and prism structure, but the enamel layer retains proteins, is hypomineralized, and undergoes rapid attrition following tooth eruption. we searched multiple databases, r ...025153384
endogenous retroviruses in domestic animals.endogenous retroviruses (ervs) are genomic elements that are present in a wide range of vertebrates. although the study of ervs has been carried out mainly in humans and model organisms, recently, domestic animals have become important, and some species have begun to be analyzed to gain further insight into ervs. due to the availability of complete genomes and the development of new computer tools, ervs can now be analyzed from a genome-wide viewpoint. in addition, more experimental work is bein ...025132796
seasonal oscillation of liver-derived hibernation protein complex in the central nervous system of non-hibernating mammals.mammalian hibernation elicits profound changes in whole-body physiology. the liver-derived hibernation protein (hp) complex, consisting of hp-20, hp-25 and hp-27, was shown to oscillate circannually, and this oscillation in the central nervous system (cns) was suggested to play a role in hibernation. the hp complex has been found in hibernating chipmunks but not in related non-hibernating tree squirrels, leading to the suggestion that hibernation-specific genes may underlie the origin of hiberna ...025079892
neocortex expansion is linked to size variations in gene families with chemotaxis, cell-cell signalling and immune response functions in mammals.increased brain size is thought to have played an important role in the evolution of mammals and is a highly variable trait across lineages. variations in brain size are closely linked to corresponding variations in the size of the neocortex, a distinct mammalian evolutionary innovation. the genomic features that explain and/or accompany variations in the relative size of the neocortex remain unknown. by comparing the genomes of 28 mammalian species, we show that neocortical expansion relative t ...027707894
a comparative study of the morphometry of sperm head components in cattle, sheep, and pigs with a computer-assisted fluorescence method.the aim of this study was to compare the sperm nuclear and acrosomal morphometry of three species of domestic artiodactyls; cattle (bos taurus), sheep (ovis aries), and pigs (sus scrofa). semen smears of twenty ejaculates from each species were fixed and labeled with a propidium iodide-pisum sativum agglutinin (pi/psa) combination. digital images of the sperm nucleus, acrosome, and whole sperm head were captured and analyzed. the use of the pi/psa combination and casa-morph fluorescence-based me ...027624987
genomic organization and evolution of ruminant lysozyme c genes.ruminant stomach lysozyme is a long established model of adaptive gene evolution. evolution of stomach lysozyme function required changes in the site of expression of the lysozyme c gene and changes in the enzymatic properties of the enzyme. in ruminant mammals, these changes were associated with a change in the size of the lysozyme c gene family. the recent release of near complete genome sequences from several ruminant species allows a more complete examination of the evolution and diversifica ...025730456
swine (sus scrofa) as a model of postinfarction mitral regurgitation and techniques to accommodate its effects during surgical repair.mitral regurgitation (mr) is a common heart-valve lesion after myocardial infarction in humans. because it is considered a risk factor for accelerated heart failure and death, various surgical approaches and catheter-based devices to correct it are in development. lack of a reproducible animal model of mr after myocardial infarction and reliable techniques to perform open-heart surgery in these diseased models led to the use of healthy animals to test new devices. thus, most devices that are dee ...027538860
observation of c.260a > g mutation in superoxide dismutase 1 that causes p.asn86ser in iranian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient and absence of genotype/phenotype correlation.amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (als) is the most common motor neuron disorder in european populations. als can be sporadic als (sals) or familial als (fals). among 20 known als genes, mutations in c9orf72 and superoxide dismutase 1 (sod1) are the most common genetic causes of the disease. whereas c9orf72 mutations are more common in western populations, the contribution of sod1 to als in iran is more than c9orf72. at present, a clear genotype/phenotype correlation for als has not been identified. ...026622980
structure-activity relationships for α-calcitonin gene-related peptide.calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp) is a member of the calcitonin (ct) family of peptides. it is a widely distributed neuropeptide implicated in conditions such as neurogenic inflammation. with other members of the ct family, it shares an n-terminal disulphide-bonded ring which is essential for biological activity, an area of potential α-helix, and a c-terminal amide. cgrp binds to the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (clr) in complex with receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (ramp1), a mem ...023186257
evidence for litter differences in play behaviour in pre-weaned pigs.the aim of this study was to analyse spontaneous play behaviour in litters of domestic pigs (sus scrofa) for sources of variation at individual and litter levels and to relate variation in play to measures of pre and postnatal development. seven litters of commercially bred piglets (n = 70) were born (farrowed) within a penning system (pigsafe) that provided opportunities for the performance of spontaneous play behaviours. individual behaviour was scored based on an established play ethogram for ...026937060
elaborate uorf/ires features control expression and localization of human glycyl-trna synthetase.the canonical activity of glycyl-trna synthetase (gars) is to charge glycine onto its cognate trnas. however, outside translation, gars also participates in many other functions. a single gene encodes both the cytosolic and mitochondrial forms of gars but 2 mrna isoforms were identified. using immunolocalization assays, in vitro translation assays and bicistronic constructs we provide experimental evidence that one of these mrnas tightly controls expression and localization of human gars. an int ...026327585
ecological consequences of human niche construction: examining long-term anthropogenic shaping of global species distributions.the exhibition of increasingly intensive and complex niche construction behaviors through time is a key feature of human evolution, culminating in the advanced capacity for ecosystem engineering exhibited by homo sapiens a crucial outcome of such behaviors has been the dramatic reshaping of the global biosphere, a transformation whose early origins are increasingly apparent from cumulative archaeological and paleoecological datasets. such data suggest that, by the late pleistocene, humans had be ...027274046
microsporidial spores in fecal samples of some domesticated animals living in giza, egypt.the aim of the present work was to investigate the prevalence and species of intestinal microsporidiosis among animals in giza, egypt.028096853
four members of heat shock protein 70 family in korean rose bitterling (rhodeus uyekii).heat shock protein (hsp) 70, the highly conserved stress protein families, plays important roles in protecting cells against heat and other stresses in most animal species. in the present study, we identified and characterized four hsp70 (ruhsp4, ruhsc70, ruhsp12a, rugrp78) family proteins based on the expressed sequence tag (est) analysis of the korean rose bitterling r. uyekii cdna library. the deduced ruhsp70 family has high amino acid identities of 72-99% with those of other species. phyloge ...027004270
pancreatic islet plasticity: interspecies comparison of islet architecture and composition.the pancreatic islet displays diverse patterns of endocrine cell arrangement. the prototypic islet, with insulin-secreting beta-cells forming the core surrounded by other endocrine cells in the periphery, is largely based on studies of normal rodent islets. recent reports on large animals, including humans, show a difference in islet architecture, in which the endocrine cells are randomly distributed throughout the islet. this particular species difference has raised concerns regarding the inter ...020657742
qgrs mapper: a web-based server for predicting g-quadruplexes in nucleotide sequences.the quadruplex structures formed by guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences have received significant attention recently because of growing evidence for their role in important biological processes and as therapeutic targets. g-quadruplex dna has been suggested to regulate dna replication and may control cellular proliferation. sequences capable of forming g-quadruplexes in the rna have been shown to play significant roles in regulation of polyadenylation and splicing events in mammalian transcripts ...016845096
molecular characterization and expression analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 genes in qinghai-tibet plateau bos grunniens and lowland bos taurus.insulin-like growth factor-1 (igf-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (igfbp-1) play a pivotal role in regulating cellular hypoxic response. in this study, we cloned and characterized the genes encoding igf-1 and igfbp-1 to improve the current knowledge on their roles in highland bos grunniens (yak). we also compared their expression levels in the liver and kidney tissues between yaks and lowland cattle. we obtained full-length 465 bp igf-1 and 792 bp igfbp-1, encoding 154 amino ...025557672
positional changes of a pluripotency marker gene during structural reorganization of fibroblast nuclei in cloned early bovine embryos.cloned bovine preimplantation embryos were generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (scnt) of bovine fetal fibroblasts with a silent copy of the pluripotency reporter gene gof, integrated at a single site of a chromosome 13. gof combines the regulatory oct4/pou5f1 sequence with the coding sequence for egfp. egfp expression served as a marker for pluripotency gene activation and was consistently detected in preimplantation embryos with 9 and more cells. three-dimensional radial nuclear position ...025495180
avian scavengers and the threat from veterinary pharmaceuticals.veterinary use of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac on domesticated ungulates caused populations of resident gyps vultures in the indian sub-continent to collapse. the birds died when they fed on carrion from treated animals. veterinary diclofenac was banned in 2006 and meloxicam was advocated as a 'vulture-safe' alternative. we examine the effectiveness of the 2006 ban, whether meloxicam has replaced diclofenac, and the impact of these changes on vultures. drug residue data fr ...025405963
progress on low susceptibility mechanisms of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses), also known as prion diseases, are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases detected in a wide range of mammalian species. the "protein-only" hypothesis of tse suggests that prions are transmissible particles devoid of nucleic acid and the primary pathogenic event is thought to be the conversion of cellular prion protein (prp(c)) into the disease-associated isoform (prp(sc)). according to susceptibility to tses, animals can be classified into s ...025297084
proteome degradation in fossils: investigating the longevity of protein survival in ancient bone.we report the use of proteomics techniques to study how the fossil bone proteome changes in complexity over one million years.024519823
replicative capacity of mers coronavirus in livestock cell lines.replicative capacity of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) was assessed in cell lines derived from livestock and peridomestic small mammals on the arabian peninsula. only cell lines originating from goats and camels showed efficient replication of mers-cov. these results provide direction in the search for the intermediate host of mers-cov.024457147
a versatile telemetry system for continuous measurement of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity in free-ranging ruminants.1. measuring physiological and behavioural parameters in free-ranging animals - and therefore under fully natural conditions - is of general biological concern but difficult to perform.2. we have developed a minimally invasive telemetry system for ruminants that is capable of measuring heart rate (hr), body temperature (t(b)) and locomotor activity (la). a ruminal transmitter unit was per os placed into the reticulum and therefore located in close proximity to the heart. the unit detected hr by ...022428081
functional genomics analysis of singapore grouper iridovirus: complete sequence determination and proteomic analysis.here we report the complete genome sequence of singapore grouper iridovirus (sgiv). sequencing of the random shotgun and restriction endonuclease genomic libraries showed that the entire sgiv genome consists of 140,131 nucleotide bp. one hundred sixty-two open reading frames (orfs) from the sense and antisense dna strands, coding for lengths varying from 41 to 1,268 amino acids, were identified. computer-assisted analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 77 of the orfs exhibited ...015507645
negative regulation of prolactin receptor stability and signaling mediated by scf(beta-trcp) e3 ubiquitin ligase.ubiquitin-dependent degradation of hormone receptors is emerging as a key mechanism that regulates the magnitude and duration of hormonal effects on cells and tissues. the pituitary hormone prolactin (prl) is involved in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. prl engages its receptor (prlr) to initiate various signaling cascades, including the phosphorylation and activation of stat5. we found that prl promotes interaction between prlr and the f-box protein beta-trcp2, whic ...015082796
schmallenberg virus in zoo ruminants, france and the netherlands. 027869605
aquaporins in ovine amnion: responses to altered amniotic fluid volumes and intramembranous absorption rates.aquaporins (aqps) are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid water movement across cell membranes. in amniotic membrane, the aqp-facilitated transfer of water across amnion cells has been proposed as a mechanism for amniotic fluid volume (afv) regulation. to investigate whether aqps modulate afv by altering intramembranous absorption (ima) rate, we tested the hypothesis that aqp gene expression in the amnion is positively correlated with ima rate during experimental conditions when ...027440743
novel epitopes identified by anti-prp monoclonal antibodies produced following immunization of prnp0/0 balb/cj mice with purified scrapie prions.prions, or infectious proteins, cause a class of uniformly fatal neurodegenerative diseases. prions are composed solely of an aberrantly folded isoform (prp(sc)) of a normal cellular protein (prp(c)). shared sequence identity of prp(sc) with prp(c) has limited the detection sensitivity of immunochemical assays, as antibodies specific for the disease-causing prp(sc) isoform have not been developed. here we report the generation of three new monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to prp, which were isolated ...023098297
genetic analysis of hair samples attributed to yeti, bigfoot and other anomalous primates.in the first ever systematic genetic survey, we have used rigorous decontamination followed by mitochondrial 12s rna sequencing to identify the species origin of 30 hair samples attributed to anomalous primates. two himalayan samples, one from ladakh, india, the other from bhutan, had their closest genetic affinity with a palaeolithic polar bear, ursus maritimus. otherwise the hairs were from a range of known extant mammals.024990672
identification and function prediction of novel micrornas in laoshan dairy goats.micrornas are a class of endogenous small rnas that play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation by directing degradation of mrnas or facilitating repression of target gene translation. in this study, three small rna cdna libraries from the mammary gland tissues of laoshan dairy goats (capra hircus) were constructed and sequenced, individually. through solexa high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we obtained 50 presumptive novel mirnas candidates, and 55,448 put ...025049792
faecal avoidance and selective foraging: do wild mice have the luxury to avoid faeces?host-parasite interactions are a key determinant of the population dynamics of wild animals, and behaviours that reduce parasite transmission and infection may be important for improving host fitness. while antiparasite behaviours have been demonstrated in laboratory animals and domesticated ungulates, whether these behaviours operate in the wild is poorly understood. therefore, examining antiparasite behaviours in natural populations is crucial for understanding their ecological significance. i ...024027342
dynamic evolution of endogenous retrovirus-derived genes expressed in bovine conceptuses during the period of placentation.in evolution of mammals, some of essential genes for placental development are known to be of retroviral origin, as syncytin-1 derived from an envelope (env) gene of an endogenous retrovirus (erv) aids in the cell fusion of placenta in humans. although the placenta serves the same function in all placental mammals, env-derived genes responsible for trophoblast cell fusion and maternal immune tolerance differ among species and remain largely unidentified in the bovine species. to examine env-deri ...023335121
effects of acepromazine on the stress response in southern chamois (rupicapra pyrenaica) captured by means of drive-nets.this study was conducted to assess the stress response of southern chamois (rupicapra pyrenaica) to capture and physical restraint and the effects of acepromazine (a short-acting neuroleptic) on this response. forty free-ranging southern chamois were captured, injected intramuscularly with acepromazine (19 animals, randomly selected) or saline (the other 21 animals), and physically restrained for 3 h. heart rate and body temperature were monitored with telemetric devices, and blood samples were ...017193881
the impact of gender-blindness on social-ecological resilience: the case of a communal pasture in the highlands of ethiopia.we studied how the failure to take into account gendered roles in the management of a communal pasture can affect the resilience of this social-ecological system. data were collected using qualitative methods, including focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and participant observations from one community in the highlands of ethiopia. the results show that women are excluded from the informal institution that defines the access and use rules which guide the management of the communal past ...027878542
blood groups and evolutionary relationships among domestic sheep (ovis aries), domestic goat (capra hircus), aoudad (ammotragus lervia) and european mouflon (ovis musimon). 022896160
alien species as a driver of recent extinctions.we assessed the prevalence of alien species as a driver of recent extinctions in five major taxa (plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals), using data from the iucn red list. our results show that alien species are the second most common threat associated with species that have gone completely extinct from these taxa since ad 1500. aliens are the most common threat associated with extinctions in three of the five taxa analysed, and for vertebrate extinctions overall.026888913
commentary : why are such high concentrations of nucleotides in the lens? 021499745
vitamin a metabolism: an update.retinoids are required for maintaining many essential physiological processes in the body, including normal growth and development, normal vision, a healthy immune system, normal reproduction, and healthy skin and barrier functions. in excess of 500 genes are thought to be regulated by retinoic acid. 11-cis-retinal serves as the visual chromophore in vision. the body must acquire retinoid from the diet in order to maintain these essential physiological processes. retinoid metabolism is complex a ...021350678
distinguishing technology from biology: a critical review of the use of gps telemetry data in ecology.in the past decade, ecologists have witnessed vast improvements in our ability to collect animal movement data through animal-borne technology, such as through gps or argos systems. however, more data does not necessarily yield greater knowledge in understanding animal ecology and conservation. in this paper, we provide a review of the major benefits, problems and potential misuses of gps/argos technology to animal ecology and conservation. benefits are obvious, and include the ability to collec ...020566506
habitat-performance relationships: finding the right metric at a given spatial scale.the field of habitat ecology has been muddled by imprecise terminology regarding what constitutes habitat, and how importance is measured through use, selection, avoidance and other bio-statistical terminology. added to the confusion is the idea that habitat is scale-specific. despite these conceptual difficulties, ecologists have made advances in understanding 'how habitats are important to animals', and data from animal-borne global positioning system (gps) units have the potential to help thi ...020566502
no effect of social group composition or size on hippocampal formation morphology and neurogenesis in mountain chickadees (poecile gambeli).brain plasticity and adult neurogenesis may play a role in many ecologically important processes including mate recognition, song learning and production, and spatial memory processing. in a number of species, both physical and social environments appear to influence attributes (e.g., volume, neuron number, and neurogenesis) of particular brain regions. the hippocampus in particular is well known to be especially sensitive to such changes. although social grouping in many taxa includes the forma ...020336697
brain expression and song regulation of the cholecystokinin gene in the zebra finch (taeniopygia guttata).the gene encoding cholecystokinin (cck) is abundantly expressed in the mammalian brain and has been associated with such functions as feeding termination and satiety, locomotion and self-stimulation, the modulation of anxiety-like behaviors, and learning and memory. here we describe the brain expression and song regulation of cck in the brain of the adult male zebra finch (taeniopygia guttata), a songbird species. using in situ hybridization we demonstrate that cck is highly expressed in several ...021165972
contributions of the histidine side chain and the n-terminal alpha-amino group to the binding thermodynamics of oligopeptides to nucleic acids as a function of ph.interactions of histidine with nucleic acid phosphates and histidine pk(a) shifts make important contributions to many protein-nucleic acid binding processes. to characterize these phenomena in simplified systems, we quantified binding of a histidine-containing model peptide hwkk ((+)nh(3)-his-trp-lys-lys-nh(2)) and its lysine analogue kwkk ((+)nh(3)-lys-trp-lys-lys-nh(2)) to a single-stranded rna model, polyuridylate (polyu), by changes in tryptophan fluorescence as a function of salt concentra ...020108951
eco-evolutionary dynamics.evolutionary ecologists and population biologists have recently considered that ecological and evolutionary changes are intimately linked and can occur on the same time-scale. recent theoretical developments have shown how the feedback between ecological and evolutionary dynamics can be linked, and there are now empirical demonstrations showing that ecological change can lead to rapid evolutionary change. we also have evidence that microevolutionary change can leave an ecological signature. we a ...019414463
eco-evolutionary dynamics: disentangling phenotypic, environmental and population fluctuations.decomposing variation in population growth into contributions from both ecological and evolutionary processes is of fundamental concern, particularly in a world characterized by rapid responses to anthropogenic threats. although the impact of ecological change on evolutionary response has long been acknowledged, the converse has predominantly been neglected, especially empirically. by applying a recently published conceptual framework, we assess and contrast the relative importance of phenotypic ...019414464
sheep (ovis aries) as a model for cardiovascular surgery and management before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass.because of its similarity to humans in important respects, sheep (ovis aries) are a common animal model for translational research in cardiovascular surgery. however, some unique aspects of sheep anatomy and physiology present challenges to its use in these complicated experiments. in this review, we discuss relevant anatomy and physiology of sheep and discuss management before, during, and after procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass to provide a concise source of information for veterinar ...025255065
increasing the dose of autologous chondrocytes improves articular cartilage repair: histological and molecular study in the sheep animal model.we hypothesized that implanting cells in a chondral defect at a density more similar to that of the intact cartilage could induce them to synthesize matrix with the features more similar to that of the uninjured one.026069691
schmallenberg virus circulation in high mountain ecosystem, spain. 024857166
visual search efficiency is greater for human faces compared to animal faces.the animate monitoring hypothesis proposes that humans and animals were the most important categories of visual stimuli for ancestral humans to monitor, as they presented important challenges and opportunities for survival and reproduction; however, it remains unknown whether animal faces are located as efficiently as human faces. we tested this hypothesis by examining whether human, primate, and mammal faces elicit similar searches, or whether human faces are privileged. in the first three expe ...024962122
the sheep genome illuminates biology of the rumen and lipid metabolism.sheep (ovis aries) are a major source of meat, milk, and fiber in the form of wool and represent a distinct class of animals that have a specialized digestive organ, the rumen, that carries out the initial digestion of plant material. we have developed and analyzed a high-quality reference sheep genome and transcriptomes from 40 different tissues. we identified highly expressed genes encoding keratin cross-linking proteins associated with rumen evolution. we also identified genes involved in lip ...024904168
microtubule defects & neurodegeneration.one of the major challenges facing the long term survival of neurons is their requirement to maintain efficient axonal transport over long distances. in humans as large, long-lived vertebrates, the machinery maintaining neuronal transport must remain efficient despite the slow accumulation of cell damage during aging. mutations in genes encoding proteins which function in the transport system feature prominently in neurologic disorders. genes known to cause such disorders and showing traditional ...024563812
parasite and predator risk assessment: nuanced use of olfactory cues.foraging herbivores face twin threats of predation and parasite infection, but the risk of predation has received much more attention. we evaluated, experimentally, the role of olfactory cues in predator and parasite risk assessment on the foraging behaviour of a population of marked, free-ranging, red-necked wallabies (macropus rufogriseus). the wallabies adjusted their behaviour according to these olfactory cues. they foraged less, were more vigilant and spent less time at feeders placed in th ...026468246
presentation, treatment, and outcome of squamous cell carcinoma in the perineal region of 9 goats.nine goats were treated for squamous cell carcinoma (scc) of the perineal and/or tail region. this case series is the first detailed description of clinical presentation and treatment of caprine scc in north america and characterizes the potential risk factors and outcomes.026483578
comparison of polyglactin-910 and polydioxanone for closure of the linea alba following caudal ventral midline laparotomy in sheep.this study compared incisional complications after ventral midline laparotomy using 2 absorbable suture materials for apposition of the linea alba in sheep. the linea alba of 93 yearling sheep was sutured by 3 veterinarians in a simple continuous pattern using either polyglactin 910 (pg910; group pg) or polydioxanone (pds; group pd). a blinded observer assessed surgical sites at the time of suture removal. multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between incisional com ...026345301
temporal dynamics of linkage disequilibrium in two populations of bighorn sheep.linkage disequilibrium (ld) is the nonrandom association of alleles at two markers. patterns of ld have biological implications as well as practical ones when designing association studies or conservation programs aimed at identifying the genetic basis of fitness differences within and among populations. however, the temporal dynamics of ld in wild populations has received little empirical attention. in this study, we examined the overall extent of ld, the effect of sample size on the accuracy a ...026380673
competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance.despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (procolobus rufomitratus). t ...025870398
early-life reproduction is associated with increased mortality risk but enhanced lifetime fitness in pre-industrial humans.the physiology of reproductive senescence in women is well understood, but the drivers of variation in senescence rates are less so. evolutionary theory predicts that early-life investment in reproduction should be favoured by selection at the cost of reduced survival and faster reproductive senescence. we tested this hypothesis using data collected from preindustrial finnish church records. reproductive success increased up to age 25 and was relatively stable until a decline from age 41. women ...025740893
high-dose hydroxocobalamin administered after h2s exposure counteracts sulfide-poisoning-induced cardiac depression in sheep.severe h2s poisoning leads to death by rapid respiratory and cardiac arrest, the latter can occur within seconds or minutes in severe forms of intoxication.025546714
sheep (ovis aries) as a model for cardiovascular surgery and management before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass. 025651084
sirh7/ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental p4 overproduction and delayed parturition.sirh7/ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from ltr retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. interestingly, sirh7/ldoc1 knockout (ko) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (p4) and placental lactogen 1 (pl1) from trophoblast giant cells (tgcs). the placenta is an organ that i ...025468940
rational coupled dynamics network manipulation rescues disease-relevant mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.many cellular functions necessary for life are tightly regulated by protein allosteric conformational change, and correlated dynamics between protein regions has been found to contribute to the function of proteins not previously considered allosteric. the ability to map and control such dynamic coupling would thus create opportunities for the extension of current therapeutic design strategy. here, we present an approach to determine the networks of residues involved in the transfer of correlate ...025685315
sexually selected skin colour is heritable and related to fecundity in a non-human primate.sexual selection promotes the prevalence of heritable traits that increase an individual's reproductive rate. despite theoretically strong directional selection, sexually selected traits can show inter-individual variation. here, we investigate whether red skin ornamentation, a rare example of a male mammalian trait involved in mate attraction, influences fecundity and is heritable in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta), and explore the mechanisms that are involved in maintaining trait variation. i ...025253459
solving the shepherding problem: heuristics for herding autonomous, interacting agents.herding of sheep by dogs is a powerful example of one individual causing many unwilling individuals to move in the same direction. similar phenomena are central to crowd control, cleaning the environment and other engineering problems. despite single dogs solving this 'shepherding problem' every day, it remains unknown which algorithm they employ or whether a general algorithm exists for shepherding. here, we demonstrate such an algorithm, based on adaptive switching between collecting the agent ...025165603
marker-dependent associations among oxidative stress, growth and survival during early life in a wild mammal.oxidative stress (os) is hypothesized to be a key physiological mechanism mediating life-history trade-offs, but evidence from wild populations experiencing natural environmental variation is limited. we tested the hypotheses that increased early life growth rate increases os, and that increased os reduces first-winter survival, in wild soay sheep (ovis aries) lambs. we measured growth rate and first-winter survival for four consecutive cohorts, and measured two markers of oxidative damage (malo ...027733545
integrated temporal regulation of the photorespiratory pathway. circadian regulation of two arabidopsis genes encoding serine hydroxymethyltransferase.the photorespiratory pathway is comprised of enzymes localized within three distinct cellular compartments: chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and mitochondria. photorespiratory enzymes are encoded by nuclear genes, translated in the cytosol, and targeted into these distinct subcellular compartments. one likely means by which to regulate the expression of the genes encoding photorespiratory enzymes is coordinated temporal control. we have previously shown in arabidopsis that a circadian clock regulates ...010806255
de novo insertion of an intron into the mammalian sex determining gene, sry.two theories have been proposed to explain the evolution of introns within eukaryotic genes. the introns early theory, or "exon theory of genes," proposes that introns are ancient and that recombination within introns provided new exon structure, and thus new genes. the introns late theory, or "insertional theory of introns," proposes that ancient genes existed as uninterrupted exons and that introns have been introduced during the course of evolution. there is still controversy as to how intron ...09465071
[not available]. 022879275
[not available]. 022879217
hemoglobins of the corsico-sardinian mouflon (ovis musimon) and their implications for the origin of hb a in domestic sheep (ovis aries). 022896114
evolution of the 2n = 54 karyotype of domestic sheep (ovis aries). 022896552
[not available]. 022896052
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