TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
chemical restraint of exotic animals in a disease regulatory program.the african red tick (rhipicephalus evertsi neuman) is widely distributed in africa but had never been identified in north america until september 1960 when it was found in a wild animal compound in florida. the red tick is a vector of cattle fever (piroplasmosis) and several other exotic diseases including the highly fatal east coast fever. the 130 acre compound contained more than 300 african and asian animals, including giraffes, camels, zebras, elands, nilghais, blackbuck, aoudads, ostriches ...196317649416
[dermatomycosis of the nilgai antelope (boselaphus tragocamelus) caused by the dermatophyte trichophyton mentagrophytes].the authors described a dermal lesion in seven antelopes of the species boselaphus tragocamelus (pallas 1776), kept in a zoo-park. mycological examination revealed the dermatophyte trichophyton mentagrophytes (robin) blanchard 1896 as the causative agent of the lesion. the clinical picture of the dermatophytosis was manifested by a non-inflammatory desquamation of the epidermis with focal hair shedding. the lesions, mostly localized on the heads of the animals affected, were successfully treated ...197897843
[a case of possible rumenitis in a nilgai]. 1979419511
primary structures of pancreatic ribonucleases from bovidae. impala, thomson's gazelle, nilgai and water buffalo.the amino acid sequences of the pancreatic ribonucleases from impala thomson's gazelle, nilgai and two types of water buffalo were studied from several enzymic digests. peptides were positioned by homology with other ribonucleases of known sequence. only peptides that differ in amino acid composition from the corresponding peptides of ox and goat ribonuclease were sequenced. the primary structures of pancreatic ribonucleases from 11 species of the bovidae family are known to date. the evolutiona ...19807353035
plasma testosterone and lh responses to lhrh in double-muscled bulls treated with trenbolone acetate and zeranol.twenty-four double-muscled belgian white blue bulls were assigned, according to body weight, to two groups with and without treatment with anabolic agents. implants containing 140 mg trenbolone and 36 mg zeranol (forplix) were inserted sc on the upper face of the ear flap. plasma concentrations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (lh) were determined at d 0, 30 and 60 of the experimental period. mean testosterone levels at d 0 for treated and controls were, respectively, 2.1 and 1.7 ng/ml du ...19836358174
correction of angular forelimb deformity in a nilgai: periosteal transection and elevation of the radius and partial ulnectomy. 19863505972
protein requirements of subadult nilgai antelope.1. the maintenance crude protein (cp) requirements of subadult nilgai antelope (boselaphus tragocamelus) were determined by nitrogen balance. four isocaloric pelleted diets, ranging from 8.4 to 23.8% cp, were fed. 2. subadults maintained a positive nitrogen balance on all diets. linear regression showed that 95.8% of diet cp was truly digested and estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (nfn) excretion at 0.388 gn/w0.75/day. 3. estimates for endogenous urinary nitrogen excretion and maintenance nitro ...19872892623
an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants in a zoological collection.peste des petits ruminants virus was suspected to be the cause of a disease outbreak in a zoological collection at al ain in the arabian gulf. clinically the outbreak affected gazelles (gazellinae), ibex and sheep (caprinae) and gemsbok (hippotraginae); subclinical involvement of nilgai (tragelaphinae) was suspected. a morbillivirus was isolated and using monoclonal antibodies and biological tests in cattle, sheep and goats the virus of peste des petits ruminants was identified.19873424615
effects of an anabolic treatment before puberty with trenbolone acetate-oestradiol or oestradiol alone on growth rate, testicular development and luteinizing hormone and testosterone plasma concentrations.scrotal circumference, growth and hormonal status after prepubertal anabolic treatments were studied in 18 conventional belgian white blue bulls from 3 to 13 mo of age. young bulls were assigned into three groups: six untreated (control) bulls, six bulls implanted with 140 mg trenbolone acetate + 20 mg oestradiol (revalor; tba-e2) and six bulls treated with 45 mg oestradiol (compudose; e2). mean scrotal circumference was similar in the three groups at day o (between 13.0 +/- 0.3 cm to 13.4 +/- 0 ...198816726369
experimental infection of bulls with a genital isolate of bovine herpesvirus-4 and reactivation of latent virus with dexamethasone.five 13- to 18-month old belgian blue bulls were used in this experiment. four bulls (nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5) were inoculated intratesticularly with 10(5) plaque-forming units of bovine herpesvirus-4 (bhv-4) in each testicle (day 0). the challenge bhv-4 strain was previously isolated from testicle cells of a bull exhibiting orchitis and azoospermia. the fifth bull (no. 1) was used as a control and received the same volume of uninfected cell culture supernatant. for 5 days, beginning on day 51 post-i ...19892558442
response to virginiamycin in finishing beef bulls fed a maize silage diet or a complete dry feed.two experiments have been conducted to study the effect of virginiamycin in a maize silage diet (i) or a complete dry feed (ii). virginiamycin was incorporated at 0 or 65 mg per kg concentrate which was fed at 0.75% of the live weight of 43 belgian white-red bulls (i), or at 0 or 25 mg per kg complete dry feed for 24 belgian white-blue bulls (ii). in the first experiment daily gain was increased by virginiamycin from 1.28 to 1.38 kg without effect on intake, but with an improved feed conversion ...19902122874
the relationship between carcass characteristics, plasma hormones and metabolites in young fattening bulls.six belgian blue bulls (double-muscled type) and six friesian bulls were offered a fattening diet for 34 weeks. plasma samples were obtained once a week and also every 20 min over a 24 h period, 7 weeks before slaughter. no differences were observed between the breeds in plasma glucose, urea and free amino nitrogen concentrations, while creatinine was significantly higher in the belgian blue bulls. tri-iodothyronin, tetra-iodothyronin, insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin and testosterone conce ...19902180205
animal performance, plasma hormones and metabolites in holstein and belgian blue growing-fattening bulls.six holstein (light-muscled type) and six belgian blue bulls (double-muscled type) were fed a finishing diet. average daily gain was 1.36 kg for the holstein bulls vs 1.24 kg for the belgian blue bulls (p less than .05). holstein bulls consumed more feed (2.3 vs 1.8 kg/100 kg body weight, p less than .001) than the belgian blue bulls. the dressing percentage (55.4 vs 65.8%, p less than .001) and the proportion of muscle (56.1 vs 71.3%, p less than .001) in the carcass were less, whereas the prop ...19902211396
lymphoproliferation in captive wild ruminants affected with malignant catarrhal fever: 25 cases (1977-1985).the severity of lymphoproliferative disease associated with malignant catarrhal fever was extremely variable among 25 animals at the san diego wild animal park. severe lymphoproliferative disease was seen in 3 of 10 formosan sika deer (cervus nippon taiouanus), 3 of 6 indian axis deer (cervus a axis), 3 of 6 barasingha deer (cervus d duvauceli), and 1 of 3 nilgai (boselaphus tragocamelus). two sika deer and 2 barasingha deer had lesions morphologically indistinguishable from lymphosarcoma. our f ...19902329087
effect of a β-agonist on meat quality and myofibrillar protein fragmentation in bulls.three experiments were conducted to study the effect of cimaterol on meat quality and myofibrillar protein fragmentation of the longissimus dorsi muscle. in two experiments (experiments 1 and 2), conducted with 16 double-muscled belgian white-blue bulls and 15 charolais bulls, respectively, half of the animals received 60 μg cimaterol daily per kg liveweight in the diet, during 135 and 93 days, respectively. in a third experiment, 46 normal belgian white-blue bulls received no or 4 ppm cimaterol ...199022055115
economic and production consequences of liver fluke disease in double-muscled fattening cattle.the frequency of liver fluke disease in fattening units was determined by the analysis of random faeces samples issued from 1,513 belgian white blue bulls aged from 5 to 7 months and weighing from 200 to 300 kg. 12.5% of the investigated bulls were positive for liver fluke disease. these bulls were spread over 56.5% of the investigated fattening units. furthermore the infestation rate varied from 0 to 33.3% inside the fattening units. in order to assess the economic consequences of bovine fascio ...19911858458
effect of duration of a beta-agonist treatment on growth, feed intake and carcass characteristics in finishing bulls.two experiments were conducted to study the effect of a different duration of dietary cimaterol on animal performances and carcass characteristics in finishing belgian white-blue bulls. they received a concentrate diet ad libitum during 228 days on average, containing no cimaterol (control) or 4 ppm cimaterol during 71, 127 or 246 days (experiment 1) or during the last 76, 108 or 136 days before the end of the fattening period (experiment 2). prior to slaughter a 6-day withdrawal period was appl ...19937487472
stagewise mortality, ovipositional biology, and egg viability of boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae) on boselaphus tragocamelus (artiodactyla: bovidae).the stagewise mortality, ovipositional biology, and egg viability of the cattle tick, boophilus annulatus (say), on nilgai antelope, boselaphus tragocamelus pallas, was compared with ticks reared on bos taurus (hereford) cattle. mortality was highest during the larval stage on both host species, but larval mortality on nilgai (78.6%) was significantly higher than on cattle (45.6%) hosts. mortality during the nymphal stage was also significantly higher on nilgai (49.3%) than on cattle (13.9%). du ...19938271258
beet fed as such or ensiled with maize and fresh potatoes in diets for finishing bulls.the use of beet for beef production after ensiling together with maize was studied in two experiments involving 112 and 114 white-blue bulls. in the first experiment maize silage (i) was compared with mixed silage of maize and fodder beet (ii) or sugar beet (iii) (ratio: 2/1, dm-basis). in the second experiment maize silage (i) was compared with mixed silage of 0.67 maize and 0.33 sugar beet (ii) or maize silage and fresh sugar beet (ratio: 2/1, dm basis) (iii) or fresh sugar beet and potatoes a ...19947733816
taqi restriction fragment length polymorphisms for growth hormone in bovine breeds and their association with quantitative traits.the objectives of the present study were (1) to reveal gh-taqi rflps in different bovine breeds and (2) to look for association between quantitative traits and gh-taqi rflps in bulls highly selected for growth and meat production. blood was sampled from 269 holstein heifers, 48 italian and 45 hungarian simmental heifers, 30 normande heifers and 41 bulls and 13 heifers of the double-muscled belgian white blue breed. bulls were weighed from 7 until 13 months of age and the average daily gain, the ...19947858483
occurrence and pathology of gongylonema infection in captive wild herbivores.gongylonema infection in 11 captive wild herbivores out of 214 animals (5.14%) was recorded at post mortem examination. species of animals affected were spotted deer (6.06%), sambar (7.14%), mouse deer (16.66%), nilgai (11.76%), serow (16.66%) and giraffe (20.0%). the affected areas showed fibrinous inflammation. on scanning electron microscopic study, destruction and disruption of the epithelium were noted, and cuticular bosses originating from the anterior tip of the parasite were observed.19948030183
birth of double-muscled belgian blue calves after transfer of in vitro produced embryos into dairy cattle.the possible application of the bovine in vitro fertilization technique for economical beef production was evaluated by transferring in vitro produced belgian blue embryos to synchronized dairy cows and heifers. in total, 4167 oocytes, collected in the slaughterhouse from double-muscled belgian blue cows, were matured in vitro. frozen-thawed semen from 3 belgian blue bulls was used for in vitro fertilization. zygotes were cultured in b(2) + 10% estrous cow serum together with oviductal cells at ...199416727439
sequence conservation of microsatellites between bos taurus (cattle), capra hircus (goat) and related species. examples of use in parentage testing and phylogeny analysis.a panel of 70 bovine microsatellites was tested for amplification from goat dna. forty-three could be successfully amplified by pcr, 20 of which were tested for polymorphism. three were applied for parentage testing in goat families and their exclusion probability evaluated. fourteen were cloned and sequenced from goat dna, and goat and bovine sequences were compared to evaluate interspecific conservation. correlation between the structure of the dinucleotide repeat and the number of alleles was ...19957852099
effect of yeast supplementation on health, performance and rumen fermentation in beef bulls.the effect of 0, 6 or 60 g yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) daily on health and performance was investigated in 90 double-muscled and 48 non-double-muscled belgian white-blue bulls during 60 and 51 days, respectively, upon arrival at the experimental farm. the yeast was incorporated in the concentrate, which was fed at 2 kg d-1 during the first ten days and at 2.5 kg d-1 afterwards. besides, maize silage was fed up to 8 kg d-1, while grass hay was offered ad libitum. feed intake, growth rate and ...19957668988
estimation of genetic parameters for growth, feed consumption, and conformation traits for double-muscled belgian blue bulls performance-tested in belgium.for 1,442 belgian blue bulls performance-tested at the centre de sélection de la race blanc-bleue belge, nine traits were observed: height at withers at 7 mo, height at withers at 13 mo, weight at 7 mo, weight at 13 mo, average feed consumption of concentrates, average daily gain, average feed consumption of concentrates per average daily gain, average feed consumption of concentrates per mean metabolic weight, and price per kilogram of live weight. this price is based on muscle conformation and ...19958586583
evolutionary histories of highly repeated dna families among the artiodactyla (mammalia).six highly repeated dna families were analyzed using southern blotting and fluorescence in situ hybridization in a comparative study of 46 species of artiodactyls belonging to seven of the eight extant taxonomic families. two of the repeats, the dispersed bovine-pst family and the localized 1.715 component, were found to have the broadest taxonomic distributions, being present in all pecoran ruminants (giraffidae, cervidae, antilocapridae, and bovidae), indicating that these repeats may be 25-40 ...19968661995
surgical treatment of urethral dilatation in seven male cattle.the surgical treatment of urethral dilatation in the perineal region of seven young belgian blue bulls is described. urethrostomy under local anaesthesia in the standing animal resulted in a successful outcome in three of them. the possible aetiological factors and consequences of this syndrome are discussed.19968825328
antelopes (bovidae) kept in european zoological gardens as intermediate hosts of sarcocystis species.four different forms of sarcocysts from the zoo-kept antelopes addax nasomaculatus. antilope cervicapra, taurotragus oryx and boselaphus tragocamelus (bovidae) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy, in special consideration of the cyst wall. the sarcocysts found in addax (born in a zoo) were not distinguishable from sarcocystis medusiformis of australasian sheep by their morphology and would be the first indication for the occurrence of this species in europe. sarcocyst ...19969257346
different periods of feed restriction before compensatory growth in belgian blue bulls: i. animal performance, nitrogen balance, meat characteristics, and fat composition.thirty double-muscled belgian blue bulls were maintained at a rate of gain of .5 kg/d during four periods of time, 115 (g2), 239 (g3), or 411 (g4) d (low growth period, lgp), before fattening (rapid growth period, rgp). ten control animals (cg) were fed a diet rich in energy and protein. the g2, g3, and g4 were fed a diet low in energy and protein and the same diet as cg during rgp. live weight was recorded biweekly, feed intake (fi) daily, and nitrogen balance at three times for each group. at ...19989464906
different periods of feed restriction before compensatory growth in belgian blue bulls: ii. plasma metabolites and hormones.plasma metabolites and hormones were studied in 16 double-muscled belgian blue bulls maintained at low growth (.5 kg/d) for 114 (g2), 243 (g3), or 419 (g4) d (low growth period, lgp) before fattening (rapid growth period, rgp). animals from the control group (cg) were fed a diet high in energy and protein. the animals from g2, g3, and g4 were fed a restricted amount of a diet low in energy and protein during lgp and the same diet as cg during rgp. plasma glucose, alpha-amino nitrogen (aan), nefa ...19989464907
a karyotypic analysis of nilgai, boselaphus tragocamelus (artiodactyla: bovidae).a combination of chromosomal banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) was used to characterize the karyotype of boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai) relative to the domestic cattle standard karyotype. g-, q- and c-band karyotypes of nilgai are presented, and the chromosomal complement of nilgai is determined to be 2n=46 (female fn=60, male fn=59; naa=56), consistent with previous reports for the species. comparisons with cattle identified extensive monobrachial homologies with some note ...19989886771
a molecular cytogenetic analysis of the tribe bovini (artiodactyla: bovidae: bovinae) with an emphasis on sex chromosome morphology and nor distribution.q-band comparisons were made among representative species of the four genera of the tribe bovini (bos, bison, bubalus, syncerus) as well as to selected outgroup taxa representing the remaining two tribes of the subfamily bovinae (nilgai, boselaphini; eland, tragelphini), the bovidae subfamily caprinae (domestic sheep) and the family cervidae (sika deer and white-tailed deer). extensive autosomal arm homologies were noted, but relatively few derivative character states were shared. focus was then ...199910560971
basic hematological values in some wild ruminants in captivity.analyses of hematological parameters were carried out on eight axis deer (cervus axis), 12 fallow deer (cervus dama), 16 red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus), three sambar (cervus unicolor), nine père david deer (elaphurus davidianus), 20 european bison (bison bonasus), seven nilgai (boselaphus tragocamelus), eight mouflon (ovis musimon), four white-bearded gnu (connochaetes taurinus) and six barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia). the following parameters were determined: packed cell volume, hemogl ...199910629960
determination of the methionine requirement of growing double-muscled belgian blue bulls with a three-step method.the three-step technique was used to determine the requirements of total amino acids (taa) and the first-limiting amino acid (aa) in growing double-muscled belgian blue bulls (bbb). in exp. 1, three double-muscled bbb weighing initially 306 +/- 28 kg received a basal diet consisting of 30% meadow hay and 70% concentrate that was poor in digestible protein but had adequate ne because of continuous infusion of dextrose into the duodenum. the intestinal apparent digestibility of essential aa (eaa) ...200010682826
feed restriction in young bulls alters the onset of puberty in relationship with plasma insulin-like growth factor-i (igf-i) and igf-binding proteins.the objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of feed restriction and re-alimentation on the onset of puberty and igf status in peripubertal male calves and to compare the radioimmunoassay (ria) and western ligand blotting (wlb) methods for bovine igfbp-2. twelve prepubertal 290 d-old belgian blue bulls (mean weight: +/- 290 kg) were randomly assigned in three groups: a control group (ng; n = 4) receiving a classic fattening diet to induce "normal" growth (1.48 kg/d), a feed restricte ...200010764973
hidden morphological support for the phylogenetic placement of pseudoryx nghetinhensis with bovine bovids: a combined analysis of gross anatomical evidence and dna sequences from five genes.the saola, pseudoryx nghetinhensis, was unknown to science until its formal description in 1993. this endangered species is a member of the ruminant artiodactyl family bovidae (cattle, sheep, goats, and antelopes). however, given its puzzling combination of morphological traits, the specific affinities of pseudoryx within bovidae are controversial. a preliminary genetic investigation suggested that pseudoryx should be placed in the subfamily bovinae (cattle, buffaloes, spiral-horned antelopes, a ...200012116425
effect of dietary energy and protein levels on fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat in double-muscled belgian blue bulls.seventy six belgian blue (bb) bulls, with double-muscled conformation, were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial experiment. the treatments included low (n(l)=127 g cp/kg dm), medium (n(m)=153 g cp/kg dm) and high (n(h)=172 g cp/kg dm) levels of dietary protein in combination with low (e(l)=7.38 mj me/kg dm) and high (e(h)=8.03 mj me/kg dm) levels of dietary energy. fatty acid composition was determined on total lipid samples of the m. longissimus thoracis of all ani ...200022061774
relationship between fat depots in carcasses of beef bulls and effect on meat colour and tenderness.four hundred and thirty-three double-muscled and two hundred and two non-double-muscled belgian blue bulls, with mean cold carcass weights of 470±27 and 414±33 kg, respectively, were studied to investigate the relationships between the seurop fat grade, the anatomical fat content in the carcass (adipose tissue) and the chemical fat content in the longissimus thoracis. the relationships between the shear force value and the lightness of the meat and fat characteristics were also studied. a modera ...200022061769
molecular insights into the evolution of the family bovidae: a nuclear dna perspective.the evolutionary history of the family bovidae remains controversial despite past comprehensive morphological and genetic investigations. in an effort to resolve some of the systematic uncertainties within the group, a combined molecular phylogeny was constructed based on four independent nuclear dna markers (2,573 characters) and three mitochondrial dna genes (1,690 characters) for 34 bovid taxa representing all seven of the currently recognized bovid subfamilies. the nuclear dna fragments were ...200111420362
decreasing the roughage:concentrate ratio of a diet to determine the critical roughage part for beef cattle.the critical roughage part (crp) of 2 diet types was determined in a cross-over design with 6 double-muscled and 6 normally conformed belgian blue bulls fitted with rumen cannulae. the roughage:concentrate ratio was lowered weekly until signs of a lack of physical structure were observed. for diet 1, consisting of maize silage and concentrates, the initial proportion of maize silage was 25% of dm but it decreased weekly with 5% units of dm. for the second diet, consisting of wheat straw and conc ...200212389217
rumen escape of methionine and lysine administered intraruminally to growing double-muscled belgian blue many dietary conditions, methionine (met) and lysine (lys) are the most limiting amino acids (aa) for ruminants. the aa protected from ruminal fermentation are not commercially available, with the exception of met which is not always economical, especially for meat production. this study measured ruminal escape of free met and lys supplemented intraruminally to fast growing bulls. six double-muscled belgian blue bulls, fed a high concentrate diet and fitted with a rumen cannula, received free ...200212625418
carcass and meat quality in double-muscled belgian blue bulls and cows.carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the belgian blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. females had a lower (p=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; p <0.001). seurop conformation was bet ...200322062387
intestinal diverticulitis in a nilgai (bucelaphus tragocamelus). 20037716874
effect of phenolic monomers on biomass and hydrolytic enzyme activities of an anaerobic fungus isolated from wild nil gai (baselophus tragocamelus).to test the anaerobic fungus, piromyces sp. fng5, for its tolerance to phenolic monomers released in the rumen by degradation of lignocellulosic poor-quality feeds.200312753245
persistent penile frenulum in a nilgai (boselaphus tragocamelus). 200415354850
decreasing variation in the eating quality of beef through homogenous pre- and post-slaughter management.the objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of current "best-practise" management of steers pre- and post-slaughter in reducing variation in the eating quality of beef. steers sired by one belgian blue bull from holstein-friesian cows were managed optimally from birth to slaughter. animals were slaughtered at target body weights and subcutaneous fat scores of 620 kg and 4l (lh) (n=23) or 720 kg and 4h (hh) (n=24). on each slaughter occasion, commercial steers with similar ...200422061114
effect of imbalance between energy and nitrogen supplies on microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in growing double-muscled belgian blue bulls.six double-muscled belgian blue bulls (initial weight: 345 +/- 16 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in two juxtaposed 3 x 3 latin squares to study the effect of a lack of synchronization between energy and n in the rumen on microbial protein synthesis and n metabolism by giving the same diet according to three different feeding patterns. the feed ingredients of the diet were separated into two groups supplying the same amount of fermentable om (fom), but characterize ...200415217010
effect of anaerobic fungi on in vitro feed digestion by mixed rumen microflora of buffalo.five strains of anaerobic fungi isolated from the faeces of wild (hog deer, cervus porcinus; blackbuck, antelope cervicapra; spotted deer, axis axis; nilgai, baselophus tragocamelus) and rumen liquor of domestic (sheep, ovies aries) ruminants showing high fibrolytic enzyme producing ability were added to mixed rumen microflora of buffalo to study their effect on the digestibility of lignocellulosic feed (wheat straw and wheat bran in the ratio of 80:20), enzyme production and fermentation end pr ...200415535463
toxoplasmosis in nilgais (boselaphus tragocamelus) and a saiga antelope (saiga tatarica).three captive female nilgais (boselaphus tragocamelus) either showed late-term abortion or their newborn calves died within 2 days of birth. toxoplasma gondii dna was demonstrated in the brain and liver of each fetus and in one of the two neonates by single-stage polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with tgr1e and by seminested pcr with b1 gene. retrospectively, antibodies titers > or =640 to t. gondii by indirect fluorescence were found in the sera of all three female and one male nilgais. no other ...200415732596
development of novel heminested pcr assays based on mitochondrial 16s rrna gene for identification of seven pecora species.characterization of molecular markers and the development of better assays for precise and rapid detection of wildlife species are always in demand. this study describes a set of seven novel heminested pcr assays using specific primers designed based on species-specific polymorphism at the mitochondrial 16s rrna gene for identification of blackbuck, goral, nilgai, hog deer, chital, sambar and thamin deer.200516095528
proteomic analysis of bovine skeletal muscle hypertrophy.myostatin plays a major role in muscle growth and development and animals with disruption of this gene display marked increases in muscle mass. little is known about muscle physiological adaptations in relation to this muscle hypertrophy. to provide a more comprehensive view, we analyzed bovine muscles from control, heterozygote and homozygote young belgian blue bulls for myostatin deletion, which results in a normal level of inactive myostatin. heterozygote and homozygote animals were character ...200515627970
the influence of biochemical differences on the variation in tenderness of m. longissimus dorsi of belgian blue steers managed homogenously pre and post-slaughter.the objective of this experiment was to determine the contribution of some biochemical processes of postmortem muscle to the variation in tenderness of beef from belgian blue bull cross holstein-friesian steers (n=10). these animals were managed optimally from conception to consumption with the aim of reducing tenderness variation. the m. longissimus dorsi (ld) from the left hand side (lhs) and the right hand side (rhs) were analysed for variation in tenderness using bartletts test. the quality ...200522062811
comparison of composition and quality traits of meat from young finishing bulls from belgian blue, limousin and aberdeen angus breeds.thirty-six young finishing bulls from three breeds (belgian blue, limousin and aberdeen angus) were fattened over five months with finishing diets based either on sugar-beet pulp or on cereals. nutritional quality traits of meat - fat content and fatty acid composition with emphasis on the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - along with some organoleptic quality traits were measured. the belgian blue bulls had the lowest intramuscular fat content associated with lower saturated and monounsa ...200622063057
growth- and breed-related changes of muscle bundle structure in cattle.the objective of this study was to investigate the changes in muscle fiber bundles of cattle of different breeds during growth. different numbers of muscle fibers are surrounded by connective tissue to form bundles macroscopically visible as meat fibers or meat grain, a common meat quality trait. to determine the influence of breed and age on morphological characteristics of muscle fiber bundles, 4 cattle breeds with different growth impetus and muscularity were reared and slaughtered under expe ...200617032789
molecular cloning and evolution of the gene encoding the precursor of nilgai (boselaphus tragocamelus) interleukin 2.interleukin 2 is a key immunoregulatory cytokine that is involved in t helper differentiation and is known to induce interferon gamma (ifn-gamma) in natural killer (nk) and t-cell. the gene for interleukin-2 (il-2) was amplified from cdna pool prepared from conastimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbm cells) isolated from nilgai reared in semicaptivity. the amplified il-2 gene was cloned and nucleotide sequences were determined. the sequencing result showed that nilgai il-2 cdna contai ...200617381048
effect of various levels of imbalance between energy and nitrogen release in the rumen on microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in growing double-muscled belgian blue bulls fed a corn silage-based double-muscled belgian blue bulls (initial bw: 341 +/- 21 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in an incomplete replicated latin square. the study examined the effect of imbalance between energy and n in the rumen on microbial protein synthesis and n metabolism by giving the same diet according to 3 different feeding patterns. the feed ingredients of the diet were separated into 2 groups supplying the same amount of fermentable om (fom) but characterized by differ ...200616543565
growth- and breed-related changes of marbling characteristics in cattle.the objective of this study was to investigate the growth- and breed-related changes of marbling characteristics in cattle. four cattle breeds with different growth impetus and muscularity were reared and slaughtered under experimental conditions. german angus, as a typical beef cattle; galloway, as a smaller, environmentally resistant beef cattle; holstein-friesian, as a dairy-type cattle; and double-muscled belgian blue, as an extreme type for muscle growth, were used. these 4 breeds were expe ...200616612008
molecular characterization of coding sequences and analysis of toll-like receptor 3 mrna expression in water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and nilgai (boselaphus tragocamelus).toll-like receptor 3 (tlr3), an antiviral innate immunity receptor recognizes double-stranded rna, preferably of viral origin and induces type i interferon production, which causes maturation of phagocytes and subsequent release of chemical mediators from phagocytes against some viral infections. the present study has characterized tlr3 complementary dna (cdna) in buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and nilgai (boselaphus tragocamelus). tlr3 coding sequences of both buffalo and nilgai were amplified from ...200717119952
hydrolytic activities of anaerobic fungi from wild blue bull (boselaphus tragocamelus).the anaerobic fungi play an active role in the plant fibre degradation by producing a wide array of potential hydrolytic enzymes in the rumen. in present study, 12 anaerobic fungal strains were isolated from the faecal samples of wild blue bull, and identified as species of piromyces, anaeromyces, orpinomyces and neocallimastix based on their morphological characteristics. isolate wng-12 (piromyces sp.), showed maximum filter paper cellulase (23 miu ml(-1)) and xylanase (127 miu ml(-1)) activity ...200717218123
effect of administration of anaerobic fungi isolated from cattle and wild blue bull (boselaphus tragocamelus) on growth rate and fibre utilization in buffalo calves.fifteen murrah buffalo calves (age about 10 months, 163-176 kg bw) were divided into three groups. group i (control) was fed a complete feed mixture consisted of 50% wheat straw and 50% concentrate mixture (contained per kg: maize 330 g, groundnut cake 210 g, mustard cake 120 g, wheat bran 200 g, de-oiled rice bran 110 g, mineral mixture 20 g and common salt 10 g) along with 2 kg green oats per animal and day to meet the vitamin a requirements. calves of groups ii and iii were fed with the contr ...200718030922
effect of rumen-degradable protein balance deficit on voluntary intake, microbial protein synthesis, and nitrogen metabolism in growing double-muscled belgian blue bulls fed corn silage-based diet.two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rumen-degradable protein balance (oeb) deficit on voluntary intake (trial 1), microbial protein synthesis, and n metabolism (trial 2) in growing double-muscled belgian blue bulls. in trial 1, six bulls (339 +/- 26 kg of initial bw) were used in a replicated 3 x 3 latin square and received a diet of 60% corn silage and 40% concentrate with ad libitum intake (dm basis). three concentrates were formulated by adding urea at the expense of barley to ...200818073288
molecular characterization of toll-like receptor 2 of ruminants and comparative expression in nilgai (boselaphus tragocamelus) vs. buffalo (bubalus bubalis).toll-like receptors play role in the innate immune responses and orchestrate the adaptive immunity by induction of proinflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of costimulatory molecules. the present study has characterized tlr2 cdna in nilgai, buffalo, sheep and goat that recognizes the peptidoglycan of gram-positive bacteria. tlr2 coding sequences were amplified from monocytes cdna and cloned in pgemt-easy vector for nucleotide sequencing. sequence analysis revealed 2355-bp-long tlr2 open readi ...200818312593
relationship between leptin content, metabolic hormones and fat deposition in three beef cattle breeds.the aim of the study was to determine if cattle breeds differing in their carcass characteristics also differ in the profiles of their leptin and metabolic hormones. three breeds, belgian blue (bb) (n=12), limousin (l) (n=12) and aberdeen angus (aa) (n=12) with varying ability to deposit fat and protein were compared. blood, muscle and subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue were sampled. animal performance, carcass and meat characteristics were determined as well as plasma leptin concentration, leptin ...200817569563
testicular dysfunction is responsible for low sperm quality in belgian blue a previous study, we demonstrated that belgian blue (bb) bulls have a higher prevalence of small scrota and poorer semen morphology compared to the holstein friesian (hf) breed in belgium. the present study tested the hypothesis that the underlying reason for these bb traits negative to fertility was testicular degeneration, associated with an eventual hypoplastic background. at culling, sperm quality and testicular histology of bb bulls were assessed and compared to that of hf bulls. besides ...200818023470
genotype profiles of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates recovered from animals, commercial milk, and human beings in north understand the genetic diversity of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) isolates recovered from domestic and wild ruminants, commercial milk, and human beings in north india.200919233699
supplementation with plant extracts (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsaicin): its effects on acid-base status and productive performance in growing/finishing bull calves.this study investigated the in vivo effects of a commercial blend of plant extracts (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsaicin) on blood acid-base balance and serum lactate levels in a 148-day feedlot experimentwith 24 double-muscled belgian blue bull calves. animals were allotted randomly to one of two experimental groups: 1) a control group (c, no supplementation; n = 10), and 2) a group receiving dietary supplementation with a combination of plant extracts (pe, 100 mg per kg dm of concentrate; ...200919350807
effects of crossbreed pregnancies on the abortion risk of neospora caninum-infected dairy cows.previous studies have shown that the use of beef bull semen significantly reduces the rate of abortions due to neospora caninum in artificially inseminated (ai) seropositive dairy cows. in addition, certain beef breeds could be more resistant to n. caninum infection and abortion than others. the aim of the present study was to determine whether different crossbreed pregnancies, those derived from limousin, charolais, piedmontese or belgian blue semen, carry different risks of abortion in neospor ...200919464119
influence of angus and belgian blue bulls mated to hereford x brahman cows on growth, carcass traits, and longissimus steak shear force.steers and heifers were generated from angus (a) and belgian blue (bb) sires mated to brahman x hereford (b x h) f(1) cows to characterize their growth, carcass traits, and lm shear force. a total of 120 b x h cows purchased from 2 herds and 35 bulls (14 a and 21 bb) produced calves during the 5-yr project. after the stocker phase, a representative sample of a- and bb-sired heifers and steers were transported to the iberia research station to be fed a high-concentrate diet. the remaining cattle ...200919028864
nutritional properties of potato protein concentrate compared with soybean meal as the main protein source in feed for the double-muscled belgian blue bull.the objective of this experiment was to compare the nutritional properties of potato protein concentrate, a by-product of the starch industry produced entirely in europe, with that of soybean meal (sbm), for growing cattle. the experiment was conducted on double-muscled belgian blue bulls, fitted with rumen, duodenal and ileal cannulas, according to a 4 × 4 latin square design. they were fed three different iso-n and iso-net energy diets formulated according to the dutch feed evaluation system, ...200922444222
some factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of neospora-associated abortions are different in cows and heifers.the aim of this study was to determine if the factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of neospora-associated abortions are different in pregnancies of cows and heifers chronically infected with neospora caninum. in heifers (n = 229), an increase in the cumulative number of days with a mean relative humidity (rh) lower than 60% during the second trimester of gestation increases the risk of abortion. yet, the likelihood of abortion was 7.6 times lower for pregnant he ...201019210662
fibrolytic potential of anaerobic fungi (piromyces sp.) isolated from wild cattle and blue bulls in pure culture and effect of their addition on in vitro fermentation of wheat straw and methane emission by rumen fluid of buffaloes.ten isolates of anaerobic fungi of piromyces genus from wild cattle and blue bulls (five isolates from each host species) were evaluated for their fibrolytic ability in pure culture, their suitability for use as a microbial additive in buffaloes and their effect on methane emission.201020394004
wildlife (boselaphus tragocamelus)-small ruminant (goat and sheep) interface in the transmission of 'bison type' genotype of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in india.information on mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) genotypes infecting different animal species in india is limited. presence of map was investigated in free ranging antelopes (locally known as nilgai/blue bulls/boselaphus tragocamelus) using direct microscopy, culture, is900 pcr and is1311 pcr-rea. is900 elements of map from nilgai and previously isolated from goats were sequenced and compared to establish inter-species transmission between free ranging nilgai and closed farm ...201018805585
nilgai antelope in northern mexico as a possible carrier for cattle fever ticks and babesia bovis and babesia bigemina.of 20 blood samples from nilgais from m+®xico, five were polymerase chain reaction-positive for babesia bigemina and one for babesia bovis. positive samples had the expected 170 (b. bigemina) and 291 (b. bovis) base pairs and were identical to gen-bank b. bigemina accession s45366 and b. bovis m38218.201121719852
scrotal insulation and its relationship to abnormal morphology, chromatin protamination and nuclear shape of spermatozoa in holstein-friesian and belgian blue bulls.the objectives of this study were to identify the stages of spermatogenesis susceptible to elevated testicular temperature in terms of sperm motility, viability, morphology, chromatin protamination and nuclear shape. the latter two valuable parameters are not included in routine semen analysis. scrotal insulation (si) was applied for 48 h in 2 holstein-friesian (hf) and 2 belgian blue (bb) bulls and semen was collected at 7 d intervals along with semen collection of a non-insulated bull of each ...201121777969
in vitro maturation and fertilization in the nilgai (boselaphus tragocamelus) using oocytes and spermatozoa recovered post-mortem from animals that had died because of foot and mouth disease outbreak.the ability to rescue gametes from endangered or wildlife species and to subsequently produce viable embryos holds tremendous potential as a means to increase the population size of endangered or wildlife species. the objective of this study was to assess the developmental competence of gametes recovered from nilgai that had died because of foot and mouth disease outbreak. oocytes collected from the ovaries of seven dead nilgais were allowed to mature in vitro and were tested for developmental p ...201121272098
successful use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) analog for the treatment of tertiary hypogonadism (gnrh deficiency) in a 5-year-old belgian blue bull.a bull was referred for a progressive oligoasthenotheratozoospermia that resulted in a unsuitable seminal quality for the cryopreservation. breeding soundness evaluation results suggested gonadal dysfunction. because of the lack of normal ranges for these hormones in the bull, in this study, the hypogonadism and the site of the dysfunction (hypothalamus) were diagnosed by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) stimulation test. the evaluation of pituitary and testicular responsiveness by a gn ...201222493993
activity of ancient rte retroposons during the evolution of cows, spiral-horned antelopes, and nilgais (bovinae).in the genome of artiodactyla (cow, sheep, pigs, camels, and whales), a major retroposon group originated from a presumable horizontal transfer of bovb, a retrotransposon-like element retroposon, between 52 and 70 million years ago. since then, bovb retroposons have proliferated and today occupy a quarter of the cow's genome sequence. the bovb-related short interspersed elements (sines) were used for resolving the phylogeny of bovinae (cows, spiral-horned antelopes, and nilgais) and their relati ...201222688946
characterisation and in silico analysis of interleukin-4 cdna of nilgai (boselaphus tragocamelus) and indian buffalo (bubalus bubalis).interleukin-4 (il-4) produced from th2 cells modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. it is a common belief that wild animals possess better immunity against diseases than domestic and laboratory animals; however, the immune system of wild animals is not fully explored yet. therefore, a comparative study was designed to explore the wildlife immunity through characterisation of il-4 cdna of nilgai, a wild ruminant, and indian buffalo, a domestic ruminant. total rna was extracted from ...201324348167
sequence-based appraisal of the genes encoding neck and carbohydrate recognition domain of conglutinin in blackbuck (antilope cervicapra) and goat (capra hircus).conglutinin, a collagenous c-type lectin, acts as soluble pattern recognition receptor (prr) in recognition of pathogens. in the present study, genes encoding neck and carbohydrate recognition domain (ncrd) of conglutinin in goat and blackbuck were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. the obtained 488 bp orfs encoding ncrd were submitted to ncbi with accession numbers kc505182 and kc505183. both nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were analysed with sequences of other ruminants retrieved ...201425028649
non-haemolytic mannheimia haemolytica as a cause of pleuropneumonia and septicemia in a calf.pure cultures of non-haemolytic mannheimia haemolytica, were cultivated from pleural effusion fluid and blood from a 1-month old belgian blue bull calf that was presented with apathy and anorexia. the isolates were identified as m. haemolytica by 16s rrna gene sequencing and maldi-tof-ms. since haemolysis on blood agar plates is considered a hallmark of m. haemolytica we wanted to elucidate the unusual phenotype of the isolated strain. therefore the leukotoxin operon (lktcabd), responsible for t ...201526344042
molecular characterization of mycobacterium orygis isolates from wild animals of nepal.mycobacterium orygis, a new member of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, was isolated from a captive spotted deer (axis axis) and a blue bull (boselaphus tragocamelus) in nepal. analyses by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (miru-vntr) typing, region of difference and single nucleotide polymorphism of genes gyrb, mmpl6, tbd1, ppe55 and rv2042c confirmed the isolates as m. orygis. moreover, analyses by spoligotyping (sit587) as well ...201526563034
solute and particle retention in a small grazing antelope, the blackbuck (antilope cervicapra).digesta retention patterns have been suggested to play a major role in ruminant diversification. two major digestion types have been proposed, termed 'cattle-type' and 'moose-type', that broadly correspond to the feeding categories of grazers and intermediate feeders on the one, and browsers on the other hand. we measured and calculated the mean retention time (mrt) of a solute and a particle (<2 mm) marker in the gastrointestinal tract (git) and the reticulorumen (rr) of a small grazer, the ind ...201525490292
the prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (prnp), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses). several polymorphisms within the prnp are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (cd ...201526319996
pulmonary arterial disease associated with right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure in zoo mammals housed at 2,100 m above sea level.subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. the authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mam ...201526667539
trypanosoma evansi infection in a german shepherd dog - apparent successful treatment using serial low dose of diminazene aceturate.the present study reports a new case of trypanosoma evansi infection in a dog possibly due to oral transmission from a wild antelope, nilgai. a four year old male german shepherd dog presented to the referral veterinary polyclinic with history of inappetance, persistent fever, ocular discharge, standing for prolong periods and head pressing. physical examination revealed corneal opacity, absence of menace reflex and partial blindness. the blood smear examination revealed the presence of trypanos ...201531018413
prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animals in bir moti bagh mini zoo (deer park), patiala, punjab.the study was conducted to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of captive wild animals at bir moti bagh mini zoo (deer park), patiala, punjab.201627397973
use of remote cameras to monitor the potential prevalence of sarcoptic mange in southern texas, usa.sarcoptic mange, caused by the mite sarcoptes scabiei , is a common, highly contagious skin disease that has been reported from more than 100 species of mammals, including humans. our objectives were to 1) determine the prevalence of sarcoptic mange within mammals from southern texas, and 2) determine the efficacy of using remote cameras to estimate mange prevalence. we collected remote camera photographs from a 64-km(2) area and blood and skin scrapings from 166 mammals representing 12 species ...201728135133
noninvasive assessment of gastrointestinal parasites infection in free-ranging wild herbivores and adjoining livestock of panna tiger reserve, madhya pradesh, india.this study was conducted to know the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of free-ranging wild herbivores and adjoining livestock of panna tiger reserve, madhya pradesh, india.201728831216
comparison of natural and artificial odor lures for nilgai (boselaphus tragocamelus) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in south texas: developing treatment for cattle fever tick eradication.cattle fever ticks (cft), vectors of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis, were eradicated from the united states by 1943, but are frequently reintroduced from neighboring border states of mexico via stray cattle and wildlife hosts including white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) (wtd) and nilgai antelope (boselaphus tragocamelus). nilgai antelope are exotic bovids from india that are hosts of cft, have large home ranges as compared to wtd, thus have the potential to spread cft through the lan ...201728580297
movement patterns of nilgai antelope in south texas: implications for cattle fever tick management.wildlife, both native and introduced, can harbor and spread diseases of importance to the livestock industry. describing movement patterns of such wildlife is essential to formulate effective disease management strategies. nilgai antelope (boselaphus tragocamelus) are a free-ranging, introduced ungulate in southern texas known to carry cattle fever ticks (cft, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, r. (b.) annulatus). cft are the vector for the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis, a lethal dise ...201728992923
crossbred young bulls and heifers sired by double-muscled piemontese or belgian blue bulls exhibit different effects of sexual dimorphism on fattening performance and muscularity but not on meat quality double-muscled belgian blue (bb) and piemontese (piem) breeds are heavily selected for different objectives (the former mainly for muscularity, the latter for ease of calving), the aim of this study was to compare sexual dimorphism in 56 crossbred young bulls and heifers obtained from dairy cows mated to bulls of the two beef breeds. young piem- and bb-sired bulls had similar fattening performances and beef traits, although the bb crossbreds were slightly more muscular. otherwise, the bb-sire ...201829149626
implication of nilgai antelope (artiodactyla: bovidae) in reinfestations of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus (acari: ixodidae) in south texas: a review and update.the cattle fever tick eradication program was the first parasite eradication program of veterinary importance in the united states and is considered to be one of the greatest disease eradication programs of all time. the program's utilization of pasture vacation and dipping of cattle in acaricide has been extremely successful for controlling rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus (canestrini) and r. (b.) annulatus (say), collectively known as cattle fever ticks, on cattle along the texas border wit ...201829438533
tick vector and disease pathogen surveillance of nilgai antelope ( boselaphus tragocamelus) in southeastern texas, usa.nilgai ( boselaphus tragocamelus) are nonnative bovines that were originally introduced as game animals to one large, south texas, us ranch but that are now present throughout southeastern texas from baffin bay to harlingen and in northern mexico at least as far west as durango. between october 2014 and january 2017, nilgai ( n=517) were examined for the presence of tick ectoparasites, with particular interest in the cattle fever tick, rhipicephalus ( boophilus) microplus. these animals were eit ...201829863973
quantification of nicotine and cotinine in plasma, saliva, and urine by hplc method in chewing tobacco users.nicotine acts as major alkaloid of all tobacco products including smokeless tobacco (slt) forms. the mode of slt consumption is in the form of chewing under the cheek or lip and induced biochemical alterations in the plasma, saliva, and urine.201931870102
comparative chromosome mapping of musk ox and the x chromosome among some bovidae species.: bovidae, the largest family in pecora infraorder, are characterized by a striking variability in diploid number of chromosomes between species and among individuals within a species. the bovid x chromosome is also remarkably variable, with several morphological types in the family. here we built a detailed chromosome map of musk ox (ovibosmoschatus), a relic species originating from pleistocene megafauna, with dromedary and human probes using chromosome painting. we trace chromosomal rearrange ...201931671864
genetics of bull semen characteristics in a multi-breed cattle population.little is known of the genetic variability in semen quality traits in cattle and their inter-relationships. the objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for a range of semen quality measures. the data consisted of 35,573 ejaculates from 787 artificial insemination bulls of 16 breeds. genetic parameters were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. large breed differences were detected with belgian blue bulls, on average, producing lesser semen volume th ...201930317043
influence of seasonal differences on semen quality and subsequent embryo development of belgian blue bulls.belgian blue bulls are more susceptible to high temperature and humidity index (thi) than most other cattle breeds. here, we investigated whether high ambient temperature during summer affected semen quality and subsequent embryo development in belgian blue cattle. for this purpose, semen samples were collected from six healthy mature belgian blue bulls in march (low thi group; thi between 30.6 and 56.4) and august 2016 (high thi group; maximum thi of 83.7 during meiotic and spermiogenic stages ...202032916520
practical methods to assess the effects of heat stress on the quality of frozen-thawed belgian blue semen in field conditions.the increased exportation of semen and embryos of double-muscled beef breeds to tropical and developing countries makes it important to investigate the reproductive capacity of these breeds in adapting to tropical conditions. the aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of belgian blue semen collected after there is heat-stress (hs; as a mimic of tropical condition) compared with non-heat stressed (nhs; as their comfort zone), using practical spermatozoa staining methods such that prevail i ...202032861122
the diet of the striped hyena in nepal's lowland regions.striped hyenas (hyaena hyaena) are extremely rare in nepal, and only a few people have studied them in their natural forest and grassland habitat. their rarity is due to anthropogenic pressures such as hunting, habitat modification, being killed on roads, and depletion of their natural prey. here, we studied the feeding ecology of hyenas in lowland, nepal. we employed an opportunistic sampling to collect hyena scats in a range of habitats and the line transect sampling to identify the prey of th ...202032788952
enhanced biosurveillance of high-consequence invasive pests: southern cattle fever ticks, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, on livestock and wildlife.some tick species are invasive and of high consequence to public and veterinary health. socioeconomic development of rural parts of the usa was enabled partly through the eradication by 1943 of cattle fever ticks (cft, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus and r. (b.) microplus). the southern cattle fever ticks (scft, r. (b.) microplus) remain a real and present threat to the usa animal agriculture because they are established in mexico. livestock-wildlife interactions in the permanent quarantine ...202032967722
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