immobilization of giraffes with xylazine and etorphine hydrochloride. 1976977453
the skin of the giraffe.the skin of the giraffe has the same general histological structure as that of other mammals, but there are notable features. the skin is heavily pigmented with the epidermis, pilary canals, and the outer cell layer of the apocrine duct richly melanized. furthermore, melanotic dendritic cells are frequently found in the sebaceous glands, the entire length of the external root sheath, and the secretory tubules of the apocrine glands. the thick skin has a papillary dermis that extends to just bene ...19761267197
[incidence of parenchymal cell fragments in the sinoid system, subendothelial and interstitial space of the adrenal cortex in masai giraffes (giraffa camelopardialis trippelskirchii)]. 19744409814
degenerative myopathy in a giraffe. 19734742074
biometry of the genitalia and the spermatozoa of a male giraffe. 19734803519
the ovary of the giraffe. 19724648137
[fracture of the pedal bone in a giraffe. a casuistic report]. 19724666487
an electrocardiographic study of the giraffe. 19725010966
electrocardiographic and phonocardiographic findings in a reticulated giraffe. 19715571827
mammalian cytogenetics. v. the chromosomes of a female giraffe. 19715163287
[the facultative bipedy of the giraffe gazelle litocranius walleri sclateri neumann 1899 (mam. bovidae), a contribution to the functional morphology]. 19704920488
cerebral hemodynamics in the giraffe. 19695375153
fertile hydatid cysts in the giraffe. 19685749412
m.99-induced recumbency and analgesia in a giraffe. 19685692915
[development and morphology of the brain of giraffidae (okapi and giraffe)]. 19684974924
report on death of a giraffe. 19685689756
blood flow and pressure in the giraffe carotid artery. 19685650478
blood pressure responses of wild giraffes studied by radio telemetry.blood pressure was telemetered from transducers chronically implanted in the carotid arteries of two adult, wild, male giraffes captured and released near kiboko, kenya. cerebral perfusion pressure ranged from 280/180 mm-hg while the animal was lying with its head on the ground to 125/75 mm-hg when it was standing erect; it varied between these levels during spontaneous activity such as walking, grazing, and running.196617775177
[on the gallbladder of the giraffe]. 196514333004
[on information on monodontella giraffae yorke and maplestone 1926 (nematoda,ancylostomatidae), a parasite of the biliary tract of giraffes and okapis (mammalia, giraffidae). 2. description of the ova, larvae and adults]. 196314047086
[study on the structure of the giraffe placenta]. 196214467200
circulation of the giraffe. 196013706291
the respiratory dead space of the giraffe. 196014437898
john hunter's giraffe. 195919310177
[some structural characteristics of the aorta and pulmonary artery of the giraffe, a mammal with high arterial pressure]. 195813558389
some aspects of the cardiovascular system in the giraffe. 195713498403
the circulatory system of the giraffe. 200613490889
cardiovascular anatomy of a foetal giraffe. 195713507901
preliminary observations on the circulation in the giraffe. 195513274413
scientific safari; the circulation of the giraffe. 195513256017
[origin and insertion of essential muscles of the foreleg of the massai giraffe, giraffa camelopardis tippelskirchi mtsch. 1898]. 195514376909
evolution of the giraffe. 194918153292
[radiological imaging of acute infectious and non-infectious enterocolitis].computed tomography (ct) is often used as the initial diagnostic test in patients with inflammatory and infectious types of enterocolitis. the differential diagnosis is broad, including infectious, non-infectious and vascular causes, which have substantially different management strategies. although a definitive diagnosis often relies on endoscopic biopsy results, stool culture results or other clinical features, radiologists often help to guide the diagnosis.201829569035
a comparative perspective on the evolution of mammalian reactions to dead a variety of mammalian species, mothers and others care for and/or carry deceased newborns, and sometimes other conspecifics. the rationale for such behavior remains elusive. based upon field observations of olive baboon (papio anubis), african elephant (loxodonta africana), and thornicroft's giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) responses to recently dead conspecifics, combined with reports in the literature, a hypothesis is proposed to account for this activity. among female mammals, lifetime re ...202030895413
total eclipse of the zoo: animal behavior during a total solar eclipse.the infrequency of a total solar eclipse renders the event novel to those animals that experience its effects and, consequently, may induce anomalous behavioral responses. however, historical information on the responses of animals to eclipses is scant and often conflicting. in this study, we qualitatively document the responses of 17 vertebrate taxa (including mammals, birds, and reptiles) to the 2017 total solar eclipse as it passed over riverbanks zoo and garden in columbia, south carolina. i ...202032244374
object permanence in giraffa camelopardalis: first steps in giraffes' physical cognition.although behavior, biology, and ecology of giraffes have been widely studied, little is known about their cognition. giraffes' feeding ecology and their fission-fusion social dynamics are comparable with those of chimpanzees (pan troglodytes), suggesting that they might have complex cognitive abilities. to assess this, we tested 6 captive giraffes on their object permanence, short-term memory, and ability to use acoustic cues to locate food. first, we tested whether giraffes understand that obje ...201930372108
giraffes go for more: a quantity discrimination study in giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis).many species, including humans, rely on an ability to differentiate between quantities to make decisions about social relationships, territories, and food. this study is the first to investigate whether giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) are able to select the larger of two sets of quantities in different conditions, and how size and density affect these decisions. in task 1, we presented five captive giraffes with two sets containing a different quantity of identical foods items. in tasks 2 and ...202033128196
polyarthritis caused by acinetobacter kookii in a rothschild's giraffe calf (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi).we report the first isolation of acinetobacter kookii from a rothschild's giraffe calf (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) that had severe polyarthritis. the isolate was resistant to more than one representative of each of four classes of antibiotics (penicillins, macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines). as a. kookii has not been previously associated with disease in humans or animals, it may be an emerging opportunistic pathogen posing a threat to immunocompromised patients. furthermore, a ...202032800110
proximity to humans affects local social structure in a giraffe metapopulation.experimental laboratory evidence suggests that animals with disrupted social systems express weakened relationship strengths and have more exclusive social associations, and that these changes have functional consequences. a key question is whether anthropogenic pressures have a similar impact on the social structure of wild animal communities. we addressed this question by constructing a social network from 6 years of systematically collected photographic capture-recapture data spanning 1,139 i ...202032515083
bowman's layer in the cornea- structure and function and regeneration.bowman's layer lies immediately posterior to the epithelial basement membrane (ebm) and anterior to the stroma proper in humans, chickens, quail, zebra fish, deer, giraffe, antelope, california sea lions, guinea pig and several other species. it is not found in dog, wolf, cat, tiger, lions, rabbit, pigs, cows, goats, or horses. developmental anomalies of bowman's layer are rare, but acquired damage to bowman's layer, or even complete destruction, is frequently seen in advanced bullous keratopath ...202032339517
ambrein: a minor, but common constituent of mammalian faeces?for nearly 200 years, the only natural source of the alcohol ambrein has been coproliths produced in about 1% of sperm whales and in related jetsam. however, the finding of ambrein in adipocere/faeces of human corpses, led us to hypothesise that ambrein might occur in the faeces of other mammals. herein, we used a recently developed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, with suitable derivatisation of the hindered hydroxy group of ambrein, to screen a number of extracts of mammalian faece ...202032178531
bovine-like coronaviruses in domestic and wild ruminants.coronaviruses (covs) produce a wide spectrum of disease syndromes in different mammalian and avian host species. these viruses are well-recognized for their ability to change tissue tropism, to hurdle the interspecies barriers and to adapt ecological variations. it is predicted that the inherent genetic diversity of covs caused by accumulation of point mutations and high frequency of homologous recombination is the principal determinant of these competences. several covs (e.g. severe acute respi ...201830683171
assessing transmission of antimicrobial-resistant escherichia coli in wild giraffe contact networks.there is growing evidence that anthropogenic sources of antibiotics and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria can spill over into natural ecosystems, raising questions about the role wild animals play in the emergence, maintenance, and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes. in particular, we lack an understanding of how resistance genes circulate within wild animal populations, including whether specific host characteristics, such as social associations, promote interhost transmission of these gen ...201930413480
effectiveness of ultra-rapid cryopreservation of sperm from endangered species, examined by morphometric means.this study compares the effectiveness of the ultra-rapid and conventional freezing of sperm from captive bovids, giraffids, cervids, ursids, a cercopithecid, a delphinid and a phascolarctid. the relationship between sperm head dimensions and cryosurvival was also examined. compared to conventional freezing, the ultra-rapid freezing of epididymal sperm from the dama gazelle, giraffe and brown bear returned higher cryoresistance ratios (cr, the ratio, in percentage, between the value of the variab ...201930852388
molecular identification of bloodmeal sources and trypanosomes in glossina spp., tabanus spp. and stomoxys spp. trapped on cattle farm settlements in southwest nigeria.the interactions of host, vector and parasite in bovine trypanosomiasis transmission cycles in southwest nigeria are not yet well understood. trypanosoma (trypanosomatida: trypanosomatidae) species infection prevalences and bloodmeal sources were determined in transmitting vectors of the genera glossina (diptera: glossinidae), tabanus (diptera: tabanidae) and stomoxys (diptera: muscidae) collected using nzi traps in cattle settlements in southwest nigeria. sequenced cytochrome b mitochondrial dn ...201930730048
small mammal diversity of mt. kenya based on carnivore fecal and surface bone remains.ecological dynamics and faunal diversity documentation is normally conducted by direct observation and trapping of live animals. however, surveys of carnivore scat prey and surface bone remains, which are relatively inexpensive, can provide complementary data that expand carnivore diet breadth and may improve accuracy regarding inferences of the ecological dynamics of a given ecosystem. we used this inexpensive method to document species diversity variation with elevation on the leeward (sirimon ...201930348933
investigating a simplified method for noninvasive genetic sampling in east african mammals using silica dried scat swabs.swabbing scat has proved to be an effective noninvasive method to collect dna from mammals in the field. previously, this method has relied on preservative liquids or freezing to preserve the dna collected on swabs. in this study, we determine the effectiveness of using silica to simply dry the swab in field as an alternative way to prevent dna degredation. four species were included in the study; reticulated giraffe, impala, fringe-eared oryx, and lion. swabs were taken at multiple time points ...202032273990
fission-fusion dynamics of a megaherbivore are driven by ecological, anthropogenic, temporal, and social factors.fission-fusion dynamics hypothetically enable animals to exploit dispersed and ephemeral food resources while minimizing predation risk. disentangling factors affecting group size and composition of fission-fusion species facilitates their management and conservation. we used a 6-year data set of 2888 group formations of masai giraffes in tanzania to investigate determinants of social group size and structure. we tested whether ecological (lion density, vegetation structure, and prevalence of pr ...201931451928
genetic analysis of african lions (panthera leo) in zambia support movement across anthropogenic and geographical barriers.the luangwa valley in eastern zambia is a transverse offshoot of the great rift valley system. this region appears to have an isolating effect as evidenced by suspected endemic subspecies, such as the cookson's wildebeest and thornicroft's giraffe. recent mitochondrial dna studies demonstrated that african lions in zambia consist of two highly diverse eastern and western sub-populations. herein, we report nuclear and mitochondrial dna results from 409 lions that support this population substruct ...201931150429
a ghost fence-gap: surprising wildlife usage of an obsolete fence crossing.wildlife fencing has become more prevalent throughout africa, although it has come with a price of increased habitat fragmentation and loss of habitat connectivity. in an effort to increase connectivity, managers of fenced conservancies can place strategic gaps along the fences to allow wildlife access to outside habitat, permitting exploration, dispersal and seasonal migration. wildlife can become accustomed to certain movement pathways and can show fidelity to these routes over many years, eve ...201830515359
semantic memory organization in japanese patients with schizophrenia examined with category fluency.disorganization of semantic memory in patients with schizophrenia has been studied by referring to their category fluency performance. recently, data-mining techniques such as singular value decomposition (svd) analysis have been reported to be effective in elucidating the latent semantic memory structure in patients with schizophrenia. the aim of this study is to investigate semantic memory organization in patients with schizophrenia using a novel method based on data-mining approach.201829618990
giraffe or leopard spot chorioretinopathy as an outstanding finding: case report and literature review.presentation of two typical cases with characteristic leopard retinopathy secondary to bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (bdump) and idiopathic uveal effusion syndrome (iues) and brief review of the literature about leopard spot retinopathy.201929948498
a rare case of unilateral diffuse melanocytic proliferation.a 67-year-old woman presented with metamorphopsia in the right eye. leopard mottling was seen temporal to the fovea oculus dexter with corresponding hyper- and hypo-autofluorescent lesions on fundus autofluorescence. spectral domain-optical coherence tomography revealed hyperreflective dots in the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid with subretinal fluid (srf). intravitreal bevacizumab was administered with which srf resolved, albeit with increase in the areas of mottling. the patient was dia ...201829582831
extracting physiological information in experimental biology via eulerian video magnification.videographic material of animals can contain inapparent signals, such as color changes or motion that hold information about physiological functions, such as heart and respiration rate, pulse wave velocity, and vocalization. eulerian video magnification allows the enhancement of such signals to enable their detection. the purpose of this study is to demonstrate how signals relevant to experimental physiology can be extracted from non-contact videographic material of animals.201931831016
terrestrial mammalian wildlife responses to unmanned aerial systems approaches.unmanned aerial systems (uas) are increasingly being used recreationally, commercially and for wildlife research, but very few studies have quantified terrestrial mammalian reactions to uas approaches. we used two vertical take-off and landing (vtol) uas to approach seven herbivore species in the moremi game reserve, botswana, after securing the relevant permissions. we recorded responses to 103 vertical and 120 horizontal approaches, the latter from three altitudes above ground level (agl). we ...201930765800
land use, redd+ and the status of wildlife populations in yaeda valley, northern tanzania.redd+ projects primarily focus on reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. these projects are regularly evaluated against their core objective of conserving carbon stocks, but their contribution to biodiversity conservation has rarely been assessed. to assess the conservation value of the area and the relative performance of a redd+ land use plan in yaeda valley, a semi-arid savannah ecosystem in northern tanzania, we implemented an annual wild ...201930947305
megaherbivore browsers vs. tannins: is being big enough?megaherbivores have been of particular interest to scientists because of the physiological and ecological challenges associated with their extreme body size. yet, one question that has seldom been explored is how browsing megaherbivores cope with plant secondary metabolites (psms), such as tannins, found in their food. it is possible that the sheer body size of these megaherbivores allows them to ingest tannins with no deleterious effects. however, it is plausible that megaherbivores must rely o ...202033083848
atypical porcine pestivirus (appv) as a new species of pestivirus in pig production.the genus pestivirus, which belongs to the family flaviviridae, includes ssrna+ viruses responsible for infectious diseases in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and other domestic and wild animals. recently, several putative pestiviruses species have been discovered and characterized in mammalian species (giraffe pestivirus, antelope pestivirus, hobi virus, bungowannah virus, and linda virus); one of these is a genetically distinct pestivirus, named atypical porcine pestivirus (appv), discovered usin ...201930847345
descriptive analysis of cerebral arterial vascular architecture in dromedary camel (camelus dromedarius).the artiodactyl brain has multiple levels of vascular pooling and the rostral epidural rete mirabile (rerm) at its base. the current study is the first of its kind to precisely demonstrate the arterial vasculature of the dromedary brain, utilizing a new casting method with colored latex and epoxy paint. in total, 35 freshly slaughtered dromedary heads were injected with colored latex or colored epoxy paint prior to dissection in order to reveal cerebral vasculature; ten processed heads were chem ...201931333420
digesta passage in nondomestic ruminants: separation mechanisms in 'moose-type' and 'cattle-type' species, and seemingly atypical browsers.ruminants have been classified as having a 'moose-type' or 'cattle-type' digestive physiology. 'cattle-type' ruminants have a clear difference in the mean retention time (mrt) of fluid vs. small particles in the reticulorumen (rr), with a high 'selectivity factor' (sf = mrtparticle/ mrtfluid, >1.80), and are typically grazers and intermediate feeders. 'moose-type' ruminants have lower sf (<1.80), possibly because of defensive salivary proteins that constrain amounts of (high-viscosity) saliva, a ...201931220621
cryptosporidium infections in terrestrial ungulates with focus on livestock: a systematic review and meta-analysis.cryptosporidium spp. are causative agents of gastrointestinal diseases in a wide variety of vertebrate hosts. mortality resulting from the disease is low in livestock, although severe cryptosporidiosis has been associated with fatality in young animals.201931521186
chemical characterization of the milk oligosaccharides of some artiodactyla species including giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), sitatunga (tragelaphus spekii), deer (cervus nippon yesoensis) and water buffalo (bubalus bubalis).mammalian milk/colostrum usually contains oligosaccharides along with the predominant disaccharide lactose. it has been found that the number and identity of these milk oligosaccharides varies among mammalian species. oligosaccharides predominate over lactose in the milk/colostrum of arctoidea species (carnivora), whereas lactose predominates over milk oligosaccharides in artiodactyla including cow, sheep, goat, camel, reindeer and pig. to clarify whether heterogeneity of a variety of milk oligo ...201830467790
the remarkable cardiovascular system of giraffes.gravity affects the physiology of many animals, and the effect is, for good reason, most pronounced in tall species. the physiology-in particular, cardiovascular function-of giraffes has therefore captivated the interest of physiologists for centuries. several studies document high mean arterial blood pressure of giraffes of about 200 mm hg. this appears necessary to establish a cerebral perfusion pressure on the order of 100 mm hg at the cranial end of the carotid arteries. here, we discuss the ...202033167747
congenital goiter with areas of signet ring cell differentiation in a juvenile giraffe: a very rare entity.congenital goiter is a common thyroid metabolic disorder characterized by low levels of thyroid hormone, subsequent secretion of excess thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh) from the pituitary gland, and compensatory hyperplasia of the glands. the presence of signet ring cells (srcs) does not provide sufficient evidence for the diagnosis of a thyroid tumor, making histopathological diagnosis challenging. in addition, srcs can also appear in congenital goiter. therefore, a comprehensive diagnosis of ...202033129336
do exaggerated chelicerae function as weapons or genitalia in a long-jawed spider? functional allometric analysis yields an answer.from the elongated neck of the giraffe to the elaborate train of the peacock, extreme traits can result from natural or sexual selection (or both). the extreme chelicerae of the long-jawed spiders (tetragnatha) present a puzzle: do these exaggerated chelicerae function as weapons or genitalia? bristowe first proposed that tetragnatha chelicerae function as a holdfast because these spiders embrace chelicerae during mating. this hypothesis has remained untested until now. here, we use functional a ...202033074570
spatial design of guest feeding programs and their effects on giraffe participation and social interactions.guest-animal feeding programs (gfps) in zoological institutions aim to foster human-animal connections. the growing establishment of animal welfare science emphasizes the assessment of gfps as permanent environmental inputs to habitats that require analysis of behavioral output. this study assessed the role of space allocation on giraffe participation and interactions in gfps in two florida zoos. analysis of social structure indicates that centrality and influence from affiliative network on exh ...202033017203
long-term persistence of wildlife populations in a pastoral area.facilitating coexistence between people and wildlife is a major conservation challenge in east africa. some conservation models aim to balance the needs of people and wildlife, but the effectiveness of these models is rarely assessed. using a case-study approach, we assessed the ecological performance of a pastoral area in northern tanzania (manyara ranch) and established a long-term wildlife population monitoring program (carried out intermittently from 2003 to 2008 and regularly from 2011 to 2 ...202033005359
urinary reference values and first insight into the urinary proteome of captive giraffes.urinalysis is widely recognized to be a useful tool in routine health investigations, since it can diagnose numerous pathologies. considering the paucity of knowledge concerning giraffes, urine from 44 giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) (18 males and 26 females, from 3 months of age to 21 years of age) underwent routine urinalysis, 1d-electrophoresis, and protein identification using mass spectrometry, with the aim of identifying the urinary reference values and the urine proteome. the urine spec ...202032961670
molecular species identification of bushmeat recovered from the serengeti ecosystem in tanzania.bushmeat harvesting and consumption represents a potential risk for the spillover of endemic zoonotic pathogens, yet remains a common practice in many parts of the world. given that the harvesting and selling of bushmeat is illegal in tanzania and other parts of africa, the supply chain is informal and may include hunters, whole-sellers, retailers, and individual resellers who typically sell bushmeat in small pieces. these pieces are often further processed, obscuring species-identifying morphol ...202032925949
impact of bacterial aerosol, particulate matter, and microclimatic parameters on animal welfare in chorzów (poland) zoological garden.zoos are very popular facilities visited by entire families with children, who come there to watch live animals. zoos also provide workplaces for a large number of people directly looking after the animals. for places designed to house animals, regardless of whether they are farm animals, pets, or zoo animals, a higher concentration of both dust and potentially harmful bioaerosols can be expected. unfortunately, there are almost no studies concerning the concentration of bacterial bioaerosols an ...202032914308
the impact of masai giraffe nursery groups on the development of social associations among females and young individuals.fission-fusion social systems involve the splitting and merging of subgroups with frequent changes in membership occurring as a result of a number of ecological and social factors, such as demographic processes including birth, movement, or death. giraffe reside in fission-fusion social systems, and we studied how reproductive status influence associations among females, as well as how associations differ between calves and juveniles. data were collected in katavi national park, tanzania, during ...202032853714
molecular and serological footprints of mycobacterium avium subspecies infections in zoo animals.mycobacteria of the mycobacterium avium complex (mac) pose a significant risk to zoological collections. mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) is a member of mac and the causative agent of johne's disease. despite many reports in animals kept in zoological gardens, systemic surveillance has rarely been reported.202032842515
testing theories of plural meanings.plural morphology in english is associated with a multiplicity inference. for example, "emily fed giraffes" is typically interpreted to mean that emily fed multiple giraffes. it has long been observed that this inference disappears in downward-entailing linguistic environments, such as in the scope of negation. for example, "emily didn't feed giraffes" does not merely suggest that she didn't feed multiple giraffes, but rather that she didn't feed any. there are three main approaches to explainin ...202032797939
neonatal management and outcomes during the covid-19 pandemic: an observation cohort study.the risk of vertical and perinatal transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2, which causes covid-19), the most appropriate management, and the neonate's risk of developing covid-19 during the perinatal period are unknown. therefore, we aimed to elucidate best practices regarding infection control in mother-newborn dyads, and identify potential risk factors associated with transmission.202032711687
intensity of giraffe locomotor activity is shaped by solar and lunar zeitgebers.natural cycles of light and darkness shift the balance of risks and gains for animals across space and time. entrainment to photic cycles allows animals to spatiotemporally adapt their behavioural and physiological processes in line with interplaying ecological factors, such as temperature, foraging efficiency and predation risk. until recently, our understanding of these chronobiological processes was limited by the difficulties of 24 h observations. technological advances in gps biotelemetry h ...202032562740
first insights into the urinary metabolome of captive giraffes by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.the urine from 35 giraffes was studied by untargeted 1h-nmr, with the purpose of obtaining, for the first time, a fingerprint of its metabolome. the metabolome, as downstream of the transcriptome and proteome, has been considered as the most representative approach to monitor the relationships between animal physiological features and environment. thirty-nine molecules were unambiguously quantified, able to give information about diet, proteins digestion, energy generation, and gut-microbial co- ...202032316507
testicular disorder of sexual development with cryptorchidism, penile hypoplasia and hypospadias in a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis giraffa).disorders of sexual development (dsd) in wild mammals are rarely described. a male south african giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) was identified with bilateral cryptorchidism. the testes were intra-abdominal, smaller and less ovoid than in normal male giraffes. the right testis was situated more cranially than the left and connected to a longer deferent duct with normal ampullae. one distended vesicular gland filled with mucoid material was identified. a short penis, situated in the peri ...202032242422
nightly selection of resting sites and group behavior reveal antipredator strategies in giraffe.this study presents the first findings on nocturnal behavior patterns of wild angolan giraffe. we characterized their nocturnal behavior and analyzed the influence of ecological factors such as group size, season, and habitat use. giraffe were observed using night vision systems and thermal imaging cameras on okapuka ranch, namibia. a total of 77 giraffe were observed during 24 nights over two distinct periods-july-august 2016 (dry season) and february-march 2017 (wet season). photoperiod had a ...202032211165
three-gene pcr and high-resolution melting analysis for differentiating vertebrate species mitochondrial dna for biodiversity research and complementing forensic surveillance.reliable molecular identification of vertebrate species from morphologically unidentifiable tissue is critical for the prosecution of illegally-traded wildlife products, conservation-based biodiversity research, and identification of blood-meal hosts of hematophagous invertebrates. however, forensic identification of vertebrate tissue relies on sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase i (coi) 'barcode' gene, which remains costly for purposes of screening large numbers of unknown sample ...202032179808
phonological encoding in the oral but not manual stroop task: evidence for the role of a speech production process.the present study investigated how response mode (oral vs. manual) modulates the stroop effect using a picture variant of the stroop task in which participants named orally, or identified with a manual keypress, line drawings of animals (e.g., camel). consistent with previous color-response stroop studies, relative to the nonlinguistic neutral distractor (a row of "#" symbols), incongruent distractors (e.g., giraffe) interfered with responding to pictures, and that interference was reduced for t ...202032105148
etorphine-azaperone immobilisation for translocation of free-ranging masai giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi): a pilot study.etorphine-azaperone immobilisation was evaluated for translocation of masai giraffes. nine giraffes were darted with 0.012 ± 0.001 mg/kg etorphine and 0.07 ± 0.01 mg/kg azaperone. once ataxic, giraffes were roped for recumbency and restrained manually. naltrexone (3 mg/mg etorphine) was immediately given intravenously to reverse etorphine-related side effects. protocol evaluation included physiological monitoring, blood-gas analyses, anaesthetic times, and quality scores (1 = excellent, 4 = poor ...202032085568
[preliminary efficacy analysis of cheng's giraffe reconstruction after proximal gastrectomy in adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction].objective: to investigate the safety and feasibility of proximal partial gastrectomy with cheng's giraffe esophagogastric reconstruction for the treatment of early siewert ii adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (aeg). methods: indication of cheng's giraffe esophagogastric reconstruction: (1) siewert ii aeg or siewert iii aeg with diameter < 4 cm; (2) preoperative staging as ct1-2n0m0. a descriptive case series study was carried out. clinical data of 34 patients with siewert ii aeg undergo ...202032074796
nighttime suckling behavior in captive giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).suckling behaviors are useful to better understand mother-offspring relationships. however, in many species, knowledge about nighttime suckling behavior is sparse. in the present study, we investigated suckling behavior in four calves of the reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) and their mother in the kyoto city zoo, japan, by analyzing video clips of 9614 h. the relation between a calf's age and the mean duration and frequency of suckling were consistent with the results of p ...202032068368
a comparative approach for species delimitation based on multiple methods of multi-locus dna sequence analysis: a case study of the genus giraffa (mammalia, cetartiodactyla).molecular data are now commonly used in taxonomy for delimiting cryptic species. in the case of giraffes, which were treated as a single species (giraffa camelopardalis) during half of a century, several molecular studies have suggested a splitting into four to seven species, but the criteria applied for taxonomic delimitation were not fully described. in this study, we have analysed all multi-locus dna sequences available for giraffes using multispecies coalescent (msc: *beast, bpp and stacey), ...202032053589
the utility of the maxillary heuwieser for oropharyngeal foreign body removal under nebulized local anesthesia: a case series.we describe a novel and safe use of existing instrumentation in the removal of select foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract to minimize health-care costs. a retrospective review of 4 cases involving visualized upper aerodigestive tract foreign bodies were identified via flexible laryngoscopy and extracted under local anesthesia from 2016 to 2018. all 4 patients were not in any airway distress and underwent successful removal of the foreign body, which included 2 fishbones, a sewing pin ...202032050771
characterization of a mlic detector for qa in scanned proton and carbon ion beams.beam energy validation is a fundamental aspect of the routine quality assurance (qa) protocol of a particle therapy facility. a multilayer ionization chamber (mlic) detector provides the optimal tradeoff between achieving accuracy in particle range determination and saving operational time in measurements and analysis procedures. we propose the characterization of a commercial mlic as a suitable qa tool for a clinical environment with proton and carbon-ion scanning beams.201931998821
community-based wildlife management area supports similar mammal species richness and densities compared to a national conservation models have been widely implemented across africa to improve wildlife conservation and livelihoods of rural communities. in tanzania, communities can set aside land and formally register it as wildlife management area (wma), which allows them to generate revenue via consumptive or nonconsumptive utilization of wildlife. the key, yet often untested, assumption of this model is that economic benefits accrued from wildlife motivate sustainable management of wildlife. to ...202031993122
ontogenetic similarities between giraffe and sauropod neck osteological mobility.the functional morphology of sauropod dinosaur long necks has been studied extensively, with virtual approaches yielding results that are difficult to obtain with actual fossils, due to their extreme fragility and size. however, analyses on virtual fossils have been questioned on several of their premises, such as the ability to accurately reconstruct intervertebral tissue with only skeletal data; or whether zygapophyseal overlap can be used to determine the limits of range of motion, since some ...202031929581
bilateral diffuse retinal pigment epithelium proliferation induced by choroidal inflammation: a case report.proliferation of retinal pigment epithelium (rpe) is typically observed in limited ocular disorders, in connection with the local mechanism of rpe proliferation-mediated wound repair. bilateral and diffuse type rpe proliferation is considered to be associated with paraneoplastic syndromes, such as a bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation. however, other reported diseases that induce bilateral diffuse rpe proliferation are quite rare, especially for patients who are considered to have ...201931764858
population structure and spatial ecology of kordofan giraffe in garamba national park, democratic republic of congo.population numbers of kordofan giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis antiquorum) have declined throughout its range by more than 85% in the last three decades, including in the isolated easternmost population found in the garamba national park (np) in the democratic republic of congo.we provide new data on the conservation status and ecology of kordofan giraffe in garamba np, specifically on the current population dynamics, distribution patterns, and spatial ecology for informed conservation managemen ...201931641481
the two oxpecker species reveal the role of movement rates and foraging intensity in species coexistence.the two buphagus oxpecker species are specialized passerines that forage for ticks and other food particles on the body of ungulates in the african savannahs. one of their intriguing features is their ability to coexist despite sharing the same, specialized diet. using co-occurrence data (photographs of giraffes with oxpeckers on them) and approximate bayesian computing, we demonstrate that yellow-billed oxpeckers changed host faster than red-billed oxpeckers and appeared to displace red-billed ...201931640529
the host-specificity of theileria sp. (sable) and theileria sp. (sable-like) in african bovidae and detection of novel theileria in antelope and giraffe.tick-borne diseases caused by theileria are of economic importance in domestic and wildlife ruminants. the majority of theileria infects a limited number of host species, supporting the concept of host specificity. however, some theileria seem to be generalists challenging the host specificity paradigm, such as theileria sp. (sable) reported from various vertebrate hosts, including african buffalo, cattle, dogs and different antelope species. we tested the hypothesis that t. sp. (sable) uses bov ...202031566155
cutaneous filariasis in free-ranging rothschild's giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) in uganda.across africa, wild giraffes suffer from a variety of skin disorders of mostly unknown etiology. with their populations already threatened from anthropogenic factors, it is important to understand infectious disease risks to giraffes. here we describe filarid parasites and a portion of their genetic sequence associated with skin disease in rothschild's giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) in uganda.202031532733
isolation and characterisation of carbapenem-resistant xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae-like strain gir from the faecal material of giraffes.the purpose of this study was to determine if giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) living in captivity at the jacksonville zoo and gardens, jacksonville, fl were colonised with carbapenem-resistant bacteria and, if found, to identify underlying genetic mechanisms contributing to a carbapenem-resistant phenotype. faecal samples from seven giraffes were examined for carbapenem-resistant bacteria. only one isolate (a xanthomondaceae) was found to be carbapenem-resistant by antibiotic susceptibility te ...202031485840
ancient skull, amazon fires and giraffe protections. 201931462803
assessment of contrafreeloading preferences in giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).contrafreeloading is an intriguing phenomenon in which animals will work to obtain resources, such as food, when the same resource is simultaneously freely available. multiple hypotheses exist for why animals might choose to contrafreeload. in this study, we assessed preferences for contrafreeloading in giraffe at the bronx zoo to determine whether they actually preferred to contrafreeload or were simply demonstrating a willingness to contrafreeload. food was presented in a range of distribution ...201931432564
new metabolites produced by streptomyces badius isolated from giraffa camelopardalis feces. 201931429118
sleep-related behaviors in zoo-housed giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): basic characteristics and effects of season and parturition.despite increasing interest in the behavior of zoo animals, studies of nocturnal behavior of zoo animals are limited. in this study, we investigated the relationship between parturition, season, and the sleep-related behaviors in captive reticulated giraffes to better understand the nocturnal life in giraffes. the subjects were two adult reticulated giraffes living in kyoto city zoo, japan. observations were made via an infrared camera that was mounted in the indoor enclosure between june 2007 a ...201931389632
potential impact of construction noise on selected zoo anticipation of a major construction project in an urban new zealand zoo, a study was initiated to assess the response to construction noise of selected animal species (elephant, giraffe, emu and alligator) previously observed to be sensitive to this kind of noise. the overall aim was to detect any signs of aversive responses to this noise to enable keepers to recognize these and take any necessary mitigating actions during the construction period. the experimental approach involved the creat ...201931370284
an integrated chromosome-scale genome assembly of the masai giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi).the masai giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) is the largest-bodied giraffe and the world's tallest terrestrial animal. with its extreme size and height, the giraffe's unique anatomical and physiological adaptations have long been of interest to diverse research fields. giraffes are also critical to ecosystems of sub-saharan africa, with their long neck serving as a conduit to food sources not shared by other herbivores. although the genome of a masai giraffe has been sequenced, the a ...201931367745
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