antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and probiotic potential of enterococcus hirae isolated from the rumen of bos the present study bacterial strains were isolated from the rumen fluids of bos primigenius and investigated their in vitro probiotic properties with potent antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory effects. 9 g positive bacterial isolates were obtained and three isolates could able to tolerate gastric conditions, high bile salt concentrations and exhibited significant bactericidal effect against the enteric pathogens vibrio cholera, enterococcus faecalis, enterobacter aerogens, pseudomonas ...201424609495
genetic characterization of giardia duodenalis by sequence analysis in humans and animals in pemba island, tanzania.giardia duodenalis represents one of the most widespread human enteric parasites: about 200million people in asia, africa and latin america are infected. giardia exerts a deep impact on public health because of high prevalence and possible effects on growth and cognitive functions in infected children. the major aim of this study was to detect and genetically characterize g. duodenalis in both human and animal fecal samples collected in pemba island, in the archipelago of zanzibar (tanzania), in ...201424269210
mycobacterium bovis infections in slaughter pigs in mubende district, uganda: a public health concern.bovine tuberculosis (tb) caused by mycobacterium bovis is primarily a disease of ruminants, particularly cattle (bos primigenius) and buffalo (syncerus caffer), and is endemic in most developing countries. to date, studies done in uganda have documented the prevalence of m. bovis in cattle, humans and wild life, in addition to non-tuberculous mycobacteria in pigs. pigs are increasingly becoming an important component of the livestock sector and share the human ecosystem in rural uganda. it is th ...201222999303
the seal tuberculosis agent, mycobacterium pinnipedii, infects domestic cattle in new zealand: epidemiologic factors and dna strain typing.the fur seal (arctocephalus forsteri), which is abundant in coastal areas of new zealand, harbors several zoonotic pathogens, including mycobacterium pinnipedii, a member of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. we describe the microbiology and epidemiology of seven cases of m. pinnipedii infection in beef cattle (bos primigenius) in coastal areas of new zealand in 1991-2011. epidemiologic factors were analyzed on six case farms and a telephone survey of 55 neighboring farms. a dna-strain typi ...201424484478
[mycobacterium infection in prehistoric humans: co-evolution in remote ages].the introduction of agriculture and animal husbandry at the end of the mesolithic era, despite enabling a significant demographic growth through an increase in food storage and availability, caused new infectious noxae to enter the pathocoenosis. however in the palaeolithic era, hunter-gatherers were already in contact with infectious diseases of animal origin, albeit episodically. modern biomedical technologies allow us to estimate, with better approximation, how long mankind has been in contac ...201525819058
a study of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibody seroprevalence in healthy cattle in the czech republic.the aim of study was to test the sera of healthy dairy cows by elisas, the methods also used in other groups of animals in the czech republic, and thus to obtain actual data about n. caninum and t. gondii seroprevalence in cattle.201525780824
molecular evidence of host influences on the evolution and spread of human tapeworms.the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is included in the list of neglected zoonotic diseases by the world health organization due to its significant impact on public health in tropical areas. cysticercosis is still endemic in many regions of asia, africa and latin america. long absent in europe and in other developed countries, cysticercosis has recently re-emerged in the united states and canada, due to immigration, travel and local transmission. this has encouraged the use of molecular data to u ...201222321512
european bison as a refugee species? evidence from isotopic data on early holocene bison and other large herbivores in northern europe.according to the refugee species concept, increasing replacement of open steppe by forest cover after the last glacial period and human pressure had together forced european bison (bison bonasus)--the largest extant terrestrial mammal of europe--into forests as a refuge habitat. the consequent decreased fitness and population density led to the gradual extinction of the species. understanding the pre-refugee ecology of the species may help its conservation management and ensure its long time sur ...201525671634
complex admixture preceded and followed the extinction of wisent in the wild.retracing complex population processes that precede extreme bottlenecks may be impossible using data from living individuals. the wisent (bison bonasus), europe's largest terrestrial mammal, exemplifies such a population history, having gone extinct in the wild but subsequently restored by captive breeding efforts. using low coverage genomic data from modern and historical individuals, we investigate population processes occurring before and after this extinction. analysis of aligned genomes sup ...201728007976
complete mitochondrial genome of the yakow (bos primigenius taurus × bos grunniens) in china.the chinese yakow, bos primigenius taurus × bos grunniens, is a large and commercially important hybrid in family bovidae. we first determined and annotated its complete mitochondrial genome. the mitogenome is 16,322 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer rna (trna) genes, 2 ribosomal rna (rrna) genes and a control region. as in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for nd6 and eight trna genes, which are encoded on the light st ...201625186658
genome sequencing of the extinct eurasian wild aurochs, bos primigenius, illuminates the phylogeography and evolution of cattle.domestication of the now-extinct wild aurochs, bos primigenius, gave rise to the two major domestic extant cattle taxa, b. taurus and b. indicus. while previous genetic studies have shed some light on the evolutionary relationships between european aurochs and modern cattle, important questions remain unanswered, including the phylogenetic status of aurochs, whether gene flow from aurochs into early domestic populations occurred, and which genomic regions were subject to selection processes duri ...201526498365
efficacy of diffusion tensor anisotropy indices and tractography in assessing the extent of severity of spinal cord injury: an in vitro analytical study in calf spinal cords.signal intensity changes observed in magnetic resonance imaging (mri) do not reveal the actual severity of axonal damage incurred in spinal cord injuries. diffusion tensor imaging (dti) is an imaging technique with a potential to track individual nerve fiber tracts.201223245938
associations of fasn gene polymorphisms with economical traits in nellore cattle (bos primigenius indicus).the aim of this study was to identify molecular markers to be applied to marker-assisted selection. three snps of the fasn gene were studied. pcr-rflp was used for genotyping. the snps g.17924a>g, g.17860c>t and g.15603a>g all in the fasn gene were genotyped using the enzymes msci, ddei and hae iii, respectively. the animals were raised in extensive systems and belong to three lines selected for growth as part of the selection program of zebu and caracu breeds, são paulo, brazil. allele and geno ...201222941250
association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine leptin and leptin receptor genes with growth and ultrasound carcass traits in nellore cattle.given the important role of leptin in metabolism, we looked for a possible association of leptin and leptin receptor polymorphisms with carcass and growth traits in nellore cattle. we examined associations of leptin and leptin receptor snps with ultrasound carcass (longissimus dorsi muscle area (ribeye area), backfat thickness and rump fat thickness and growth traits (weaning weight adjusted to 210 days of age, yearling weight adjusted to 550 days of age, weight gain of weaning to yearling and s ...201222930433
estimation of taurindicine hybridization of american zebu cattle in brazil.our objective was to estimate bos primigenius taurus introgression in american zebu cattle. one hundred and four american zebu (nellore) cattle were submitted to mtdna, microsatellite and satellite analysis. twenty-three alleles were detected in microsatellite analysis, averaging 4.6 ± 1.82/locus. variance component comparisons of microsatellite allele sizes allowed the construction of two clusters separating taurus and indicus. no significant variation was observed when indicus and taurus mtdna ...201222370942
genome-wide microrna binding site variation between extinct wild aurochs and modern cattle identifies candidate microrna-regulated domestication genes.the domestication of cattle from the now-extinct wild aurochs (bos primigenius) involved selection for physiological and behavioral traits, with underlying genetic factors that remain largely unknown. non-coding micrornas have emerged as key regulators of the spatio-temporal expression of target genes controlling mammalian growth and development, including in livestock species. during the domestication process, selection of mutational changes in mirnas and/or mirna binding sites could have provi ...201728197171
adipose tissue macrophages in non-rodent mammals: a comparative study.the stromal vascular fraction (svf) of adipose tissue in rodents and primates contains mesenchymal stem cells and immune cells. svf cells have complex metabolic, immune and endocrine functions with biomedical impact. however, in other mammals, the amount of data on svf stem cells is negligible and whether the svf hosts immune cells is unknown. in this study, we show that the svf is rich in immune cells, with a dominance of adipose tissue macrophages (atms) in cattle (bos primigenius taurus), dom ...201626239911
documentation and quantitative analysis of local ethnozoological knowledge among traditional healers of theni district, tamil nadu, india.this study investigated the use of animals among the traditional healers in theni district of tamil nadu, india. the data regarding the medicinal animals/animal products were documented and their usages were analyzed quantitatively.201424680989
complete mitochondrial genome of wild aurochs (bos primigenius) reconstructed from ancient dna.extinct aurochs (bos primigenius), accepted as the ancestor of domestic cattle, was one of the largest wild animals inhabiting europe, asia and north africa. the gradual process of aurochs extinction finished in poland in 1627, were the last recorded aurochs, a female, died. some aspects of cattle domestication history and the distribution of aurochs genetic material among modern cattle breeds still remain unclear. analyses of ancient dna (adna) from bone sample deliver new genetic information a ...201323971194
spottier targets are less attractive to tabanid flies: on the tabanid-repellency of spotty fur patterns.during blood-sucking, female members of the family tabanidae transmit pathogens of serious diseases and annoy their host animals so strongly that they cannot graze, thus the health of the hosts is drastically reduced. consequently, a tabanid-resistant coat with appropriate brightness, colour and pattern is advantageous for the host. spotty coats are widespread among mammals, especially in cattle (bos primigenius). in field experiments we studied the influence of the size and number of spots on t ...201222876282
infectious agents in bovine red meat and milk and their potential role in cancer and other chronic meat and dairy products have frequently been suggested to represent risk factors for certain cancers, chronic neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmune and cardiovascular disorders. this review summarizes the evidence and investigates the possible involvement of infectious factors in these diseases. the isolation of small circular single-stranded dna molecules from serum and dairy products of eurasian aurochs (bos taurus)-derived cattle, obviously persisting as episomes in infected cells, p ...201728349283
[the importance of conservation of rare domestic animal breeds using the example of arc warder].the domestic animals descend from various wild ancestors. thus, for example, of the wolf, the dog (15  000 bc), of the bezoar goat the goat (10  000 bc), of the asian mouflon the sheep (10  000 bc), of the wild boar the pig (8000 bc) and of the aurochs the cattle (7000 bc). domestication has dramatically changed our culture and led to a great diversity of animal breeds. this is a unique cultural and historical treasure, which we have to preserve for future generations. the zoological park arc wa ...201728070591
an independent event of neolithic cattle domestication on the south-eastern balkans: evidence from prehistoric aurochs and cattle populations.neolithic/chalcolithic livestock domestication is an important issue for understanding the mode of life and economics of ancient human communities. the balkans appears to be a crucial point for clarifying the socio-economical interrelations between the oldest middle eastern/anatolian and newly formed cultures in europe. two main hypotheses regarding the early history of cattle domestication, from their ancestor - the aurochs, have been discussed: multipoint domestication centers or single point ...201726711535
the first aurochs genome reveals the breeding history of british and european cattle.the first genome sequence of the extinct european wild aurochs reveals the genetic foundation of native british and irish landraces of cattle.see related research article:
sarcocystis-infection of cattle in hungary.reports on sarcocystis-infection of cattle are outdated or lacking in many european countries, including those in the central-eastern part of the continent. therefore, to assess the prevalence of sarcocystis spp. among bovids in hungary, a countrywide survey was initiated. in addition, fulminant deaths of four cattle, that showed clinical signs and post mortem lesions resembling acute sarcocystiosis ("dalmeny disease"), were investigated.201525650226
tracing the genetic roots of the indigenous white park cattle.the white park cattle (wpc) is an indigenous ancient breed from the british isles which has a long-standing history in heroic sagas and documents. the wpc has retained many primitive traits, especially in their grazing behaviour and preferences. altogether, the aura of this breed has led to much speculation surrounding its origin. in this study, we sequenced the mitogenomes from 27 wpc and three intronic fragments of genes from the y chromosome of three bulls. we observed six novel mitogenomic l ...201323350719
modern taurine cattle descended from small number of near-eastern founders.archaeozoological and genetic data indicate that taurine cattle were first domesticated from local wild ox (aurochs) in the near east some 10,500 years ago. however, while modern mitochondrial dna (mtdna) variation indicates early holocene founding event(s), a lack of ancient dna data from the region of origin, variation in mutation rate estimates, and limited application of appropriate inference methodologies have resulted in uncertainty on the number of animals first domesticated. a large numb ...201222422765
neanderthal exploitation of ibex and chamois in southwestern europe.there is increasing evidence that neanderthals had a diverse and flexible diet. they exploited a wide range of resources from large proboscideans to small animals like turtles, rabbits, and marine species. here, we discuss the importance of ibex and chamois in neanderthal hunting strategies. the exploitation of both animals has traditionally been regarded as typical of homo sapiens hunting behavior but was not a feature of neanderthal behavior, which was thought to have focused on other kinds of ...201525481629
detection of two non-synonymous snps in slc45a2 on bta20 as candidate causal mutations for oculocutaneous albinism in braunvieh cattle.cases of albinism have been reported in several species including cattle. so far, research has identified many genes that are involved in this eye-catching phenotype. thus, when two paternal braunvieh half-sibs with oculocutaneous albinism were detected on a private farm, we were interested in knowing whether their phenotype was caused by an already known gene/mutation.201728982372
fast, accurate and automatic ancient nucleosome and methylation maps with epipaleomix.the first epigenomes from archaic hominins (ah) and ancient anatomically modern humans (amh) have recently been characterized, based, however, on a limited number of samples. the extent to which ancient genome-wide epigenetic landscapes can be reconstructed thus remains contentious. here, we present epipaleomix, an open-source and user-friendly pipeline that exploits post-mortem dna degradation patterns to reconstruct ancient methylomes and nucleosome maps from shotgun and/or capture-enrichment ...201627624717
the mtdna haplogroup p of modern asian cattle: a genetic legacy of asian aurochs?aurochs (bos primigenius) were distributed throughout large parts of eurasia and northern africa during the late pleistocene and the early holocene, and all modern cattle are derived from the aurochs. although the mtdna haplogroups of most modern cattle belong to haplogroups t and i, several additional haplogroups (p, q, r, c and e) have been identified in modern cattle and aurochs. haplogroup p was the most common haplogroup in european aurochs, but so far, it has been identified in only three ...201829304129
genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (bos primigenius) and primitive european cattle.this corrects the article doi: 10.1038/hdy.2016.79.201729019469
divergence in the evolution of paleolithic symbolic and technological systems: the shining bull and engraved tablets of rocher de l'impératrice.the development of the azilian in western europe 14,000 years ago is considered a "revolution" in upper paleolithic archaeology. one of the main elements of this rapid social restructuring is the abandonment of naturalistic figurative art on portable pieces or on cave walls in the magdalenian in favor of abstract expression on small pebbles. recent work shows that the transformation of human societies between the magdalenian and the azilian was more gradual. the discovery of a new early azilian ...201728257445
the neurosurgical curmudgeon-of pygmalion, galatea, and aurochs arteriovenous malformation associated intracerebral hematoma scores, auroc analyses, representations, and reality. 201627237415
bringing back the aurochs. 201526785454
[genital-urinary rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood: our experience].rhabdomyosarcoma (rsm) becomes the most common tumour of the soft tissues during the paediatric age. it represents among 2-3% of child tumours. the genital-urinary location is the second most common location, only after head and neck. the treatment is usually medical, being the surgery a mere contribution, except for the cases in which the situation is not under control, when very aggressive surgery is necessary. the aim of this study is to analyse the cases of genial-urinary rms that have been ...201427775271
[the notion of extinction: the case of the aurochs]. 201325799627
lipopolysaccharide triggers different transcriptional signatures in taurine and indicine cattle macrophages: reactive oxygen species and potential outcomes to the development of immune response to infections.macrophages are classified upon activation as classical activated m1 and m2 anti-inflammatory regulatory populations. this macrophage polarization is well characterized in humans and mice, but m1/m2 profile in cattle has been far less explored. bos primigenius taurus (taurine) and bos primigenius indicus (indicine) cattle display contrasting levels of resistance to infection and parasitic diseases such as c57bl/6j and balb/c murine experimental models of parasite infection outcomes based on gene ...202033156842
adapt or die-response of large herbivores to environmental changes in europe during the holocene.climate warming and human landscape transformation during the holocene resulted in environmental changes for wild animals. the last remnants of the european pleistocene megafauna that survived into the holocene were particularly vulnerable to changes in habitat. to track the response of habitat use and foraging of large herbivores to natural and anthropogenic changes in environmental conditions during the holocene, we investigated carbon (δ13 c) and nitrogen (δ15 n) stable isotope composition in ...201931298814
non-destructive zooms identification reveals strategic bone tool raw material selection by neandertals.five nearly identical fragments of specialized bone tools, interpreted as lissoirs (french for "smoothers"), have been found at two middle paleolithic sites in southwest france. the finds span three separate archaeological deposits, suggesting continuity in the behavior of late neandertals. using standard morphological assessments, we determined that the lissoirs were produced on ribs of medium-sized ungulates. however, since these bones are highly fragmented and anthropogenically modified, spec ...202032385291
whole-genome sequencing provides new insights into genetic mechanisms of tropical adaptation in nellore (bos primigenius indicus).most of the knowledge about genetic variants at the sequence level in cattle is for bos primigenius taurus populations. here, we presented a complete genomic characterization of 52 nellore (bos primigenius indicus) bulls, revealing specific zebu dna variants with putative impact in tropical adaptation and productive traits. single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) and insertion/deletion (indels) mutations were identified using the newest bovine reference genome ars_ucd1.2, and variant functional c ...202032523018
sodium selenite improves in vitro maturation of bos primigenius taurus oocytes.selenium (se) is an essential trace element with important functions in animals and whose deficiency is associated with reproductive failures. the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of se concentrations during in vitro maturation (ivm) of bos taurus oocyte within the reference ranges for se status in cattle. for this purpose, aberdeen angus cumulus-oocyte complexes (cocs) were matured in ivm medium supplemented with 0, 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml se (control, deficient, marginal, and adeq ...202031705431
development of cytochrome b, a new candidate gene for a high accuracy detection of fasciola eggs in fecal specimens.fasciolosis among domestic ruminants has resulted in a decrease in the production of milk products and has occasionally led to the deaths of young ruminants due to of acute infections. this study aimed to discriminate between the eggs of fasciola gigantica and other trematode eggs in samples collected from ruminant feces specimens using pcr-based methods with the new candidate gene cytochrome b (cytb). a species-specific primer was developed with a high degree of sensitivity (3.285 pg). the prim ...201931539665
ancient cattle genomics, origins, and rapid turnover in the fertile crescent.genome-wide analysis of 67 ancient near eastern cattle, bos taurus, remains reveals regional variation that has since been obscured by admixture in modern populations. comparisons of genomes of early domestic cattle to their aurochs progenitors identify diverse origins with separate introgressions of wild stock. a later region-wide bronze age shift indicates rapid and widespread introgression of zebu, bos indicus, from the indus valley. this process was likely stimulated at the onset of the curr ...201931296769
the use of cattle bos taurus for restoring and maintaining holarctic landscapes: conclusions from a long-term study (1946-2017) in northern england.cattle bos taurus can perform valuable ecological functions in the maintenance of high nature value (hnv) pastoral systems. they have also attracted attention as potentially filling the ecological niches of megaherbivores, notably the extinct aurochs bos primigenius, in rewilding initiatives. native cattle breeds are recognized under the 1992 rio convention as components of biodiversity. they are used in hnv settings, but their conservation as breeds has rarely been an important consideration fo ...201931161004
post-traumatic intraocular leiomyosarcoma in a domestic bovine calf (bos primigenius taurus).the present report describes a case of a post-traumatic ocular leiomyosarcoma in a calf (bos primigenius taurus) including clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features. following a traumatic episode, the animal developed opacification of the lens and shrinkage of the eye. subsequently, the ocular lesion increased in size over a period of 6 weeks and reached up to 16 cm in diameter with infiltration into the cranium. at necropsy examination, the kidneys, liver and spleen exhibited ...201931103058
functional textile finishing of type i collagen isolated from bovine bone for potential healthtech.collagen is the most abundant fibrous protein in animal's body and is widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. the principal sources of this protein are bovine, porcine and fish skin and bones. in colombia, bovine bones are waste from meat industry, this material have potential as an alternative source of collagen isolation. the aim of this study was to evaluate the composition and some properties of type i collagen (col i) extracted of bovine bones of zebu-bos primigenius ind ...201930891510
whole-genome sequencing of three native cattle breeds originating from the northernmost cattle farming regions.northern fennoscandia and the sakha republic in the russian federation represent the northernmost regions on earth where cattle farming has been traditionally practiced. in this study, we performed whole-genome sequencing to genetically characterize three rare native breeds eastern finncattle, western finncattle and yakutian cattle adapted to these northern eurasian regions. we examined the demographic history, genetic diversity and unfolded loci under natural or artificial selection. on average ...201830687392
domestication of cattle: two or three events?cattle have been invaluable for the transition of human society from nomadic hunter-gatherers to sedentary farming communities throughout much of europe, asia and africa since the earliest domestication of cattle more than 10,000 years ago. although current understanding of relationships among ancestral populations remains limited, domestication of cattle is thought to have occurred on two or three occasions, giving rise to the taurine (bos taurus) and indicine (bos indicus) species that share t ...201930622640
demography and rapid local adaptation shape creole cattle genome diversity in the tropics.the introduction of iberian cattle in the americas after columbus' arrival imposed high selection pressures on a limited number of animals over a brief period of time. knowledge of the genomic regions selected during this process may help in enhancing climatic resilience and sustainable animal production. we first determined taurine and indicine contributions to the genomic structure of modern creole cattle. second, we inferred their demographic history using approximate bayesian computation (ab ...201930622639
in silico identification of conserved mirnas and their selective target gene prediction in indicine (bos indicus) cattle.the modern cattle was domesticated from aurochs, sharing its physiological traits into two subspecies bos taurus and bos indicus. micrornas (mirnas) are a class of non-coding short rnas of ~22nt which have a key role in the regulation of many cellular and physiological processes in the animal. the current study was aimed to predict and annotate the potential mutations in indicine mirnas throughout the genome using de novo and homology-based in silico approaches. genome-wide mapping was performed ...201830365525
association study between copy number variation and beef fatty acid profile of nellore cattle.the aim of this study was to analyze the association between the copy number variation regions (cnvrs) and fatty acid profile phenotypes for saturated (sfa), monosaturated (mufa), polyunsaturated (pufa), ω6 and ω3 fatty acids, pufa/sfa and ω6/ω3 ratios, as well as for their sums, in nellore cattle (bos primigenius indicus). a total of 963 males were finished in feedlot and slaughtered with approximately 2 years of age. animals were genotyped with the bovinehd beadchip (illumina inc., san diego, ...201829520708
mitochondrial dna variants of podolian cattle breeds testify for a dual maternal origin.over the past 15 years, 300 out of 6000 breeds of all farm animal species identified by the food and agriculture organization of the united nations (fao) have gone extinct. among cattle, many podolian breeds are seriously endangered in various european areas. podolian cattle include a group of very ancient european breeds, phenotypically close to the aurochs ancestors (bos primigenius). the aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of podolian breeds and to reconstruct their o ...201829462170
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