a protocol for the ethical assessment of wild animal-visitor interactions (avip) evaluating animal welfare, education, and conservation outcomes.due to the popularity of wild animal-visitor interactions (avis), there is a need for an ethical assessment of their impact on animal welfare, education, and conservation. the protocol presented in this study is designed to evaluate such interactions on an integrated level, using a transparent analysis of all the aspects involved, including all the stakeholders and the potential conflicts of values. the protocol consists of a six-step process encompassing dedicated data acquisition and a specifi ...201931349726
comparison of anesthesia of adult giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) using medetomidine-ketamine with and without a potent opioid.two anesthetic protocols in adult giraffe were compared by retrospective study. thirteen anesthesia records for medetomidine-ketamine (mk) and seven for medetomidine-ketamine with a potent opioid (mko) were evaluated for differences in demographic, behavioral, drug, and respiratory parameters. giraffe stood significantly more quickly with mko vs mk though mk animals were physically restrained to preclude premature standing as part of normal recovery practices (5.5 min vs 21.4 min, p = 0.01). reg ...201931260214
using qualitative behaviour assessment to investigate human-animal relationships in zoo-housed giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis).human-animal relationships (har) in zoos develop from repeated interactions between animals and their caretakers. har have been shown to affect health and welfare in farm animals, but limited zoo-based studies exist. this study investigates the association between the qualitative behaviour assessment (qba) of emotional expression in giraffes and keeper action score in four types of keeper-animal interaction (kai). three giraffes generating 38 clips. qba, using a free-choice profiling methodology ...201931234320
first detection of mycobacterium bovis infection in giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in the greater kruger national park complex: role and implications.bovine tuberculosis (bovine tb) caused by mycobacterium bovis has become endemic in some wildlife populations in south africa. the disease has been reported in 21 wildlife species in the country. in this study, we report m. bovis infection in two female giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) from two different nature reserves within the greater kruger national park complex (gknpc). mycobacterium bovis was isolated from tissue lesions consistent with macroscopic appearance of tuberculosis (tb) and con ...201931233666
protect giraffes from wildlife trade. 201931123130
growth, husbandry, and diets of five successfully hand-reared orphaned giraffe calves (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi and giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).giraffe in the wild are in ongoing decline because of poaching and habitat loss and fragmentation, and were recently assessed as "vulnerable" on the iucn (international union for conservation of nature) red list of threatened species. captive breeding and saving each individual are therefore becoming more important to save this species from extinction. this paper describes the husbandry and diets of successfully hand-reared rothschild's giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi; n = 3) and re ...201931120680
quantifying the severity of giraffe skin disease via photogrammetry analysis of camera trap data.developing techniques to quantify the spread and severity of diseases afflicting wildlife populations is important for disease ecology, animal ecology, and conservation. giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) are in the midst of a dramatic decline, but it is not known whether disease is playing an important role in the broad-scale population reductions. a skin disorder referred to as giraffe skin disease (gsd) was recorded in 1995 in one giraffe population in uganda. since then, gsd has been detected ...201931009309
directional selection on body size but no apparent survival cost to being large in wild new zealand giraffe weevils.when an individual's reproductive success relies on winning fights to secure mating opportunities, bearing larger weapons is advantageous. however, sexual selection can be extremely complex, and over an animal's life the opportunity to mate is influenced by numerous factors. we studied a wild population of giraffe weevils (lasiorhynchus barbicornis) that exhibit enormous intra and intersexual size variation. males bear an elongated rostrum used as a weapon in fights for mating opportunities. how ...201930840338
the running kinematics of free-roaming giraffes, measured using a low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (uav).the study of animal locomotion can be logistically challenging, especially in the case of large or unhandleable animals in uncontrolled environments. here we demonstrate the utility of a low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) in measuring two-dimensional running kinematics from free-roaming giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) in the free state province, south africa. we collected 120 hz video of running giraffes, and calibrated each video frame using metatarsal length as a constant object ...201930775166
[zoological origin survey of commercial hippocampus in chinese herbal markets by morphological and dna sequencing identification].hippocampus is a precious animal medicine in chinese herbal medicines. numerous seahorse species possessing similar morphology were used as commercial hippocampus in herbal markets. clarifing the zoological of commercial hippocampus in herbal markets is a crucial issue, which contributed to establish authentication and quality control standard. this study investigated 1 156 dried seahorse samples collected from eight main herbal markets using co ⅰ fragment dna sequencing coupling with morphologi ...201830717541
evaluating the social structure of captive rothschild's giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi): relevance to animal management and animal network analysis (sna) is useful for evaluating management zoo regimes to ensure that any fitness benefits of sociality are preserved in captive-housed groups. this paper explores the association patterns of 13 giraffes housed at longleat safari park, uk. wild giraffes exhibit a fission-fusion social system with preferential bonding. as zoo-housed giraffes are common, they are excellent study subjects for using sna to investigate key aspects of sociality within a managed social environmen ...202030712403
physiological essay on gulliver's travels: a correction after three centuries.gulliver's travels by jonathan swift, published in 1726, was analyzed from the viewpoint of scaling in comparative physiology. according to the original text, the foods of 1724 lilliputians, tiny human creatures, are needed for gulliver, but the author found that those of 42 lilliputians and of 1/42 brobdingnagians (gigantic human creatures) are enough to support the energy of gulliver. the author further estimated their heartbeats, respiration rates, life spans and blood pressure. these calcula ...201930610552
treatment for active tuberculosis in giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in a zoo and potential consequences for public health - case report.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is an infectious disease that occurs in many species of both domestic and free-ranging animals, as well as animals kept in zoos. according to the polish regulations, cattle tuberculosis are slaughtered and microbiological examinations are performed, the rest of animal species can be treated and laboratory diagnostics are not obligatory.201830586985
technical note: use of commercial multilayer faraday cup for offline daily beam range verification at the mclaren proton therapy center.daily verification of the proton beam range in proton radiation therapy is a vital part of the quality assurance (qa) program. the objective of this work is to study the use of a multilayer faraday cup (mlfc) to perform a quick and precise daily range verification of proton beams produced by a synchrotron.201930570757
the locomotor kinematics and ground reaction forces of walking giraffes.giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) possess specialised anatomy. their disproportionately elongate limbs and neck confer recognised feeding advantages, but little is known about how their morphology affects locomotor function. in this study, we examined the stride parameters and ground reaction forces from three adult giraffes in a zoological park, across a range of walking speeds. the patterns of grfs during walking indicate that giraffes, similar to other mammalian quadrupeds, maintain a forelim ...201930510118
limited introgression supports division of giraffe into four species.all giraffe (giraffa) were previously assigned to a single species (g. camelopardalis) and nine subspecies. however, multi-locus analyses of all subspecies have shown that there are four genetically distinct clades and suggest four giraffe species. this conclusion might not be fully accepted due to limited data and lack of explicit gene flow analyses. here, we present an extended study based on 21 independent nuclear loci from 137 individuals. explicit gene flow analyses identify less than one m ...201830397455
the noncervical lateral transverse foramina.the lateral vertebral foramen (lvf) is an osseous feature found in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae of some artiodactyls and perissodactyls. to learn more about the distribution and characteristics of the lvf, we examined museum specimens from the smithsonian mammal collection and teaching specimens from the cornell university college of veterinary medicine. we identified five anatomically different types of lvf and noted their occurrence in 60 species. the lvf varies from a deep lateral groove at ...201830350317
longitudinal and transverse variation of trace element concentrations in elephant and giraffe hair: implication for endogenous and exogenous contributions.the spatial distribution of trace elements in hair is highly heterogeneous at the microscale. the relatively mild spatial variation of endogenous signal incorporated during hair growth may be amplified by orders of magnitude due to later exogenous contaminations. here, we studied the longitudinal and transverse distributions of trace elements in elephant and giraffe hair and discussed the possible endogenous and exogenous contributions. laser ablation icp-ms analyses were performed on cross sect ...201830338407
what the theatre taught me about alzheimer's (or: the giraffe in the hallway problem).the author recounts her experience as an alzheimer's care-giver to her mother, stressing the value of her professional background in theater.201830336079
mammals repel mosquitoes with their tails.the swinging of a mammal's tail has long been thought to deter biting insects, which, in cows, can drain up to 0.3 liters of blood per day. how effective is a mammal's tail at repelling insects? in this combined experimental and theoretical study, we filmed horses, zebras, elephants, giraffes and dogs swinging their tails. the tail swings at triple the frequency of a gravity-driven pendulum, and requires 27 times more power input. tails can also be used like a whip to directly strike at insects. ...201830323113
seeing spots: quantifying mother-offspring similarity and assessing fitness consequences of coat pattern traits in a wild population of giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis).polymorphic phenotypes of mammalian coat coloration have been important to the study of genetics and evolution, but less is known about the inheritance and fitness consequences of individual variation in complex coat pattern traits such as spots and stripes. giraffe coat markings are highly complex and variable and it has been hypothesized that variation in coat patterns most likely affects fitness by camouflaging neonates against visually hunting predators. we quantified complex coat pattern tr ...201830310743
assessing animal welfare in animal-visitor interactions in zoos and other facilities. a pilot study involving recent years, awareness of the controversial aspects connected with wild animal-visitor interactions (avis) in zoos and other facilities has increased due to cultural changes. therefore, the need to apply transparent procedures to evaluate avis programs in zoos and similar facilities has also increased. this study presents results of animal welfare's assessment of a pilot test of a protocol based on six steps that aim to explore and assess the overall value of avis considering the impact both ...201830200194
detection and characterization of okapi (okapia johnstoni)-specific papillomavirus type 1 (ojpv1).papillomavirus-specific dna was detected in skin lesions collected from an okapi (okapia johnstoni) in the zoo basel. according to the nucleotide sequence analysis, the virus belongs to the genus deltapapillomavirus. based on bioinformatics analysis, we propose to designate the newly identified virus as okapia johnstoni papillomavirus type 1 (ojpv1). ojpv1 is genetically most closely related to a recently described giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) -specific papillomavirus (gcpv1). of note, the p ...201830173736
large mammal declines and the incipient loss of mammal-bird mutualisms in an african savanna ecosystem.over the past half-century, large mammal populations have declined substantially throughout east africa, mainly due to habitat loss and unsustainable direct exploitation. while it has been acknowledged that the loss of large mammals can have direct and cascading effects on community composition and ecosystem characteristics, limited quantitative work has been done on how declines of large herbivore populations impacts the abundance of mutualistic symbionts. using a space-for-time observational a ...201830153277
an assessment of forage selection by giraffe introduced into umfurudzi park, northern zimbabwe.giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) is one of the flagship herbivore species in the savanna ecosystem and is of high conservation value. management of the species under diversified ecosystems, particularly, their introduction in new ecosystems is of great concern, given that limited information is available of how the species acclimatizes to new ecosystems and which forage species it selects. the objectives of the present study were to (i) identify woody plant species selected by the recently intro ...201830140482
evaluation of somatotype in the reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) using three-dimensional laser measurement.the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) is a difficult animal to keep in captivity as it has high mortality due to nutrition-related disorders, perhaps because the giraffe's condition is difficult to evaluate. image analysis techniques have recently become popular and may be useful for evaluating the giraffe's somatotype. the present study aimed to evaluate the giraffe somatotype using a three-dimensional laser measurement device, and to examine the usefulness of this method. first, ten zoo staff m ...201830089738
the effects of increased hay-to-grain ratio on behavior, metabolic health measures, and fecal bacterial communities in four masai giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at cleveland metroparks zoo.we evaluated whether increasing the hay-to-grain ratio offered to masai giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at cleveland metroparks zoo would reduce oral stereotypies and alter feeding behaviors, maintain or increase serum calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, decrease serum insulin-to-glucose ratio and salivary insulin, and alter fecal bacterial community structure. giraffe transitioned to a ∼90:10 hay-to-grain ratio in even increments over 8 weeks. a ration balancer was added during the seve ...201830070393
quantifying the ecological success of a community-based wildlife conservation area in tanzania, community-based natural resource management of wildlife occurs through the creation of wildlife management areas (wmas). wmas consist of multiple villages designating land for wildlife conservation, and sharing a portion of subsequent tourism revenues. nineteen wmas are currently operating, encompassing 7% of tanzania's land area, with 19 more wmas planned. the ecological success or failure of wmas for wildlife conservation has yet to be quantified. we defined ecological success in ...201829867255
stress and social behaviors of maternally deprived captive giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis).maternal deprivation can cause long-term behavioral changes in captive mammals. studies regarding captive ungulates have also indicated behavioral shifts in the presence of the animal keeping staff; however, little is known about these effects in captive giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis). to examine this, we observed a population of reticulated giraffes composed of maternally raised and maternally deprived individuals by direct and camera observations at binder park zoo, battle creek, michigan. ...201829527718
thyroid fine needle aspiration: successful prospective implementation of strategies to eliminate unnecessary biopsy in the veteran population.thyroid nodules are prevalent in over half the general population. several multidisciplinary societies have management recommendations. however, the majority of data to support these guidelines are derived from studies of predominantly younger and female populations. this study's aim was to evaluate characteristics of thyroid nodules in a largely older and male veteran population and apply these findings prospectively to reduce unnecessary thyroid fine needle aspiration (fna).201929499838
[morphological characteristics and molecular identification of trichuris sp. from giraffe].to investigate the morphological characteristics of trichuris sp. from giraffe in hefei wild zoo and identify its species using molecular techniques.201630124038
monitoring the fibrolytic potential of microbial ecosystems from domestic and wild ruminants browsing tanniferous forages.although the rumen microbiome has been reported to synthesize a rich source of symbiotic enzymes (exocellulase, endocellulase, hemicellulase and cellobiase), the digestion of tropical c4 grasses and browses by ruminants is still limited. therefore, this study aimed to unveil potential fibrolytic microbial ecosystems from giraffe, kudu, impala and consortia (a1 [giraffe + kudu], a2 [giraffe + impala], a3 [kudu + impala], and a4 [giraffe + kudu + impala]) browsing tanniferous plants, which can be ...201629767016
bovine coronavirus and the associated diseases.coronaviruses (covs) possess the largest and most complex rna genome (up to 32 kb) that encodes for 16 non-structural proteins regulating rna synthesis and modification. coronaviruses are known to infect a wide range of mammalian and avian species causing remarkably diverse disease syndromes. variable tissue tropism and the ability to easily cross interspecies barriers are the well-known characteristics of certain covs. the 21st century epidemics of severe acute respiratory cov (sars-cov), middl ...202133869323
equid alphaherpesvirus 9 outbreak associated with mortality in a group of grevy's zebra (equus grevyi) housed in a mixed-species exhibit.a herd of seven captive-born grevy's zebras (equus grevyi) experienced an outbreak of nasal discharge and sneezing. clinical signs, including lethargy and anorexia, were severe and acute in three animals, including a 16-mo-old male that died within 48 h. treatment of two severely affected zebras included valacyclovir (40 mg/kg po), meloxicam (0.6 mg/kg im/po), and cefquinome (2.5 mg/kg im q48h). an adult female improved rapidly, and clinical signs resolved within 48 h of treatment. administratio ...202134130425
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