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implications of the placental structure compatibility for interspecies embryo transfer.comparative histological features of the chorionic villi in placental cotyledons of the common eland (taurotragus oryx ) and bongo (boocercus euryceros ) antelopes and okapi (okapia johnstoni ) and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis ) were examined. the chorionic villi in both antelope species showed only moderate branching and/or surface corrugation and their cross-sections were polygonal to oval. the close similarity in the structure of cotyledons has been apparently a contributing factor for suc ...198716726356
gravitational haemodynamics and oedema prevention in the giraffe.because it is so tall, the giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis, provides an important animal model for investigating adaptive mechanisms to orthostatic (gravitational) pressure changes. previous physiological studies of the giraffe have concentrated on arterial blood pressures in the heart and neck. briefly, these investigations revealed that arterial pressure near the giraffe heart is about twice that in humans, to provide more normal blood pressure and perfusion to the brain. another important que ...20073627240
structural organization of the vertebral artery in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).vertebral arteries in the giraffe were removed and their structural organization was studied with light microscopy. it has been shown that the caudal segment of the vertebral artery extending to the level of the seventh cervical vertebra has a largely elastic structure, while the cranial segment has a muscular structure. the transition of the arterial wall normally occurs between the seventh and fifth cervical vertebral levels, and involves diminution of elastic tissue in the luminal portion of ...19873578841
observations on the structure and innervation of the presumptive carotid sinus area in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).the tunica media of the giraffe carotid artery is characterised by a predominantly muscular structure, except for a small area at the origins of the occipital and the vestigal internal carotid arteries. the latter has a preponderantly elastic structure and corresponds in extent to the parts of the carotid arterial wall innervated by a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. sensory nerve terminals, characterised by an abundance of mitochondria, are found in the deeper parts of the adventitia borde ...19836682278
subendothelial fibrillar laminae in the carotid arteries of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).the endothelium in the carotid arteries of the giraffe lies on an extensive basement membrane complex that has a distinctly fibrillar component. small electron-dense areas occur in the basal portion of the endothelium and normally in apposition to the fibrillar laminae of the basement membrane. these zones are believed here to constitute hemi-desmosomes where endothelial attachment may be most tenacious.19817273109
structural evidence for insertion of collagen fibres to smooth muscle cells in the carotid arterial system of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).previous anatomical studies have failed to resolve the question relating to whether or not collagen fibers, like elastic fibres, are attached to smooth muscle cells in the arterial wall. the current ultrastructural study demonstrates the insertion of collagen fibres to the sarcolemmal dark areas in the smooth muscle cells of the carotid arterial system of the giraffe. it is concluded, therefore, that this morphological linkage between collagen and smooth muscle cells may facilitate transmission ...19817193524
biomechanics of the giraffe larynx and trachea.despite possession of a well developed larynx and a gregarious nature, the giraffe is able to utter only low moans or bleats. morphological and histological examination, together with measurements of trachea and subglottic area, on three fresh larynges (giraffa camelopardalis) has made it possible to explain the lack of vocal power. factors such as thoracic expiratory flow rate, length of trachea and recurrent laryngeal nerves, together with morphological details of vocal folds, and intrinsic la ...20137395497
the development of the reproductive organs of the male giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis.the reproductive organs of the male giraffe differ little in morphology and histology from those of other ungulates. there is some indication that gonadal hypertrophy occurs in late fetal life. spermatogenesis begins at 3-4 years of age and coincides with a rapid increase of testicular weight and seminiferous tubule diameter. in the fetal testis the main hormone is androsteredione (2.73 microgram/g) but in adult testes testosterone is predominant (less than 10.08 microgram/g) and delta' testoste ...1978621681
giraffa camelopardalis. 197617748550
ovarian progestines in masai giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis). 19744414961
the ovary of the giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis. 19734741696
ovaries of some foetal and prepubertal giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis linnaeus). 195813517180
[studies on the development of brain of giraffe; giraffa camelopardalis l]. 195213039763
parturition of the nubian giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis. 194918135681
morphogenesis of pestiviruses: new insights from ultrastructural studies of strain giraffe-1.knowledge on the morphogenesis of pestiviruses is limited due to low virus production in infected cells. in order to localize virion morphogenesis and replication sites of pestiviruses and to examine intracellular virion transport, a cell culture model was established to facilitate ultrastructural studies. based on results of virus growth kinetic analysis and quantification of viral rna, pestivirus strain giraffe-1 turned out to be a suitable candidate for studies on virion generation and export ...201424352462
wildlife population dynamics in human-dominated landscapes under community-based conservation: the example of nakuru wildlife conservancy, kenya.wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in africa, including in kenya. we analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the nakuru wildlife conservancy (nwc), located in the nakuru-naivasha region of kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from march 1996 to may 2015. rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component an ...201728103269
sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals.sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. a new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °c. sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mm tris and 1 mm edta. using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. we demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the lo ...201425409172
comparative neuronal morphology of the cerebellar cortex in afrotherians, carnivores, cetartiodactyls, and primates.although the basic morphological characteristics of neurons in the cerebellar cortex have been documented in several species, virtually nothing is known about the quantitative morphological characteristics of these neurons across different taxa. to that end, the present study investigated cerebellar neuronal morphology among eight different, large-brained mammalian species comprising a broad phylogenetic range: afrotherians (african elephant, florida manatee), carnivores (siberian tiger, clouded ...201424795574
host-parasite list updating of ciliates and fermentation in the digestive tract of wild miscellaneous herbivores in south africa (rsa).this article is dedicated to the author, burk dehority, who became very ill with cancer. fortunately he confirmed or corrected all identifications on ciliates in this article. this paper was 80% finished when he became ill. he unfortunately passed away in february 2016.201728609902
x chromosome evolution in cetartiodactyla.the phenomenon of a remarkable conservation of the x chromosome in eutherian mammals has been first described by susumu ohno in 1964. a notable exception is the cetartiodactyl x chromosome, which varies widely in morphology and g-banding pattern between species. it is hypothesized that this sex chromosome has undergone multiple rearrangements that changed the centromere position and the order of syntenic segments over the last 80 million years of cetartiodactyla speciation. to investigate its ev ...201728858207
proposed revision to the taxonomy of the genus pestivirus, family flaviviridae.we propose the creation of seven new species in the genus pestivirus (family flaviviridae) in addition to the four existing species, and naming species in a host-independent manner using the format pestivirus x. only the virus species names would change; virus isolates would still be referred to by their original names. the original species would be re-designated as pestivirus a (original designation bovine viral diarrhea virus 1), pestivirus b (bovine viral diarrhea virus 2), pestivirus c (clas ...201728786787
pilot study: pharmacokinetics of oral and topical moxidectin in the reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).the objective of this study was to obtain an estimate of the pharmacokinetic parameters of moxidectin administered at a dosage of 1 mg/kg orally and topically to healthy adult giraffe ( giraffa camelopardalis ). the maximum plasma concentration (cmax) of moxidectin after oral and topical administration was 69.2 ± 4.6 and 18.6 ± 16.1 ng/ml (p = 0.045), respectively. the areas under the plasma curve (auc), a measure of total drug exposure, was 532.0 ± 232.3 and 209.1 ± 180.0 day*ng/ml (p = 0.308) ...201728749301
fertility suppression of some wildlife species in southern africa-a review.generally speaking, southern africa's wildlife populations in small-to-medium-sized protected game reserves (10,000-65,000 ha) reproduce at rapid rates which often lead overpopulation of certain species. most commonly these are large predators such as lions, african wild dogs and cheetahs, and elephants. overpopulation of large predators leads to depletion of prey species, breakouts into neighbouring communities and increased risks for disease transmission. an overabundance of elephants leads to ...201627670936
bioaugmentation of the anaerobic digestion of food waste by dungs of herbivore, carnivore, and omnivore zoo animals.the potential improvement of biomethanation of food waste (fw) by adding dung of herbivore (giraffe, llama, koala), carnivore (tiger), and omnivore (sloth bear) animals to anaerobic sludge (ans) was investigated. adding 30% giraffe, sloth bear or koala dung to the ans inoculum yielded, respectively, a 11.17 (±4.51), 10.10 (±1.23), and 1.41 (±0.56)% higher biomethane production, as compared to the control (fw with solely ans). the highest biomethane production of 564.00 (±3.88) ml ch4/gvsadded ob ...201728274187
influence of aesthetic appreciation of wildlife species on attitudes towards their conservation in kenyan agropastoralist communities.the influence of human aesthetic appreciation of animal species on public attitudes towards their conservation and related decision-making has been studied in industrialized countries but remains underexplored in developing countries. working in three agropastoralist communities around amboseli national park, southern kenya, we investigated the relative strength of human aesthetic appreciation on local attitudes towards the conservation of wildlife species. using semi-structured interviewing and ...201424551176
seasonal diet and prey preference of the african lion in a waterhole-driven semi-arid savanna.large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. in semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, pre ...201323405121
[morphology and position of the pituitary gland of lion and giraffe]. 195413158884
seasonal acclimatization determined by non-invasive measurements of coat insulation.seasonal acclimatization in terrestrial mammals in the northern hemisphere involves changes in coat insulation. it is more economical to provide increased insulation than increased heat production for protection against the cold. this study was done to test a technique for the non-invasive measurement of mammal coat insulation and to measure coat insulation over several seasons on captive exotics. the working hypothesis was that species that have no coat or have a coat that does not change seaso ...201526087320
a prominence account of syllable reduction in early speech development: the child's prosodic phonology of tiger and giraffe.when young children produce multiword utterances and words that are polysyllabic in adult speech, they are most likely to omit unstressed syllables. because unstressed syllables are omitted more often in weak-strong (iambic) than in strong-weak (trochaic) environments, a trochaic metrical theory has been proposed to account for the asymmetrical omission pattern. this paper presents an alternative explanation based on the notion of relative prosodic prominence. i propose that syllable prominence ...19989771638
a metrical template account of children's weak syllable omissions from multisyllabic words.young children learning english as well as many other languages frequently omit weakly stressed syllables from multisyllabic words. in particular, they are more likely to omit weak syllables from word-initial positions than from word-internal or -final positions. for example, the weak syllable of a weak-strong (ws) word like giraffe is much more likely to be omitted than the weak syllable of a sw word like tiger. three hypotheses for this omission pattern have been offered. in two, children's we ...19947852473
tongue twisters: feeding enrichment to reduce oral stereotypy in giraffe.stereotypic behavior has been well-studied and documented in a variety of animals including primates, carnivores, and domesticated ungulates. however, very little information is known about stereotypic behavior of captive exotic ungulates. giraffe have been found to perform a wide range of stereotypic behaviors. according to a survey of zoological institutions, oral stereotypies, specifically the licking of nonfood objects are the most prevalent stereotypic behaviors observed in giraffe. their p ...200819360618
new leaves in the growing tree of pestiviruses.pestiviruses are a group of viruses of veterinary importance infecting livestock animals like pigs, cattle, and sheep, and also wildlife animals like wild boar and different deer species. while for decades only four classical species (classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, border disease virus), and a few so-called atypical pestiviruses were known (e.g., giraffe virus, pronghorn virus, hobi virus), a series of novel pestiviruses was identified in the last years ( ...201729029724
enough is enough: the effects of symbiotic ant abundance on herbivory, growth, and reproduction in an african acacia.understanding how cooperative interactions evolve and persist remains a central challenge in biology. many mutualisms are thought to be maintained by "partner fidelity feedback," in which each partner bases their investment on the benefits they receive. yet, we know little about how benefits change as mutualists vary their investment, which is critical to understanding the balance between mutualism and antagonism in any given partnership. using an obligate ant-plant mutualism, we manipulated the ...201323687894
detomidine and butorphanol for standing sedation in a range of zoo-kept ungulate species.general anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. in ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. a combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. this drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied fo ...201728920785
hiss and snort call types of wild-living giraffes giraffa camelopardalis: acoustic structure and context.vocalization as part of vigilance behaviour is widespread across animal taxa, including ruminants. calls of wild-living giraffes have never been recorded and spectrographically investigated. this study reports the acoustic structure of vigilance-related hiss and snort calls of wild-living giraffes giraffa camelopardalis.201829316966
the effects of captivity on the mammalian gut microbiome.recent studies increasingly note the effect of captivity or the built environment on the microbiome of humans and other animals. as symbiotic microbes are essential to many aspects of biology (e.g., digestive and immune functions), it is important to understand how lifestyle differences can impact the microbiome, and, consequently, the health of hosts. animals living in captivity experience a range of changes that may influence the gut bacteria, such as diet changes, treatments, and reduced cont ...201728985326
pigmented villonodular synovitis in a reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).: a 17-yr-old, female, captive-born reticulated giraffe ( giraffa camelopardalis ) presented with acute-onset lameness of the right metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) joint. despite multiple courses of treatment, the lameness and swelling progressively worsened over a 3.5-yr period, and the giraffe was euthanized. at necropsy, gross and microscopic changes in the right, front fetlock and associated flexor tendon sheath included villous synovial hyperplasia and the formation of discrete pigmented nodu ...201728749260
how heart valves evolve to adapt to an extreme-pressure system: morphologic and biomechanical properties of giraffe heart valves.heart valves which exist naturally in an extreme-pressure system must have evolved in a way to resist the stresses of high pressure. giraffes are interesting as they naturally have a blood pressure twice that of humans. thus, knowledge regarding giraffe heart valves may aid in developing techniques to design improved pressure-resistant biological heart valves.201728544833
case studies in physiology: ventilation and perfusion in a giraffe-does size matter?the trachea in the giraffe is long but narrow, and dead space ventilation is considered to be of approximately the same size as in other mammals. less is known about the matching between ventilation and lung blood flow. the lungs in the giraffe are large, up to 1 m high and 0.7 m wide, and this may cause considerable ventilation/perfusion (va/q) mismatch due to the influence of gravitational forces, which could lead to hypoxemia. we studied a young giraffe under anesthesia using the multiple ine ...201627660298
of caucasians, asians, and giraffes: the influence of categorization and target valence on social projection.past research has indicated that social projection is moderated by categorization, with more projection onto ingroups than onto outgroups. however, a few studies have reported elevated levels of projection even onto outgroups. in line with recent evidence, we hypothesized that positive target valence is the key feature of conditions that elicit projection onto outgroups. the present research extends previous findings by testing whether the effect of valence occurs independent of categorization, ...201526160332
from humans to giraffes: the evolution of hypertension and hormones. 201122145129
endoparasites of exotic ungulates from the giraffidae and camelidae families kept ex situ.giraffes and camels are popular attractions at zoological gardens. in order to present the diversity of parasites infecting exotic ungulates from zoos, faecal samples from three giraffes and six camels from both the silesian zoological garden in chorzów, and kraków zoological garden, were examined. the research was carried out over a ten-month period in 2013 and 2014. in total, 100 faecal samples from 18 animals were analysed with the use of the mcmaster method. moreover, coccidian oocysts were ...201627262960
piecewise disassembly of a large-herbivore community across a rainfall gradient: the uhuru experiment.large mammalian herbivores (lmh) strongly influence plant communities, and these effects can propagate indirectly throughout food webs. most existing large-scale manipulations of lmh presence/absence consist of a single exclusion treatment, and few are replicated across environmental gradients. thus, important questions remain about the functional roles of different lmh, and how these roles depend on abiotic context. in september 2008, we constructed a series of 1-ha herbivore-exclusion plots ac ...201323405122
independent effects of heart-head distance and caudal blood pooling on blood pressure regulation in aquatic and terrestrial snakes.changes in orientation in a gravitational field markedly alter the patterns of blood pressure and flow in animals, especially tall or long ones such as giraffes or snakes. vertical orientation tends to reduce blood flow and pressure in the head for two major reasons. first, the increased vertical blood column above the heart creates a gravitational hydrostatic pressure against which the heart must work. second, expansion of dependent vessels in the lower extremities causes blood pooling and redu ...200415010481
ecological separation among browsing ungulates in tsavo east national park, kenya.data on food habits and habitat preferences of four browsing herbivores (black rhinoceros, giraffe, gerenuk and lesser kudu) were analyzed to assess niche width for each species and niche overlap between pairs of species. all four species depended heavily on woody plants as food, and overlap in the utilization of different plant types (trees and shrubs, herbs, grasses, etc.) was very great in three of six species paris. when individual plant species were considered, markedly less overlap was app ...197828309736
growth and development of the ovary and small follicle pool from mid fetal life to pre-puberty in the african elephant (loxodonta africana).follicle numbers and developing ovarian morphology, particularly with reference to the presence of interstitial tissue, are intimately linked within the ovary of the african elephant during the period spanning mid-gestation to puberty. these have not been previously quantified in any studies. the collection of 7 sets of elephant fetal ovaries between 11.2 and 20.2 months of gestation, and 29 pairs of prepubertal calf ovaries between 2 months and 9 years of age during routine management off-takes ...201222824067
mixed-host aggregations and helminth parasite sharing in an east african wildlife-livestock system.parasitic infections transmitted between livestock and wildlife pose a significant risk to wildlife conservation efforts and constrain livestock productivity in tropical regions of the world. gastrointestinal helminths are among the most ubiquitous parasites, and many parasites within this taxon can readily infect a wide range of host species. factors shaping bidirectional transmission of parasites in wildlife-livestock systems are understudied. in this study, we investigate the prevalence and d ...201425086496
allozyme divergence within the bovidae.we describe a phylogeny of the bovidae based on 40 allozyme loci in 27 species, representing 10 of the 14 bovid tribes described by vrba (1985). giraffe represented a related family (giraffidae). a phenogram was derived using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (upgma), based on nei's genetic distances (nd) between species. a tree was also derived using the neighbor-joining technique, also based on nd. to provide a cladistic interpretation, the data were analyzed by a maximum ...199028564432
nutrition and reproduction of grant's and thomson's gazelles, coke's hartebeest and giraffe in kenya. 19734522381
glycosylation and immunocytochemistry of binucleate cells in pronghorn (antilocapra americana, antilocapridae) show features of both giraffidae and bovidae.although the pronghorn (antilocapra americana) resembles an antelope, its nearest relatives are the giraffe and okapi. in this study we have examined the placentae of 6 pronghorns using lectin- and immunocytochemistry to identify giraffid and bovid features. binucleate cells (bnc) of the placenta exhibited features intermediate between those of the giraffe and bovine; dolichos biflorus agglutinin binding - strong in the bovine bnc and absent in the giraffe - was evident in only a subpopulation o ...201728864014
weapon allometry varies with latitude in the new zealand giraffe weevil.animal body size commonly shows a relationship with latitude to the degree that this phenomenon is one of the few 'rules' discussed in evolutionary ecology: bergmann's rule. although exaggerated secondary sexual traits frequently exhibit interesting relationships with body size (allometries) and are expected to evolve rapidly in response to environmental variation, the way in which allometry might interact with latitude has not been addressed. we present data showing latitudinal variation in bod ...201425303121
cyp26 enzymes function in endoderm to regulate pancreatic field size.the control of organ size and position relies, at least in part, upon appropriate regulation of the signals that specify organ progenitor fields. pancreatic cell fates are specified by retinoic acid (ra), and proper size and localization of the pancreatic field are dependent on tight control of ra signaling. here we show that the ra-degrading cyp26 enzymes play a critical role in defining the normal anterior limit of the pancreatic field. disruption of cyp26 function causes a dramatic expansion ...200919416885
reconstructing an incomparable organism: the chalicothere in nineteenth and early-twentieth century palaeontology.palaeontology developed as a field dependent upon comparison. not only did reconstructing the fragmentary records of fossil organisms and placing them within taxonomic systems and evolutionary lineages require detailed anatomical comparisons with living and fossil animals, but the field also required thinking in terms of behavioural, biological and ecological analogies with modern organisms to understand how prehistoric animals lived and behaved. yet palaeontological material often worked agains ...201829362901
sesquiterpenoids from streptomyces anulatus isolated from giraffa camelopardalis feces. 201829314238
population structure of giraffes is affected by management in the great rift valley, kenya.giraffe populations in east africa have declined in the past thirty years yet there has been limited research on this species. this study had four objectives: i) to provide a baseline population assessment for the two largest populations of rothschild's giraffes in kenya, ii) to assess whether there are differences in population structure between the two enclosed populations, iii) to assess the potential and possible implications of different management practices on enclosed giraffe populations ...201829298338
congenital nutritional myodegeneration (white muscle disease) in a giraffe ( giraffa camelopardalis) calf.it is well known that vitamin e and selenium deficiencies in domestic ruminants can lead to white muscle disease. after a clinically normal gestation period at ouwehand zoo in the netherlands, a newborn giraffe ( giraffa camelopardalis) calf showed clinical signs of white muscle disease almost immediately after birth. the calf was rejected by the mother and was euthanized 3 days later because of deterioration of clinical signs. at necropsy, pulmonary edema and pallor of skeletal and heart muscle ...201729297809
herbivory and drought generate short-term stochasticity and long-term stability in a savanna understory community.rainfall and herbivory are fundamental drivers of grassland plant dynamics, yet few studies have examined long-term interactions between these factors in an experimental setting. understanding such interactions is important, as rainfall is becoming increasingly erratic and native wild herbivores are being replaced by livestock. livestock grazing and episodic low rainfall are thought to interact, leading to greater community change than either factor alone. we examined patterns of change and stab ...201729140577
quantitative aspects of the ruminating process in giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) fed with different diets.giraffes are ruminants feeding on fresh browse and twigs in the wild, but in zoos, their diet is mainly based on alfalfa hay, grains, and pellets occasionally supplemented by twigs and foliage. these diets, which differ in composition and digestibility, affect the behavior of the animals, tooth wear patterns, and chewing efficiency. we quantified several parameters of the rumination process in ten zoo housed giraffes of different sexes and ages fed either with alfalfa hay, fresh browse, or a com ...201729134672
analysis of the microbial diversity in the fecal material of giraffes.using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded flx-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing, the microbiota of the fecal material of seven giraffes living in captivity at the jacksonville zoo and gardens, jacksonville, fl was investigated. in all samples, the most predominant bacterial phylum was the firmicutes followed by bacteroidetes. the most predominant fungi were members of the phylum ascomycota followed by neocallimastigomycota in five of seven samples. the reverse was true in the other two samples.201729085995
influence of ration composition on nutritive and digestive variables in captive giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) indicating the appropriateness of feeding practice.the nutrition of captive giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), a browsing ruminant, is challenging because browse availability is limited in zoos and rations need to be composed of compensatory feeds. in this study, ration composition for giraffes in 12 german zoos was documented and linked to animal variables that indicate suitability of nutrition. rations differed in proportion of ration items and chemical composition resulting in various grades of accordance with feeding recommendations. an estim ...201729024063
the evolution of interferon-tau.thirty years ago, a novel type i interferon (ifn) was identified by molecular cloning of cdna libraries constructed from rna extracted from ovine and bovine pre-implantation embryos. this protein was eventually designated as ifn-tau (ifnt) to highlight its trophoblast-dependent expression. ifnt function is not immune related. instead, it interacts with the maternal system to initiate the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. this activity is indispensable for the continuation of pregnancy. ...201728982935
age and socially related changes in fecal androgen metabolite concentrations in free-ranging male giraffes.in many mammal species, androgen levels in males are elevated during periods of mating activity, often to facilitate aggressive behavior between males over access to fertile females. however, this pattern might be less obvious in species with a rather low male-male aggression rate, or in those that are not strictly seasonal breeders. a complex social structure, as well as additional social and environmental factors, might add more to the complexity. here, we applied a non-invasive method to moni ...201828978410
growth rate and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope trophic discrimination factors of lion and leopard whiskers.stable isotope analysis (sia) of whiskers has been used to identify temporal feeding habits, intra-population diet variation, as well as individual dietary specialisation of marine and terrestrial carnivores. however, the potential of the method to disclose such dietary information for large wild felids is hampered by lack of information on species-specific whisker growth rates, whisker growth patterns and whisker-diet trophic discrimination factors (tdfs).201828971533
the impact of age-class and social context on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in free-ranging male giraffes.one of the primary sources of perceived stress is the social environment of an animal and the interactions with conspecifics. an essential component of the response to a stressor is the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, which results amongst others in a temporal increase in circulating glucocorticoid (gc) levels. giraffes occur in a highly flexible fission-fusion social system and group compositions can change on a daily basis, with bulls establishing an age-related d ...201828963053
the earliest ossicone and post-cranial record of giraffa.the oldest giraffa material presently known consists of dental specimens. the oldest post-cranial giraffa material belongs to the plio-pleistocene taxon giraffa sivalensis, where the holotype is a third cervical vertebra. we describe three non-dental specimens from the early late miocene of the potwar plateau, including an 8.1 million year old ossicone, 9.4 million year old astragalus, and 8.9 million year old metatarsal and refer them to giraffa. the described ossicone exhibits remarkable simil ...201728926638
accuracy of noninvasive anesthetic monitoring in the anesthetized giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).this study evaluated the accuracy of pulse oximetry, capnography, and oscillometric blood pressure during general anesthesia in giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis). thirty-two giraffes anesthetized for physiologic experiments were instrumented with a pulse oximeter transmittance probe positioned on the tongue and a capnograph sampling line placed at the oral end of the endotracheal tube. a human size 10 blood pressure cuff was placed around the base of the tail, and an indwelling arterial catheter ...201728920806
giraffes could have evolved long necks to keep cool. 201728905928
attempted surgical correction of a persistent right fourth aortic arch in a juvenile rothschild's giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi).a 5-mo-old female rothschild's giraffe ( giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) presented for regurgitation. esophagoscopy at 24 wk of age revealed a markedly dilated cranial esophagus with a tight stricture at the level of the heart base consistent with a vascular ring anomaly. surgical exploration confirmed persistent right fourth aortic arch with ductus originating from left subclavian artery at its junction with the aorta and left subclavian artery. the patent ductus arteriosus was surgically l ...201728749280
progressive erosion of the relaxin1 gene in bovids.the relaxin/insulin-like (rln/insl) gene family is a group of genes that encode peptide hormones involved in a variety of physiological functions related to reproduction. previous studies have shown that relaxin plays a key role in widening of the pubic bone during labor and in gamete maturation. because of these functions, studying the evolution of rln1, the gene encoding for relaxin, is relevant in livestock species, most of which belong in the group laurasiatheria, which includes cow, pig, ho ...201728733228
meiotic recombination in the giraffe (g. reticulata).recently, the reticulated giraffe (g. reticulata) was identified as a distinct species, which emphasized the need for intensive research in this interesting animal. to shed light on the meiotic process as a source of biodiversity, we analysed the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination in 2 reticulated giraffe males. we used immunofluorescence detection of synaptonemal complex protein (sycp3), meiotic double strand breaks (dsb, marked as rad51 foci) in leptonema, and crossovers (cos, ...201728723680
east africa turmoil imperils giraffes. 201728642388
restoring maximum vertical browsing reach in sauropod dinosaurs.the ongoing controversy centered on neck posture and function in sauropod dinosaurs is misplaced for a number of reasons. because of an absence of pertinent data it is not possible to accurately restore the posture and range of motion in long necked fossil animals, only gross approximations are possible. the existence of a single "neutral posture" in animals with long, slender necks may not exist, and its relationship to feeding habits is weak. restorations of neutral osteological neck posture b ...201728556505
of giraffes' necks and the inheritance of chromatin states.new work reports that both derepressed and hyper-repressed chromatin states in animals can be transmitted to progeny for many generations. transmission depends on genomic architecture and histone modifications.201728546575
a giraffe neck sign of the medial meniscus: a characteristic finding of the medial meniscus posterior root tear on magnetic resonance imaging.the posterior root ligament of the medial meniscus (mm) has a critical role in regulating the mm movement. an accurate diagnosis of the mm posterior root tear (mmprt) using magnetic resonance imaging (mri) is important for preventing sequential osteoarthritis following the mmprt. however, diagnosis of the mmprt is relatively difficult even after using several characteristic mri findings. the aim of this study was to identify a useful meniscal body sign of the mmprt for improving diagnostic mri r ...201728416188
evolutionary analysis of vision genes identifies potential drivers of visual differences between giraffe and okapi.the capacity of visually oriented species to perceive and respond to visual signal is integral to their evolutionary success. giraffes are closely related to okapi, but the two species have broad range of phenotypic differences including their visual capacities. vision studies rank giraffe's visual acuity higher than all other artiodactyls despite sharing similar vision ecological determinants with many of them. the extent to which the giraffe's unique visual capacity and its difference with oka ...201728396824
response to "how many species of giraffe are there?"it is not unexpected that a proposal, such as ours [1], of four new mammalian species stirs up controversy, as evident in the correspondence by bercovitch et al.[2]. we appreciate that their concerns are unrelated to the quality of the genetic data, the methodological approach or analyses, but are focused on the interpretation. thus, we provided an analysis of giraffe speciation based on genomic sequence data, and not just "another viewpoint on giraffe taxonomy" [2]. we maintain our perspective ...201728222288
mass transport: circulatory system with emphasis on nonendothermic species.mass transport can be generally defined as movement of material matter. the circulatory system then is a biological example given its role in the movement in transporting gases, nutrients, wastes, and chemical signals. comparative physiology has a long history of providing new insights and advancing our understanding of circulatory mass transport across a wide array of circulatory systems. here we focus on circulatory function of nonmodel species. invertebrates possess diverse convection systems ...201628134997
multimodal imaging of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation associated with an iris mass lesion.bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (bdump) is a rare, paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by bilateral painless visual loss and proliferation of choroidal melanocytes in association with an underlying systemic malignancy. we report a case of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation associated with an underlying gynecological malignancy that also features the infrequent finding of an iris mass lesion, using multimodal imaging including ultra-widefield imaging, spectral d ...201627847631
case studies in physiology: the case of the giant giraffe.n/a.201627742805
delayed-onset bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation associated with gastric adenocarcinoma.to report an unusual case of delayed-onset bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation in a patient with a remote history of gastric adenocarcinoma 17 years earlier.201727662408
dna reveals that giraffes are four species--not one. 201627629618
can giraffes be supersized? response to 'why vascular siphons with sub-atmospheric pressures are physiologically impossible in sauropod dinosaurs'. 201627385758
development of teleological explanations in peruvian quechua-speaking and u.s. english-speaking preschoolers and adults.teleological reasoning involves the assumption that entities exist for a purpose (giraffes have long necks for reaching leaves). this study examines how teleological reasoning relates to cultural context, by studying teleological reasoning in 61 quechua-speaking peruvian preschoolers (mage  = 5.3 years) and adults in an indigenous community, compared to 72 english-speaking u.s. preschoolers (mage  = 4.9 years) and university students. data were responses to open-ended "why" questions ("why is th ...201627189402
bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation presenting as a giant unilateral choroidal nevus: a case report.the aim of our study was to report a case of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (bdump) with a markedly asymmetric presentation and fundoscopic response to palliative chemotherapy.201527171585
pencil beam proton radiography using a multilayer ionization chamber.a pencil beam proton radiography (pr) method, using a commercial multilayer ionization chamber (mlic) integrated with a treatment planning system (tps) was developed. a giraffe (iba dosimetry) mlic (±0.5 mm accuracy) was used to obtain pencil beam pr by delivering spots uniformly positioned at a 5.0 mm distance in a 9  ×  9 square of spots. prs of an electron-density (with tissue-equivalent inserts) phantom and a head phantom were acquired. the integral depth dose (idd) curves of the delivered s ...201627164479
bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation: a case report.to report a case of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (bdump) in the setting of metastatic ovarian cancer.201727046327
functional cervicothoracic boundary modified by anatomical shifts in the neck of giraffes.here we examined the kinematic function of the morpho- logically unique first thoracic vertebra in giraffes. the first thoracic vertebra of the giraffe displayed similar shape to the seventh cervical vertebra in general ruminants. the flexion experiment using giraffe carcasses demonstrated that the first thoracic vertebra exhibited a higher dorsoventral mobility than other thoracic vertebrae. despite the presence of costovertebral joints, restriction in the intervertebral movement imposed by rib ...201626998330
neck length and mean arterial pressure in the sauropod dinosaurs.how blood was able to reach the heads of the long-necked sauropod dinosaurs has long been a matter of debate and several hypotheses have been presented. for example, it has been proposed that sauropods had exceptionally large hearts, multiple 'normal' sized hearts spaced at regular intervals up the neck or held their necks horizontal, or that the siphon effect was in operation. by means of an experimental model, we demonstrate that the siphon principle is able to explain how blood was able to ad ...201626944489
giraffe pattern of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation. 201626902560
tone regulation in giraffe retinal arterioles. 201626806534
corrigendum to "the digestive morphophysiology of wild, free-living, giraffes" [comp. biochem. physiol., a 187 (2015) 119-129]. 201629054494
the sponge genus ephydatia from the high-latitude middle eocene: environmental and evolutionary significance.the freshwater sponge species ephydatia cf. facunda weltner, 1895 (spongillida, spongillidae) is reported for the first time as a fossil from middle eocene lake sediments of the giraffe kimberlite maar in northern canada. the sponge is represented by birotule gemmuloscleres as well as oxea megascleres. today, e. facunda inhabits warm-water bodies, so its presence in the giraffe locality provides evidence of a warm climate at high latitudes during the middle eocene. the morphological similarity o ...201628615751
the thick left ventricular wall of the giraffe heart normalises wall tension, but limits stroke volume and cardiac output.giraffes--the tallest extant animals on earth--are renowned for their high central arterial blood pressure, which is necessary to secure brain perfusion. arterial pressure may exceed 300 mmhg and has historically been attributed to an exceptionally large heart. recently, this has been refuted by several studies demonstrating that the mass of giraffe heart is similar to that of other mammals when expressed relative to body mass. it thus remains unexplained how the normal-sized giraffe heart gener ...201626643090
on reconstructing giraffa sivalensis, an extinct giraffid from the siwalik hills, india.giraffa sivalensis occurred during the plio-pleistocene period and probably represents the terminal species of the genus in southern asia. the holotype is an almost perfectly preserved cervical vertebra of disputed anatomical location. although there is also uncertainty regarding this animal's size, other specimens that have been assigned to this species include fragments of two humeri, a radius, metacarpi and teeth. here we estimate neck length, leg length and body mass using interspecific and, ...201526290791
the digestive morphophysiology of wild, free-living, giraffes.we have measured rumen-complex (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum) and intestine (small and large combined) mass in 32 wild giraffes of both sexes with body masses ranging from 289 to 1441 kg, and parotid gland mass, tongue length and mass, masseter and mandible mass in 9 other giraffes ranging in body mass from 181 to 1396 kg. we have estimated metabolic and energy production rates, feed intake and home range size. interspecific analysis of mature ruminants show that components of the digestiv ...201526021980
daytime mother-calf relationships in reticulated giraffes (giraffa cameloparadalis reticulate) at the kyoto city zoo.the present study quantitatively assesses the relationships between a reticulated giraffe mother and her first- and second-born calves during the first 22 months of the older calf's and the first 12 months of the younger calf's life at the kyoto city zoo, japan. the mother permitted her calves to suckle at over 70% of their suckling attempts in the first month after their births, and the calves ceased suckling spontaneously in 65 to 70% of the suckling bouts. from the second month on, she showed ...201525678184
it takes a giraffe to see the big picture - citizens' view on decision makers in health care rationing.previous studies show that citizens usually prefer physicians as decision makers for rationing in health care, while politicians are downgraded. the findings are far from clear-cut due to methodological differences, and as the results are context sensitive they cannot easily be transferred between countries. drawing on methodological experiences from previous research, this paper aims to identify and describe different ways swedish citizens understand and experience decision makers for rationing ...201525638017
metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress.two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. the results demonstrate that listeners' consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., 'jury/gi'raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. when preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing ch ...201525621583
seasonal patterns of mixed species groups in large east african mammals.mixed mammal species groups are common in east african savannah ecosystems. yet, it is largely unknown if co-occurrences of large mammals result from random processes or social preferences and if interspecific associations are consistent across ecosystems and seasons. because species may exchange important information and services, understanding patterns and drivers of heterospecific interactions is crucial for advancing animal and community ecology. we recorded 5403 single and multi-species clu ...201425470495
hugh's book and krogh's animals: biodiversity and textbook examples in teaching.the medieval simile of the world as a book seems to anticipate modern notions of biodiversity as a key to insights and learning. this thought is translated into the practice of research in the august krogh principle, which provides argumentative support for researchers who dare to venture beyond the range of commonly used models by choosing a new experimental organism for a particular scientific question. established model organisms often hold high exploratory power to the researcher yet little ...201425179607
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